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Sample records for human behaviour plays

  1. Instinct(ive) play behaviour in human and non-human players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirman, Hanna; Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    in human play? What kind of definition of ‘instinctual’ is meaningful for the study of games and play? Finally, how to design for instinctual or for non-instinctual play? While many such questions remain out of the reach of a humanist or a design researcher, this paper aims to focus on one single aspect......Instinctive stands in opposition to thoughtful. It is free from causal reasoning and deductive logic that bases on knowledge from past experience (Garrett 1997). Acknowledging how little is confirmed about the origins, importance or evolution of play in humans and non-humans (e.g. Burghardt 2005......), the part of instinctual also remains a mystery. In Wirman’s recent studies (e.g. Wirman 2015), however, we can recognise a human tendency to see ‘instinctive’ in animal behaviour while ‘play’ substitutes it in categorising human actions. This poses intriguing questions for multispecies game and play...

  2. Promoting positive states: the effect of early human handling on play and exploratory behaviour in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, M; Rehn, T; de Oliveira, D; Keeling, L J

    2016-01-01

    It is known that tactile stimulation (TS) during ontogeny modifies brain plasticity and enhances the motor and cognitive skills. Our hypothesis was that early handling including TS would increase play and exploratory behaviour in commercial pigs under standardized test conditions. Piglets from 13 litters were subjected to three handling treatments from 5 to 35 days of age: all the piglets were handled (H), none of the piglets were handled (NH) or half of the piglets in the litter were handled (50/50). At 42 days of age, the pigs' behaviour was observed in pairs in a novel pen with a 'toy' (tug rope). The main results were that more locomotor play was performed by pigs from litters where all or half of them had been handled, whereas social exploratory behaviour was more pronounced in pigs from litters where half of them had been handled. Although behaviour was affected by the interaction of treatment with sex or with weight category, we propose that the handling procedure does seem to have acted to increase locomotor skills and that handling half of the piglets in the litter may have triggered a series of socio-emotional interactions that were beneficial for the whole group.

  3. Play behaviours and play object preferences of young children with autistic disorder in a clinical play environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Anna; Ziviani, Jenny; Rodger, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Play is the primary occupation of childhood and provides a potentially powerful means of assessing and treating children with autistic disorder. This study utilized a cross-sectional comparison design to investigate the nature of play engagement in children with AD (n = 24), relative to typically developing children (n = 34) matched for chronological age. Play behaviours were recorded in a clinical play environment. Videotapes comprising 15 minutes of the children's spontaneous play behaviour were analysed using time-interval analysis. The particular play behaviours observed and play objects used were coded. Differences in play behaviours (p motivation.

  4. Measuring human behaviour with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security applica

  5. The brain at play: neural substrates of social play behaviour in adolescent rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kerkhof, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The period between weaning and sexual maturity (i.e. childhood and adolescence in humans, roughly equivalent to the juvenile and adolescent stages in rodents) has received widespread attention because of its importance for behavioural development, and conversely, because of the emergence of certain

  6. Dissociating the role of endocannabinoids in the pleasurable and motivational properties of social play behaviour in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-01-01

    Social play behaviour is a vigorous form of social interaction, abundant during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life in many mammalian species, including humans. Social play is highly rewarding and it is important for social and cognitive development. Being a rewarding activity, social play

  7. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Breitfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12 follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in all study subjects. RESULTS: Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05. Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  8. Games people play the psychology of human relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The bestselling Games People Play is the book that has helped millions of people understand the dynamics of relationships, by psychiatrist Eric Berne.We all play games. In every encounter with other people we are doing so. The nature of these games depends both on the situation and on who we meet.Eric Berne's classic Games People Play is the most accessible and insightful book ever written about the games we play: those patterns of behaviour that reveal hidden feelings and emotions. Wise and witty, it shows the underlying motivations behind our relationships and explores the roles that we try to play - and are forced to play.Games People Play gives you the keys to unlock the psychology of others - and yourself. You'll become more honest, more effective, and a true team player.'A brilliant, amusing, and clear catalogue of the psychological theatricals that human beings play over and over again' Kurt VonnegutEric Berne was a prominent psychiatrist and bestselling author.After inventing his groundbreaking Transa...

  9. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836

  10. Evidence for litter differences in play behaviour in pre-weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Mills; Klaffenböck, Michael; Nevison, Ian Macleod; Lawrence, Alistair Burnett

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse spontaneous play behaviour in litters of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) for sources of variation at individual and litter levels and to relate variation in play to measures of pre and postnatal development. Seven litters of commercially bred piglets (n = 70) were born (farrowed) within a penning system (PigSAFE) that provided opportunities for the performance of spontaneous play behaviours. Individual behaviour was scored based on an established play ethogram for 2 days per week over the 3 week study period. We found strong evidence of litter differences in play behaviour (F(6,63) = 27.30, p < 0.001). Of the variance in total play, 50% was attributable to differences between litters with a lesser proportion (11%) to between piglets within litters. We found similar evidence of litter differences when we analysed the separate play categories (e.g. for locomotor play: F(6,63) = 27.50, p < 0.001). For social and locomotor play the variance was partitioned in a broadly similar way to total play; however for object play the variance was distributed with a more even balance across and within litters. In terms of explanatory factors we found little evidence that at the litter level differences in play were associated with differences in general activity. Of the prenatal factors measured, we found that birth weight was positively associated with total play and the play categories (e.g. with total play: F(1,64) = 12.8, p < 0.001). We also found that postnatal piglet growth up to weaning (as a percentage of birth weight) had a significant positive association with total play and the play categories (e.g. with object play: F(1,66) = 20.55, p < 0.001). As found in other studies, on average males engaged in more social play (e.g. non-injurious play fighting: F(1,63) = 39.8, p < 0.001). Males also initiated more play bouts on average than females (F(1,62) = 4.41, p = 0.040). We conclude that the study of differences

  11. Do Behavioural Approaches Teach Children with Autism to Play or Are They Pretending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Play is, by definition, internally motivated, flexible, spontaneous and voluntary. Yet some researchers claim to have taught children with autism to play using behavioural interventions that are heavily structured, repetitive and make use of external reinforcements. In the current systematic review, we examine the extent to which these claims are…

  12. Fish play Minority Game as humans do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Tarng; Chung, Fei Fang; Liaw, Sy-Sang

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an unprecedented real Minority Game (MG) played by university staff members who clicked one of two identical buttons (A and B) on a computer screen while clocking in or out of work. We recorded the number of people who clicked button A for 1288 games, beginning on April 21, 2008 and ending on October 31, 2010, and calculated the variance among the people who clicked A as a function of time. The evolution of the variance shows that the global gain of selfish agents increases when a small portion of agents make persistent choice in the games. We also carried out another experiment in which we forced 101 fish to enter one of the two symmetric chambers (A and B). We repeated the fish experiment 500 times and found that the variance of the number of fish that entered chamber A evolved in a way similar to the human MG, suggesting that fish have memory and can employ more strategies when facing the same situation again and again.

  13. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James H; Johnson, Tim; Smirnov, Oleg

    2005-01-06

    Altruistic punishment is a behaviour in which individuals punish others at a cost to themselves in order to provide a public good. Fehr and Gächter present experimental evidence in humans indicating that negative emotions towards non-cooperators motivate punishment, which, in turn, provokes a high degree of cooperation. Using Fehr and Gächter's original data, we provide an alternative analysis of their experiment that suggests that egalitarian motives are more important than motives for punishing non-cooperative behaviour. This finding is consistent with evidence that humans may have an evolutionary incentive to punish the highest earners in order to promote equality, rather than cooperation.

  14. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  15. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  16. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  17. FCJ-175 Humans at play in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Innocent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of the Anthropocene recognises the significant global impact of human activity on the Earth’s ecosystems. Building on Huizingia’s understanding of the relationship between play and culture, this essay explores the role that play could have in survival strategies or to provide awareness of the impact of human processes in the Anthropocene. In this worldview, play has a primary function in culture through its role in modelling modes of human survival: simulation is good tool for understanding the impact of systems on the world; play enables the possibility to become adaptive and ‘hack’ the world as conditions change; and lastly, play suggests that a changed philosophical perspective may offer an evolutionary edge for survival in a changing world. Drawing on Lévy, Bogost, Harman and Parikka strategies for play are explored using micronations and pervasive games; demonstrated and illustrated by analysis of games from recent experience within the Micronation of Ludea.

  18. Human behaviour in tunnels: what further steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel safety, especially in case of fires, has received a lot of attention due to heavy disasters. However, much attention is paid to controlling and extinguishing the fire, and not so much on the role of human behaviour. In this case, human behaviour includes the behaviour of road users, rail pass

  19. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  20. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-06-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics.

  1. Behaviour of humans and behaviour of models in dynamic space

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses new trends in quantitative geography research. Modern social science research - including economic and social geography - has in the past decades shown an increasing interest in micro-oriented behaviour of actors. This is inter alia clearly reflected in spatial interaction models (SIMs), where discrete choice approaches have assumed a powerful position. This paper aims to provide in particular a concise review of micro-based research, with the aim to review the potential ...

  2. A Comparison of the Interactive Play Behaviours between Children with Albinism and Their Siblings and Children without Albinism and Their Non-Albino Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javangwe, Gwatirera; Mukondyo, Rachel Z.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the nature of the interactive play behaviours of children with albinism and children without albinism and compared the interactive behaviours of both children with albinism and children without albinism. Naturalistic observations were conducted during periods of free play, using the interactive play behaviour checklist aided by…

  3. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  4. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of

  5. Parental provisioning behaviour plays a key role in linking personality with reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzel, A; Dingemanse, N J; Araya-Ajoy, Y G; Kempenaers, B

    2013-08-07

    Repeatable behavioural traits ('personality') have been shown to covary with fitness, but it remains poorly understood how such behaviour-fitness relationships come about. We applied a multivariate approach to reveal the mechanistic pathways by which variation in exploratory and aggressive behaviour is translated into variation in reproductive success in a natural population of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus. Using path analysis, we demonstrate a key role for provisioning behaviour in mediating the link between personality and reproductive success (number of fledged offspring). Aggressive males fed their nestlings at lower rates than less aggressive individuals. At the same time, their low parental investment was associated with increased female effort, thereby positively affecting fledgling production. Whereas male exploratory behaviour was unrelated to provisioning behaviour and reproductive success, fast-exploring females fed their offspring at higher rates and initiated breeding earlier, thus increasing reproductive success. Our findings provide strong support for specific mechanistic pathways linking components of behavioural syndromes to reproductive success. Importantly, relationships between behavioural phenotypes and reproductive success were obscured when considering simple bivariate relationships, underlining the importance of adopting multivariate views and statistical tools as path analysis to the study of behavioural evolution.

  6. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health.

  7. Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...

  8. Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid R Jamali

    2013-01-01

      Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...

  9. Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N

    2009-01-01

    Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence

  10. A subjective dissatisfaction with body weight in young women: do eating behaviours play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowicz, Katarzyna Eufemia; Jesiołowska, Dorota; Obara-Gołębiowska, Małgorzata; Antoniak, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Food less frequently used to provide the necessary nutrients for the survival and the body begins to play a role, which it is not able to cope with, leading to a dysfunctional its use. In an era of obesity, excessive interest in his appearance and lean silhouette assigning too much significance relates to a growing number of young women. Young women due to a period of their procreative years are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of abnormal eating habits that threaten the health of women and their offspring. In young women of reproductive age, to determine the emotional and habitual reasons behind binge eating and the effect that restriction diets can have for achieving desired body mass in relation to physical activity and the willingness to improve their weight. Subjects surveyed were 372 women aged 18 to 27 years (mean 20.6 ± 1.4) who answered a questionnaire on dietary behaviour devised by Ogińska-Bulik and Putyński [21] which had been extended to include body mass perception/image, adoption of slimming diets, levels of physical activity and place of residence. The women's actual body mass, height and body fat (adipose tissue content) were also measured. Most subjects (63.9%) were dissatisfied with their figures whilst 33.5% underwent slimming diets at least once. Those overweight, complained much more about their figures compared to normal weight women (97.9% vs. 65.1%, pbody as effective tools in reducing eating disorders in terms of the health of young women and multigenerational inheritance health of their offspring.

  11. Introduction. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Kalish, Michael L; Griffiths, Thomas L; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-11-12

    The articles in this theme issue seek to understand the evolutionary bases of social learning and the consequences of cultural transmission for the evolution of human behaviour. In this introductory article, we provide a summary of these articles (seven articles on the experimental exploration of cultural transmission and three articles on the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping human behaviour) and a personal view of some promising lines of development suggested by the work summarized here.

  12. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-12-27

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.

  13. From hominins to humans: how sapiens became behaviourally modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterelny, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a debate in the palaeoarchaeological community about the major time-lag between the origin of anatomically modern humans and the appearance of typically human cultural behaviour. Why did humans take so long—at least 100 000 years—to become ‘behaviourally modern’? The transition is often explained as a change in the intrinsic cognitive competence of modern humans: often in terms of a new capacity for symbolic thought, or the final perfection of language. These cognitive breakthrough models are not satisfactory, for they fail to explain the uneven palaeoanthropological record of human competence. Many supposed signature capacities appear (and then disappear) before the supposed cognitive breakthrough; many of the signature capacities disappear again after the breakthrough. So, instead of seeing behavioural modernity as a simple reflection of a new kind of mind, this paper presents a niche construction conceptual model of behavioural modernity. Humans became behaviourally modern when they could reliably transmit accumulated informational capital to the next generation, and transmit it with sufficient precision for innovations to be preserved and accumulated. In turn, the reliable accumulation of culture depends on the construction of learning environments, not just intrinsic cognitive machinery. I argue that the model is (i) evolutionarily plausible: the elements of the model can be assembled incrementally, without implausible selective scenarios; (ii) the model coheres with the broad palaeoarchaeological record; (iii) the model is anthropologically and ethnographically plausible; and (iv) the model is testable, though only in coarse, preliminary ways. PMID:21320896

  14. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little

  15. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Ton; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little evidence exists. In this paper, the authors present…

  16. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Ton; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little evidence exists. In this paper, the authors present…

  17. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life......Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...

  18. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  19. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on t

  20. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  1. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  2. Play-Personas: Behaviours and Belief Systems in User-Centred Game Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canossa, Alessandro; Drachen, Anders

    Game designers attempt to ignite affective, emotional responses from players via engineering game designs to incite definite user experiences. Theories of emotion state that definite emotional responses are individual, and caused by the individual interaction sequence or history. Engendering desired emotions in the audience of traditional audiovisual media is a considerable challenge; however it is potentially even more difficult to achieve the same goal for the audience of interactive entertainment, because a substantial degree of control rests in the hand of the end user rather than the designer. This paper presents a possible solution to the challenge of integrating the user in the design of interactive entertainment such as computer games by employing the "persona" framework introduced by Alan Cooper. This approach is already in use in interaction design. The method can be improved by complementing the traditional narrative description of personas with quantitative, data-oriented models of predicted patterns of user behaviour for a specific computer game Additionally, persona constructs can be applied both as design-oriented metaphors during the development of games, and as analytical lenses to existing games, e.g. for evaluation of patterns of player behaviour.

  3. Gender identity and recalled gender related childhood play-behaviour in adult individuals with different forms of intersexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Discher, Christine; Gedrose, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The concept of intersexuality subsumes a wide variety of phenomena with very specific underlying causes. In all these cases, an untypical development takes place during the prenatal sex differentiation process becoming clinically manifest, either at, or soon after birth or at the time of puberty. It subsumes conditions in which biological sexual characteristics (e.g. chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, hormonal sex, morphological sex) differ from each other and one person cannot easily be assigned to one sex. One of the main goals of medical treatment of persons with intersex-syndroms is the development of a stable gender identity. Over the last few years, sex (and gender) assignment of persons with different forms of intersexuality has become a much discussed topic. An interesting--and very obviously observable--variable that was brought in connection with sex assignment is gender related childhood play behaviour. The purpose of the presented study is to examine 37 persons with different forms of intersexuality (disturbances of androgen biosynthesis, partial and complete androgen insensitivity, gonadal dysgenesis with 46,XY and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XX) with regard to gender identity and gender role behaviour in childhood. Not all subjects in the study group had developed a clear female or male gender identity. In contrast to previous studies, some persons with CAIS did not recall distinguished female childhood play behaviour and these persons did not show a clear female gender identity. In contrast to results from other studies, the CAH-affected girls in this study did not seem to recall masculinized behaviour. Further research is needed to guarantee better psychosexual development with good quality of life in individuals with intersexuality.

  4. The Impact of Language Skills and Social Competence on Play Behaviour in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke Stangeland, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between play, language skills and social competence is explored in a sample (n = 1005) of 33-month-old toddlers in a Norwegian early childhood education setting--Barnehages--based on two observational materials ("Tras" and "Alle med"). The study has two aims: (1) to investigate whether there is a…

  5. The Idiap Wolf corpus: exploring group behaviour in a competitive role-playing game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Chittaranjan, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Idiap Wolf Database. This is a audio-visual corpus containing natural conversational data of volunteers who took part in a competitive role-playing game. Four groups of 8-12 people were recorded. In total, just over 7 hours of interactive conversational data was collecte

  6. The Impact of Language Skills and Social Competence on Play Behaviour in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke Stangeland, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between play, language skills and social competence is explored in a sample (n = 1005) of 33-month-old toddlers in a Norwegian early childhood education setting--Barnehages--based on two observational materials ("Tras" and "Alle med"). The study has two aims: (1) to investigate whether there is a…

  7. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  8. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shi-Min; PENG Hu; YANG Hui-Jie; ZHOU Tao; ZHOU Pei-Ling; WANG Bing-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  9. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  10. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  11. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  12. Learning dynamics explains human behaviour in prisoner's dilemma on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Sánchez, Angel

    2014-05-06

    Cooperative behaviour lies at the very basis of human societies, yet its evolutionary origin remains a key unsolved puzzle. Whereas reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas, recent experimental findings on networked Prisoner's Dilemma games suggest that conditional cooperation also depends on the previous action of the player-namely on the 'mood' in which the player is currently in. Roughly, a majority of people behave as conditional cooperators if they cooperated in the past, whereas they ignore the context and free ride with high probability if they did not. However, the ultimate origin of this behaviour represents a conundrum itself. Here, we aim specifically to provide an evolutionary explanation of moody conditional cooperation (MCC). To this end, we perform an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics for players' behavioural traits-ranging from standard processes used in game theory based on pay-off comparison to others that include non-economic or social factors. Our results show that only a dynamic built upon reinforcement learning is able to give rise to evolutionarily stable MCC, and at the end to reproduce the human behaviours observed in the experiments.

  13. Laughter in popular games and in sport. The other health of human play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Hurling in Cornwall, la soule in Britanny, Shrovetide football in England: Popular games have normally been treated as forerunners of modern sport, sport having regulated the space and the time of the game, the (non-) violence of behaviour, the control of results, the planning, strategy, tactics, techniques and evaluation of the competitive action. This is told as a story of social improvement and progress--and about turning unhealthy wildness into civilized 'healthy' sport activity. What sociological analysis of game-playing tended to ignore was the laughter of the participants. With the seriousness of modern sport, as it was established in the nineteenth century, a culture of laughter disappeared. This study tries to counter this mainstream by a phenomenology of laughter in popular games. A contrasting attention is turned towards the seriousness of sporting competition, the smile in modern sport and fitness, and the 'underground' dimension of laughter in modern sports. By comparative analysis, laughter reveals as a bodily discourse about the imperfect human being. It tells an oppositional story about the perfectionism in the order of Western thinking--in sports as well as in health. The bodily 'physiology' of laughter, the exploding psychical energy, and the inter-bodily social relations in laughter and play and game point towards the multi-dimensionality of health, as it was formulated by WHO: as "physical, mental, and social well-being".

  14. Homo ludens in the loop playful human computation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The human mind is incredible. It solves problems with ease that will elude machines even for the next decades. This book explores what happens when humans and machines work together to solve problems machines cannot yet solve alone. It explains how machines and computers can work together and how humans can have fun helping to face some of the most challenging problems of artificial intelligence. In this book, you will find designs for games that are entertaining and yet able to collect data to train machines for complex tasks such as natural language processing or image understanding. You wil

  15. The urban environment, its hazards and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Polič

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical environment is only a tool, a medium or a place enabling human interrelations to develop. This is perhaps the most evident in cases of dangers people confront within an environment. Everything from disasters and minor incidents to vandalism and crime is reflected in human behaviour, from satisfying our basic needs all the way to discerning the sense of reality. The article presents an array of reflections from accidents and dangers in an urban environment that can hurt the largest number of people, to less dangerous, but unpleasant acts for an individual.

  16. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we approach the problem of modeling the human component in technical systems with a view on the difference between the use of model and theory in sociology and computer science. One aim of this essay is to show that building of theories and models for sociology can be compared...... it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state...

  17. Does epigenetics play a role in human asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and other allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases of childhood. According to the World Health Organization, asthma affects >7.0 million children under 18 in the United States, with an economic burden that is estimated to exceed that of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS combined. Despite much research, the natural history of asthma and its pathogenesis are still in many ways elusive. This review discusses our current understanding of the role epigenetic processes play in asthma pathogenesis, focusing on genome-wide, population-based studies. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Role-Play with Virtual Humans Teach Interpersonal Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    2007, with concentrations in cinema -television and technology commercialization. He has led several mixed-reality- and game-based training efforts at...participants’ responses to the role-players, their perception of the realism of the virtual human and the social characteristics of the interaction, and the

  19. Imitating human playing styles in Super Mario Bros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Juan; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    in terms of the instrumental similarity measure and in phenomenological evaluation by human spectators. A version of the classic platform game “Super Mario Bros” is used as the testbed game in this study but the methods are applicable to other games that are based on character movement in space....

  20. HUMAN-BIOMONITORING (HBM – LEARNING BY PLAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst von Muehlendahl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinderumwelt – an agency of the German pediatricians concerned with environmental medicine – has developed an e-learning module about human-biomonitoring. It allows active learning because the user can study interactively with the help of a model. The HBM module is part of www.allum.de (the internet portal „Allergy, Environment, Health” and is available in German and English. Since the module works mainly with images, it is also accessible to users with incomplete command of the English or German languages.

  1. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    . The occupant behaviour related to the building control potentialities is a very complex process that has been studied only in the last years with some focuses related to natural ventilation (window opening behaviour), space heating energy demand (in particular the adjustments in the temperature set......-point) and natural light (focusing on window blinds adjustments). In this paper, a methodology is presented to model the user behaviour in the context of real energy use and applied to a case study. The methodology, based on a medium/long-term monitoring, is aimed at shifting towards a probabilistic approach...... for modelling the human behaviour related to the control of indoor environment. The procedure is applied at models of occupants’ interactions with windows (opening and closing behaviour). Models of occupants’ window opening behaviour were inferred based on measurements and implemented in a simulation program...

  2. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veijgen, N K; Masen, M A; van der Heide, E

    2013-12-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the human skin, subject characteristics and environmental conditions on skin friction. The data are obtained on 50 subjects (34 males and 16 females). Friction measurements represent the friction between in vivo human skin and an aluminium sample, assessed on three anatomical locations. The coefficient of friction increased significantly (pskin and the height of the subject. Other outcome variables in this study were the hydration of the skin and the skin temperature.

  3. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K B; Nettle, D; McElreath, R

    2015-12-05

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such 'strong situations' will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background.

  4. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Ashok J. Tamhankar

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  5. The behaviour of satellite cells in response to exercise: what have we learned from human studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, Fawzi; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards the underst......Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards...... the understanding of satellite cell behaviour in exercised human muscles. It is hypothesised currently that exercise in humans can induce (1) the activation of satellite cells without proliferation, (2) proliferation and withdrawal from differentiation, (3) proliferation and differentiation to provide myonuclei...... and (4) proliferation and differentiation to generate new muscle fibres or to repair segmental fibre injuries. In humans, the satellite cell pool can increase as early as 4 days following a single bout of exercise and is maintained at higher level following several weeks of training. Cessation...

  6. A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of science is to develop true theories. From this it follows quite naturally that the Behavioural Approach is the only plausible approach in a Science of Human Resources Management. The Behavioural Approach derives its propositions from the best theories from the social and behavioural sciences. It is problem-oriented in the strictest sense and thus escapes discipline-specific narrow-mindedness. It integrates the knowledge bases necessary for good practice. The behavioural approach to...

  7. A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of science is to develop true theories. From this it follows quite naturally that the Behavioural Approach is the only plausible approach in a Science of Human Resources Management. The Behavioural Approach derives its propositions from the best theories from the social and behavioural sciences. It is problem-oriented in the strictest sense and thus escapes discipline-specific narrow-mindedness. It integrates the knowledge bases necessary for good practice. The behavioural approach to...

  8. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  9. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  10. Recognition of complex human behaviours using 3D imaging for intelligent surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Lepley, Jason J.; Peall, Robert; Butler, Michael; Hagras, Hani

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a system that exploits 3-D imaging technology as an enabler for the robust recognition of the human form. We combine this with pose and feature recognition capabilities from which we can recognise high-level human behaviours. We propose a hierarchical methodology for the recognition of complex human behaviours, based on the identification of a set of atomic behaviours, individual and sequential poses (e.g. standing, sitting, walking, drinking and eating) that provides a framework from which we adopt time-based machine learning techniques to recognise complex behaviour patterns.

  11. Human REM sleep: influence on feeding behaviour, with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, James A

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep shares many underlying mechanisms with wakefulness, to a much greater extent than does non-REM, especially those relating to feeding behaviours, appetite, curiosity, exploratory (locomotor) activities, as well as aspects of emotions, particularly 'fear extinction'. REM is most evident in infancy, thereafter declining in what seems to be a dispensable manner that largely reciprocates increasing wakefulness. However, human adults retain more REM than do other mammals, where for us it is most abundant during our usual final REM period (fREMP) of the night, nearing wakefulness. The case is made that our REM is unusual, and that (i) fREMP retains this 'dispensability', acting as a proxy for wakefulness, able to be forfeited (without REM rebound) and substituted by physical activity (locomotion) when pressures of wakefulness increase; (ii) REM's atonia (inhibited motor output) may be a proxy for this locomotion; (iii) our nocturnal sleep typically develops into a physiological fast, especially during fREMP, which is also an appetite suppressant; (iv) REM may have 'anti-obesity' properties, and that the loss of fREMP may well enhance appetite and contribute to weight gain ('overeating') in habitually short sleepers; (v) as we also select foods for their hedonic (emotional) values, REM may be integral to developing food preferences and dislikes; and (vii) REM seems to have wider influences in regulating energy balance in terms of exercise 'substitution' and energy (body heat) retention. Avenues for further research are proposed, linking REM with feeding behaviours, including eating disorders, and effects of REM-suppressant medications.

  12. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms.

  13. Self-injurious behaviour (SIB)--from definition to human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, A

    1993-01-01

    This article is part of a special section on 'self-injurious behaviour and autism' and is mainly based on a book edited by Luiselli, Matson and Singh (1992) addressing empirical data on self-injurious behaviour and mental retardation from a behavioural perspective. Within the overview of the book some information on autism is also presented and critically discussed. Self-injurious behaviour is a poorly understood phenomenon and problematic in many ways; its definition is not easy; little is known about the causes and neuroscientific models. Demographic data are scarce and functional analysis and interventions (behavioural techniques, medication, education) need to be further developed, under the protection of human rights committees.

  14. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  15. Temporally and spatially partitioned behaviours of spinner dolphins: implications for resilience to human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David W.; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems. Using behavioural time-series data, we show that spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) spatially and temporally partition their behavioural activities on a daily basis. Specifically, spinner dolphins were never observed foraging during daytime, where resting was the predominant activity. Travelling and socializing probabilities were higher in early mornings and late afternoons when dolphins were returning from or preparing for nocturnal feeding trips, respectively. The constrained nature of spinner dolphin behaviours suggests they are less resilient to human disturbance than other cetaceans. These dolphins experience the highest exposure rates to human activities ever reported for any cetaceans. Over the last 30 years human activities have increased significantly in Hawaii, but the spinner dolphins still inhabit these bays. Recent abundance estimates (2011 and 2012) however, are lower than all previous estimates (1979–1981, 1989–1992 and 2003), indicating a possible long-term impact. Quantification of the spatial and temporal partitioning of wildlife behavioural schedules provides critical insight for conservation measures that aim to mitigate the effects of human disturbance. PMID:28280561

  16. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  17. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this pa

  18. The Human-Fostered Gorilla Koko Shows Breath Control in Play with Wind Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Perlman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Breath control is critical to the production of spoken language and commonly postulated as a unique human adaptation specifically for this function. In contrast, non-human primates are often assumed to lack volitional control over their vocalizations, and implicitly, their breath. This paper takes an embodied perspective on the development of breath control in a human-fostered gorilla, examining her sound play with musical wind instruments. The subject Koko was video recorded in her play with plastic recorders, harmonicas and whistles. The results show that Koko exercises volitional control over her breath during instrument play. More generally, the findings suggest that all great apes share the potential to develop breath control, and that the original adaptive value of breath control was its flexible development for the service of behaviors that happened to be useful within particular sociocultural and physical environments.

  19. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  20. Can Attribution of a Neutral Emotional State in Child Discipline Play an Adaptive Role in Child Internalising Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Patricia; de Oliveira, Ebenezer A.; Dazzani, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Maternal rates of child internalising behaviour were compared across children's emotion attributions (neutral, fear, anger, sadness and happiness) to others in a discipline situation, after controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Sixty-five Brazilian mothers provided socio-demographic information and rated their preschool children's…

  1. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, S. M.; Riedstra, B. J.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last deca

  2. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  3. ROLE PLAYING THE PROBLEM STORY, AN APPROACH TO HUMAN RELATIONS IN THE CLASSROOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAFTEL, FANNIE R.; SHAFTEL, GEORGE

    AN AID TO THE CLASSROOM TEACHER IN THE TEACHING OF HUMAN RELATIONS IS PRESENTED. SOCIODRAMA, OR ROLE-PLAYING, IS PRIMARILY USEFUL IN SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TWO OR MORE PERSONS. IT THEREFORE PROVIDES A VALUABLE LEARNING EXPERIENCE IN SCHOOLS WHICH ARE CONCERNED WITH THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS, WITH MORAL AND…

  4. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  5. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  6. Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alex Mesoudi; Kevin N Laland

    2007-01-01

    ...’, and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human mating behaviour. A gene...

  7. Design of a Redundant Manipulator for Playing Table Tennis towards Human-Like Stroke Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangguo Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the design of a 7-DOF humanoid manipulator capable of playing table tennis with human-like stroke patterns. The manipulator system includes a redundant arm, real-time stereo vision system, and a distributed motion control system. First, the size, weight, workspace, and motion capability of the designed arm are similar to those of a human's arm. The forward and inverse kinematics, and the Jacobian matrix of the redundant manipulator are formulated. Next, a distributed motion control system is designed. The ball trajectory prediction method is proposed. Then, a human-inspired optimization method based on Jacobian pseudoinverse and the comfort of the arm posture for stroke pattern trajectory is proposed to achieve human-like stroke patterns and decrease the counterforce exerted on the manipulator. Finally, the validity of the proposed system and methods is demonstrated via human-like stroke pattern experiments.

  8. Being a Modern Human: essentialist and hierarchical approaches to the emergence of 'modern human behaviour'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hopkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or

  9. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  10. Antenna Behaviour in the Presence of Human Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firrao, E.L.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    Mobile phones are widely used nowadays. The demand in the new generations of mobile phones is better performance. Typically the mobile phone performance is derived assuming an ideal antenna impedance of 50Ω. Some work has been done in understanding the behaviour of the antenna impedance in a real

  11. Fair Play Game: A Group Contingency Strategy to Increase Students' Active Behaviours in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Lee, Chang-Hung; Azevedo, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    A dependent group contingency strategy called Fair Play Game was applied to promote increase in number of steps during physical education classes for sixth-grade students. Results from a multiple baseline design across three classes showed that the mean number of steps for baseline vs. intervention were: Class 1: 43 vs. 64 steps/minute; Class 2:…

  12. What Happens When Designers Don't Play by the Rules: towards a model of opportunistic behaviour in design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khushalani

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available It is being recognised increasingly in the scientific literature that real world design problem solving is not hierarchical, being characterised by a strategy, termed 'opportunism', whereby designers discover and/or adapt their problem solving goals and activities, in response to die state of the problem and the environment in which that problem exists. This paper explores the concept of opportunism more formally than has hitherto been attempted. We adopt an approach (which we term "TheoryBuilder" which is a hybrid of the theory testing and theory building approaches. The TheoryBuilder approach taken adapts the Lancaster Soft Systems Methodology to generate an initial model of opportunistic behaviour, to be refined by subsequent iterative comparison with the existing literature and empirical studies. The utility of the initial model is demonstrated by constructing a list of the major cognitive elements for all activities appearing in this initial model, and then using it to analyse a sample verbal protocol collected from an empirical study observed by the authors. Initial results are very promising, supporting the need for more comprehensive examination and refinement of the model Possible future research directions are discussed.

  13. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive h

  14. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if a recently developed human Ranvier node model, which is based on a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, could predict the excitability behaviour in human peripheral sensory nerve fibres...

  15. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  16. Multi-Element Behaviour Support as a Model for the Delivery of a Human Rights Based Approach for Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours that Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…

  17. Metastatic behaviour of primary human tumours in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidecke Claus-Dieter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour. Methods We fluorescently labelled small explants from gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish. Results In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature. Conclusion Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen.

  18. The apelinergic system: the role played in human physiology and pathology and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Ferreira-Martins, João; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2008-05-01

    Apelin is a recently discovered peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of receptor APJ. Apelin and receptor APJ are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. Their interaction may have relevant pathophysiologic effects in those tissues. In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. The possible involvement of apelin in the pathogenesis of high prevalence conditions and comorbidities - such as hypertension, heart failure, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) - rank it as a likely therapeutic target to be investigated in the future. The present paper is an overview of apelin physiologic effects and presents the possible role played by this peptide in the pathogenesis of a number of conditions as well as the therapeutic implications that might, therefore, be investigated.

  19. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, H; Haasnoot, E; Bocanegra, B R; Berretty, E W; Hommel, B

    2015-04-08

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

  20. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-08-07

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors' payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans.

  1. Neural and cortisol responses during play with human and computer partners in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Elliot Kale; Merkle, Kristen; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-08-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in reciprocal social interactions, including play, which can manifest as failure to show social preference or discrimination between social and nonsocial stimuli. To explore mechanisms underlying these deficits, we collected salivary cortisol from 42 children 8-12 years with ASD or typical development during a playground interaction with a confederate child. Participants underwent functional MRI during a prisoner's dilemma game requiring cooperation or defection with a human (confederate) or computer partner. Search region of interest analyses were based on previous research (e.g. insula, amygdala, temporal parietal junction-TPJ). There were significant group differences in neural activation based on partner and response pattern. When playing with a human partner, children with ASD showed limited engagement of a social salience brain circuit during defection. Reduced insula activation during defection in the ASD children relative to TD children, regardless of partner type, was also a prominent finding. Insula and TPJ BOLD during defection was also associated with stress responsivity and behavior in the ASD group under playground conditions. Children with ASD engage social salience networks less than TD children during conditions of social salience, supporting a fundamental disturbance of social engagement. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, John R G; Johansson, Anders; Helbing, Dirk; Couzin, Iain D; Krause, Jens

    2009-03-27

    This paper reviews the literature on leadership in vertebrate groups, including recent work on human groups, before presenting the results of three new experiments looking at leadership and decision making in small and large human groups. In experiment 1, we find that both group size and the presence of uninformed individuals can affect the speed with which small human groups (eight people) decide between two opposing directional preferences and the likelihood of the group splitting. In experiment 2, we show that the spatial positioning of informed individuals within small human groups (10 people) can affect the speed and accuracy of group motion. We find that having a mixture of leaders positioned in the centre and on the edge of a group increases the speed and accuracy with which the group reaches their target. In experiment 3, we use large human crowds (100 and 200 people) to demonstrate that the trends observed from earlier work using small human groups can be applied to larger crowds. We find that only a small minority of informed individuals is needed to guide a large uninformed group. These studies build upon important theoretical and empirical work on leadership and decision making in animal groups.

  3. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammüller, Florian; Primierio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we approach the problem of modeling the human component in technical systems with a view on the difference between the use of model and theory in sociology and computer science. One aim of this essay is to show that building of theories and models for sociology can be compared and imp

  4. Human Factors on the Flight Deck Safe Piloting Behaviour in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiderer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    What is for a professional pilot required to fly as safe as possible? Written by pilots the book gives a detailed introduction into the basics of accident prevention in air traffic. Explicit background knowledge as well as detailed listings of safety relevant features in human behaviour are included.

  5. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  6. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  7. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  8. How Human Information Behaviour Researchers Use Each Other's Work: A Basic Citation Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Lynne E. F.; Goodall, George R.; Lajoie-Paquette, Darian; Julien, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if and how human information behaviour (HIB) research is used by others. Method: Using ISI Web of Knowledge, a citation analysis was conducted on 155 English-language HIB articles published from 1993 to 2000 in six prominent LIS journals. The bibliometric core of 12 papers was identified.…

  9. Dysregulation of JAM-A plays an important role in human tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Lu, Funian; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Xianda; Sun, Jun; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Evidence determines that JAM-A plays a role in numerous cellular processes, including tight junction assembly, leukocyte migration, platelet activation, angiogenesis and virus binding. Recent research suggests that JAM-A is dysregulated in various cancers and is vital for tumor progression. JAM-A is implicated in carcinogenesis via different signal pathways such as TGF-β1 signaling. Furthermore, JAM-A expression in cancers is usually associated with certain outcome of patients and might be a prognostic indicator. In this review, the correlation between JAM-A expression and human cancers will be described.

  10. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions

    OpenAIRE

    van Steenbergen, H.; E. Haasnoot; Bocanegra, B.R.; Berretty, E.W.; Hommel, B.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anteri...

  11. Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Duka, Theodora

    2006-03-01

    Two seemingly contrary theories describe the learning mechanisms that mediate human addictive behaviour. According to the classical incentive theories of addiction, addictive behaviour is motivated by a Pavlovian conditioned appetitive emotional response elicited by drug-paired stimuli. Expectancy theory, on the other hand, argues that addictive behaviour is mediated by an expectancy of the drug imparted by cognitive knowledge of the Pavlovian (predictive) contingency between stimuli (S+) and the drug and of the instrumental (causal) contingency between instrumental behaviour and the drug. The present paper reviewed human-nicotine-conditioning studies to assess the role of appetitive emotional conditioning and explicit contingency knowledge in mediating addictive behaviour. The studies reviewed here provided evidence for both the emotional conditioning and the expectancy accounts. The first source of evidence is that nicotine-paired S+ elicit an appetitive emotional conditioned response (CR), albeit only in participants who expect nicotine. Furthermore, the magnitude of this emotional state is modulated by nicotine deprivation/satiation. However, the causal status of the emotional response in driving other forms of conditioned behaviour remains undemonstrated. The second source of evidence is that other nicotine CRs, including physiological responses, self-administration, attentional bias and subjective craving, are also dependent on participants possessing explicit knowledge of the Pavlovian contingencies arranged in the experiment. In addition, several of the nicotine CRs can be brought about or modified by instructed contingency knowledge, demonstrating the causal status of this knowledge. Collectively, these data suggest that human nicotine conditioned effects are mediated by an explicit expectancy of the drug coupled with an appetitive emotional response that reflects the positive biological value of the drug. The implication of this conclusion is that

  12. Ex Vivo Behaviour of Human Bone Tumor Endothelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Teresa [SDN-Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, IRCCS, 80143 Naples (Italy); Cesario, Elena [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Fazioli, Flavio [Division of Skeletal Muscles Oncology Surgery, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); De Chiara, Annarosaria [Anatomic Pathology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tutucci, Cristina; Apice, Gaetano [Medical Oncology of Bone and Soft Sarcoma tissues Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Nigris, Filomena de, E-mail: filomena.denigris@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-11

    Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data and experimental research have proved that angiogenic pathways differ in each tumor type and stage. Here, for the first time, we characterize at the molecular and functional level tumor endothelial cells from human bone sarcomas at different stages of disease and with different histotypes. We selected a CD31{sup +} subpopulation from biopsies that displayed the capability to grow as adherent cell lines without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings show the existence in human primary bone sarcomas of highly proliferative endothelial cells expressing CD31, CD44, CD105, CD146 and CD90 markers. These cells are committed to develop capillary-like structures and colony formation units, and to produce nitric oxide. We believe that a better understanding of tumor vasculature could be a valid tool for the design of an efficacious antiangiogenic therapy as adjuvant treatment of sarcomas.

  13. Understanding human queuing behaviour at exits: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoum, A. U. Kemloh; Liao, W.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of the exit to egress from a facility plays a fundamental role in pedestrian modelling and simulation. Yet, empirical evidence for backing up simulation is scarce. In this contribution, we present three new groups of experiments that we conducted in different geometries. We varied parameters such as the width of the doors, the initial location and number of pedestrians which in turn affected their perception of the environment. We extracted and analysed relevant indicators such as distance to the exits and density levels. The results put in evidence the fact that pedestrians use time-dependent information to optimize their exit choice, and that, in congested states, a load balancing over the exits occurs. We propose a minimal modelling approach that covers those situations, especially the cases where the geometry does not show a symmetrical configuration. Most of the models try to achieve the load balancing by simulating the system and solving optimization problems. We show statistically and by simulation that a linear model based on the distance to the exits and the density levels around the exit can be an efficient dynamical alternative. PMID:28280588

  14. The human LIS1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and plays a tumor suppressor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Zhen; Tang, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Da, Liang; Song, Hai; Wang, Suiquan [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Tiollais, Pierre [Unite' d' Organisation Nucleaire et Oncogenese, INSERM U.579, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Li, Tsaiping [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Mujun, E-mail: mjzhao@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} LIS1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in 70% HCC tissues. {yields} Downregulation of LIS1 expression induces oncogenic transformation of QSG7701 and NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. {yields} LIS1 downregulation leads to mitotic errors including spindle and chromosome defects. {yields} Ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. {yields} Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and progression of HCC. -- Abstract: The human lissencephaly-1 gene (LIS1) is a disease gene responsible for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDL). LIS1 gene is located in the region of chromosome 17p13.3 that is frequency deleted in MDL patients and in human liver cancer cells. However, the expression and significance of LIS1 in liver cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of LIS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of LIS1 were downregulated in about 70% of HCC tissues, and this downregulation was significantly associated with tumor progression. Functional studies showed that the reduction of LIS1 expression in the normal human liver cell line QSG7701 or the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 by shRNA resulted in colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrating that a decrease in the LIS1 level can promote the oncogenic transformation of cells. We also observed that the phenotypes of LIS1-knockdown cells displayed various defective mitotic structures, suggesting that the mechanism by which reduced LIS1 levels results in tumorigenesis is associated with its role in mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the

  15. Viscoelastic behaviour of human blood and polyacrylamide model fluids for heart valve testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Dietmar; Vlastos, Georgios; Koch, Brigitte; Pohl, Manfred; Affeld, Klaus

    1993-06-01

    New heart valves and other cardiovascular assist systems have to be tested for hydrodynamic performance. In place of human blood simple model fluids like glycerol solutions are employed often due to ethical and practical reasons. But blood exhibits complex non-Newtonian and viscoelastic behaviour. Rheological blood properties are reviewed based on literature and own experimental results. Furthermore we studied polymer solutions with respect to blood-like flow behaviour. Rheology was assessed by means of the low shear rotational viscometer (LS 40, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) under stationary and dynamic shear conditions (variation of frequency and angular displacement).

  16. The influence of action video game playing on eye movement behaviour during visual search in abstract, in-game and natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.

  17. Effects of pacing, status and unbalance in time motion variables, heart rate and tactical behaviour when playing 5-a-side football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Jaime E; Lago, Carlos; Gonçalves, Bruno; Maçãs, Victor M; Leite, Nuno

    2014-03-01

    To compare time-motion variables, heart rate and players' tactical behaviour according to game pace (slow, normal or fast), status (winning and losing) and team unbalance (superiority and inferiority) in football 5-a-side small-sided games. To identify the most discriminating variables in classifying performances according to these constraints. Cross-sectional field study. The data were gathered using global positioning systems (5 Hz) in 5-a-side small-sided games (7 × 5 min) played by twenty-four footballers. The tactical performance was measured using dynamical positioning variables, processed by non-linear signal processing techniques (approximate entropy). ANOVA models were used to compare between constraints and discriminant analyses to identify the variables that best discriminate between pacing and status × unbalance constraints. The fast paced games had the highest mean speed value, followed by normal and slow paced games (8.2 ± 0.6 km h(-1), 7.8 ± 0.5 km h(-1) and 6.2 ± 0.4 km h(-1), respectively). The stronger predictor variables of pacing were the randomness in distance to team centroid and the distances covered above 13 km h(-1). The results also changed according to game status and team unbalance. The strongest predictor variables were the distance covered below 6.9 km h(-1), distance and randomness to team centroid, with higher values when winning in superiority conditions. Practice task design manipulating game pace, status and team unbalance significantly influenced the emergent behavioural dynamics. Collective positioning variables were more accurate in discriminating these constraints and, therefore, need to be considered when planning and monitoring performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed.

  19. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  20. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    interaction is critical for the long term stability of a pharmaceutical. Protein complex formation is important for extended half-life in vivo and is essential to cellular communication such as the induction of the insulin response. This thesis focuses on human serum albumin (HSA) as a central player...... approach to half-life extension is conjugation of molecules to HSA. In this part of the thesis, novel GLP-1-albumin conjugates developed by Albumedix A/S where examined by a combined approach of pharmacokinetic studies and solution structure determination with SAXS. GLP-1 was conjugated to Cys34...... of recombinant HSA (rHSA) and two rHSA variants with lower (NB) and higher binding (HB) affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Binding kinetics showed that the conjugation had limited effect on the binding properties of the conjugates to FcRn compared to the respective rHSA variants. Increased in-vivo half...

  1. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk

    2013-09-01

    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  2. Rationality and irrationality in understanding human behaviour. An evaluation of the methodological consequences of conceptualising irrationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Toth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.

  3. The impact of communication on human behaviour in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew

    Decision makers have constantly sought to find the most appropriate ways to use communication to influence behaviour during times of crises to assist in their recovery. This paper will investigate why policy makers wish to utilise effective crisis communications and explore the importance of crisis communication on influencing human behaviour in a time of crisis as well as the influence that the medium of communication can have. It will be noted that the medium of the message is important to ensure that the correct audience has been reached. This paper will suggest that, for decision makers to maximise the impact of crisis communications during a crisis, they must utilise rhetoric and cognitive response theory. It will also be suggested that the most importance factor in influencing behaviour in a time of crisis is that communications are provided from a credible source and are empathic in nature.

  4. Behavioural, modeling, and electrophysiological evidence for supramodality in human metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nathan; Filevich, Elisa; Solovey, Guillermo; Kühn, Simone; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-09-15

    Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition. First, metacognitive efficiency correlated between auditory, tactile, visual, and audiovisual tasks. Second, confidence in an audiovisual task was best modeled using supramodal formats based on integrated representations of auditory and visual signals. Third, confidence in correct responses involved similar electrophysiological markers for visual and audiovisual tasks that are associated with motor preparation preceding the perceptual judgment. We conclude that the supramodality of metacognition relies on supramodal confidence estimates and decisional signals that are shared across sensory modalities.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTMetacognitive monitoring is the capacity to access, report and regulate one's own mental states. In perception, this allows rating our confidence in what we have seen, heard or touched. While metacognitive monitoring can operate on different cognitive domains, we ignore whether it involves a single supramodal mechanism common to multiple cognitive domains, or modality-specific mechanisms idiosyncratic to each domain. Here, we bring evidence in favor of the supramodality hypothesis by showing that participants with high metacognitive performance in one modality are likely to perform well in other modalities. Based on computational modeling and electrophysiology, we propose that supramodality can be explained by the existence of supramodal confidence estimates, and by the influence of decisional cues on

  5. Social Experiments in the Mesoscale: Humans Playing a Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujić, Jelena; Fosco, Constanza; Araujo, Lourdes; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolutionary origin of cooperation among unrelated individuals remains a key unsolved issue across several disciplines. Prominent among the several mechanisms proposed to explain how cooperation can emerge is the existence of a population structure that determines the interactions among individuals. Many models have explored analytically and by simulation the effects of such a structure, particularly in the framework of the Prisoner's Dilemma, but the results of these models largely depend on details such as the type of spatial structure or the evolutionary dynamics. Therefore, experimental work suitably designed to address this question is needed to probe these issues. Methods and Findings We have designed an experiment to test the emergence of cooperation when humans play Prisoner's Dilemma on a network whose size is comparable to that of simulations. We find that the cooperation level declines to an asymptotic state with low but nonzero cooperation. Regarding players' behavior, we observe that the population is heterogeneous, consisting of a high percentage of defectors, a smaller one of cooperators, and a large group that shares features of the conditional cooperators of public goods games. We propose an agent-based model based on the coexistence of these different strategies that is in good agreement with all the experimental observations. Conclusions In our large experimental setup, cooperation was not promoted by the existence of a lattice beyond a residual level (around 20%) typical of public goods experiments. Our findings also indicate that both heterogeneity and a “moody” conditional cooperation strategy, in which the probability of cooperating also depends on the player's previous action, are required to understand the outcome of the experiment. These results could impact the way game theory on graphs is used to model human interactions in structured groups. PMID:21103058

  6. Social experiments in the mesoscale: humans playing a spatial prisoner's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Grujić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolutionary origin of cooperation among unrelated individuals remains a key unsolved issue across several disciplines. Prominent among the several mechanisms proposed to explain how cooperation can emerge is the existence of a population structure that determines the interactions among individuals. Many models have explored analytically and by simulation the effects of such a structure, particularly in the framework of the Prisoner's Dilemma, but the results of these models largely depend on details such as the type of spatial structure or the evolutionary dynamics. Therefore, experimental work suitably designed to address this question is needed to probe these issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have designed an experiment to test the emergence of cooperation when humans play Prisoner's Dilemma on a network whose size is comparable to that of simulations. We find that the cooperation level declines to an asymptotic state with low but nonzero cooperation. Regarding players' behavior, we observe that the population is heterogeneous, consisting of a high percentage of defectors, a smaller one of cooperators, and a large group that shares features of the conditional cooperators of public goods games. We propose an agent-based model based on the coexistence of these different strategies that is in good agreement with all the experimental observations. CONCLUSIONS: In our large experimental setup, cooperation was not promoted by the existence of a lattice beyond a residual level (around 20% typical of public goods experiments. Our findings also indicate that both heterogeneity and a "moody" conditional cooperation strategy, in which the probability of cooperating also depends on the player's previous action, are required to understand the outcome of the experiment. These results could impact the way game theory on graphs is used to model human interactions in structured groups.

  7. Alpha-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Paul G.; Yuan, Kaiyu; Warram, Jason M.; Klein, Michael J.; Siegal, Gene P.; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite improvements in osteosarcoma treatment, more specific molecular targets are needed as potential therapeutic options. One target of interest is alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII), a ubiquitous mediator of Ca2+-linked signaling, which has been shown to regulate tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII in the growth and tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma. We show that α-CaMKII is highly expressed in primary osteosarcoma tissue derived from 114 patients and is expressed in varying levels in different human osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS, MG-63, MNNG/HOS and 143B). To examine whether α-CaMKII regulates osteosarcoma tumorigenic properties, we genetically inhibited α-CaMKII in two osteosarcoma cell lines using two different α-CaMKII shRNAs delivered by lentiviral vectors and overexpressed α-CaMKII by retrovirus. The genetic deletion of α-CaMKII by shRNA in MG-63 and 143B cells resulted in decreased proliferation (50 and 41%), migration (22 and 25%) and invasion (95 and 90%), respectively. The overexpression of α-CaMKII in HOS cells resulted in increased proliferation (240%), migration (640%) and invasion (10,000%). Furthermore, α-CaMKII deletion in MG-63 cells significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo (65%), while α-CaMKII overexpression resulted in tumor formation in a previously non-tumor forming osteosarcoma cell line (HOS). Our results suggest that α-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of osteosarcoma, and its inhibition could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease. PMID:23364534

  8. "Play" and People Living With Dementia: A Humanities-Based Inquiry of TimeSlips and the Alzheimer's Poetry Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Aagje; de Medeiros, Kate

    2017-01-18

    This paper is a humanities-based inquiry, applying Huizinga's framework of homo ludens ("man the player") to consider "play" in the context of two participatory arts programs (TimeSlips and the Alzheimer's Poetry Project) for people living with dementia. "Play," according to this Dutch historian, is at the heart of human activity and what gives meaning to life. Despite empirical research on play across the life course, play in dementia care is a relatively new idea. In addition, there is a dearth of reports based on humanistic inquiry which has slightly different goals than the growing body of qualitative and quantitative studies of participatory arts interventions. Play is not used to infantilize and trivialize people living with dementia but as a way to explore potential for expression, meaning-making, and relationship-building in later life. The arts programs were conducted at two residential care facilities, Scharwyerveld and De Beyart, in the Netherlands over 10 weeks. Close readings of the transcripts and notes from the programs resulted in three observations: people learned to play again, there is power in playing together, and play often led to expressions of joy. Overall, the notion of play may be a helpful framework for future research into innovative arts-based approaches to dementia care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Safety

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.).

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, Shanshan; Qian, Linmao; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel.

  11. CBARA1 plays a role in stemness and proliferation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chen

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are capable of unlimited self-renewal and can generate almost all of the cells in the body. Although some pluripotency factors have been identified, much remains unclear regarding the molecules and mechanisms that regulate hESC self-renewal and pluripotency. In this study, we identified a mitochondrial gene, CBARA1, that is expressed in undifferentiated hESCs and that is down-regulated rapidly after cellular differentiation. To study its role in hESCs, endogenous CBARA1 expression was knocked down using shRNA. CBARA1 knockdown in hESCs resulted in down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog expression, attenuated cell growth, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest; however, knockdown did not noticeably affect apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that CBARA1 is a marker for undifferentiated hESCs that plays a role in maintaining stemness, cell cycle progression, and proliferation.

  12. Does human papilloma virus play a role in sinonasal inverted papilloma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Satish; Wang, Hailun

    2014-02-01

    Inverted papillomas are a benign sinonasal tumor with a propensity for recurrence and malignant transformation. Although many investigations have been made into the nature of this disease, its etiology and causes for malignant transformation have yet to be fully elucidated. It is the authors' objective to present a review on management of the disease and evaluate the present relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and inverted papilloma. A causal relationship between HPV and the pathogenesis and progression of inverted papilloma has been posited since the 1980s. Although widely varied HPV detection rates have been reported, recent studies have noted a substantial increase in both recurrence and malignant transformation in HPV-infected inverted papillomas. However, exact cellular mechanisms by which infection leads to subsequent recurrence and development of carcinoma have yet to be elucidated. Evidence exists suggesting that HPV infection plays a role in the progression of inverted papilloma and confers an increased risk for recurrence and malignant transformation. PCR is the preferred detection method, and fresh or frozen specimens are the ideal source of tissue for evaluation. Although multiple studies have detected an association between HPV and inverted papilloma (both recurrent and malignant transformation), further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways before an association can be changed to causation.

  13. Enhancing Multi-Agent Based Simulation with Human-Agents Interactive Spatial Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yee Ming; Shiu, Hung-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We are exploring the enhancement of models of agent behaviour with more "human-like" decision making strategies than are presently available. Our motivation is to developed with a view to as the decision analysis and support for electric taxi company under the mission of energy saving and reduction of CO2, in particular car-pool and car-sharing management policies. In order to achieve the object of decision analysis for user, we provide a human-agents interactive spatial behaviour to support user making decision real time. We adopt passenger average waiting time and electric taxi average idle time as the performance measures and decision support fro electric taxi company. Finally, according to the analysis result, we demonstrate that our multi-agent simulation and GUI can help users or companies quickly make a quality and accurate decision to reduce the decision-making cost and time.

  14. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. gene...

  15. Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Nielsen, Tara; Weston, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Sandy beaches are primarily valued for their amenity and property values rather than for their ecological functions and properties. Some human usage of beaches potentially conflicts with the conservation and management of wildlife, such as beach-dwelling birds, on sandy shorelines. Because responses by birds to environmental change, including disturbance by humans, often involve behaviours that carry fitness costs, we quantify behaviour profiles of birds in relation to human occurrence along 200 km of sandy shoreline in Eastern Australia, including the large conservation area of Fraser Island. Disturbance to birds on these shores was considerable: 1) birds encountered motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, buses etc.) during 80% of focal bird observation bouts, 2) birds were flushed in over half (up to 86% in individual species) of all bouts, and 3) individuals spent, on average, one-third of their time on disturbance-related behaviours; this was particularly prevalent for Crested Terns (Thalasseus bergii) which were alert 42% of the time and spent 12% of their time escaping from human stimuli. Overall, this study demonstrated that motorized traffic is the prime agent of disturbance to birds on these beaches, resulting in frequent and time-consuming escape behaviours. These findings also emphasize that management of vehicle-based recreation on beaches needs to be re-aligned to meet conservation requirements in addition to providing leisure opportunities in National Parks and beyond; we identify some salient issue for this development: a) encouragement of social norms that promote environmentally benign beach use not involving motor vehicles, b) creation of spatial refuges for beach wildlife from traffic and other non-compatible uses, and c) investment in developing complementary management actions such as effective set-back distances.

  16. Pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  17. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included.

  18. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  19. The Relative Roles Played by Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in Relation to Behaviour in a Population of Primary School Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J.; Rush, R.; McBean, K.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the association between language learning difficulties and behaviour in young children and this is likely to be particularly true of children raised in social disadvantage. Less is known about the way that different aspects of language, specifically pragmatics, interact with behaviour. This study examines the extent…

  20. The Relative Roles Played by Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in Relation to Behaviour in a Population of Primary School Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J.; Rush, R.; McBean, K.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the association between language learning difficulties and behaviour in young children and this is likely to be particularly true of children raised in social disadvantage. Less is known about the way that different aspects of language, specifically pragmatics, interact with behaviour. This study examines the extent…

  1. Development of a multi-body human model that predicts active and passive human behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hassel, E. van; Broos, J.; Elrofai, H.; Rooij, L. van; Hooijdonk, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Active safety systems that start to act moments before the crash might be capable of anticipating the occupant’s position, either by correcting it, or by taking the out-of-position into account. To develop such active safety systems, computer simulations of the occupant’s pre-crash behaviour are

  2. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos when approached by humans on foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Kvelprud Moen

    Full Text Available Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L. back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80% left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%. Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m than passive bears (69±47 m, and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  3. Multi-tasking arbitration and behaviour design for human-interactive robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Onishi, Masaki; Hosoe, Shigeyuki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2013-05-01

    Robots that interact with humans in household environments are required to handle multiple real-time tasks simultaneously, such as carrying objects, collision avoidance and conversation with human. This article presents a design framework for the control and recognition processes to meet these requirements taking into account stochastic human behaviour. The proposed design method first introduces a Petri net for synchronisation of multiple tasks. The Petri net formulation is converted to Markov decision processes and processed in an optimal control framework. Three tasks (safety confirmation, object conveyance and conversation) interact and are expressed by the Petri net. Using the proposed framework, tasks that normally tend to be designed by integrating many if-then rules can be designed in a systematic manner in a state estimation and optimisation framework from the viewpoint of the shortest time optimal control. The proposed arbitration method was verified by simulations and experiments using RI-MAN, which was developed for interactive tasks with humans.

  4. A Vision-Based System for Intelligent Monitoring: Human Behaviour Analysis and Privacy by Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Andre Chaaraoui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to progress and demographic change, society is facing a crucial challenge related to increased life expectancy and a higher number of people in situations of dependency. As a consequence, there exists a significant demand for support systems for personal autonomy. This article outlines the vision@home project, whose goal is to extend independent living at home for elderly and impaired people, providing care and safety services by means of vision-based monitoring. Different kinds of ambient-assisted living services are supported, from the detection of home accidents, to telecare services. In this contribution, the specification of the system is presented, and novel contributions are made regarding human behaviour analysis and privacy protection. By means of a multi-view setup of cameras, people’s behaviour is recognised based on human action recognition. For this purpose, a weighted feature fusion scheme is proposed to learn from multiple views. In order to protect the right to privacy of the inhabitants when a remote connection occurs, a privacy-by-context method is proposed. The experimental results of the behaviour recognition method show an outstanding performance, as well as support for multi-view scenarios and real-time execution, which are required in order to provide the proposed services.

  5. Increased costs reduce reciprocal helping behaviour of humans in a virtual evacuation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Miller, Jordan; O'Gorman, Rick; Codling, Edward A

    2015-11-06

    Altruistic behaviour is widespread and highly developed in humans and can also be found in some animal species. It has been suggested that altruistic tendencies can depend on costs, benefits and context. Here, we investigate the changes in the occurrence of helping behaviour in a computer-based experiment that simulates an evacuation from a building exploring the effect of varying the cost to help. Our findings illuminate a number of key mechanistic aspects of human decision-making about whether to help or not. In a novel situation where it is difficult to assess the risks associated with higher costs, we reproduce the finding that increasing costs reduce helping and find that the reduction in the frequency of helping behaviour is gradual rather than a sudden transition for a threshold cost level. Interestingly, younger and male participants were more likely to help. We provide potential explanations for this result relating to the nature of our experiment. Finally, we find no evidence that participants in our experiment plan ahead over two consecutive, inter-dependent helping opportunities when conducting cost-benefit trade-offs in spontaneous decisions. We discuss potential applications of our findings to research into decision-making during evacuations.

  6. Modelling human behaviour in a bumper car ride using molecular dynamics tools: a student project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Jorge J.; Lopez, Hector; Sanchis, Guillem; Pardo, Luis Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Amusement parks are excellent laboratories of physics, not only to check physical laws, but also to investigate if those physical laws might also be applied to human behaviour. A group of Physics Engineering students from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya has investigated if human behaviour, when driving bumper cars, can be modelled using tools borrowed from the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations, such as the radial and angular distribution functions. After acquiring several clips and obtaining the coordinates of the cars, those magnitudes are computed and analysed. Additionally, an analogous hard disks system is simulated to compare its distribution functions to those obtained from the cars’ coordinates. Despite the clear difference between bumper cars and a hard disk-like particle system, the obtained distribution functions are very similar. This suggests that there is no important effect of the individuals in the collective behaviour of the system in terms of structure. The research, performed by the students, has been undertaken in the frame of a motivational project designed to approach the scientific method for university students named FISIDABO. This project offers both the logistical and technical support to undertake the experiments designed by students at the amusement park of Barcelona TIBIDABO and accompanies them all along the scientific process.

  7. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2017-08-31

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen;

    2014-01-01

    . Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who...... than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age...

  9. Design of a Redundant Manipulator for Playing Table Tennis towards Human-Like Stroke Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Zhangguo; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xuechao; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Junyao

    2014-01-01

    .... Introduction The challenging tasks of playing table tennis performed by robots have attracted many researchers [1-16]. They employed the table tennis robot as extensive research platform for art...

  10. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships, based on unit averages, between the behavioural responses of lactating sows to humans and the performance of sows in 25 farrowing units at a large commercial farm. The behavioural responses of 25 sows in each farrowing unit were observed...... at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...... for about 18% of the variance in percentage of stillborn piglets. While this study was a preliminary one examining the potential for the human-animal relationship to affect the performance of sows in the farrowing shed, the results indicate that high levels of fear of humans by sows may affect the survival...

  11. The double helix revisited: a paradox of science and a paradigm of human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüelles, Juan Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern history of Science, few breakthroughs have caused an impact comparative to the Double Helix, the three-dimensional structure of DNA proposed by Watson & Crick in 1953, an event whose 50th anniversary was widely celebrated in the non-specialist media, three years ago. Although the discovery had little transcendence at the time, it has unquestionably been of great importance ever since. The Double Helix has underlined the true biological value of nucleic acids compared with proteins, demonstrating that genes are not amorphous entities but have a specific chemical composition and adopt an ordered spatial folding pattern. Elucidation of this key configuration made it possible to establish a direct relationship between the structure and the function of macromolecules, a relationship which is not so clear in the case of proteins. During these last fifty years much has been written and argued about the circumstances surrounding the discovery and about the behaviour and attitudes of many of the protagonists. Besides Watson & Crick, other scientists, whose contribution has not been adequately recognised, played an important part in solving the Double Helix mystery. This article contains some ethical and scientific reflections which revise some of these essential contributions and throws light on the role played in history by these comparatively «unknown soldiers» of science. The Double Helix story is undoubtedly a manifestation of the human side of science and many scientists believe that the available evidence taken as a whole permits an alternative story to be written.

    En la desarrollo histórico de la Ciencia moderna, pocos descubrimientos han causado un impacto comparativo a las repercusiones de la Doble Hélice, la estructura tridimensional del ADN, propuesta por Watson y Crick en 1953. El 50º aniversario de aquel evento fue ampliamente celebrado hace tres años, incluso por los medios no especializados en informaci

  12. Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, J

    1991-12-01

    A 10-month prospective study was carried out which examined changes in behaviour and health status in 71 adult subjects following the acquisition of a new pet (either dogs or cats). A group of 26 subjects without pets served as a comparison over the same period. Both pet-owning groups reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition, and this effect was sustained in dog owners through to 10 months. The pet-acquiring groups also showed improvements in their scores on the 30-item General Health Questionnaire over the first 6 months and, in dog owners, this improvement was maintained until 10 months. In addition, dog owners took considerably more physical exercise while walking their dogs than the other two groups, and this effect continued throughout the period of study. The group without pets exhibited no statistically significant changes in health or behaviour, apart from a small increase in recreational walking. The results provide evidence that pet acquisition may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that in some cases these effects are relatively long term.

  13. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    2006-01-01

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28 Chine

  14. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  15. Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planagumà, Jesús; Leypoldt, Frank; Mannara, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Aguilar, Esther; Titulaer, Maarten J; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Jain, Ankit; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lakadamyali, Melike; Graus, Francesc; Maldonado, Rafael; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients' antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients' or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients' cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal on Days

  16. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  17. A novel method for delivering ramped cooling reveals rat behaviours at innocuous and noxious temperatures: A comparative study of human psychophysics and rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, James P; Hulse, Richard P; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-07-15

    Thermal sensory testing in rodents informs human pain research. There are important differences in the methodology for delivering thermal stimuli to humans and rodents. This is particularly true in cold pain research. These differences confound extrapolation and de-value nociceptive tests in rodents. We investigated cooling-induced behaviours in rats and psychophysical thresholds in humans using ramped cooling stimulation protocols. A Peltier device mounted upon force transducers simultaneously applied a ramped cooling stimulus whilst measuring contact with rat hind paw or human finger pad. Rat withdrawals and human detection, discomfort and pain thresholds were measured. Ramped cooling of a rat hind paw revealed two distinct responses: Brief paw removal followed by paw replacement, usually with more weight borne than prior to the removal (temperature inter-quartile range: 19.1 °C to 2.8 °C). Full withdrawal was evoked at colder temperatures (inter quartile range: -11.3 °C to -11.8 °C). The profile of human cool detection threshold and cold pain threshold were remarkably similar to that of the rat withdrawals behaviours. Previous rat cold evoked behaviours utilise static temperature stimuli. By utilising ramped cold stimuli this novel methodology better reflects thermal testing in patients. Brief paw removal in the rat is driven by non-nociceptive afferents, as is the perception of cooling in humans. This is in contrast to the nociceptor-driven withdrawal from colder temperatures. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of data generated in older cold pain models and consequently our understanding of cold perception and pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Mitochondrial Complex I plays an Essential Role in Human Respirasome Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Lastres, David; Fontanesi, Flavia; García Consuegra, Inés; Martín, Miguel A.; Arenas, Joaquín; Barrientos, Antoni; Ugalde, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The assembly and function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) involve the organization of RC enzyme complexes in supercomplexes or respirasomes through an unknown biosynthetic process. This leads to structural interdependences between RC complexes, which are highly relevant from biological and biomedical perspectives, because RC defects lead to severe human disorders. We show that in human cells, respirasome biogenesis involves a complex I assembly intermediate acting as a scaffold fo...

  19. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

    2014-10-01

    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  20. Empirical study and modeling of human behaviour dynamics of comments on Blog posts

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    On-line communities offer a great opportunity to investigate human dynamics, because much information about individuals is registered in databases. In this paper, based on data statistics of online comments on Blog posts, we first present an empirical study of a comment arrival-time interval distribution. We find that people interested in some subjects gradually disappear and the interval distribution is a power law. According to this feature, we propose a model with gradually decaying interest. We give a rigorous analysis on the model by non-homogeneous Poisson processes and obtain an analytic expression of the interval distribution. Our analysis indicates that the time interval between two consecutive events follows the power-law distribution with a tunable exponent, which can be controlled by the model parameters and is in interval (1,\\infty). The analytical result agrees with the empirical results well, obeying an approximately power-law form. Our model provides a theoretical basis for human behaviour dyn...

  1. LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic, human sperm-related protein, plays a role in fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Li, Wenshu; Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Yixin; Bao, Jianying; Jiang, Deke; Dong, Xianping

    2017-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the c-type lysozyme/α-lactalbumin family and are selectively expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. Two members, human sperm lysozyme-like protein (SLLP) -1 and mouse LYZL4, have been reported to contribute to fertilization but show no bacteriolytic activity. Here, we focused on the possible contribution of LYZL6 to immunity and fertilization. In humans, LYZL6 was selectively expressed by the testis and epididymis and became concentrated on spermatozoa. Native LYZL6 isolated from sperm extracts exhibited bacteriolytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Recombinant LYZL6 (rLYZL6) reached its peak activity at pH 5.6 and 15 mM of Na+, and could inhibit the growth of Gram-positive, but not Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, the bacteriolytic activity of rLYZL6 proved to be much lower than that of human lysozyme under physiological conditions. Immunodetection with a specific antiserum localized the LYZL6 protein on the postacrosomal membrane of mature spermatozoa. Immunoneutralization of LYZL6 significantly decreased the numbers of human spermatozoa fused with zona-free hamster eggs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus, we report here for the first time that LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic and human sperm-related protein, is likely important for fertilization but not for the innate immunity of the male reproductive tract. PMID:28182716

  2. Can Alice and Bob be random: a study on human playing zero knowledge protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, Kamil

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this abstract was initiated by discussions between the author and Giovanni Di Crescenzo in Barcelona in early 2004. It was during Advanced Course on Contemporary Cryptology that Di Crescenzo gave a course on zero knowledge protocols (ZKP), see [1]. After that course we started to play with unorthodox ideas for breaking ZKP, especially one based on graph 3-coloring. It was chosen for investigation because it is being considered as a "benchmark" ZKP, see [2], [3]. At this point we briefly recall such a protocol's description.

  3. Human RecQL4 helicase plays critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Yanrong; Meador, Jarah A; Calaf, Gloria M

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths among men in the western countries. Here, we report that human RecQL4 helicase, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of cancer-prone Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, is highly elevated in metastatic prostate cancer c...

  4. Click-on-and-play human motion capture using wearable sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.

    2015-01-01

    Human motion capture is often used in rehabilitation clinics for diagnostics and monitoring the effects of treatment. Traditionally, camera based systems are used. However, with these systems the measurements are restricted to a lab with expensive cameras. Motion capture outside a lab, using

  5. Click-on-and-play human motion capture using wearable sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Human motion capture is often used in rehabilitation clinics for diagnostics and monitoring the effects of treatment. Traditionally, camera based systems are used. However, with these systems the measurements are restricted to a lab with expensive cameras. Motion capture outside a lab, using inertia

  6. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  7. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5a......R signaling, while phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida are not influenced. By blocking the C5a-C5aR signaling pathway, either with anti-C5a antagonist antibodies or with the C5aR antagonist W-54001, C. albicans-induced IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly reduced. Recombinant C5a augmented...... in augmenting host proinflammatory cytokine production upon contact with C. albicans, and define the role of the complement system in anti-Candida host defense in humans....

  8. Nanoindentation characterisation of human colorectal cancer cells considering cell geometry, surface roughness and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Uva, Antonio E.; Papi, Massimiliano; Fiorentino, Michele; De Spirito, Marco; Monno, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of cancer cells is an issue of crucial importance as specific cell mechanical properties have been measured and utilized as possible biomarkers of cancer progression. Atomic force microscopy certainly occupies a prominent place in the field of the mechanical characterisation devices. We developed a hybrid approach to characterise different cell lines (SW620 and SW480) of the human colon carcinoma submitted to nanoindentation measurements. An ad hoc algorithm was written that compares the force-indentation curves experimentally retrieved with those predicted by a finite element model that simulates the nanoindentation process and reproduces the cell geometry and the surface roughness. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the values of the cell mechanical properties implemented in the finite element model until the difference between the experimental and numerical force-indentation curves reaches the minimum value. The occurrence of this indicates that the implemented material properties are very close to the real ones. Different hyperelastic constitutive models, such as Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean were utilized to describe the structural behaviour of indented cells. The algorithm was capable of separating, for all the cell lines investigated, the mechanical properties of cell cortex and cytoskeleton. Material properties determined via the algorithm were different with respect to those obtained with the Hertzian contact theory. This demonstrates that factors such as: the cell geometry/anatomy and the hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, which are not contemplated in the Hertz’s theory hypotheses, do affect the nanoindentation measurements. The proposed approach represents a powerful tool that, only on the basis of nanoindentation measurements, is capable of characterising material at the subcellular level.

  9. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Frances M; Cain, Russell J; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L; Roberts, Stephen J; Maiden, Martin C J; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-13

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the 'optical flow' patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7-10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p muscle lever arms) (p muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  11. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Laland, Kevin N

    2007-05-22

    Recent anthropological findings document how certain lowland South American societies hold beliefs in 'partible paternity', which allow children to have more than one 'biological' father. This contrasts with Western beliefs in 'singular paternity', and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human mating behaviour. A gene-culture coevolutionary model found that populations exposed to a range of selection regimes typically converge on one of two simultaneously stable equilibria; one where the population is monogamous and believes in singular paternity, and the other where the population is polygamous and believes in partible paternity. A second agent-based model, with alternative assumptions regarding the formation of mating consortships, broadly replicated this finding in populations with a strongly female-biased sex ratio, consistent with evidence for high adult male mortality in the region. This supports an evolutionary scenario in which ancestral South American populations with differing paternity beliefs were subject to divergent selection on genetically influenced mating behaviour, facilitated by a female-biased sex ratio, leading to the present-day associations of female control, partible paternity and polygamy in some societies, and male control, singular paternity and monogamy in others.

  13. Human AQP5 plays a role in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kwang Chae

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs have previously been associated with increased expression in solid tumors. However, its expression in hematologic malignancies including CML has not been described yet. Here, we report the expression of AQP5 in CML cells by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. While normal bone marrow biopsy samples (n = 5 showed no expression of AQP5, 32% of CML patient samples (n = 41 demonstrated AQP5 expression. In addition, AQP5 expression level increased with the emergence of imatinib mesylate resistance in paired samples (p = 0.047. We have found that the overexpression of AQP5 in K562 cells resulted in increased cell proliferation. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting AQP5 reduced the cell proliferation rate in both K562 and LAMA84 CML cells. Moreover, by immunoblotting and flow cytometry, we show that phosphorylation of BCR-ABL1 is increased in AQP5-overexpressing CML cells and decreased in AQP5 siRNA-treated CML cells. Interestingly, caspase9 activity increased in AQP5 siRNA-treated cells. Finally, FISH showed no evidence of AQP5 gene amplification in CML from bone marrow. In summary, we report for the first time that AQP5 is overexpressed in CML cells and plays a role in promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, our findings may provide the basis for a novel CML therapy targeting AQP5.

  14. The glucocorticoid receptor, not the mineralocorticoid receptor, plays the dominant role in adipogenesis and adipokine production in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-J; Fried, S K

    2014-09-01

    Both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are expressed in adipose tissue and assumed to mediate cortisol actions on adipose tissue. The relative significance of the two receptors in mediating glucocorticoid regulation of adipogenesis and adipokine expression in human adipocytes has not been addressed. We investigated the differential roles of the GR and MR in mediating glucocorticoid actions on adipogenesis and adipokine production using RNA interference in primary cultures of human preadipocytes and adipocytes. Both types of receptors are expressed, but levels of GR were several hundred fold higher than MR in both human preadipocytes and adipocytes. As expected, cortisol added during adipogenesis increased the differentiation of human preadipocytes. Silencing of GR, but not MR, blocked these proadipogenic actions of cortisol. In differentiated human adipocytes, addition of cortisol increased leptin and adiponectin, while suppressing interleukin-6 (IL-6), messenger RNA levels and protein secretion. Knockdown of GR by 65% decreased leptin and adiponectin while increasing IL-6 production. In addition, GR silencing blocked the effects of cortisol on adipokine expression. In contrast, although MR knockdown increased leptin, it did not affect adiponectin and IL-6 expression. Our data demonstrate that although both GR and MR have roles in regulating leptin expression, GR plays more important roles in mediating the actions of cortisol to regulate adipogenesis and adipokine production in human adipocytes.

  15. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  16. Human homogamy in facial characteristics: does a sexual-imprinting-like mechanism play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojo, Saori; Tamura, Satoshi; Ihara, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Human homogamy may be caused in part by individuals' preference for phenotypic similarities. Two types of preference can result in homogamy: individuals may prefer someone who is similar to themselves (self-referent phenotype matching) or to their parents (a sexual-imprinting-like mechanism). In order to examine these possibilities, we compare faces of couples and their family members in two ways. First, "perceived" similarity between a pair of faces is quantified as similarity ratings given to the pair. Second, "physical" similarity between two groups of faces is evaluated on the basis of correlations in principal component scores generated from facial measurements. Our results demonstrate a tendency to homogamy in facial characteristics and suggest that the tendency is due primarily to self-referent phenotype matching. Nevertheless, the presence of a sexual-imprinting-like effect is also partially indicated: whether individuals are involved in facial homogamy may be affected by their relationship with their parents during childhood.

  17. Mitochondrial complex I plays an essential role in human respirasome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Lastres, David; Fontanesi, Flavia; García-Consuegra, Inés; Martín, Miguel A; Arenas, Joaquín; Barrientos, Antoni; Ugalde, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    The biogenesis and function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) involve the organization of RC enzyme complexes in supercomplexes or respirasomes through an unknown biosynthetic process. This leads to structural interdependences between RC complexes, which are highly relevant from biological and biomedical perspectives, because RC defects often lead to severe neuromuscular disorders. We show that in human cells, respirasome biogenesis involves a complex I assembly intermediate acting as a scaffold for the combined incorporation of complexes III and IV subunits, rather than originating from the association of preassembled individual holoenzymes. The process ends with the incorporation of complex I NADH dehydrogenase catalytic module, which leads to the respirasome activation. While complexes III and IV assemble either as free holoenzymes or by incorporation of free subunits into supercomplexes, the respirasomes constitute the structural units where complex I is assembled and activated, thus explaining the significance of the respirasomes for RC function.

  18. Playing to our human strengths to prepare medical students for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an age where artificial intelligence and astounding technological advances are bringing truly remarkable change to healthcare. Medical knowledge and skills which form the core responsibility of doctors such as making diagnoses may increasingly be delivered by robots. Machines are gradually acquiring human abilities such as deep learning and empathy. What, then is the role of doctors in future healthcare? And what direction should medical schools be taking to prepare their graduates? This article will give an overview of the evolving technological landscape of healthcare and examine the issues undergraduate medical education may have to address. The experience at The University of Hong Kong will serve as a case study featuring several curricular innovations that aim to empower medical graduates with the capabilities to thrive in the future.

  19. The Human Dentate Gyrus Plays a Necessary Role in Discriminating New Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stevenson; Vieweg, Paula; Gao, Fuqiang; Gilboa, Asaf; Wolbers, Thomas; Black, Sandra E; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-10

    Our day-to-day experiences are often similar to one another, occurring in the same place at the same time of day, with common people and objects, and with a shared purpose. Humans have an episodic memory to represent unique, personal events that are rich in detail [1]. For this to occur, at least two basic neural mechanisms are required: one to orthogonalize or "separate" overlapping input patterns at encoding and another to reinstate or "complete" memories from partial cues at retrieval [2-6]. To what extent do these purported "pattern separation" and "pattern completion" mechanisms rely on distinct subfields of the hippocampus [6]? Computational models [4-6] and lesion and genetic studies in rodents [7-12] largely point to the dentate gyrus as responsible for pattern separation and the CA3 and CA1 subfields for pattern completion (but see [13-16]). In high-resolution fMRI studies of humans, behavioral discrimination and completion tasks designed to approximate pattern separation and pattern completion, respectively, elicit the predicted pattern of activity in the dentate gyrus and CA3/CA1 [17-21]. Likewise, impaired behavioral discrimination has been demonstrated in individuals with hippocampal lesions [22, 23], but the lesions most likely encompass other subfields. Examination of these processes in individuals with selective lesions to hippocampal subfields is needed to infer causation [19]. Here, we report the rare case of BL, a 54-year-old man with bilateral ischemic lesions to the hippocampus [24] primarily affecting the dentate gyrus. Studying BL provides the unique opportunity to directly evaluate theories of hippocampal function that assign the dentate gyrus a specific role in discriminating old from new memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, N.; Clarke, D.; Gibelli, L.; Townsend, P.; Vreugdenhil, B. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an essay concerning the understanding of human behaviours and crisis management of crowds in extreme situations, such as evacuation through complex venues. The first part focuses on the understanding of the main features of the crowd viewed as a living, hence complex system. The main concepts are subsequently addressed, in the second part, to a critical analysis of mathematical models suitable to capture them, as far as it is possible. Then, the third part focuses on the use, toward safety problems, of a model derived by the methods of the mathematical kinetic theory and theoretical tools of evolutionary game theory. It is shown how this model can depict critical situations and how these can be managed with the aim of minimizing the risk of catastrophic events.

  1. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls, implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2009-07-01

    . These are controlled by the topological architecture of the catchments that interacts with system states and the boundary conditions. Crossing the response thresholds means to establish connectedness of surface or subsurface flow paths to the catchment outlet. Subsurface stormflow in humid areas, overland flow and erosion in semi-arid and arid areas are examples, and explain that crossing local process thresholds is necessary but not sufficient to trigger a system response threshold. The third form of threshold behaviour involves changes in the "architecture" of human geo-ecosystems, which experience various disturbances. As a result substantial change in hydrological functioning of a system is induced, when the disturbances exceed the resilience of the geo-ecosystem. We present examples from savannah ecosystems, humid agricultural systems, mining activities affecting rainfall runoff in forested areas, badlands formation in Spain, and the restoration of the Upper Rhine river basin as examples of this phenomenon. This functional threshold behaviour is most difficult to predict, since it requires extrapolations far away from our usual experience and the accounting of bidirectional feedbacks. However, it does not require the development of more complicated model, but on the contrary, only models with the right level of simplification, which we illustrate with an instructive example. Following Prigogine, who studied structure formation in open thermodynamic systems, we hypothesise that topological structures which control response thresholds in the landscape might be seen as dissipative structures, and the onset of threshold processes/response as a switch to more efficient ways of depleting strong gradients that develop in the case of extreme boundary conditions.

  2. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs.

  3. Expression of mammalian GPCRs in C. elegans generates novel behavioural responses to human ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Gert

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current methods of studying receptor-ligand interactions involve in vitro systems. Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil-dwelling, bacteria-feeding nematode that uses GPCRs expressed in chemosensory neurons to detect bacteria and environmental compounds, making this an ideal system for studying in vivo GPCR-ligand interactions. We sought to test this by functionally expressing two medically important mammalian GPCRs, somatostatin receptor 2 (Sstr2 and chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 in the gustatory neurons of C. elegans. Results Expression of Sstr2 and CCR5 in gustatory neurons allow C. elegans to specifically detect and respond to somatostatin and MIP-1α respectively in a robust avoidance assay. We demonstrate that mammalian heterologous GPCRs can signal via different endogenous Gα subunits in C. elegans, depending on which cells it is expressed in. Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic animals to its ligand leads to receptor desensitisation and behavioural adaptation to subsequent ligand exposure, providing further evidence of integration of the mammalian GPCRs into the C. elegans sensory signalling machinery. In structure-function studies using a panel of somatostatin-14 analogues, we identified key residues involved in the interaction of somatostatin-14 with Sstr2. Conclusion Our results illustrate a remarkable evolutionary plasticity in interactions between mammalian GPCRs and C. elegans signalling machinery, spanning 800 million years of evolution. This in vivo system, which imparts novel avoidance behaviour on C. elegans, thus provides a simple means of studying and screening interaction of GPCRs with extracellular agonists, antagonists and intracellular binding partners.

  4. CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS OF HUMAN NEURAL CELLS PLAY CRUCIAL ROLES IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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    Anna eChiarini

    2016-04-01

    drives in cultured cortical untransformed human neurons and astrocytes. In fact, calcilytics increase Aβ42 proteolysis and discontinue the oversecretion of Aβ42-os, nitric oxide, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A from both astrocytes and neurons. Seemingly, calcilytics would also benefit the other types of glial cells and cerebrovascular cells otherwise damaged by the effects of Aβ42-osCaSR signalling. Thus, given at amnestic minor cognitive impairment (aMCI or initial symptomatic stages, calcilytics could prevent or terminate the propagation of LOAD neuropathology and preserve human neurons' viability and hence patients’ cognitive abilities.

  5. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  6. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Gao; Yu Kang; Jun Yu; Lufeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respi-ratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pha-ryngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treat-ment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hong Tham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process.

  8. Historic human impact on low order mountain streams - what role did the dams play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Annegret; Fuelling, Alexander; Wilder, Nicole; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Larsen, Joshua R.

    2014-05-01

    The historic damming of central European rivers is extensive, with the highest density concentrated on low-order streams. Construction of dams started mostly in medieval times (~ 1200 years ago) and peaked in the early nineteenth century, resulting in shifting dam densities with different ages and types. Early dams were mainly build for energy , but later their primary purpose shifted to floodplain irrigation . This legacy highlights the intense alteration of small streams by humans in a short time period relative to their Holocene evolution. However, our understanding of the impact of such high number of dams on the ecology, river morphology and sediment storage over longer time periods remains very limited. This knowledge gap becomes critical to address as dam removal and river restoration expands under the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, a European-wide legislative framework. In order to explore the possible effects of this framework on small order streams, we examine the changes that have occurred to a fluvial system since the onset of historic dam building. We combine the analysis of historic maps, chrono-stratigraphy and hydraulic modeling to understand the influence of the large number of dams along the low-order streams in two representative mountain catchments of 3rd and 4th order streams (Elsava and Sinn river in the Spessart and Rhön mountains, Germany). The datings and stratigraphical analysis indicate that the rivers were likely influenced by valley bottom damming before hillslope agriculture caused erosion and an increase of sediment delivery to the streams. Future work will examine the hydraulic behavior of the streams with and without dams in order to better understand their role in floodplain development.

  9. L-type Ca(2+) channels in mood, cognition and addiction: integrating human and rodent studies with a focus on behavioural endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Z D; Lee, A S; Rajadhyaksha, A M

    2016-10-15

    Brain Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels play key physiological roles in various neuronal processes that contribute to brain function. Genetic studies have recently identified CACNA1C as a candidate risk gene for bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and CACNA1D for BD and ASD, suggesting a contribution of Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3 Ca(2+) signalling to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Once considered sole clinical entities, it is now clear that BD, SCZ, MDD and ASD share common phenotypic features, most likely due to overlapping neurocircuitry and common molecular mechanisms. A major future challenge lies in translating the human genetic findings to pathological mechanisms that are translatable back to the patient. One approach for tackling such a daunting scientific endeavour for complex behaviour-based neuropsychiatric disorders is to examine intermediate biological phenotypes in the context of endophenotypes within distinct behavioural domains. This will better allow us to integrate findings from genes to behaviour across species, and improve the chances of translating preclinical findings to clinical practice.

  10. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    , but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well....

  11. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  12. Local origins impart conserved bone type-related differences in human osteoblast behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Gburcik, V; Reilly, P; Sankey, R A; Emery, R J; Clarkin, C E; Pitsillides, A A

    2015-03-04

    Osteogenic behaviour of osteoblasts from trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone were examined to determine any bone type-selective differences in samples from both osteoarthritic (OA) and osteoporotic (OP) patients. Cell growth, differentiation; alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) mRNA and activity, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), SP7-transcription factor (SP7), bone sialoprotein-II (BSP-II), osteocalcin/bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (BGLAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL, TNFSF11) mRNA levels and proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) mRNA and protein release were assessed in osteoblasts from paired humeral head samples from age-matched, human OA/OP (n = 5/4) patients. Initial outgrowth and increase in cell number were significantly faster (p origins in OA and trabecular origins in OP. We found virtually identical bone type-related differences, however, in TNFRSF11B:TNFSF11 in OA and OP, consistent with greater potential for paracrine effects on osteoclasts in trabecular osteoblasts. Subchondral osteoblasts (OA) exhibited highest VEGF-A mRNA levels and release. Our data indicate that human osteoblasts in trabecular, subchondral and cortical bone have inherent, programmed diversity, with specific bone type-related differences in growth, differentiation and pro-angiogenic potential in vitro.

  13. Asymmetric behaviours of brain oscillations in the human hippocampus during spatial navigation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joong Koo; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Dajeong; Hye Lee, Seong; Kim, Taekyung; Park, Young Min; Park, Jinsick; Kim, Sun I; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2016-02-10

    Hippocampal-dependent memory functions may be lateralized to the right hippocampus during spatial navigation. However, direct electrophysiological evidence supporting these findings in the bilateral hippocampi during spatial navigation has not been well documented in humans. We studied changes in brain oscillations between the dominant and the nondominant hippocampi during encoding periods of environmental novelty using spatial navigation tasks. Results showed that brain oscillations during the encoding period of spatial navigation increased significantly in the nondominant hippocampus compared with the dominant hippocampus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence that the nondominant hippocampus plays a predominant role in spatial navigation.

  14. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  15. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  16. The connexin 30.3 of zebrafish homologue of human connexin 26 may play similar role in the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Chien, Ju; Yen, Yung-Chang; Chien, Kuo-Hsuan; Li, Shaun-Yow; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Yang, Jiann-Jou

    2014-07-01

    The intercellular gap junction channels formed by connexins (CXs) are important for recycling potassium ions in the inner ear. CXs are encoded by a family of the CX gene, such as GJB2, and the mechanism leading to mutant connexin-associated diseases, including hearing loss, remains to be elucidated. In this study, using bioinformatics, we found that two zebrafish cx genes, cx27.5 and cx30.3, are likely homologous to human and mouse GJB2. During embryogenesis, zebrafish cx27.5 was rarely expressed at 1.5-3 h post-fertilization (hpf), but a relatively high level of cx27.5 expression was detected from 6 to 96 hpf. However, zebrafish cx30.3 transcripts were hardly detected until 9 hpf. The temporal experiment was conducted in whole larvae. Both cx27.5 and cx30.3 transcripts were revealed significantly in the inner ear by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). In the HeLa cell model, we found that zebrafish Cx27.5 was distributed intracellularly in the cytoplasm, whereas Cx30.3 was localized in the plasma membrane of HeLa cells stably expressing Cx proteins. The expression pattern of zebrafish Cx30.3 in HeLa cells was more similar to that of cells expressing human CX26 than Cx27.5. In addition, we found that Cx30.3 was localized in the cell membrane of hair cells within the inner ear by immunohistochemistry (IHC), suggesting that zebrafish cx30.3 might play an essential role in the development of the inner ear, in the same manner as human GJB2. We then performed morpholino knockdown studies in zebrafish embryos to elucidate the physiological functions of Cx30.3. The zebrafish cx30.3 morphants exhibited wild-type-like and heart edema phenotypes with smaller inner ears at 72 hpf. Based on these results, we suggest that the zebrafish Cx30.3 and mammalian CX26 may play alike roles in the inner ear. Thus, zebrafish can potentially serve as a model for studying hearing loss disorders that result from human CX

  17. Call for poems in MSM poems section on medicine, health and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We begin a Mens Sana Monographs Poems Section from this issue.Interested poets may send their work for consideration. They may be in verse, but preferably in blank verse. A fourline write up on the poet with a photograph must accompany every submission. You may submit not more than three poems at one time.While there cannot really be a restriction of any nature as to topics in poetry, poems dealing with medicine, health, delicate satire on human behaviour of various types, insighful reflections etc are more likely to be accepted for publication.Poems may preferably be submitted in Word format bye mail and addressed to the Editor.Acceptance, or otherwise, will be conveyed within four weeks of receipt of submission, if not earlier. We do not wish to increase the anguish of poets by making them wait further. That may lead to another distressed poetry because of us!Poems for potential publication in Mens Sana Monographs Vol III, No 6, March-April 2006 ISSN 0973-1229 should reach the Editor in Microsoft Word format by 1st January 2006. All poems will be submitted for peer review and a decision of acceptance or otherwise will be conveyed to the authors by 1st Feb 2006.Authors may contact the Editor, Mens Sana Monographs, for further details and clarification (email: mensanamonographs@yahoo.co.uk. They may also visit the website http://mensanamonographs.tripod.com for further information.

  18. Call for poems in MSM poems section on medicine, health and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Interested poets may send their work for consideration. They may be in verse, but preferably in blank verse. A four-line write up on the poet with a photograph must accompany every submission. You may submit not more than three poems at one time. While there cannot really be a restriction of any nature as to topics in poetry, poems dealing with medicine, health, delicate satire on human behaviour of various types, insighful reflections etc are more likely to be accepted for publication. Poems may preferably be submitted in Word format by email and addressed to the Editor. Acceptance, or otherwise, will be conveyed within four weeks of receipt of submission, if not earlier. We do not wish to increase the anguish of poets by making them wait further! That may lead to another distressed poetry because of us! Poems for potential publication in Mens Sana Monographs Vol IV, No 5, January 2007 should reach the Editor in Microsoft Word format by 1st Oct. 2006. All poems will be submitted for peer review and a decision of acceptance or otherwise will be conveyed to the authors by 1st Nov. 2006. Authors may contact the Editor, Mens Sana Monographs , for further details and clarification (email: mensanamonographs@yahoo.co.uk . They may also visit the website www.msmonographs.org/ for further information.

  19. Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

    1999-04-01

    The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni-Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40 degrees C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni-Ti wires, similar to that of cobalt-based alloy wire; the stainless steel wire, instead, exhibited low pitting potential. Potentiodynamic tests at 40 degrees C in isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) showed, for Ni-Ti and stainless steel wires, pitting potential values in the range approximately 200-400 mV and approximately 350 mV versus SCE, respectively: consequently, according to literature data (Hoar TP, Mears DC. Proc Roy Soc A 1996;294:486-510), these materials should be considered potentially susceptible to pitting; only the cobalt-based alloy should be immune from pitting. The localized corrosion potentials determined in the same environment by the ASTM F746 test (approximately 0-200 mV and 130 mV versus SCE for Ni-Ti and stainless steel, respectively) pointed out that for these materials an even higher risk of localized corrosion. Slight differences in localized corrosion behaviour among the various Ni-Ti wires were detected.

  20. Values and Environmental Ethics – Pillars of Changing Human Behaviour Toward Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development necessitates the harmonisation of human’s and nature’s needs under the siege of continuous demographic growth and the quest for wellbeing based on material things. This outcome implies important changes to occur at individual, collective and corporate behaviour. How they could be accomplished is a question that animates debates for several decades and revealed that solutions should be related to the process of valuation. Better understanding of value and how it relates to the needs of environmental protection is the aim of our analysis that recalls axiological milestones and compares them with environment related issues. Value as a product of object and subject in the framework of human aspirations is at some extent transposed in economic value. Environmental goods valuation in economic terms encounters numerous difficulties, including high costs and low reliability. Therefore we conclude that decision making should be underpinned not only by economic valuation, but also by value judgement that cannot be expressed in monetary terms.

  1. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heesu [Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Kangnung National University, Gibyun-dong, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yong-Dae, E-mail: ahranp@hotmail.co, E-mail: nightsu@kangnung.ac.k, E-mail: odontopia@khu.ac.k, E-mail: yongdae.kwon@gmail.co, E-mail: yhwoo@khu.ac.k [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The attachment, growth behaviour and the genetic effect of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium and different zirconia surfaces were investigated. HGF cells were cultured on (1) titanium discs with a machined surface, (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with a smooth surface and (3) Y-TZP with 100{mu}m grooves. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated through a MTT assay at 24 h and 48 h, and the cell morphology was examined by SEM. The mRNA expression of integrin-beta1, type I and III collagen, laminin and fibronectin in HGF were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24 h. From the MTT assay, the mean optical density values for the titanium and grooved zirconia surfaces after 48 h of HGF adhesion were greater than the values obtained for the smooth zirconia surfaces. SEM images showed that more cells were attached to the grooves, and the cells appeared to follow the direction of the grooves. The results of RT-PCR suggest that all groups showed comparable fibroblast-specific gene expression. A zirconia ceramic surface with grooves showed biological responses that were comparable to those obtained with HGF on a titanium surface.

  2. Human behavioural research applied to the leprosy control programme of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.

  3. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  4. Treadmill versus overground and barefoot versus shod comparisons of triceps surae fascicle behaviour in human walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Finni, Taija

    2013-07-01

    Studies of human locomotion are commonly performed on a treadmill or overground, as well as with or without footwear. These testing modalities have been suggested to influence kinematics, kinetics and/or spatio-temporal variables differently. However, it is unclear whether they influence contractile behaviour at the level of the muscle fascicles. This has major relevance because results from studies performed with different combinations of the testing modalities are often compared. The present study used ultrasound to examine fascicle behaviour of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus muscles of ten young, healthy males during walking and running on a treadmill and overground, as well as barefoot and shod. Barefoot conditions resulted in modestly shorter step durations than corresponding shod conditions, whereas no consistent temporal differences were observed between overground and treadmill locomotion. For both comparisons, no differences were observed in soleus or MG fascicle behaviour between corresponding conditions in walking or running, although soleus consistently exhibited smaller, lower velocity length changes than MG. It is concluded that the examined testing modalities are equally valid for studying muscle fascicle behaviour during locomotion. This conclusion is supported by a comparison of our data to the results of 16 previous studies that used various combinations of testing modalities; muscle fascicle behaviour is qualitatively similar between studies for a given muscle and gait.

  5. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  6. THE DIALECTICS OF HUMANISM AND A POSTMODERN PLAY IN THE WORKS BY A.PEREZ-REVERTE ( THE SIEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova M. P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the philosophical and narrative structure’s features in the novels by modern Spanish writer A. Pérez-Reverte has been reviewed in this article. His works present an example of the postmodern double coding, that is the compound a mass and elite, playing and moral. It allows to avoid the text’s tendentiousness and to keep the content. In the novel “The Siege” A. Pérez-Reverte uses the detective story, but he deconstructs it: keeping the traditional plot’s scheme the writer changes the images’ interpretation, the meaning of the finale, adds the intertext and the conceptual metaphors (the chess, the net, the herbarium. They code some philosophical ideas about human life. At the same time A. Pérez-Reverte asks the traditional classic literature’s questions and shows how war influences the person, what is love and so on. He also makes a psychological analysis of actions’ reasons and reveal the feelings’ contradictory. As a result, the multilayer, nonlinear and metaphorical narrative has been viewed as a particular tool of the author’s opinion realization and the philosophical implication’s creation. And with it the postmodern polysemic text associates with a psychological analysis and humanism

  7. ROS, MAPK/ERK and PKC play distinct roles in EGF-stimulated human corneal cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Y-N; Chen, W; Zheng, X-X

    2015-11-08

    Cornea is at the outermost surface of eye globe, and it easily receives damage from ultraviolet light exposure, physiology wounding, and infections. It is essential to understand the mechanisms controlling human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell proliferation and wound healing. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) could stimulate cell proliferation and migration in various cell types. Therefore, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of EGF on HCE cell proliferation and migration. CCK-8 kit and wound healing experiment were used to investigate HCE cell proliferation and cell migration, respectively. ROS activity was quantified by DCFDA and flow cytometry. Western blot and Q-PCR were performed to examine protein and RNA levels. EGF could promote HCE cell proliferation and migration in both physiology status and UV irradiation conditions, which is used to mimic the disease condition in human corneal epithelial cells. Interestingly, the promotion effect of EGF on HCE cell proliferation is mainly mediated by activated ROS signaling under disease condition. However, the EGF function is mediated by ROS and MAPK/ERK pathway in EGF-treated corneal epithelial cells in physiology status, in which ROS and MAPK/ERK pathway have no mutual influence on the other signaling pathway in EGF-stimulated corneal epithelial cells. We also revealed that MAPK/ERK pathway instead of ROS mediates EGF-stimulated HCE cell migration. Interestingly, we found that PKC proteins were downregulated by EGF in HCE cells that is partially mediated by ROS signaling, while PKC pathway was not involved in EGF-stimulated corneal cell proliferation and migration. EGF promotes human corneal cell proliferation and migration both in physiology and disease conditions, and ROS, MAPK/ERK and PKC pathways play different roles in these processes.

  8. Behavioural and physiological stress responses to environmental and human factors in different small mammal species: implications for their conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Castilla, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Wild animal populations are continuously subjected to periodic disturbances by environmental and anthropogenic causes. Thereby, in this doctoral thesis, we carried out different investigations to study the behavioural and physiological stress responses of several small mammal species to different environmental and human factors. Behavioral responses to predation ris...

  9. The influence of human behaviour on the energy consumption in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    Occupant behaviour influences the amount of energy consumed to sustain a comfortable indoor environment. However, the extent to which occupant behaviour affects building energy consumption is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of this influence. This paper...... describes two studies using dynamic computer simulations of occupant behaviour in dwellings. The first study included simulations of a naïve and a rational behaving occupant. The naïve occupant controlled the indoor climate using an energy expensive behaviour, while the rational occupant controlled...... the indoor climate in an energy efficient way. The simulated occupant could manipulate six controls, such as turning on or off the heat and adjusting clothing. All control actions were carried out with the aim of keeping the PMV value within predefined limits. An energy consuming and an energy efficient...

  10. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliot, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background:\\ud \\ud Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited.\\ud \\ud Objectives:\\ud \\ud To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to...

  11. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities...... to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  12. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...

  13. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  14. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  15. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  16. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  17. Play practices and play moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  18. Co-evolution of behaviour and social network structure promotes human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehl, Katrin; van der Post, Daniel J; Semmann, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    The ubiquity of cooperation in nature is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by defectors. Recent theoretical work shows that if dynamic networks define interactions between individuals, cooperation is favoured by natural selection. To address this, we compare cooperative behaviour in multiple but independent repeated games between participants in static and dynamic networks. In the latter, participants could break their links after each social interaction. As predicted, we find higher levels of cooperation in dynamic networks. Through biased link breaking (i.e. to defectors) participants affected their social environment. We show that this link-breaking behaviour leads to substantial network clustering and we find primarily cooperators within these clusters. This assortment is remarkable because it occurred on top of behavioural assortment through direct reciprocity and beyond the perception of participants, and represents a self-organized pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between ecological context and selective pressures on cooperation.

  19. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T.; Morales, Manuel B.; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse ( Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  20. The two Na+ sites in the human serotonin transporter play distinct roles in the ion coupling and electrogenicity of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H; Henry, L Keith

    2014-01-17

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na(+)-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca(2+) (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na(+) for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca(2+) promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na(+)-binding sites.

  1. The Two Na+ Sites in the Human Serotonin Transporter Play Distinct Roles in the Ion Coupling and Electrogenicity of Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na+, Cl−, and K+ gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na+-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca2+ (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na+ for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca2+ and Na+ illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca2+ promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na+-binding sites. PMID:24293367

  2. Evaluation of biexponential relaxation behaviour in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    echoes. No genuine biexponentiality was demonstrated in the T1 and T2 relaxation processes of white matter, cortical grey matter, or cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, a monoexponential model seems adequate for description of the relaxation behaviour in these cases. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  3. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  4. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  5. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461435

  6. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathenge Evan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African malaria vectors bite predominantly indoors at night so sleeping under an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN can greatly reduce malaria risk. Behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes to increasing ITN coverage could allow vector mosquitoes to bite outside of peak sleeping hours and undermine efficacy of this key malaria prevention measure. Methods High coverage with largely untreated nets has been achieved in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania through social marketing programmes. Direct surveys of nightly biting activity by An. gambiae Giles were conducted in the area before (1997 and after (2004 implementation of ITN promotion. A novel analytical model was applied to estimate the effective protection provided by an ITN, based on published experimental hut trials combined with questionnaire surveys of human sleeping behaviour and recorded mosquito biting patterns. Results An. gambiae was predominantly endophagic and nocturnal in both surveys: Approximately 90% and 80% of exposure occurred indoors and during peak sleeping hours, respectively. ITNs consistently conferred >70% protection against exposure to malaria transmission for users relative to non-users. Conclusion As ITN coverage increases, behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes remains a future possibility. The approach described allows comparison of mosquito biting patterns and ITN efficacy at multiple study sites and times. Initial results indicate ITNs remain highly effective and should remain a top-priority intervention. Combined with recently developed transmission models, this approach allows rapid, informative and cost-effective preliminary comparison of diverse control strategies in terms of protection against exposure before more costly and intensive clinical trials.

  7. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    and undecidability. With an empirical point of departure in Danish public school policy and two concrete examples of games utilised in school development, the article analyses how play is a way for organisations to simultaneously decide and also avoid making a decision, thus keeping flexibility and possibilities...... intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring......This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision...

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation reverses neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal inhibition of human pharyngeal motor cortex on swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Mistry, Satish; Michou, Emilia; Jefferson, Samantha; Rothwell, John C; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2014-02-15

    The human cortical swallowing system exhibits bilateral but functionally asymmetric representation in health and disease as evidenced by both focal cortical inhibition (pre-conditioning with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS) and unilateral stroke, where disruption of the stronger (dominant) pharyngeal projection alters swallowing neurophysiology and behaviour. Moreover, excitatory neurostimulation protocols capable of reversing the disruptive effects of focal cortical inhibition have demonstrated therapeutic promise in post-stroke dysphagia when applied contralaterally. In healthy participants (n = 15, 8 males, mean age (±SEM) 35 ± 9 years), optimal parameters of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (anodal, 1.5 mA, 10 min) were applied contralaterally after 1 Hz rTMS pre-conditioning to the strongest pharyngeal projection. Swallowing neurophysiology was assessed in both hemispheres by intraluminal recordings of pharyngeal motor-evoked responses (PMEPs) to single-pulse TMS as a measure of cortical excitability. Swallowing behaviour was examined using a pressure-based reaction time protocol. Measurements were made before and for up to 60 min post intervention. Subjects were randomised to active or sham tDCS after 1 Hz rTMS on separate days and data were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Active tDCS increased PMEPs bilaterally (F1,14 = 7.4, P = 0.017) reversing the inhibitory effects of 1 Hz rTMS in the pre-conditioned hemisphere (F1,14 = 10.1, P = 0.007). Active tDCS also enhanced swallowing behaviour, increasing the number of correctly timed challenge swallows compared to sham (F1,14 = 6.3, P = 0.025). Thus, tDCS to the contralateral pharyngeal motor cortex reverses the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal cortical inhibition on swallowing in healthy individuals and has therapeutic potential for dysphagia rehabilitation.

  9. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  10. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sahlén

    Full Text Available Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95% and single bears (89% left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  11. [Sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus testing in university students from Cuzco (Peru)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, M Paz; Ramiro, M Teresa; Teva, Inmaculada; Ramiro-Sánchez, Tamara; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2017-09-15

    To analyse sexual behaviour, HIV testing, HIV testing intentions and reasons for not testing for HIV in university students from Cuzco (Peru). The sample comprised 1,377 university students from several institutions from Cuzco (Peru). The size of the sample was set according to a maximum 3% error estimation and a 97% confidence interval. Ages ranged from 16 to 30 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire regarding sexual behaviour and HIV testing. The data were collected in classrooms during teaching hours. A higher percentage of males than females reported having had vaginal, anal and oral sex, a higher number of sexual partners and an earlier age at first vaginal and oral sex. A higher percentage of females than males did not use condoms when they first had anal sex and had a higher anal sex-risk index. Most of the participants had never been HIV tested. The main reason was that they were sure that they were not HIV infected. It seems that there was a low HIV risk perception in these participants despite the fact that they had been involved in sexual risk behaviours. Prevention campaigns focused on the general population as well as the at-risk populations and young people are needed. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  13. Management of Children's Aggressiveness when Playing Competitive Games in the English Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos Andrea

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour has been a changing aspect during the history of mankind. Humanity has learned to get along with others; but the behavioural stage has been very difficult to control across the time, because everyone has his/her own interests. In this article, I will describe some factors that affect children’s aggressive behaviour when playing competitive games and some strategies that may be considered when guiding those types of games with young learners in the English class. These can lead, as I found in my study, to deeper understandings of children’s conducts as well as to improvement in classroom management.

  14. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  15. Variability of Heart Rate in Primitive Horses and Their Relatives as an Indicator of Stress Level, Behavioural Conduct Towards Humans and Adaptation to Living in Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Pluta Michał; Osiński Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR) as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmenta...

  16. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....

  17. Researching on SHRM: An analysis of the debate over the role played by human resources in firm success

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alcázar, Fernando; Romero Fernández, Pedro Miguel; Sánchez Gardey, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    Many different models have been recently proposed to explain the contribution of human resource management to organizational performance, drawing on diverse theoretical frameworks and using many different methodologies. Trying to shed light on the complex state of the art in this field of research, this paper proposes an analysis of the discipline, drawing both on a review of the literature and data obtained from an online questionnaire distributed to human resource management scholars.

  18. Poroelastic behaviour of the degenerating human intervertebral disc: a ten-day study in a loaded disc culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KS Emanuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intervertebral disc (IVD allows flexibility to the vertebral column, and transfers the predominant axial loads during daily activities. Its axial biomechanical behaviour is poroelastic, due to the water-binding and releasing capacity of the nucleus pulposus. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc presumably affects both the instantaneous elastic response to the load on the IVD and the subsequent interstitial flow of fluid. This study aims to quantify the poroelastic behaviour of the IVD and its change with degeneration, as defined by the magnetic resonance imaging-based Pfirrmann Score (PS. For a period of ten days, 36 human lumbar IVDs were loaded with a simulated physiological axial loading regime, while deformation was monitored. The IVDs responded to the loads with instantaneous elastic and slow poroelastic axial deformation. Several mechanical parameters changed throughout the first five days of the experiment, until the IVDs settled into a dynamic equilibrium. In this equilibrium, degeneration was significantly related to a decrease in disc height loss during the daytime high load phase (ρ = -0.49, and to a decrease in the rate of this deformation during the final half hour of each day (ρ = -0.53. These properties were related to the nucleus glycosaminoglycan/hydroxyproline (GAG/HYP ratio, rather than GAG content alone, indicating that remodelling of the extracellular matrix reduces poroelastic properties of the IVD. This implies that the degenerated discs have a reduced capacity to bind water and/or a reduced resistance against fluid flow. The resulting loss in hydrostatic pressure may further change cell behaviour in the nucleus pulposus.

  19. Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium spp.) that is transmitted between human individuals by mosquitoes, belonging to the order of insects, Diptera, family of Culicidae (mosquitoes) and genus of Anopheles (malaria mosquitoes). Mosquitoes feed on humans (and other animals

  20. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  1. Expression of mammalian GPCRs in C. elegans generates novel behavioural responses to human ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Teng (Michelle); M.P.J. Dekkers (Martijn); B.L. Ng (Bee Ling); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); G. Jansen (Gert); A.G. Fraser (Andrew); J. McCafferty (Gert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current methods of studying receptor-ligand interactions involve in vitro sy

  2. Expression of mammalian GPCRs in C. elegans generates novel behavioural responses to human ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Teng (Michelle); M.P.J. Dekkers (Martijn); B.L. Ng (Bee Ling); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); G. Jansen (Gert); A.G. Fraser (Andrew); J. McCafferty (Gert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current methods of studying receptor-ligand interactions involve in vitro sy

  3. Suicide among animals: clues from folklore that may prevent suicidal behaviour in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Knowing the most likely reasons for suicide might increase the chances to identify the early signs of suicide. Folkloric tales on suicide among animals are a possible source of such information, since people probably explain animal suicide using the same reasons they would apply to their kin. Modern naturalistic studies ave found little evidence of self-harming conduct among nonhuman species. Nevertheless, mythological accounts often report suicidal behaviour among animals. Claudius Aelian's De natura animalium, a classic in its genre, written in the 2nd century AD, reports 21 cases of suicide among animals. In Aelian's tales, the severing of social ties emerges as an important motive for suicide, together with incest and rage caused by adultery. Paying attention to the mechanisms leading to suicide described in ancient mythology may help us understand unusual and uncommon motives for suicide and the reasons people feel suicidal.

  4. A dynamic approach for the impact of a toxic gas dispersion hazard considering human behaviour and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Maragkos, Georgios; Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart

    2016-11-15

    The release of toxic gases due to natural/industrial accidents or terrorist attacks in populated areas can have tragic consequences. To prevent and evaluate the effects of these disasters different approaches and modelling tools have been introduced in the literature. These instruments are valuable tools for risk managers doing risk assessment of threatened areas. Despite the significant improvements in hazard assessment in case of toxic gas dispersion, these analyses do not generally include the impact of human behaviour and people movement during emergencies. This work aims at providing an approach which considers both modelling of gas dispersion and evacuation movement in order to improve the accuracy of risk assessment for disasters involving toxic gases. The approach is applied to a hypothetical scenario including a ship releasing Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on a crowd attending a music festival. The difference between the results obtained with existing static methods (people do not move) and a dynamic approach (people move away from the danger) which considers people movement with different degrees of sophistication (either a simple linear path or more complex behavioural modelling) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Penvironmental sustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  6. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  7. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...

  8. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ(2) = 7.447, P human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ(2) = 13.266, P human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ(2) = 9.459, P human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  9. Climate warming and humans played different roles in triggering Late Quaternary extinctions in east and west Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinru; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-03-29

    Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal-spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae). Rapid global warming was the predominant factor driving the total extinction of mammoths and rhinos in frigid zones from the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Humans showed significant, negative effects on extirpations of the four mammalian taxa, and were the predominant factor causing the extinction or major extirpations of rhinos and horses. Deer survived both rapid climate warming and extensive human impacts. Our study indicates that both the current rates of warming and range shifts of species are much faster than those from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. Our results provide new insight into the extinction of Late Quaternary megafauna by demonstrating taxon-, period- and region-specific differences in extinction drivers of climate change and human disturbances, and some implications about the extinction risk of animals by recent and ongoing climate warming.

  10. Playing Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  11. The current 'state of play' of regenerative medicine in horses: what the horse can tell the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger Kw; Garvican, Elaine R; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The horse is an attractive model for many human age-related degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system because it is a large animal species that both ages and exercises, and develops naturally occurring injuries with many similarities to the human counterpart. It therefore represents an ideal species to use as a 'proving ground' for new therapies, most notably regenerative medicine. Regenerative techniques using cell-based therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal disease have been in use for over a decade. This review article provides a summary overview of the sources, current challenges and problems surrounding the use of stem cell and non-cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine in horses and is based on presentations from a recent Havemeyer symposium on equine regenerative medicine where speakers are selected from leading authorities in both equine and human regenerative medicine fields from 10 different countries.

  12. Playing cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mrs. Zahia Marzouk, vice-president of the Alexandria Family Planning Association and a living legend of Egyptian family planning, does not believe in talking about problems. She is far too busy learning from people and teaching them. Her latest brainstorm is a set of playing cards designed to help girls and women to read and learn about family planning at the same time. The 5 packs of cards, representing familiar words and sounds, and each with a family planning joker, took Mrs. Marzouk 6 months to design and paint by hand. They have now been printed, packed into packets provided by UNICEF, and distributed to some 2000 literacy groups in factories and family planning clinics. Each woman who succeeds in learning to read is encouraged to teach 4 others. They then go to the family planning clinic to be examined and gain a certificate. For the teacher who has made them proficient there is a special prize. Girls at El Brinth village outside Alexandria are pictured playing cards at the family planning center where they are learning various skills including how to read.

  13. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    ’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments......Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot...... uses observed information from a laser range finder to detect persons and their position relative to the robot. This information together with the motion of the robot itself is fed through a Kalman filter, which utilizes a model of the human kinematic movement to produce an estimate of the person...

  14. Investigations on the visco-elastic behaviour of a human healthy heel pad: in vivo compression tests and numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G.; Carniel, Emanuele L.;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress–relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a threedimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected...... to external compression. The three-dimensional model was based on the anatomy revealed by magnetic resonance imaging of a 31-year-old healthy female. The calcaneal fat pad tissue was described with a viscohyperelastic model, while a fibre-reinforced hyperelastic model was formulated for the skin. All......–relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative...

  15. A fuzzy Bayesian network approach to quantify the human behaviour during an evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian Network (BN) has been regarded as a successful representation of inter-relationship of factors affecting human behavior during an emergency. This paper is an extension of earlier work of quantifying the variables involved in the BN model of human behavior during an evacuation using a well-known direct probability elicitation technique. To overcome judgment bias and reduce the expert's burden in providing precise probability values, a new approach for the elicitation technique is required. This study proposes a new fuzzy BN approach for quantifying human behavior during an evacuation. Three major phases of methodology are involved, namely 1) development of qualitative model representing human factors during an evacuation, 2) quantification of BN model using fuzzy probability and 3) inferencing and interpreting the BN result. A case study of three inter-dependencies of human evacuation factors such as danger assessment ability, information about the threat and stressful conditions are used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. This approach will serve as an alternative to the conventional probability elicitation technique in understanding the human behavior during an evacuation.

  16. Allelic variants in the PRR37 gene play and the human-mediated dispersal and diversification of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestication and spread of crops by early humans is of interest from a historical perspective and is of practical importance to present-day agriculturists. From its origin in northeastern Africa, cultivation of the tropical cereal sorghum spread north and south of the equator beginning approxi...

  17. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100 with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (c2 = 7.447, P < 0.059 and serving in the same utensils (c2 = 10.866, P < 0.012, were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (c2 = 13.266, P < 0.004, not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (c2 = 21.133, P < 0.00 and called with filthy nicknames (c2 = 8.334, P < 0.040, were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (c2 = 9.459, P < 0.024, were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (c2 = 9.823, P < 0.044. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  18. Gender differences in preschool children's play

    OpenAIRE

    Tarman Starc, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the final thesis is to shed some light on gender-based differences which can be observed in the way preschool children (aged 3 to 6) play, focusing on differences in the type of play, the size of play groups of boys and girls as well as differences in their playing behaviour with special focus on prosocial and aggressive behaviour. Moreover, the educators' attitude towards play is examined, i.e. how they intervene in the play of boy and girls. In the theoretical part the key c...

  19. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Douka, Katerina; Fornai, Cinzia; Bauer, Catherine C; Kullmer, Ottmar; Svoboda, Jiří; Pap, Ildikó; Mallegni, Francesco; Bayle, Priscilla; Coquerelle, Michael; Condemi, Silvana; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Harvati, Katerina; Weber, Gerhard W

    2011-11-02

    The appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe and the nature of the transition from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic are matters of intense debate. Most researchers accept that before the arrival of anatomically modern humans, Neanderthals had adopted several 'transitional' technocomplexes. Two of these, the Uluzzian of southern Europe and the Châtelperronian of western Europe, are key to current interpretations regarding the timing of arrival of anatomically modern humans in the region and their potential interaction with Neanderthal populations. They are also central to current debates regarding the cognitive abilities of Neanderthals and the reasons behind their extinction. However, the actual fossil evidence associated with these assemblages is scant and fragmentary, and recent work has questioned the attribution of the Châtelperronian to Neanderthals on the basis of taphonomic mixing and lithic analysis. Here we reanalyse the deciduous molars from the Grotta del Cavallo (southern Italy), associated with the Uluzzian and originally classified as Neanderthal. Using two independent morphometric methods based on microtomographic data, we show that the Cavallo specimens can be attributed to anatomically modern humans. The secure context of the teeth provides crucial evidence that the makers of the Uluzzian technocomplex were therefore not Neanderthals. In addition, new chronometric data for the Uluzzian layers of Grotta del Cavallo obtained from associated shell beads and included within a Bayesian age model show that the teeth must date to ~45,000-43,000 calendar years before present. The Cavallo human remains are therefore the oldest known European anatomically modern humans, confirming a rapid dispersal of modern humans across the continent before the Aurignacian and the disappearance of Neanderthals.

  20. SURVEY ON HUMAN INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOUR RECOGNITION AND COMPREHENSION%人的交互行为识别与理解研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴联世; 夏利民; 罗大庸

    2011-01-01

    Human interactive behaviour recognition and comprehension is a front direction in computer vision research area with much concerns. This paper provides the up-to-date research results in regard to human-object interactive behaviour recognition, two-person interactive behaviour recognition and multi-person interactive behaviour (group activities) recognition and comprehension, as well as the introduction on some related public datasets in the research area. Moreover, the difficult problems at present existing in the research of human interactive behaviour recognition and comprehension are also summarised, and the possible directions of the future work are discussed as well.%人的交互行为识别和理解是计算机视觉研究领域一个备受关注的前沿方向.介绍人与物体的交互行为识别、双人交互行为识别以及多人交互(人群)行为识别和理解方面的最新研究成果和该研究领域的公共数据集.总结了人的交互行为识别与理解研究目前存在的难点问题.并展望了未来可能的发展方向.

  1. A framework of motion capture system based human behaviours simulation for ergonomic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ruina; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing of computer capabilities, Computer aided ergonomics (CAE) offers new possibilities to integrate conventional ergonomic knowledge and to develop new methods into the work design process. As mentioned in [1], different approaches have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the ergonomic evaluation. Ergonomic expert systems, ergonomic oriented information systems, numerical models of human, etc. have been implemented in numerical ergonomic software. Until now, there are ergonomic software tools available, such as Jack, Ergoman, Delmia Human, 3DSSPP, and Santos, etc. [2-4]. The main functions of these tools are posture analysis and posture prediction. In the visualization part, Jack and 3DSSPP produce results to visualize virtual human tasks in 3-dimensional, but without realistic physical properties. Nowadays, with the development of computer technology, the simulation of physical world is paid more attention. Physical engines [5] are used more and more in computer game (CG) field. The a...

  2. Modelling human and organizational behaviour in a high-risk operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.; Lin, P.H.; Ale, B.J.M.; Hudson, P.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    A core part of the risk modelling program for the Oil and Gas industry being carried out at Delft University of Technology is the influence of humans, within an organisation, as well as the technical factors. Specific attention is given to the incentive structure of operators, staff and managers, wh

  3. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  4. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.P.; Fokkink, R.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Tromp, P.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO3) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were

  5. Salmonella Typhi-specific multifunctional CD8+ T cells play a dominant role in protection from typhoid fever in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-03-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major public health problem worldwide. Development of novel vaccines remains imperative, but is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the immune responses that correlate with protection. Recently, a controlled human infection model was re-established in which volunteers received ~10(3) cfu wild-type S. Typhi (Quailes strain) orally. Twenty-one volunteers were evaluated for their cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Ex vivo PBMC isolated before and up to 1 year after challenge were exposed to three S. Typhi-infected targets, i.e., autologous B lymphoblastoid cell-lines (B-LCL), autologous blasts and HLA-E restricted AEH B-LCL cells. CMI responses were evaluated using 14-color multiparametric flow cytometry to detect simultaneously five intracellular cytokines/chemokines (i.e., IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a and MIP-1b) and a marker of degranulation/cytotoxic activity (CD107a). Herein we provide the first evidence that S. Typhi-specific CD8+ responses correlate with clinical outcome in humans challenged with wild-type S. Typhi. Higher multifunctional S. Typhi-specific CD8+ baseline responses were associated with protection against typhoid and delayed disease onset. Moreover, following challenge, development of typhoid fever was accompanied by decreases in circulating S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T effector/memory (TEM) with gut homing potential, suggesting migration to the site(s) of infection. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or no changes in circulating S. Typhi-specific TEM. These studies provide novel insights into the protective immune responses against typhoid disease that will aid in selection and development of new vaccine candidates.

  6. Programming Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Muphey, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Pygmalion Project, a collaboration between Northwestern University, the Georgia Institute for Technology, the University of Colorado, and Disney Research to develop a robotic platform for controlling marionettes. Efforts to combine robots and puppets have typically...... focused on using mechanical limbs to reproduce human and animal motions exactly. These automated "puppets" often appear rigid and perfunctory and fail to stimulate the imagination in the same way that puppets operated directly by live puppeteers can. In the Pygmalion Project the robots are not the puppets......, where puppets create the illusion of life through the art of indication rather than precise mechanical reproduction, we anticipate that our robotic marionette platform will allow for a wider, more artistic range of automated motions for robots used in education and entertainment....

  7. Do nutrient-gut-microbiota interactions play a role in human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, M; Blaak, E E; de Vos, W M

    2011-04-01

    The current obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemics have causes beyond changes in eating and exercise habits against a susceptible genetic background. Gut bacteria seem to additionally contribute to the differences in body weight, fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and glucose- and lipid-metabolism. Data, mostly derived from preclinical studies, suggest that gut microbiota play an important role in conditions such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Regulation of energy uptake from the gut, by digesting otherwise indigestible common polysaccharides in our diet, production or activation of signalling molecules involved in host metabolism, modification of gut permeability, the release of gut hormones and inflammation, are among the mechanisms by which gut microbiota may influence the host cardiometabolic phenotype. Recent evidence suggests that quantitative and qualitative differences in gut microbiota exist between lean and obese, and between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may favourably affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are eagerly awaited.

  8. Cooperation of endothelin-1 signaling with melanosomes plays a role in developing and/or maintaining human skin hyperpigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Murase

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized by increased melanin synthesis and deposition that can cause significant psychosocial and psychological distress. Although several cytokine-receptor signaling cascades contribute to the formation of ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation, their possible involvement in other types of skin hyperpigmentation has never been clearly addressed. Since our continuous studies using skin specimens from more than 30 subjects with ethnic skin diversity emphasized a consistent augmentation in the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and its receptor (Endothelin B receptor, ET-B in hyperpigmented lesions, including senile lentigos (SLs, the precise function of ET-1 signaling was investigated in the present study. In line with previous studies, ET-1 significantly induced melanogenesis followed by increases in melanosome transport in melanocytes and in its transfer to keratinocytes while inhibition of ET-B function substantially depressed melanogenic ability in tissue-cultured SLs. Additionally, in agreement with a previous report that the formation of autophagosomes rather than melanosomes is stimulated according to starvation or defective melanosome production, ET-1 was found to remarkably augment the expression of components necessary for early melanosome formation, indicating its counteraction against autophagy-targeting melanosome degradation in melanocytes. Despite the lack of substantial impact of ET-1 on keratinocyte melanogenic functions, the expression of ET-1 was enhanced following melanosome uptake by keratinocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 plays a substantial role in the development and/or maintenance of skin hyperpigmentation in reciprocal cooperation with increased melanosome incorporation.

  9. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or syne

  10. Reviewing the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Psychological Contract and Their Impact on Employee Attitude and Behaviours: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…

  11. Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Di Marco, Mariangela; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Field independence (FI) has been defined as the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field, rather than embedded in the field. It has been proposed to represent a relatively stable pattern in individuals' predisposition towards information processing. In the present study, we assessed the effect of FI on skills underpinning human navigation. Fifty Healthy individuals took part in this study. FI has been assessed by using the group embedded figures test (GEFT). Participants were also asked to perform several visuo-spatial orientation tasks, including the perspective taking/spatial orientation test (PTSOT), the mental rotation task (MRT) and the vividness task, as well as the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, a self-reported questionnaire, which has been found to predict environmental spatial orientation ability. We found that performances on the GEFT significantly predicted performances on the PTSOT and the MRT. This result supports the idea that FI predicts human navigation.

  12. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially. However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social, but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  13. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially. However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social, but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  14. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. OBJECTIVES To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. DATA SOURCES All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. RESULTS Overall, trials included in this review (n = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions

  15. Towards infant formula biomimetic of human milk structure and digestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlieu Claire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids of human milk or infant formula convey most of the energy necessary to support the newborn growth. Until recently, infant formula chemical composition had been optimized but not their structure. And yet, more and more proofs of evidence have shown that lipids structure in human milk modulates digestion kinetics and is involved in metabolic programming. Indeed there is a striking difference of structure between human milk which is an emulsion based on dispersed milk fat globules (4 μm secreted by the mammary gland and submicronic neoformed lipid droplets (0.5 μm found in infant formula. These droplets result from a series of operation units. This difference of structure modifies digestion kinetics and emulsion disintegration in the intestinal tract of the newborn. This difference persists along gastric phase which is mainly dominated by acid and enzyme-induced aggregation. Lipid droplets size is thus the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis and emptying and intestinal lipolysis. This parameter also controls proteolysis since adsorbed proteins are more rapidly hydrolyzed than when in solution. In animal models, these differences of lipid structure would also impact digestive and immune systems' maturation and microbiota. Lipid structure during neonatal period would also be involved in the early programming of adipose tissues and metabolism. The supplementation of infant formulas with bovine milk fractions (milk fat globule membrane extracts, triacylglycerol or recent development of large droplets infant formula, along with new fields of innovation in neonatal nutrition, are here reviewed.

  16. Insulin Plays a Permissive Role for the Vasoactive Effect of GIP Regulating Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    of insulin for the vasoactive effect of GIP in adipose tissue metabolism and whether the vasodilatory effect of GIP is dependent on C-peptide. METHODS: Six lean healthy subjects were studied. The sc abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was assessed by Fick's principle during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol...... the hyperglycemic clamps, endogenous insulin and C-peptide secretion were inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. RESULTS: During GIP infusion, Eugluc-Hiinsu, and hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps, sc abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was similar and increased from 2.1 ± 0......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in combination with hyperinsulinemia increases blood flow and triglyceride (TAG) clearance in subcutaneous (sc) abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans. The present experiments were performed to further investigate the role...

  17. Insulin Plays a Permissive Role for the Vasoactive Effect of GIP Regulating Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Ali; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Bülow, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in combination with hyperinsulinemia increases blood flow and triglyceride (TAG) clearance in subcutaneous (sc) abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans. The present experiments were performed to further investigate the role of insulin for the vasoactive effect of GIP in adipose tissue metabolism and whether the vasodilatory effect of GIP is dependent on C-peptide. Six lean healthy subjects were studied. The sc abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was assessed by Fick's principle during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol/kg/min) in combination with 1) euglycemic-high insulinemic clamp (Eugluc-Hiinsu), raising plasma insulin concentrations to postprandial levels, 2) hyperglycemic-euinsulinemic clamp (Hygluc-Euinsu), and 3) hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, raising plasma insulin concentrations to supraphysiological levels. During the hyperglycemic clamps, endogenous insulin and C-peptide secretion were inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. During GIP infusion, Eugluc-Hiinsu, and hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps, sc abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was similar and increased from 2.1 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.4 ml min(-1) (100 g tissue)(-1) to 7.1 ± 0.6 and 7.6 ± 0.1 ml min(-1) (100 g tissue)(-1), respectively (P tissue](-1)) during Hygluc-Euinsu and GIP infusion. In addition, adipose tissue TAG clearance increased significantly (P = .03), whereas free fatty acid output (P = .01), glycerol output (P = .02) and free fatty acid/glycerol release ratio (P = .04) decreased during the Eugluc-Hiinsu clamp compared to Hygluc-Euinsu clamp with GIP. In healthy lean humans, insulin is permissive for GIP to induce an increase in blood flow and TAG clearance in sc abdominal adipose tissue. This effect is independent of C-peptide.

  18. 'Goats that stare at men'--revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Being able to recognise when one is being observed by someone else is thought to be adaptive during cooperative or competitive events. In particular for prey species, this ability should be of use in the context of predation. A previous study reported that goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) alter their behaviour according to the body and head orientation of a human experimenter. During a food anticipation task, an experimenter remained in a particular posture for 30 s before delivering a reward, and the goats' active anticipation and standing alert behaviour were analysed. To further evaluate the specific mechanisms at work, we here present two additional test conditions. In particular, we investigated the effects of the eye visibility and head orientation of a human experimenter on the behaviour of the goats (N = 7). We found that the level of the subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the conditions where the experimenter was directing his head and body towards the goat ('Control' and 'Eyes closed' conditions), but the anticipatory behaviour was significantly decreased when the body ('Head only') or the head and body of the experimenter were directed away from the subject ('Back' condition). For standing alert, we found no significant differences between the three conditions in which the experimenter was directing his head towards the subject ('Control', 'Eyes closed' and 'Head only'). This lack of differences in the expression of standing alert suggests that goats evaluate the direction of a human's head as an important cue in their anticipatory behaviour. However, goats did not respond to the visibility of the experimenter's eyes alone.

  19. PRDM1 expression via human parvovirus B19 infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei-Chen; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Qing-Guo; Guo, Ying; Fan, Lin-Ni; Liu, Yi-Xiong; Huang, Gao-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Ectopic lymphoid follicle infiltration is a key event in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1), which is induced by antigen stimulation, can regulate all lymphocyte lineages. Several groups independently demonstrated that human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is closely associated with HT. Hence, we determined whether PRDM1 is expressed in HT thyroid tissue and whether there is any correlation between PRDM1 expression and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. We detected PRDM1 expression in HT (n = 86), normal thyroid tissue (n = 30), and nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 20) samples using immunohistochemistry. We also detected PVB19 protein in HT samples in a double-blind manner and analyzed the correlation between the 2 proteins using immunofluorescence confocal detection and coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we detected changes of the expression levels of PRDM1 and PVB19 in transfected primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that PRDM1 protein is significantly highly expressed in the injured follicular epithelial cells in HT (83/86 cases) than in normal thyroid cells (0/30 cases) or in nontoxic nodular goiter cells (0/20 cases) (P thyroid epithelial cells also showed PRDM1 up-regulation after PVB19 NS1 transfection. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of PRDM1 and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT.

  20. Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio C; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J; Motea, Edward A; Patidar, Praveen L; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L; Boothman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed γ-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair.

  1. In vivo behaviour of human muscle architecture and mechanomyographic response using the interpolated twitch technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Shima, Norihiro; Yabe, Kyonosuke

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the origin of curvilinear change in the superimposed mechanomyogram (MMG) amplitude of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) with increasing contraction intensity. The superimposed twitch amplitude, the superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening were measured using ultrasonic images of electrical stimulation during isometric plantar flexions at levels 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The superimposed twitch amplitude, the superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening decreased with increasing contraction intensity. The superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening showed a curvilinear decrease, while the superimposed twitch amplitude showed a linear decrease at levels up to 80% of the MVC. There was a linear relationship between the superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening at different contraction intensities. These results indicate that the superimposed MMG amplitude reflects changes in the extent of fascicle shortening at different contraction intensities better than the superimposed twitch amplitude. Our study suggests that the origin of the curvilinear decrease of superimposed MMG amplitude is associated with a curvilinear decrease of the extent of fascicle shortening with increasing contraction intensity in the human MG.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Dynamical Behaviour of a Footbridge Under Human-Induced Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos da Silva José Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to perform an experimental and numerical assessment of an existing pedestrian footbridge located in the campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil. The structural system is based on an internal reinforced concrete footbridge spanning 24.5m, constituted by concrete beams and slabs and being currently used for pedestrian crossing. The modal testing of the structure was performed by dynamic monitoring through accelerometers installed on the structure as well as by a vibrometer device based on Laser Doppler Vibrometry using the SIMO and SISO acquisition techniques, respectively. Then, these experimental results were calibrated with a numerical model by the use of finite element method (FEM through the ANSYS program. Afterwards, a forced vibration analysis was performed on the structure based on human-induced loads considering two control groups: the first one is intended to excite the investigated footbridge to cause resonance motion with a controlled step frequency and the second one is related to freely random people crossing the footbridge as it occurs normally during its real life. Thus, the structural system dynamic response in terms of peak accelerations values were evaluated and compared to the current human comfort criteria.

  3. Polarographic behaviour of loratadine and its direct determination in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma by cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M M; Mabrouk, M M; Hassanein, A M; Tawfik, A

    2001-07-01

    The polarographic behaviour of the antihistaminic drug loratadine has been investigated in B.R. buffer solution of different pH values. Contradictory to that mentioned before in a previously published work, loratadine is electro-active at the mercury electrode. In B.R. buffer solution of pH values > or =6 it is reduced via a single 2-electrons irreversible wave corresponding to saturation of carbon-nitrogen double bond of the pyridine ring. The electrode reaction pathway was proposed and discussed. A sensitive differential pulse stripping voltammetric method based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of loratadine on a hanging mercury drop electrode has been developed for its direct determination at nanomolar concentrations without nitration of the drug. The optimized conditions for the direct cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of the drug are: 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution as a supporting electrolyte, accumulation potential, -1.2 V; accumulation time, 30 s; scan rate, 2-5 mV x s(-1) and pulse amplitude 100 mV. The proposed procedure was applied for the assay of loratadine in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma. The average recoveries were 99.32-99.44 and 100.33-102.99% with the RSD 0.27-0.42 and 0.39-0.90% in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma, respectively. The limits of detection of 1.60x10(-7) and 1.25x10(-7) M loratadine were found in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma, respectively.

  4. Transmembrane domain V plays a stabilizing role in the function of human bile acid transporter SLC10A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robyn H; Chothe, Paresh; Swaan, Peter W

    2013-07-30

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT, SLC10A2), primarily expressed in the ileum, is involved in both the recycling of bile acids and cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, the structure-function relationship of transmembrane domain 5 (TM5) residues involved in transport is elucidated. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis of each consecutive residue on TM5 resulted in 96% of mutants having a significantly decreased transport activity, although each was expressed at the cell surface. Specifically, G197 and I208 were no longer functional, and G201 and G212 functioned at a level of Conservative alanine mutations of the four residues displayed a higher activity in all but G197A, indicating its functional importance. G197 and G201 form a GxxxG motif, which has been found to be important in helix-helix interactions. According to our model, G197 and G201 face transmembrane domain 4 (TM4) residues G179 and P175, respectively. Similarly, G212 faces G237, which forms part of a GxxxG domain in transmembrane domain 6 (TM6). It is possible that these GxxxG domains and their interacting partners are responsible for maintaining the structure of the helices and their interactions with one another. I205 and I208 are both in positions to anchor the GxxxG domains and direct the change in interaction of TM5 from TM4 to TM6. Combined, the results suggest that residues along TM5 are critical for ASBT function but are not directly involved in substrate translocation.

  5. The sonic hedgehog signaling pathway is reactivated in human renal cell carcinoma and plays orchestral role in tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helwig Jean-Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC remains resistant to therapies. Recent advances in Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF molecular network led to targeted therapies, but unfortunately with only limited clinical significance. Elucidating the molecular processes involved in kidney tumorigenesis and resistance is central to the development of improved therapies, not only for kidney cancer but for many, if not all, cancer types. The oncogenic PI3K/Akt, NF-kB and MAPK pathways are critical for tumorigenesis. The sonic hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway is crucial to normal development. Results By quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot, we report that the SHH signaling pathway is constitutively reactivated in tumors independently of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene expression which is inactivated in the majority of CRCC. The inhibition of the SHH signaling pathway by the specific inhibitor cyclopamine abolished CRCC cell growth as assessed by cell counting, BrdU incorporation studies, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and β-galactosidase staining. Importantly, inhibition of the SHH pathway induced tumor regression in nude mice through inhibition of cell proliferation and neo-vascularization, and induction of apoptosis but not senescence assessed by in vivo studies, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Gli1, cyclin D1, Pax2, Lim1, VEGF, and TGF-β were exclusively expressed in tumors and were shown to be regulated by SHH, as evidenced by immunoblot after SHH inhibition. Using specific inhibitors and immunoblot, the activation of the oncogenic PI3K/Akt, NF-kB and MAPK pathways was decreased by SHH inhibition. Conclusions These findings support targeting SHH for the treatment of CRCC and pave the way for innovative and additional investigations in a broad range of cancers.

  6. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  7. To what degree could responsible mining play a role to prevent human rights violations arising from the industry? : A human rights law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Mai

    2012-01-01

    The study primarily aims to address the legal consequences of the rise of responsible mining and responsible mining itself to international human rights law in regulating the mining industry. Firstly, the thesis describes the rise of responsible mining in the context of considerable power of the industry and mining companies. Secondly, the thesis explains how international human rights law governs the mining industry and whereabouts responsible mining could be in the system. Thirdly, the t...

  8. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Oltra, Aitana; Bartumeus, Frederic; Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Perelló, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modeling framework based on Langevin Dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration, and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for the observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory, and per...

  9. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E.; García-García, R.; Reyes-Gasga, J.

    2009-12-01

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH-, CO_{3}^{2-} and PO_{4}^{3-} FTIR bands were also found.

  10. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-12-07

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} FTIR bands were also found.

  11. New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, C; Stassen, B; Depta, K; Silber, G

    2017-02-21

    Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse. Employing an experimental-numerical approach, a procedure is presented to evaluate multidirectional tensile properties of superficial tissue layers of the face in vivo. Specifically, in addition to stress relaxation, displacement-controlled multi-step ramp-and-hold protocols were performed to separate elastic from inelastic properties. For numerical representation, an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in conjunction with a time domain linear viscoelasticity formulation with Prony series was employed. Model parameters were inversely derived, employing finite element models, using multi-criteria optimization. The methodology provides insight into mechanical superficial facial tissue properties. Experimental data shows pronounced anisotropy, especially with large strain. The stress relaxation rate does not depend on the loading direction, but is strain-dependent. Preconditioning eliminates equilibrium hysteresis effects and leads to stress-strain repeatability. In the preconditioned state tissue stiffness and hysteresis insensitivity to strain rate in the applied range is evident. The employed material model fits the nonlinear anisotropic elastic results and the viscoelasticity model reasonably reproduces time-dependent results. Inversely deduced maximum anisotropic long-term shear modulus of linear elasticity is G∞,max(aniso)=2.43kPa and instantaneous initial shear modulus at an

  12. The effects of strain amplitude and localization on viscoelastic mechanical behaviour of human abdominal fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova-Doneva, Miglena; Pashkouleva, Dessislava; Kavardzhikov, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine and compare the viscoelastic mechanical properties of human transversalis and umbilical fasciae according to chosen strain levels. A sequence of relaxation tests of finite deformation ranging from 4 to 6% strain with increment 0.3% was performed at strain rate 1.26 mm/s. Initial and equilibrium stresses T0, Teq, initial modulus E and equilibrium modulus Eeq, reduction of the stress during relaxation process ΔT, as well as the ratio (1 - Eeq /E) were calculated. The range in which parameters change their values are (0.184-1.74 MPa) for initial stress, (0.098-0.95 MPa) for equilibrium stress, (43.5-4.6 MPa) for initial modulus E. For Eeq this interval is (23.75-2.45 MPa). There are no statistically significant differences between the values of these parameters according to localization. The differences in viscoelastic properties of both fasciae are demonstrated by reduction of the stress during relaxation process and ratio (1 - Eeq /E). The values of ΔT and (1 - Eeq /E) ratio for umbilical fascia are significantly greater than that of fascia transversalis. An increase of 2% in strain leads to change of the normalized relaxation ratio of fasciae between 28%-66%. There is a weak contribution of viscous elements in fascia transversalis samples during relaxation, while in umbilical fascia the contribution of viscous component increases with strain level to 0.66 at 5.3% strain. This study adds new data for the material properties of human abdominal fascia. The results demonstrate that in chosen range of strain there is an influence of localization on visco-elastic tissue properties.

  13. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  14. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M.; Sagarra, O.; Oltra, A.; Palmer, J. R. B.; Bartumeus, F.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; Perelló, J.

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  15. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Sun, Quanbin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009) on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1) the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2) the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3) the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4) the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  16. Compressive behaviour of gyroid lattice structures for human cancellous bone implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yánez, A; Herrera, A; Martel, O; Monopoli, D; Afonso, H

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds. Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. Both parameters increased as the angle decreased. Finally, the specific strength of the gyroid structures was compared with that of the diamond structures and other types of structures. It is shown that, for angles lower than 35°, the gyroid structures had a high strength to weight ratios.

  17. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Fokkink, Remco; Peters, Ruud; Tromp, Peter; Herrera Rivera, Zahira E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO₃) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were analysed with SP-ICPMS, DLS and SEM-EDX. In presence of proteins, after gastric digestion the number of particles dropped significantly, to rise back to original values after the intestinal digestion. SEM-EDX revealed that reduction in number of particles was caused by their clustering. These clusters were composed of AgNPs and chlorine. During intestinal digestion, these clusters disintegrated back into single 60 nm AgNPs. The authors conclude that these AgNPs under physiological conditions can reach the intestinal wall in their initial size and composition. Importantly, intestinal digestion of AgNO₃ in presence of proteins resulted in particle formation. These nanoparticles (of 20-30 nm) were composed of silver, sulphur and chlorine.

  18. Spring-like leg behaviour, musculoskeletal mechanics and control in maximum and submaximum height human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J

    2011-05-27

    The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass (CM). Variations in leg stiffness were achieved in six subjects by having them hop at maximum and submaximum heights at a frequency of 1.7 Hz. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms were measured. Leg stiffness decreased with hopping height, from 350 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 26 cm to 150 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 14 cm. Subjects reduced hopping height primarily by reducing the amplitude of muscle activation. Experimental results were reproduced with a model of the musculoskeletal system comprising four body segments and nine Hill-type muscles, with muscle stimulation STIM(t) as only input. Correspondence between simulated hops and experimental hops was poor when STIM(t) was optimized to minimize mechanical energy expenditure, but good when an objective function was used that penalized jerk of CM motion, suggesting that hopping subjects are not minimizing energy expenditure. Instead, we speculated, subjects are using a simple control strategy that results in smooth movements and a decrease in leg stiffness with hopping height.

  19. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009 on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1 the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2 the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3 the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4 the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  20. Play in Evolution and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Dupuis, Danielle; Smith, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may influence subsequent evolutionary…

  1. Behaviour of the human gastrocnemius muscle architecture during submaximal isometric fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the human gastrocnemius medialis (GM) fascicle length and pennation angle alter during a sustained submaximal isometric plantar flexion. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal voluntary plantar flexions (MVC) on a dynamometer before and after a fatiguing task. This task consisted of a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction (40% MVC) until failure to hold the defined moment. Ultrasonography was used to visualise the muscle belly of the GM. Leg kinematics were recorded (120 Hz) to calculate the joint moment using inverse dynamics. The exerted moments and the EMG signals from GM and lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were measured at 1,080 Hz. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal of the three triceps surae muscles increased significantly (P < or = 0.05) between 17% and 28% with fatigue. Further, the fascicle length of the GM significantly decreased from 47.1 +/- 8.0 mm at the beginning to 41.8 +/- 6.7 mm at the end of fatigue and the pennation angle increased from 23.5 +/- 4.1 degrees to 26.3 +/- 2.2 degrees (P < or = 0.05). The changes in fascicle length and pennation angle of the GM during the contraction can influence the force potential of the muscle due to the force-length relationship and the force transmission to the tendon. This provides evidence on that an additional mechanical mechanism, namely tendon creep, can contribute to the increase in the EMG activity of the GM during submaximal isometric sustained contractions.

  2. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  3. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  4. Three-dimensional dynamic behaviour of the human knee joint under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, E M; Hefzy, M S

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the three-dimensional dynamic response of the human knee joint. A three-dimensional anatomical dynamic model was thus developed and consists of two body segments in contact (the femur and tibia) executing a general three-dimensional dynamic motion within the constraints of the different ligamentous structures. Each of the articular surfaces at the tibio-femoral joint was represented mathematically by a separate mathematical function. The joint ligaments were modelled as nonlinear elastic springs. The six-degrees-of-freedom joint motions were characterized by using six kinematic parameters, and ligamentous forces were expressed in terms of these six parameters. Knee response was studied by considering sudden external forcing pulse loads applied to the tibia. Model equations consist of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations coupled with nonlinear algebraic constraint conditions. Constraint equations were written to maintain at least one-point contact throughout motion; one- and two-point contact versions of the model were developed. This Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAE) system was solved by employing a DAE solver: the Differential/Algebraic System Solver (DASSL) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A solution representing the response of this three-dimensional dynamic system was thus obtained for the first time. Earlier attempts to determine the system's response were unsuccessful owing to the inherent numerical instabilities in the system and the limitations of the solution techniques. Under the conditions tested, evidence of "femoral roll back" on both medial and lateral tibial plateaus was not observed from the model predictions. In the range of 20 degrees to 66 degrees of knee flexion, the lateral tibial contact point moved posteriorly while the medial tibial contact point moved anteriorly. In the range of 66 degrees to 90 degrees of knee flexion, contact was maintained only on the

  5. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlington, Lee

    2017-07-01

    The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  6. Epidermal growth factor potentiates in vitro metastatic behaviour of human prostate cancer PC-3M cells: involvement of voltage-gated sodium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal-Onganer Pinar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a high level of functional voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC expression has been found in strongly metastatic human and rat prostate cancer (PCa cells, the mechanism(s responsible for the upregulation is unknown. The concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF, a modulator of ion channels, in the body is highest in prostatic fluid. Thus, EGF could be involved in the VGSC upregulation in PCa. The effects of EGF on VGSC expression in the highly metastatic human PCa PC-3M cell line, which was shown previously to express both functional VGSCs and EGF receptors, were investigated. A quantitative approach, from gene level to cell behaviour, was used. mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blots and immunocytochemistry and digital image analysis. Functional assays involved measurements of transverse migration, endocytic membrane activity and Matrigel invasion. Results Exogenous EGF enhanced the cells' in vitro metastatic behaviours (migration, endocytosis and invasion. Endogenous EGF had a similar involvement. EGF increased VGSC Nav1.7 (predominant isoform in PCa mRNA and protein expressions. Co-application of the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX suppressed the effect of EGF on all three metastatic cell behaviours studied. Conclusion 1 EGF has a major involvement in the upregulation of functional VGSC expression in human PCa PC-3M cells. (2 VGSC activity has a significant intermediary role in potentiating effect of EGF in human PCa.

  7. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course......This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...

  8. Investigation of binding behaviour of procainamide hydrochloride with human serum albumin using synchronous, 3D fluorescence and circular dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthi Byadagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of procainamide hydrochloride (PAH with human serum albumin (HSA is of great significance in understanding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of the drug. Multi-spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the binding mode of PAH to HSA and results revealed the presence of static type of quenching mechanism. The number of binding sites, binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed a spontaneous binding of PAH to HSA and hydrophobic interactions played a major role. In addition, the distance between PAH and the Trp–214 was estimated employing the Förster's theory. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that the binding of PAH to HSA primarily took place in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I. The influence of interference of some common metal ions on the binding of PAH to HSA was studied. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS, 3D fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD results indicated the conformational changes in the structure of HSA.

  9. Does Play Promote Self-Regulation in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses the role of pretend play and games with rules in fostering children's self-regulation. It proposes several pathways through which play facilitates self-regulation processes. First, in play, children learn to inhibit their impulsive behaviour and follow rules which transform their behaviour from impulsive and…

  10. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  11. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  12. Neighbourhood human capital and the development of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems: the mediating role of parenting and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems.

  13. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Role played by CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T Cells in suppression of host responses to Haemophilus ducreyi during experimental infection of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Racz, Paul; Janowicz, Diane M; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2010-06-15

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. Among human volunteers, the majority of experimentally infected individuals fail to clear the infection and form pustules. Here, we investigated the role played by CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in the formation of pustules. In pustules, there was a significant enrichment of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells, compared with that in peripheral blood. The majority of lesional FOXP3(+) T cells were CD4(+), CD25(+), CD127(lo/-), and CTLA-4(+). FOXP3(+) T cells were found throughout pustules but were most abundant at their base. Significantly fewer lesional CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells expressed interferon gamma, compared with lesional CD4(+)FOXP3(-) effector T cells. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from the peripheral blood of infected and uninfected volunteers significantly enhanced proliferation of H. ducreyi-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Our results indicate that the population of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo/-)FOXP3(+) T(reg) cells are expanded at H. ducreyi-infected sites and that these cells may play a role in suppressing the host immune response to the bacterium.

  15. Estradiol plays a role in regulating the expression of lysyl oxidase family genes in mouse urogenital tissues and human Ishikawa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wen; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Jian-gang

    2015-10-01

    The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family encodes the copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a key role in determining the tensile strength and structural integrity of connective tissues by catalyzing the crosslinking of elastin or collagen. Estrogen may upregulate the expression of LOX and lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) in the vagina. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of estrogen on the expression of all LOX family genes in the urogenital tissues of accelerated ovarian aging mice and human Ishikawa cells. Mice and Ishikawa cells treated with estradiol (E2) showed increased expression of LOX family genes and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Ishikawa cells treated with TGF-β1 also showed increased expression of LOX family genes. The Ishikawa cells were then treated with either E2 plus the TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) inhibitor SB431542 or E2 alone. The expression of LOX family genes induced by E2 was reduced in the Ishikawa cells treated with TGFBR inhibitor. Our results showed that E2 increased the expression of the LOX family genes, and suggest that this induction may be mediated by the TGF-β signal pathway. E2 may play a role in regulating the expression of LOX family genes.

  16. Leadership empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and turnover intention in a manufacturing division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Bester

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ behaviour play a role in creating empowering environments where employees are willing to do more than what is expected, with retention of employees as a result.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to theoretically conceptualise and empirically determine the relationships between employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and intention to leave within a manufacturing division of an organisation.Motivation for the study: In the ever-changing work environment, organisations must capitalise on their human capital in order to maintain competitiveness. It is therefore important to identify the role of employees’ perception of leadership in contributing to the establishment of an environment where employees feel empowered, are willing to do more than what is expected and want to stay in the organisation.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used. The total population (N = 300 employed at the manufacturing division was targeted. Two hundred completed questionnaires were obtained. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire and Intention to Leave Scale were administered.Main findings: Employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour (keeping employees accountable, self-directed decision-making and people development, psychological empowerment (attitude and influence and organisational citizenship behaviours (loyalty, deviant behaviour and participation predict intention to leave the organisation.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation, in this case leader empowering behaviours, if they want to retain their employees.Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to

  17. Protein phosphatase 2A plays a critical role in interleukin-2-induced beta 2-integrin dependent homotypic adhesion in human CD4+ T cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2 mo...... no inhibitory effect on cytokine induced adhesion at concentrations which strongly inhibited phosphatase activity. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that PP2A plays a critical role in IL-2-induced beta 2-integrin-dependent adhesion of human T cell lines.......Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2...... modulates enzymatic activity and/or subcellular distribution of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/PP2A) in T cells, we examined the role of these phosphatases in IL-2 induced homotypic adhesion in antigen specific human CD4+ T cell lines. We show that calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of PP1 and PP2...

  18. Behavioural responses to human skin extracts and antennal phenotypes of sylvatic first filial generation and long rearing laboratory colony Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Iván Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health issue and is mainly spread by Triatominae insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector species in Northern South America. Host-seeking behaviour in R. prolixus is mediated by different compounds that are produced by and emanate from the host or microbiota on the host's skin. We tested the behavioural responses of sylvatic first filial generation (F1 and colony insects to extracts of human skin with a dual choice olfactometer. In addition, we compared the antennal phenotypes in both populations. No statistical differences were found between the two populations at the behavioural level. Both showed a preference for face and feet extracts and this effect was abolished for face extracts after treatment with an antibacterial gel. The observation of the antennal phenotype showed that there were differences between both groups in the total length, total surface area and number and density of bristles. However, the number and density of chemoreceptive sensilla (basiconic and thin and thick-walled trichoids and the total density of sensilla did not show statistically significant differences. These results demonstrate that colony insects, which have only been fed with living hens for the last 30 years, are attracted by human skin extracts in a similar way as F1 sylvatic insects.

  19. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hadlington

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ‘risky’ cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  20. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game About this game Embed the Blood Typing ...

  1. Playing Charades in the fMRI : Are Mirror and/or Mentalizing Areas Involved in Gestural Communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Marleen B.; Gazzola, Valeria; Goebel, Rainer; Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Communication is an important aspect of human life, allowing us to powerfully coordinate our behaviour with that of others. Boiled down to its mere essentials, communication entails transferring a mental content from one brain to another. Spoken language obviously plays an important role in

  2. Playful Interfaces: Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  3. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  4. Human corneal fibroblast migration and ECM synthesis during stromal repair: Role played by PDGF-BB, bFGF, and TGFβ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Ibares-Frías, Lucía; Garrote, José A; Valsero-Blanco, María Cruz; Cantalapiedra-Rodríguez, Roberto; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Martínez-García, M Carmen

    2016-11-15

    The development of treatments that modulate corneal wound healing to avoid fibrosis during tissue repair is important for the restoration of corneal transparency after an injury. To date, few studies have studied the influence of growth factors (GFs) on human corneal fibroblast (HCF) expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen types I and III, proteoglycans such as perlecan, or proteins implicated in cellular migration such as α5β1-integrin and syndecan-4. Using in vitro HCFs, we developed a mechanical wound model to study the influence of the GFs basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) on ECM protein production and cellular migration. Our results show that mechanical wounding provokes the autocrine release of bFGF and TGFβ1 at different time points during the wound closure. The HCF response to PDGF-BB was a rapid closure due to fast cellular migration associated with a high focal adhesion replacement and a high expression of collagen and proteoglycans, producing a non-fibrotic healing. bFGF stimulated non-fibrotic ECM production and limited the migration process. Finally, TGFβ1 induced expression of the fibrotic markers collagen type III and α5β1 integrin, and it inhibited cellular migration due to the formation of focal adhesions with a low turnover rate. The novel in vitro HCF mechanical wound model can be used to understand the role played by GFs in human corneal repair. The model can also be used to test the effects of different treatments aimed at improving the healing process.

  5. Evidence that P12, a specific variant of P16{sup INK4A}, plays a suppressive role in human pancreatic carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poi, Ming J. [Department of Pharmacy, The Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Knobloch, Thomas J. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yuan, Chunhua [Campus Chemical Instrument Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tsai, Ming-Daw [Genomics Research Center and Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Weghorst, Christopher M. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li, Junan, E-mail: li.225@osu.edu [Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •P12, a variant of P16{sup INK4A}, inhibits the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. •P12 is distinct from P16 in function and structure. •Genetic alterations of p12 are prevalent in human pancreatic carcinoma. •P12 represents a potential pancreas-specific tumor suppressor. -- Abstract: The INK4a-ARF locus plays a central role in the development of pancreatic tumors as evidenced by the fact that up to 98% of pancreatic tumor specimens harbored genetic alterations at the INK4a-ARF locus. Interestingly, in addition to the well-known P16{sup INK4A} (P16) and P14ARF tumor suppressors, the INK4a-ARF locus in pancreas encodes another protein, P12, whose structure, function, and contributions to pancreatic carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrated that over-expression of p12 in human pancreatic cancer cells led to cell arrest at the G1 phase and such cell cycle arrest was related to down-regulation of a number of oncogenes, such as c-Jun, Fos, and SEI1. Furthermore, unlike P16, P12 did not retain any cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-inhibitory activity. Instead, P12 exhibited a transactivating activity not found in P16. We also examined the genetic status of p12 in a cohort of 40 pancreatic tumor specimens and found that p12 alteration was prevalent in pancreatic tumors with an incidence of 70% (28/40). These results support that P12 is a tumor suppressive protein distinct from P16, and its genetic inactivation is associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  6. Sexuality and Human Reproduction: A Study of Scientific Knowledge, Behaviours and Beliefs of Portuguese Future Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…

  7. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  8. The β and γ subunits play distinct functional roles in the α2βγ heterotetramer of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Peng, Yingjie; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yabing; Ding, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase existing as the α2βγ heterotetramer, catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and is allosterically regulated by citrate, ADP and ATP. To explore the functional roles of the regulatory β and γ subunits, we systematically characterized the enzymatic properties of the holoenzyme and the composing αβ and αγ heterodimers in the absence and presence of regulators. The biochemical and mutagenesis data show that αβ and αγ alone have considerable basal activity but the full activity of α2βγ requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers. α2βγ and αγ can be activated by citrate or/and ADP, whereas αβ cannot. The binding of citrate or/and ADP decreases the S0.5,isocitrate and thus enhances the catalytic efficiencies of the enzymes, and the two activators can act independently or synergistically. Moreover, ATP can activate α2βγ and αγ at low concentration and inhibit the enzymes at high concentration, but has only inhibitory effect on αβ. Furthermore, the allosteric activation of α2βγ is through the γ subunit not the β subunit. These results demonstrate that the γ subunit plays regulatory role to activate the holoenzyme, and the β subunit the structural role to facilitate the assembly of the holoenzyme.

  9. Measurement Devices and the Psychophysiology of Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    of the type of subjectivity that underlies consumer behaviour. I argue instead that a posthuman view of the relationship between brain, mind and behaviour underpinned neurophysiological research into consumers from its very beginning in the late nineteenth century. By tracing the biopolitical potentialities......From the 1890s, psychophysiological measurement devices have played an important, but as yet under-theorized role in marketing and consumer research. Because of the recent advances made in neuromarketing, it is often assumed that these measurement devices ushered in a radically new understanding...... of neuromarketing back to the Fin-de-Siècle neurophysiological laboratory, I show that consumers' bodies and later on their brains became reconfigured as part of a dispositif made up of laboratory-based artefacts (measurement devices) and new ways of seeing the human brain and human behaviour. This dispositif...

  10. Variability of Heart Rate in Primitive Horses and Their Relatives as an Indicator of Stress Level, Behavioural Conduct Towards Humans and Adaptation to Living in Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluta Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmental and genetic factors. Studies were conducted in three populations of horses: two herds of Polish Konik and one herd of Biłgoraj horses. The studies were performed between 1993 and 2010. They concerned the behaviour of horses during grooming - breeding procedures (hooves clearing, body measurements performed cyclically and the daily observations when HR was monitored continuously. HR results for the respective age categories, during particular grooming - breeding procedures and reserve observations indicate that Polish Konik horses, closely related to the primitive Tarpan breed, are genetically better adapted to living in conditions similar to the natural (reserve than the Biłgoraj horses. They show less stress symptoms, which are evidenced by HR values noted during inhabiting the natural environment.

  11. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    reveals limitations of designers’ knowledge of prospected users. The article explores how to approach participants who cannot express themselves verbally and how to recognise play that may not look familiar to the designer. The article finally presents a participatory design method that allows for non......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  12. An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins of modern human behaviour, symbolism and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshilwood, C S; d'Errico, F; Marean, C W; Milo, R G; Yates, R

    2001-12-01

    Twenty-eight bone tools were recovered in situ from ca. 70 ka year old Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave between 1992 and 2000. These tools are securely provenienced and are the largest collection to come from a single African Middle Stone Age site. Detailed analyses show that tool production methods follow a sequence of deliberate technical choices starting with blank production, the use of various shaping methods and the final finishing of the artefact to produce "awls" and "projectile points". Tool production processes in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave conform to generally accepted descriptions of "formal" techniques of bone tool manufacture. Comparisons with similar bone tools from the Later Stone Age at Blombos Cave, other Cape sites and ethnographic collections show that although shaping methods are different, the planning and execution of bone tool manufacture in the Middle Stone Age is consistent with that in the late Holocene. The bone tool collection from Blombos Cave is remarkable because bone tools are rarely found in African Middle or Later Stone Age sites before ca. 25 ka. Scarcity of early bone tools is cited as one strand of evidence supporting models for nonmodern behaviour linked to a lack of modern technological or cognitive capacity before ca. 50 ka. Bone artefacts are a regular feature in European sites after ca. 40 ka, are closely associated with the arrival of anatomically modern humans and are a key behavioural marker of the Upper Palaeolithic "symbolic explosion" linked to the evolution of modern behaviour. Taken together with recent finds from Klasies River, Katanda and other African Middle Stone Age sites the Blombos Cave evidence for formal bone working, deliberate engraving on ochre, production of finely made bifacial points and sophisticated subsistence strategies is turning the tide in favour of models positing behavioural modernity in Africa at a time far earlier than previously accepted. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links betwe...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  14. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  15. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Roesch, Scott C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lindsay, Suzanne; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Gaines, Tommi L

    2017-03-24

    Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735). Latent class analysis identified discrete classes of polydrug use characterised by 11 indicators of past 6 months substance use. Multinomial logistic regression examined class membership association with HIV risk behaviours, overdose and other covariates using an automated three-step procedure in mplus to account for classification error. Participants were classified into five subgroups. Two polydrug and polyroute classes were defined by use of multiple substances through several routes of administration and were primarily distinguished from each other by cocaine use (class 1: 5%) or no cocaine use (class 2: 29%). The other classes consisted primarily of injectors: cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 3: 4%); methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 4: 10%); and heroin injection (class 5: 52%). Compared with the heroin-only injection class, memberships in the two polydrug and polyroute use classes were independently associated with both HIV injection and sexual risk behaviours. Substance use patterns among PWID in Tijuana are highly heterogeneous, and polydrug and polyroute users are a high-risk subgroup who may require more tailored prevention and treatment interventions. [Meacham MC, Roesch SC, Strathdee SA, Lindsay S, Gonzalez-Zuniga P, Gaines TL. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017

  16. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yumei; Zhao Yimin [School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chai Feng; Hildebrand, Hartmut F [Groupe de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux, Faculte de Medecine, F-59045 Lille cedex (France); Hornez, Jean-Christophe [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes (LMP), EA 2443, UVHC, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Li, Chang Liang [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Traisnel, Michel, E-mail: zhaoym@fmmu.edu.c, E-mail: fhildebrand@univ-lille2.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille, UMR CNRS 8008, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2009-02-15

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (E{sub r}) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate E{sub r} and a good passive current density (I{sub p}), but a high corrosion potential (E{sub c}) and a very low breakdown potential (E{sub b}) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better E{sub r} and E{sub c} and very high E{sub b}. No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable E{sub c} and an increased I{sub p}. The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  17. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  18. Sickness Behaviour:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adaptive function for hyperthermia and ... on immunity. However ... infectious disorders probably lies in the ... nervous system, and thus behaviour, .... Fever: Basic ... system. In Ader R, Felten DL,. Cohen N, editors. Psychoneuro- immunology.

  19. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminium age it is clearly unpalatable for aluminium, the globe’s most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years humans have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth’s crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminium industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminium it cannot be challeng...

  20. Differential behavioural and neurochemical outcomes from chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a model of adverse antidepressant effects in human adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily; Li, Kong M; Motbey, Craig; Callaghan, Paul D; Katsifis, Andrew; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation in adolescent humans, yet the neuropharmacological basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Consequently, we examined the behavioural and neurochemical effects of chronic paroxetine (PRX) treatment in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received PRX in their drinking water (target dose 10 mg/kg) for 22 d, during which time they were assessed for depression- and anxiety-like behaviours. Subsequent ex-vivo analyses examined serum PRX concentrations, striatal neurotransmitter content, and regional serotonin and dopamine transporter (SERT, DAT) binding density. After 11-12 d treatment, PRX-treated adolescent rats showed a significant inhibition of social interaction while adults were unaffected. After 19-20 d treatment, adolescents failed to show an antidepressant-like effect of PRX treatment on the forced swim test (FST), while PRX-treated adults showed a typical decrease in immobility and increase in swimming. Two PRX-treated adolescents died unexpectedly after the FST suggesting a compromised response to physical stress. Despite their greater apparent adverse reaction to the drug, adolescents had significantly lower plasma PRX than adults at day 22 of treatment. Chronic PRX treatment had similar effects in adults and adolescents on striatal 5-HT (unchanged relative to controls) and 5-HIAA levels (decreased), while markers of dopaminergic function (DOPAC, HVA, DA turnover) were increased in adults only. SERT density was up-regulated in the amygdala in PRX-treated adolescents only while DAT density in the nucleus accumbens was down-regulated only in PRX-treated adults. These data suggest that the immature rat brain responds differently to PRX and that this might be of use in modelling the atypical response of human adolescents to antidepressants. The age-specific PRX-induced changes in dopaminergic markers and SERT and DAT binding provide clues as to the neural mechanisms

  1. Molecules and mating: positive selection and reproductive behaviour in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Leslie A; Innocent, Simeon H S

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is generally thought to be more costly than asexual reproduction. However, it does have the advantage of accelerating rates of adaptation through processes such as recombination and positive selection. Comparative studies of the human and nonhuman primate genomes have demonstrated that positive selection has played an important role in the evolutionary history of humans and other primates. To date, many dozens of genes, thought to be affected by positive selection, have been identified. In this chapter, we will focus on genes that are associated with mating behaviours and reproductive processes, concentrating on genes that are most likely to enhance reproductive success and that also show evidence of positive selection. The genes encode phenotypic features that potentially influence mate choice decisions or impact the evolution and function of genes involved in the perception and regulation of, and the response to, phenotypic signals. We will also consider genes that influence precopulatory behavioural traits in humans and nonhuman primates, such as social bonding and aggression. The evolution of post-copulatory strategies such as sperm competition and selective abortion may also evolve in the presence of intense competition and these adaptations will also be considered. Although behaviour may not be solely determined by genes, the evidence suggests that the genes discussed in this chapter have some influence on human and nonhuman primate behaviour and that positive selection on these genes results in some degree of population differentiation and diversity.

  2. Dogs (Canis familiaris) adjust their social behaviour to the differential role of inanimate interactive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petró, Eszter; Abdai, Judit; Gergely, Anna; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    Dogs are able to flexibly adjust their social behaviour to situation-specific characteristics of their human partner's behaviour in problem situations. However, dogs do not necessarily detect the specific role played by the human in a particular situation: they may form expectations about their partners' behaviour based on previous experiences with them. Utilising inanimate objects (UMO-unidentified moving object) as interacting agents offers new possibilities for investigating social behaviour, because in this way we can remove or control the influence of previous experience with the partner. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dogs are able to recognise the different roles of two UMOs and are able to adjust their communicative behaviour towards them. In the learning phase of the experiment, dogs were presented with a two-way food-retrieval problem in which two UMOs, which differed in their physical appearance and abilities, helped the dog obtain a piece of food in their own particular manner. After a short experience with both UMOs, dogs in the test phase faced one of the problems in the presence of both inanimate agents. Overall, dogs displayed similar levels of gazing behaviour towards the UMOs, but in the first test they looked, approached and touched the relevant partner first. This rapid adjustment of social behaviour towards UMOs suggests that dogs may generalise their experiences with humans to unfamiliar agents and are able to select the appropriate partner when facing a problem situation.

  3. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  4. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  5. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.

  6. Applying Play to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Patricia S.; Fokes, Joann

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the relationship of play to language and cognition, (2) to describe the stages of play and discuss recent literature about the characteristics of play, and (3) to describe the use of play with the multifaceted goals of cognition, pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and morphology as an intervention…

  7. Thermoresponsive Polymers with Lower Critical Solution Temperature- or Upper Critical Solution Temperature-Type Phase Behaviour Do Not Induce Toxicity to Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuejia; Zhu, Mengxiang; Gong, Yu; Tang, Haoyu; Li, Juan; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Thermoresponsive polymers have gained extensive attention as biomedical materials especially for targeted drug delivery systems. We have recently developed water-soluble polypeptide-based thermoresponsive polymers that exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST)- or upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type phase behaviours. In this study, the toxicity of these polymers to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated to assess the safety and biocompatibility. Up to 100 μg/ml, thermoresponsive polymers did not induce cytotoxicity to HUVECs, showing as unaltered mitochondrial viability assessed as cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and membrane integrity assessed as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Inflammatory response, assessed as the release of chemokine-soluble monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (sMCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as cytokine IL-6, was not significantly affected by the polymers. In addition, 1 μM thapsigargin (TG), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, significantly decreased mitochondrial viability, but did not affect membrane integrity or inflammatory response. The presence of thermoresponsive polymers with LCST-type phase behaviour did not further affect the effects of TG. In conclusion, the thermoresponsive polymers used in this study are not toxic to endothelial cells and therefore could be further considered as safe materials for biomedical applications.

  8. In situ chemical behaviour of methylisothiazolinone (MI) and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in reconstructed human epidermis: a new approach to the cross-reactivity issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeuckelaere, Camille; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Elbayed, Karim; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Berl, Valérie; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) [with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in a ratio of 1:3, a well-recognized allergenic preservative] was released as an individual preservative in the 2000s for industrial products and in 2005 for cosmetics. The high level of exposure to MI since then has provoked an epidemic of contact allergy to MI, and an increase in MI/MCI allergy. There are questions concerning the MI/MCI cross-reaction pattern. To bring a new perspective on the MI/MCI cross-reactivity issue by studying their in situ chemical behaviour in 3D reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). MI and MCI were synthesized with (13) C substitution at positions C-4/C-5 and C-5, respectively. Their in situ chemical behaviours in an RHE model were followed by use of the high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance technique. MI was found to react exclusively with cysteine thiol residues, whereas MCI reacted with histidines and lysines. The reaction mechanisms were found to be different for MI and MCI, and the adducts formed had different molecular structures. In RHE, different MI/MCI reactions towards different nucleophilic amino acids were observed, making it difficult to explain cross-reactivity between MI and MCI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Extended prospect theory: findings on choice behaviour from economics and the behavioural sciences and their relevance for travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to Ut

  10. The Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices, Leader member exchange, Psychological contract Fulfillment, Trade Union and Employee Retention Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor; Norziani Dahalan

    2014-01-01

    Employee retention is an issue facing most of corporate leaders due to high turnover rate. Many researchers have found that retaining employees is a significant challenge for organization as different employees are motivated by different retention strategies. A good human resource management practices would be one of the retention strategies. Human resource practices are also proposed as one of the most potent factors determining the nature and state of the psychological contract and leader m...

  11. Androgen and the Development of Human Sex-Typical Behavior: Rough-and-Tumble Play and Sex of Preferred Playmates in Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…

  12. A critique of the representation of human suffering in the cognitive behavioural therapy literature with implications for mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A

    2011-02-01

    This paper is informed by interpretivist understandings and practices, and the author's own conversion to interpretivist writing practice. The aim of the paper is to critique the ways in which suffering people are represented in the mainstream cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) literature with a view to identifying some implications for mental health nursing practice. It will begin by identifying key assumptions governing the textual portrayal of human experience, and will argue that the language used to describe human suffering is a potential site for struggles over meaning and more adequate representation. However, reductionist portrayals of individuals and their problems have largely gone unchallenged in much of the CBT literature since its early development in the 1970s. This is arguably because of the socialization of new members of the CBT community into established cultural and textual practices. A comparison of reductionist CBT writing with more fleshed out, more fully human possibilities will further clarify that forms of representation are never neutral, given the danger of reductionist representations facilitating reductionist interventions. The paper will end with the following emerging implications for mental health nursing practice: the therapeutic power of self-narratives, narrative research and the recovery movement, and the promising possibilities for autoethnographic research for mental health nurses and for day to day interactions between nurses and service users. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp.In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata, human cysticercosis (T. solium and pig cysticercosis (T. solium in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%-7.7%, and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%-26.4%. Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%-0.5%. Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively, gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02, level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09, use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02 and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0

  14. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  15. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  16. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  17. Human pheromones and sexual attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2005-02-01

    Olfactory communication is very common amongst animals, and since the discovery of an accessory olfactory system in humans, possible human olfactory communication has gained considerable scientific interest. The importance of the human sense of smell has by far been underestimated in the past. Humans and other primates have been regarded as primarily 'optical animals' with highly developed powers of vision but a relatively undeveloped sense of smell. In recent years this assumption has undergone major revision. Several studies indicate that humans indeed seem to use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones; recent studies have found that pheromones may play an important role in the behavioural and reproduction biology of humans. In this article we review the present evidence of the effect of human pheromones and discuss the role of olfactory cues in human sexual behaviour.

  18. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  19. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  1. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  2. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  3. Learning Through Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, such as using play dough, LEGOs, and board games. Toys such as puzzles, pegboards, beads, and lacing ... Building sets, books, bicycles, roller skates, ice skates, board games, checkers, beginning sports • Middle Schoolers and Adolescents: Athletics, ...

  4. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  5. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which......The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  7. MicroRNA-210 Plays a Critical Role in the Angiogenic Effect of Isoprenaline on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Regulation of Noncoding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-You Yan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: ISO-mediated angiogenesis was associated with altered expression of miR-210, miR-21, and the lncRNAs GAS5 and MEG3. The effects of miR-210 on the expression of VEGF-A and noncoding RNAs were similar to those of ISO, indicating that it might play an important role in ISO-mediated angiogenesis.

  8. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  9. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  10. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...

  11. Playing against the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  12. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  13. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  14. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  15. Gimme gimme gimme : the recent signing behaviour of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in interactions with longtime human companions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, E.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation starts with a critical analysis of the scientific projects with signing chimpanzees, which were set up to see if chimpanzees could learn a human language. These projects consist of the research by the Gardners, the Fouts and the Terrace group. After the results of these projects

  16. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  17. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  18. Why Industry Propaganda and Political Interference Cannot Disguise the Inevitable Role Played by Human Exposure to Aluminum in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Including Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe’s most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth’s crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual’s exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age. PMID:25386158

  19. Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing circumstances

  20. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...... as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations...

  1. Behaviour of Human Hemodynamics under Microcavity –a Proposal for the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Blazek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All astronauts often feel uncomfortable during first encounter microgravity because of fluid shifts from the lower extremities to the head caused by weightlessness. Parabolic flights offer a great possibility for research of this phenomenon under “zero gravity”. With a combination of the optoelectronic sensor concepts PPG and PPGI and an ultrasound device it should be possible to measure all relevant parameters for description and further explanation of rapid fluid shifts along the body axis in humans during parabolic flights. A research team of the RWTH Aachen University and the Charité University Berlin will participate in the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign in September 2005 and perform the experiments under micro gravitation. A combination of used non-invasive strategies will reveal new insights into the human hemodynamics under microgravity conditions. The optoelectronic part of this interdisciplinary research experiment, details from the measuring setup, data collecting and post processing will be discussed.

  2. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  3. Insomnia disorder: when sleep plays coy, aloof and disdainful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insomnia disorder: when sleep plays coy, aloof and disdainful. ... South African Family Practice ... serious sequelae, requiring its own treatment, usually in the form of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), with or without pharmacotherapy.

  4. Early childbearing and behavioural flexibility in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Work in behavioural ecology has been and continues to be highly informative in the study of human reproductive variation and behavioural flexibility. The traditional focus of this approach has largely been on calibrations in reproductive behaviour in ultimate terms (i.e. a specific behaviour is adaptive and maximizes fitness in different environments). Yet, understanding the ultimate function of human behaviour as adaptive to local environments allows for the deeper study of the proximate psy...

  5. The Quartet does not play alone. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mas-Herrero, Ernest

    2015-06-01

    The study of emotions has been an important topic in cognitive and affective neuroscience in the last decades. In the present manuscript, Koelsch et al. [1] propose a new neurobiological framework based on four emotional core systems (the Quartet), involved in different aspects of human emotion processing. This is an interesting theory that goes beyond classical emotion classification to describe the emotional experience based on four main cerebral components (brainstem, diencephalon, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex). This approach allows the description of different classes of affects, including those that are unique in humans as emotional responses associated to abstract stimuli (for example, aesthetical stimuli such as art and music).

  6. Behavioural research on human working memory: mixing qualitative and quantitative methods (Investigación conductual sobre memoria de trabajo: Integrando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Bacigalupe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The long lasting opposition between qualitative and quantitative methods for studying behaviour has been overridden by interdisciplinary work in which methods can be combined to approach animal and human behaviour, thus contributing to drawing rigorous and useful conclusions. We show an example of this by combining a quasi-experimental design and descriptive methods to study working memory for the resolution of a spatial problem task (the Tower of Hanoi in a neuropsychiatric hospital inpatient with amnesia and executive deficits. Results from the quasi-experiment showed that the patient acquired strategies to solve the task with a high level of efficiency (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Qualitatively speaking, the patient developed more than one strategy to solve the problem, which indicates the presence of learning based on working memory. In the light of these findings, we discuss issues of mixed methods research and suggest the importance of developing mixed methods to study behaviour. RESUMEN: La oposición duradera entre métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos para estudiar el comportamiento ha sido anulada por el trabajo interdisciplinario en que los métodos pueden combinarse para enfocar el comportamiento humano y animal, contribuyendo así a obtener conclusiones útiles y rigurosas. Se presenta una muestra, combinando métodos descriptivos y un diseño cuasiexperimental para estudiar la memoria de trabajo en la resolución de una tarea de problema espacial (la Torre de Hanoi, en un paciente internado en un hospital neuropsiquiátrico con amnesia y déficit ejecutivo. Resultados del cuasiexperimento demostraron que el paciente adquirió estrategias para resolver la tarea con un alto nivel de eficiencia (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Cualitativamente el paciente desarrolló más de una estrategia para resolver el problema, lo cual indica la presencia de aprendizaje basado en memoria de trabajo. A la luz de estos resultados, se discuten m

  7. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  8. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  9. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Children's play and culture have changed over the recent years, and it is possible to understand the changes as a result of a more general change in society. We witness a large degree of changes connected to demographical aspects of children's lives. First of all it is a fact that large groups....... They are changing play arenas in order to find the identity, which suits them. In order to play children must know and be conscious of the cultural heritage, which contains knowledge of the way to organize in the playing session, the aesthetics, the techniques of playing, and this is something that is handed down...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  10. Play, dreams, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, J D

    1998-01-01

    Viewed ontogenetically, creating, dreaming, and playing are a variant of object relatedness. It is suggested that in recapitulating the ontogenetic sequence, creating, dreaming, and playing each as a process initiates by de-differentiation to primal union, evolves into transitional functioning, and consummates in tertiary cognitive discourse. The products of the triad--the created object, the dream, and play--are viewed as synergistic psychodynamic composites of topical, personal, and arche-typical imperatives. Creating, dreaming, and playing are easily overburdened by events, becoming stereotypical and repetitious. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the play of chronically ill, hospitalized children. It is suggested that with development generally, playing is replaced by formalized games; only dreaming continues as the vestige of early creative abilities.

  11. Play and virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Sando

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The similarities between virtuality and play are obvious, beginning with, for instance, the ubiquitous character of both. This paper deals with how insights from research on play can be used to enlighten our understanding of the ethical dimensions of activities in cyberspace, and vice versa. In particular, a central claim that play is beyond vice and virtue is debated and contested.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1762

  12. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  13. PlayBook三人行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑莓时光

    2011-01-01

    PlayBook,来自非苹果的另外一个水果——黑莓,它不是iPad,却也是平板。PBer,这个并不完美的平板——PlayBook的用户,他们开朗、认真、执着。热爱PlayBook的三人,拥有各自的人生轨迹,却挂着同样的嘴角上扬。

  14. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Leonhard, Anne Katrine; Zakhary, Carina Widen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported HPV prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investig......INTRODUCTION: Recently, an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported HPV prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed......, and in parts of the encasing endometrium. CONCLUSION: We conclude that placental HPV infections are not likely to constitute a risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor or spontaneous abortions in the Danish population, although an effect of HPV DNA in placental cells cannot be excluded. This article...

  15. Wnt11 plays an important role in the osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells in a PHA/FN/ALG composite scaffold: possible treatment for infected bone defect

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai; He, Xiao-Qing; Jin, Tao; Li, Yang; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Infected bone defect poses a great challenge for orthopedists because it is difficult to cure. Tissue-engineered bone based on the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), has currently taken a promising treatment protocol in clinical practice. In a previous study, a porous hydroxyapatite/fibronectin/alginate (PHA/FN/ALG) composite scaffold displayed favorable biological properties as a novel scaffold, which was considered better than single-material scaffolds. In addition, Wnt11 has ...

  16. The Transcription Factor Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF1) Plays a Key Role in the Terminal Effector Pathways of Human Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ratana; Tran, Ha Thi; Liong, Stella; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth is the largest single cause of neonatal death and morbidity. By activating cytokine- and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling pathways, infection and/or inflammation are strongly associated with preterm delivery. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) is an important regulator of the inflammatory response. The aims of this study were to establish the effect of 1) labor on IRF1 expression in human fetal membranes and myometrium, 2) prolabor mediators on IRF1 expression and activity, and 3) IRF1 small interfering RNA on the expression of prolabor mediators. IRF1 expression was higher in fetal membranes and myometrium after spontaneous term labor and in preterm fetal membranes with infection. The proinflammatory cytokine IL1B, the bacterial product fsl-1, and viral analog polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly [I:C]) significantly increased IRF1 mRNA expression and transcriptional activity in human primary myometrial cells. In addition, IL1B increased IRF1 activity in primary amnion cells. IRF1 silencing in myometrial cells decreased IL1B-, fsl-1-, and poly (I:C)-induced cytokine (IL6, TNF, IL1B) and chemokine (CXCL8, CCL2) mRNA expression and IL6, CXCL8, and CCL2 release. IL1B-, fsl-1-, and poly (I:C)-induced PTGS2 mRNA expression and IL1B-induced prostaglandin release was also decreased by IRF1 silencing. In conclusion, IRF1 upregulation in fetal membranes and myometrium after term labor indicates a proinflammatory role for IRF1 in human parturition. IRF1 is involved in TLR- and cytokine-mediated signaling in human myometrium. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms associated with inflammation- and infection-associated preterm birth. IRF1 inhibitors as therapeutics for the management of spontaneous preterm birth warrants further investigation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. Multiple scales modelling approaches to social interaction in crowd dynamics and crisis management. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucu, Dumitru

    2016-09-01

    In this comprehensive review concerning the modelling of human behaviours in crowd dynamics [3], the authors explore a wide range of mathematical approaches spanning over multiple scales that are suitable to describe emerging crowd behaviours in extreme situations. Focused on deciphering the key aspects leading to emerging crowd patterns evolutions in challenging times such as those requiring an evacuation on a complex venue, the authors address this complex dynamics at both microscale (individual level), mesoscale (probability distributions of interacting individuals), and macroscale (population level), ultimately aiming to gain valuable understanding and knowledge that would inform decision making in managing crisis situations.

  18. In vivo passive mechanical behaviour of muscle fascicles and tendons in human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert D; Clarke, Jillian; Kwah, Li Khim; Diong, Joanna; Martin, Josh; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the length of muscle fascicles in human gastrocnemius muscles while the muscle was passively lengthened and shortened by moving the ankle. In some subjects the muscle belly 'buckled' at short lengths. When the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit was passively lengthened from its shortest in vivo length by dorsiflexing the ankle, increases in muscle-tendon length were not initially accompanied by increases in muscle fascicle lengths (fascicle length remained constant), indicating muscle fascicles were slack at short muscle-tendon lengths. The muscle-tendon length at which slack is taken up differs among fascicles: some fascicles begin to lengthen at very short muscle-tendon lengths whereas other fascicles remain slack over a large range of muscle-tendon lengths. This suggests muscle fascicles are progressively 'recruited' and contribute sequentially to muscle-tendon stiffness during passive lengthening of the muscle-tendon unit. Even above their slack lengths muscle fascicles contribute only a small part (tendon length. The contribution of muscle fascicles to muscle-tendon length increases with muscle length. The novelty of this work is that it reveals a previously unrecognised phenomenon (buckling at short lengths), posits a new mechanism of passive mechanical properties of muscle (recruitment of muscle fascicles), and confirms with high-resolution measurements that the passive compliance of human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units is due largely to the tendon. It would be interesting to investigate if adaptations of passive properties of muscles are associated with changes in the distribution of muscle lengths at which fascicles fall slack.

  19. Sensing behaviour in healthcare design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Hysse Forchhammer, Birgitte; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We are entering an era of distributed healthcare that should fit and respond to individual needs, behaviour and lifestyles. Designing such systems is a challenging task that requires continuous information about human behaviour on a large scale, for which pervasive sensing (e.g. using smartphones...... specifically on activity and location data that can easily be obtained from smartphones or wearables. We further demonstrate how these are applied in healthcare design using an example from dementia care. Comparing a current and proposed scenario exemplifies how integrating sensor-derived information about...... user behaviour can support the healthcare design goals of personalisation, adaptability and scalability, while emphasising patient quality of life....

  20. Generating adaptive behaviour within a memory-prediction framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rawlinson

    Full Text Available The Memory-Prediction Framework (MPF and its Hierarchical-Temporal Memory implementation (HTM have been widely applied to unsupervised learning problems, for both classification and prediction. To date, there has been no attempt to incorporate MPF/HTM in reinforcement learning or other adaptive systems; that is, to use knowledge embodied within the hierarchy to control a system, or to generate behaviour for an agent. This problem is interesting because the human neocortex is believed to play a vital role in the generation of behaviour, and the MPF is a model of the human neocortex.We propose some simple and biologically-plausible enhancements to the Memory-Prediction Framework. These cause it to explore and interact with an external world, while trying to maximize a continuous, time-varying reward function. All behaviour is generated and controlled within the MPF hierarchy. The hierarchy develops from a random initial configuration by interaction with the world and reinforcement learning only. Among other demonstrations, we show that a 2-node hierarchy can learn to successfully play "rocks, paper, scissors" against a predictable opponent.

  1. Generating adaptive behaviour within a memory-prediction framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, David; Kowadlo, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Memory-Prediction Framework (MPF) and its Hierarchical-Temporal Memory implementation (HTM) have been widely applied to unsupervised learning problems, for both classification and prediction. To date, there has been no attempt to incorporate MPF/HTM in reinforcement learning or other adaptive systems; that is, to use knowledge embodied within the hierarchy to control a system, or to generate behaviour for an agent. This problem is interesting because the human neocortex is believed to play a vital role in the generation of behaviour, and the MPF is a model of the human neocortex.We propose some simple and biologically-plausible enhancements to the Memory-Prediction Framework. These cause it to explore and interact with an external world, while trying to maximize a continuous, time-varying reward function. All behaviour is generated and controlled within the MPF hierarchy. The hierarchy develops from a random initial configuration by interaction with the world and reinforcement learning only. Among other demonstrations, we show that a 2-node hierarchy can learn to successfully play "rocks, paper, scissors" against a predictable opponent.

  2. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  3. Role Playing and Skits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  4. The Play's the Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The modern special education theater in the United States has hosted many plays, none with a larger or more diverse cast than the learning disabilities (LD) play. During the prologue, the children with LD were waiting in the wings, not yet identified as LD but there, nonetheless. With the advent of compulsory education in this country, awareness…

  5. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children. ...

  6. Play as Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  7. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  8. Family Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  9. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  10. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... imply several opportunities and challenges within education and beyond....

  11. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  12. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  13. Let's Just Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  14. The classical and alternative pathways of complement activation play distinct roles in spontaneous C3 fragment deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation on human B lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The contributions of the classical (CP) and alternative (AP) pathways of complement activation to the spontaneous deposition of C3 fragments and the formation of membrane attack complexes (MAC) on human B lymphocytes, were assessed by incubating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with autologous ...... of MAC formation was also found to be highly pathway dependent, with the AP being about 15-fold more efficient at initiating this process than the CP. A model accounting for the effectiveness of the AP in both preserving C3 fragment integrity and initiating MAC is presented....

  15. Playing to Learn: A Qualitative Analysis of Bilingual Pupil-Pupil Talk during Board Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores what happens when bilingual learners come together to play a board game specially designed to facilitate an interactive context in which the learning of English as a second or additional language is promoted. An example of the interactive behaviour of one group of bilingual learners is then presented in order to illustrate such…

  16. Evaluating the predictability of the in vitro transfer model and in vivo rat studies as a surrogate to investigate the supersaturation and precipitation behaviour of different Albendazole formulations for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Aaron; Holm, René; Kostewicz, Edmund S

    2017-07-15

    The present study investigated the ability of the in vitro transfer model and an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats to investigate the supersaturation and precipitation behaviour of albendazole (ABZ) relative to data from a human intestinal aspiration study reported in the literature. Two lipid based formulation systems, a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) solution and the addition of a crystallization inhibitor (HPMC-E5) on the behaviour of ABZ was investigated. These formulations were investigated to represent differences in their ability to facilitate supersaturation within the small intestine. Overall, both the in vitro transfer model and the in vivo rat study were able to rank order the formulations (as aqueous suspension±HPMCsupersaturation and precipitation behaviour of ABZ using the different formulation strategies, could be attained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced in vitro angiogenic behaviour of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on thermally oxidized TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ai Wen; Liau, Ling Ling; Chua, Kien Hui; Ahmad, Roslina; Akbar, Sheikh Ali; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2016-02-01

    One of the major challenges in bone grafting is the lack of sufficient bone vascularization. A rapid and stable bone vascularization at an early stage of implantation is essential for optimal functioning of the bone graft. To address this, the ability of in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces fabricated via thermal oxidation method to enhance the angiogenic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. The cellular responses of HUVECs on TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces were studied through cell adhesion, cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation, growth factors secretion (VEGF and BFGF), and angiogenic-endogenic-associated gene (VEGF, VEGFR2, BFGF, PGF, HGF, Ang-1, VWF, PECAM-1 and ENOS) expression analysis after 2 weeks of cell seeding. Our results show that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, formation of capillary-like tube networks and growth factors secretion of HUVECs, as well as leading to higher expression level of all angiogenic-endogenic-associated genes, in comparison to unmodified control surfaces. These beneficial effects suggest the potential use of such surface nanostructures to be utilized as an advantageous interface for bone grafts as they can promote angiogenesis, which improves bone vascularization.

  18. Multi-agent Model of Trust in a Human Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Meijer, S.A.; Tykhonov, D.; Verwaart, D.

    2006-01-01

    Individual-level trust is formalized within the context of a multi-agent system that models human behaviour with respect to trust in the Trust and Tracing Game. This is a trade game on commodity supply chains and networks, designed as a reserach tool and to be played by human players. The model of t

  19. Serological evidence that activation of ubiquitous human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) plays a role in chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, D H

    2016-02-01

    Acute infection with viral pathogens in the herpesviridae family can trigger acute urticaria, and reactivation of herpesviridae is associated with cutaneous urticarial-like syndromes such as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Reactivation of latent herpesviridae has not been studied systematically in chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU). This review proposes that CIU is an inflammatory disorder with autoimmune features (termed 'CVU' for chronic viral urticaria), based on serology consistent with the hypothesis that reactivation of a latent herpesvirus or -viruses may play a role in CIU. Serology obtained from a cohort of omalizumab (Xolair)-dependent patients with severe CIU was consistent with previous HHV-6 infection, persistent viral gene expression and replication. CIU patients also exhibited serological evidence of increased immune response to HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus, or EBV) but not all CIU patients were infected with EBV. These observations, combined with case reports of CIU response to anti-viral therapy, suggest that HHV-6, possibly interacting with HHV-4 in cutaneous tissues, is a candidate for further prospective study as a co-factor in CIU.

  20. Metabolic and Behavioural Phenotypes in Nestin-Cre Mice Are Caused by Hypothalamic Expression of Human Growth Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Declercq

    Full Text Available The Nestin-Cre driver mouse line has mild hypopituitarism, reduced body weight, a metabolic phenotype and reduced anxiety. Although several causes have been suggested, a comprehensive explanation is still lacking. In this study we examined the molecular mechanisms leading to this compound phenotype. Upon generation of the Nestin-Cre mice, the human growth hormone (hGH minigene was inserted downstream of the Cre recombinase to ensure efficient transgene expression. As a result, hGH is expressed in the hypothalamus. This results in the auto/paracrine activation of the GH receptor as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 and reduced expression of growth hormone releasing hormone (Ghrh. Low Ghrh levels cause hypopituitarism consistent with the observed mouse growth hormone (mGH deficiency. mGH deficiency caused reduced activation of the GH receptor and hence reduced phosphorylation of STAT5 in the liver. This led to decreased levels of hepatic Igf-1 mRNA and consequently postnatal growth retardation. Furthermore, genes involved in lipid uptake and synthesis, such as CD36 and very low-density lipoprotein receptor were upregulated, resulting in liver steatosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the unexpected expression of hGH in the hypothalamus of Nestin-Cre mice which is able to activate both the GH receptor and the prolactin receptor. Increased hypothalamic GH receptor signaling explains the observed hypopituitarism, reduced growth and metabolic phenotype of Nestin-Cre mice. Activation of either receptor is consistent with reduced anxiety.

  1. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrates wall shear stress dependent behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinuzzi Robert M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an increasingly prevalent pathogen capable of causing severe vascular infections. The goal of this work was to investigate the role of shear stress in early adhesion events. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were exposed to MRSA for 15-60 minutes and shear stresses of 0-1.2 Pa in a parallel plate flow chamber system. Confocal microscopy stacks were captured and analyzed to assess the number of MRSA. Flow chamber parameters were validated using micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV and computational fluid dynamics modelling (CFD. Results Under static conditions, MRSA adhered to, and were internalized by, more than 80% of HUVEC at 15 minutes, and almost 100% of the cells at 1 hour. At 30 minutes, there was no change in the percent HUVEC infected between static and low flow (0.24 Pa, but a 15% decrease was seen at 1.2 Pa. The average number of MRSA per HUVEC decreased 22% between static and 0.24 Pa, and 37% between 0.24 Pa and 1.2 Pa. However, when corrected for changes in bacterial concentration near the surface due to flow, bacteria per area was shown to increase at 0.24 Pa compared to static, with a subsequent decline at 1.2 Pa. Conclusions This study demonstrates that MRSA adhesion to endothelial cells is strongly influenced by flow conditions and time, and that MSRA adhere in greater numbers to regions of low shear stress. These areas are common in arterial bifurcations, locations also susceptible to generation of atherosclerosis.

  2. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-04-11

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α(-/-) cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α(-/-) cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α(-/-) cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration).

  3. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...

  4. Improved predictive ability of climate-human-behaviour interactions with modifications to the COMFA outdoor energy budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J. K.; Warland, J. S.; Gillespie, T. J.; Kenny, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement current and novel research techniques in human energy budget estimations to give more accurate and efficient application of models by a variety of users. Using the COMFA model, the conditioning level of an individual is incorporated into overall energy budget predictions, giving more realistic estimations of the metabolism experienced at various fitness levels. Through the use of VO2 reserve estimates, errors are found when an elite athlete is modelled as an unconditioned or a conditioned individual, giving budgets underpredicted significantly by -173 and -123 W m-2, respectively. Such underprediction can result in critical errors regarding heat stress, particularly in highly motivated individuals; thus this revision is critical for athletic individuals. A further improvement in the COMFA model involves improved adaptation of clothing insulation ( I cl), as well clothing non-uniformity, with changing air temperature ( T a) and metabolic activity ( M act). Equivalent T a values (for I cl estimation) are calculated in order to lower the I cl value with increasing M act at equal T a. Furthermore, threshold T a values are calculated to predict the point at which an individual will change from a uniform I cl to a segmented I cl (full ensemble to shorts and a T-shirt). Lastly, improved relative velocity ( v r) estimates were found with a refined equation accounting for the degree angle of wind to body movement. Differences between the original and improved v r equations increased with higher wind and activity speeds, and as the wind to body angle moved away from 90°. Under moderate microclimate conditions, and wind from behind a person, the convective heat loss and skin temperature estimates were 47 W m-2 and 1.7°C higher when using the improved v r equation. These model revisions improve the applicability and usability of the COMFA energy budget model for subjects performing physical activity in outdoor environments

  5. Developmental trends in children's pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytinen, P

    1991-01-01

    The developmental trends in pretend play were investigated in children 2-6 years of age (18 in each of five age groups) by examining changes in pretend action and speech separately. Play behaviour was assessed by using a selected set of Duplo Lego toys. Interest focused on occurrence of decentration, decontextualization and integration at different age levels. The proportions of decentred and decontextualized acts, action integrations and play themes, increased linearly with age. Changes in substitutive and inventive actions were, however, more minor than expected. Single-scheme combinations did not reveal any essential aspect of the development of children's symbolic competence. In this sense, multischeme combinations were more important in revealing the children's way of organizing toy material. Linear age trends were not found for language measures. The use of decentred utterances, language integrations and linguistically expressed themes were individual-specific rather than age-related. Issues for studying pretend play in language-impaired groups are also suggested.

  6. Behavioural determinants of work accidents and absenteeism in a metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to offer an interpretation of the relationship between accidents and employee absenteeism in terms of quantitative (statistical data on accidents and absenteeism and qualitative (study of employee attitudes evaluation. It has been assumed that the description using the results obtained from one group only is incomplete, because the rate of accidents is affected by the attitude of the staff, and in describing the behaviour of employees, the indicators of quality play an important role. The growing popularity of studies on employee behaviour results from the growing importance of human resources in companies. A metallurgical enterprise was selected for the case study.

  7. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults....... The inspiration for this book was the 3-section EFPP conference in Copenhagen in May 2007 with the main theme "Play and Power". At the conference and in the book, this theme is presented both inside and outside the therapeutic space. It is amply illustrated in clinical cases from individual psychotherapies....... Play and power are also explored in the broader context of the community, however. In relation to society at large, psychoanalytic psychotherapy has important contributions to offer society, and we need playful creativity and power to bring forward our knowledge about it....

  8. Cosmetic perfumes vs. human pheromones (natural chemical scents) of the human female and male in signalling and performing context of their sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaviacic, M; Sisovsky, V; Zaviacic, T

    2009-01-01

    Scent communication in man is undoubtedly of importance, although it is unconscious, rather than active, as compared to subhuman primates. Besides human sexual life it also affects a number of further characteristics of human life and its infrastructure including the mother-child relationship, creation of the odour basis of the family with the possibility to identify the family members solely by their odour as well as other parameters investigated thus far. Pheromones have effect upon the selection of a suitable partner of the opposite sex (or of the same sex in homosexual partners). The formation of specifically significant responses during communication between the two sexes, first of all in sexual life and its manifestations, may also be influenced by pheromone-based perfumes or classical cosmetic perfumes, as far as they are selected and used appropriately. The situation is much easier if the partners are of the olfactory type where for both partners the mutual olfactory parameters are the most attractive for their sexual life and its parameters, which significantly contributes to the quality of their overall coexistence (Ref. 29).

  9. IGF-1 Signaling Plays an Important Role in the Formation of Three-Dimensional Laminated Neural Retina and Other Ocular Structures From Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellough, Carla B; Collin, Joseph; Khazim, Mahmoud; White, Kathryn; Sernagor, Evelyne; Steel, David H W; Lako, Majlinda

    2015-08-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that retinal cells can be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells under defined culture conditions. While both cell types can give rise to retinal derivatives in the absence of inductive cues, this requires extended culture periods and gives lower overall yield. Further understanding of this innate differentiation ability, the identification of key factors that drive the differentiation process, and the development of clinically compatible culture conditions to reproducibly generate functional neural retina is an important goal for clinical cell based therapies. We now report that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can orchestrate the formation of three-dimensional ocular-like structures from hESCs which, in addition to retinal pigmented epithelium and neural retina, also contain primitive lens and corneal-like structures. Inhibition of IGF-1 receptor signaling significantly reduces the formation of optic vesicle and optic cups, while exogenous IGF-1 treatment enhances the formation of correctly laminated retinal tissue composed of multiple retinal phenotypes that is reminiscent of the developing vertebrate retina. Most importantly, hESC-derived photoreceptors exhibit advanced maturation features such as the presence of primitive rod- and cone-like photoreceptor inner and outer segments and phototransduction-related functional responses as early as 6.5 weeks of differentiation, making these derivatives promising candidates for cell replacement studies and in vitro disease modeling.

  10. Urokinase plasminogen receptor and the fibrinolytic complex play a role in nerve repair after nerve crush in mice, and in human neuropathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rivellini

    Full Text Available Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM is a critical step in peripheral nerve regeneration. In fact, in human neuropathies, endoneurial ECM enriched in fibrin and vitronectin associates with poor regeneration and worse clinical prognosis. Accordingly in animal models, modification of the fibrinolytic complex activity has profound effects on nerve regeneration: high fibrinolytic activity and low levels of fibrin correlate with better nerve regeneration. The urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR is a major component of the fibrinolytic complex, and binding to urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA promotes fibrinolysis and cell movement. uPAR is expressed in peripheral nerves, however, little is known on its potential function on nerve development and regeneration. Thus, we investigated uPAR null mice and observed that uPAR is dispensable for nerve development, whereas, loss of uPAR affects nerve regeneration. uPAR null mice showed reduced nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. This was a consequence of reduced fibrinolytic activity and increased deposition of endoneurial fibrin and vitronectin. Exogenous fibrinolysis in uPAR null mice rescued nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. Finally, we measured the fibrinolytic activity in sural nerve biopsies from patients with peripheral neuropathies. We showed that neuropathies with defective regeneration had reduced fibrinolytic activity. On the contrary, neuropathies with signs of active regeneration displayed higher fibrinolytic activity. Overall, our results suggest that enforced fibrinolysis may facilitate regeneration and outcome of peripheral neuropathies.

  11. Urokinase Plasminogen Receptor and the Fibrinolytic Complex Play a Role in Nerve Repair after Nerve Crush in Mice, and in Human Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellini, Cristina; Dina, Giorgia; Porrello, Emanuela; Cerri, Federica; Scarlato, Marina; Domi, Teuta; Ungaro, Daniela; Carro, Ubaldo Del; Bolino, Alessandra; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Previtali, Stefano C.

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in peripheral nerve regeneration. In fact, in human neuropathies, endoneurial ECM enriched in fibrin and vitronectin associates with poor regeneration and worse clinical prognosis. Accordingly in animal models, modification of the fibrinolytic complex activity has profound effects on nerve regeneration: high fibrinolytic activity and low levels of fibrin correlate with better nerve regeneration. The urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) is a major component of the fibrinolytic complex, and binding to urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) promotes fibrinolysis and cell movement. uPAR is expressed in peripheral nerves, however, little is known on its potential function on nerve development and regeneration. Thus, we investigated uPAR null mice and observed that uPAR is dispensable for nerve development, whereas, loss of uPAR affects nerve regeneration. uPAR null mice showed reduced nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. This was a consequence of reduced fibrinolytic activity and increased deposition of endoneurial fibrin and vitronectin. Exogenous fibrinolysis in uPAR null mice rescued nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. Finally, we measured the fibrinolytic activity in sural nerve biopsies from patients with peripheral neuropathies. We showed that neuropathies with defective regeneration had reduced fibrinolytic activity. On the contrary, neuropathies with signs of active regeneration displayed higher fibrinolytic activity. Overall, our results suggest that enforced fibrinolysis may facilitate regeneration and outcome of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:22363796

  12. Yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG, plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle and actin dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Sun Kang

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the human XPG gene cause Cockayne syndrome (CS and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP. Transcription defects have been suggested as the fundamental cause of CS; however, defining CS as a transcription syndrome is inconclusive. In particular, the function of XPG in transcription has not been clearly demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of RAD2, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart of XPG, in cell cycle regulation and efficient actin assembly following ultraviolet irradiation. RAD2 C-terminal deletion, which resembles the XPG mutation found in XPG/CS cells, caused cell growth arrest, the cell cycle stalling, a defective α-factor response, shortened lifespan, cell polarity defect, and misregulated actin-dynamics after DNA damage. Overexpression of the C-terminal 65 amino acids of Rad2p was sufficient to induce hyper-cell polarization. In addition, RAD2 genetically interacts with TPM1 during cell polarization. These results provide insights into the role of RAD2 in post-UV irradiation cell cycle regulation and actin assembly, which may be an underlying cause of XPG/CS.

  13. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  14. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  15. Some aspects on kinetic modeling of evacuation dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Juan; Nieto, Juanjo

    2016-09-01

    The management of human crowds in extreme situations is a complex subject which requires to take into account a variety of factors. To name a few, the understanding of human behaviour, the psychological and behavioural features of individuals, the quality of the venue and the stress level of the pedestrian need to be addressed in order to select the most appropriate action during an evacuation process on a complex venue. In this sense, the mathematical modeling of such complex phenomena can be regarded as a very useful tool to understand and predict these situations. As presented in [4], mathematical models can provide guidance to the personnel in charge of managing evacuation processes, by means of helping to design a set of protocols, among which the most appropriate during a given critical situation is then chosen.

  16. 'Goats that stare at men': dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to human head orientation, but do not spontaneously use head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, comparative research on the mechanisms and species-specific adaptive values of attributing attentive states and using communicative cues has gained increased interest, particularly in non-human primates, birds, and dogs. Here, we investigate these phenomena in a farm animal species, the dwarf goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). In the first experiment, we investigated the effects of different human head and body orientations, as well as human experimenter presence/absence, on the behaviour of goats in a food-anticipating paradigm. Over a 30-s interval, the experimenter engaged in one of four different postures or behaviours (head and body towards the subject-'Control', head to the side, head and body away from the subject, or leaving the room) before delivering a reward. We found that the level of subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the control condition and decreased with a decreasing level of attention paid to the subject by the experimenter. Additionally, goats 'stared' (i.e. stood alert) at the experimental set-up for significantly more time when the experimenter was present but paid less attention to the subject ('Head' and 'Back' condition) than in the 'Control' and 'Out' conditions. In a second experiment, the experimenter provided different human-given cues that indicated the location of a hidden food reward in a two-way object choice task. Goats were able to use both 'Touch' and 'Point' cues to infer the correct location of the reward but did not perform above the level expected by chance in the 'Head only' condition. We conclude that goats are able to differentiate among different body postures of a human, including head orientation; however, despite their success at using multiple physical human cues, they fail to spontaneously use human head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

  17. The design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction and human immunodeficiency virus prevention videogame intervention in minority adolescents: PlayForward: Elm City Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiellin, Lynn E; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Duncan, Lindsay R; Dziura, James D; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, David A

    2016-08-01

    To address the need for risk behavior reduction and human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions that capture adolescents "where they live," we created a tablet-based videogame to teach skills and knowledge and influence psychosocial antecedents for decreasing risk and preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection in minority youth in schools, after-school programs, and summer camps. We developed PlayForward: Elm City Stories over a 2-year period, working with researchers, commercial game designers, and staff and teens from community programs. The videogame PlayForward provides an interactive world where players, using an avatar, "travel" through time, facing challenges such as peer pressure to drink alcohol or engage in risky sexual behaviors. Players experience how their choices affect their future and then are able to go back in time and change their choices, creating different outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of PlayForward. Participants were randomly assigned to play PlayForward or a set of attention/time control games on a tablet at their community-based program. Assessment data were collected during face-to-face study visits and entered into a web-based platform and unique real-time "in-game" PlayForward data were collected as players engaged in the game. The innovative methods of this randomized controlled trial are described. We highlight the logistical issues of conducting a large-scale trial using mobile technology such as the iPad(®), and collecting, transferring, and storing large amounts of in-game data. We outline the methods used to analyze the in-game data alone and in conjunction with standardized assessment data to establish correlations between behaviors during gameplay and those reported in real life. We also describe the use of the in-game data as a measure of fidelity to the intervention. In total, 333 boys and girls, aged 11-14 years, were randomized over a 14-month period: 166 were

  18. The interactions between rat-adipose-derived stromal cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and beta-tricalcium phosphate play an important role in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Ling-Ling; Xu, Lu-Lu; Wu, Xia; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Lv, Yan; Wang, Jia-Zhu; Liu, Hong-Chen

    2010-09-01

    Cells, scaffolds, and growth factors are the three main factors for creating a stem-cell-based tissue-engineered construct, but the interactions between three factors are not very clear. We hereby explored the interactions between rat-adipose-derived stromal cells (rASCs), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) to provide evidence for their application in bone tissue engineering by evaluating the protein adsorption of beta-TCP, the cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, mineral formation, calcium content, phosphonium content, cell vitality, gene expression, and implantation in the backs of severe combined immunodeficient mice of rhBMP-2 preinducing rASCs seeded onto beta-TCP. The results showed that beta-TCP could adsorb the proteins from the media. The attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic properties of rASCs were supported by beta-TCP, as revealed using scanning electron microscopy. Compared with rASCs cultured on the culture plate, rASCs cultured on beta-TCP had significantly higher ALP activity/protein, OCN content, and mineral formation. These values for rASCs cultured on beta-TCP with rhBMP-2 increased most significantly. The rhBMP-2 significantly increased the calcium content, phosphonium content, and ALP, type I collagen, and OCN mRNA levels of rASCs cultured on beta-TCP. The methylthiazol tetrazolium method revealed that the vitality of rASCs cultured on beta-TCP with or without rhBMP-2 for 4, 7, and 28 days in vitro was insignificantly different. After 8 and 12 weeks of implantation, each group displayed increased bone formation over the 12-week period. The percentage of the new bone formed areas for beta-TCP/rhBMP-2 and beta-TCP was not significantly different. This value for rASCs/beta-TCP construct was significantly higher than that for beta-TCP group, but the maximal and robust bone formation was presented in rASCs/beta-TCP with rhBMP-2

  19. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  20. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  1. A fire safety engineering perspective on crowd evacuation dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The review presented by Bellomo et al. [1] addresses the modelling approaches employed to represent human behaviour in evacuation in a comprehensive manner. The authors discuss crowd evacuation modelling in light of crisis management, a relevant and current topic given the recent escalation of terrorist threats all over the world. The need for designing buildings for rapid evacuation using crowd evacuation models has been recently raised in important forums [2]. This research area is strictly linked to the field of Fire Safety Engineering.

  2. Believable bots can computers play like people?

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book shows how to create believable bots that play computer games and discusses the implications of making them appear human. It examines significant issues in AI: Is a bot that plays like a person intelligent? Does it have emotions? Is it conscious?

  3. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  4. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...... recent collaborative projects that the TANTlab has participated in. The projects differ widely and testify to different experiences with collaboration and intervention – from a data print on obesity with other researchers to a Facebook-driven intervention in Aalborg municipality’s primary school reform...

  5. 44 The Habitat and Behavioural Environment of Onchocerciasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    The Habitat and Behavioural Environment of Onchocerciasis in Patigi Local ... physical and socio-economic factors of vulnerability to onchocerciasis in Patigi ... from its effects on the human body, ..... population and cultural behaviour forms.

  6. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola J. Christofides; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary bac...

  7. To Play with Mammets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigmore, George T.

    Development of the creative, emotive, critical, and aesthetic skills can offer a way of looking at human experience--a philosophy of Henri Bergson--different from that offered by science and logic. The development of such skills is the goal of the humanities program, and a survey of over 500 exemplary programs indicated a number of characteristics…

  8. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    , human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...... management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials...

  9. Communities of Play - a collective unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    support organizations in solving present day challenges, such as learning, communication, innovation and collaboration. But before talking about solving anything, this paper argues – primarily through the perspective of Gadamer – that it is equally intriguing to look into what play as a universal life......This paper discusses the role of play in organizations and its ability to create a community of play regarded as a group of people deeply engaged in play. The elaboration is based on an empirical study of adults playing in the Danish international toy company LEGO. The study confirms that play can....... By introducing the new term ‘community of play’ into the discussion of play among adults in organizational contexts, the paper tries to spark an existential inquiry into the more intangible and human aspects of organizations....

  10. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  11. Playing the Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The G20 London summit made history. While applauding the summit’s productive communique, Ni Xiaoling, senior financial observer with Xinhua News Agency, warns of the gap between the greater responsibilities the International Monetary Fund shoulders and its limited capabilities to play the role of coordinator in economic globalization.

  12. Abstraction through Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  13. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...

  14. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  15. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  16. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  17. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links betwe...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models.......For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...

  18. Molecular genetic studies of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in human behaviour: from autism to altruism with some notes in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Shalev, Idan; Uzefovsky, Florina; Reibold, Mathias; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Granot, Roni; Bornstein, Gary; Knafo, Ariel; Yirmiya, Nurit; Ebstein, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    Converging evidence from both human and animal studies has highlighted the pervasive role of two neuropeptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in mammalian social behaviours. Recent molecular genetic studies of the human arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin (OXTR) receptors have strengthened the evidence regarding the role of these two neuropeptides in a range of normal and pathological behaviours. Significant association between both AVPR1a repeat regions and OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with risk for autism has been provisionally shown which was mediated by socialization skills in our study. AVPR1a has also been linked to eating behaviour in both clinical and non-clinical groups, perhaps reflecting the social and ritualistic side of eating behaviour. Evidence also suggests that repeat variations in AVPR1a are associated with two other social domains in Homo sapiens: music and altruism. AVPR1a was associated with dance and musical cognition which we theorize as reflecting the ancient role of this hormone in social interactions executed by vocalization, ritual movement and dyadic (mother-offspring) and group communication. Finally, we have shown that individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game, a laboratory game of pure altruism, is predicted by length of the AVPR1a RS3 promoter-region repeat echoing the mechanism of this hormone's action in the vole model of affiliative behaviours and facilitation of positive group interactions. While still in its infancy, the current outlook for molecular genetic investigations of AVP-OXT continues to be fascinating. Future studies should profitably focus on pharmacogenomic and genomic imaging strategies facilitated by the ease and efficacy of manipulating AVP-OXT neurotransmission by intranasal administration. Importantly, physiological measures, behavioural paradigms and brain activation can be informed by considering between-group and also within-group individual

  19. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    -style are not easily achieved, however. In a report issued by United Na-tions Secretary-General Kofi Annan in preparation for the Johannesburg Summit it was concluded that "Progress towards the goals established at Rio has been slower than anticipated and in some respects conditions are worse than they were ten years...... for the environmental cause, but for facilitating environmentally responsible behaviour in many specific ways. Research dealing with the diverse roles of information in the environmental field shows a need to distinguish between different forms and objectives of information, but also, it needs to be stressed......, that information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication...

  20. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  1. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  2. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  3. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.

  4. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...... study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...

  5. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities......, about what happens to our users when research is over, funds are gone and the curtain of experiments has fallen. Dr Brooks presented the case of a young user who while unable to move and communicate had to part with the test device that provided him with interactive playful experience. We’ve all been...... confined in a house. For researchers that work with people with disabilities and in my case with playful interactions and positive immersive experience, we might have to think harder when we write project proposals or sketch our methodology. Devices, software and experience should be available to the users...

  6. Rebel bij design: the merits of rebellious play and how to design for it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Play as a behavioural domain is characterized by freedom and flexibility, which contribute to both short-term and lasting wellbeing. Children play increasingly under supervision of adults, who generally perceive rough and rebellious behaviour negatively. The paper argues that also rebelliousness is

  7. Young Mothers' Play with Their Toddlers: Individual Variability as a Function of Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Joan Riley; Easterbrooks, M. Ann

    2007-01-01

    There is no one style of parenting which characterizes young mothers as a group. In addition, life circumstances play an important role in shaping maternal behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of maternal play behaviour and contextual (social and personal) factors associated with these different patterns. In this study, 107…

  8. Organizational Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joe

    Designed as an introduction to industrial psychology, this work ties the findings and theories of individual and social psychology, human relations, and group dynamics to the behavior of executives and other members of large organizations. Such aspects and concerns as personality, leadership roles and styles, conformity, productivity, differing…

  9. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  10. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  11. Human Avatars in Playful and Humorous Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Chung, WJ.; Sungsoo Shin, C.

    2016-01-01

    In future smart environments sensors and actuators know about the environment’s inhabitants and visitors. This knowledge allows them to predict and suggest activities and behavior and even to take care that certain activities and behavior are enforced on inhabitants and visitors. For example, in a p

  12. Human Avatars in Playful and Humorous Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Chung, WJ.; Sungsoo Shin, C.

    2016-01-01

    In future smart environments sensors and actuators know about the environment’s inhabitants and visitors. This knowledge allows them to predict and suggest activities and behavior and even to take care that certain activities and behavior are enforced on inhabitants and visitors. For example, in a

  13. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  14. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  15. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    . Unfortunately if donated in the school they are rarely being used by the students. In the case of virtual reality or artistic installations it is extremely difficult to provide such equipment to users. Last but not least we are not sure how the software will be used and if the experience will continue...... after the conduct of the research. If not due to restrictions, user should at least continue to be part of the research’s debrief and next steps. While I was in Nottingham I realised that sometimes our research, our playful educational experience, our DIY VR helmet, our beta, glitchy, research-only game...

  16. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Embodied gaming has been adopted and gained credibility in the field of physical rehabilitation. In this paper, we report on findings from a six-month-long study of three groups of senior citizens, and their use of Nintendo Wii Fit in a supervised physical training context. We argue that the study...... participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However...

  17. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  18. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  19. Further steps in the modeling of behavioural crowd dynamics, good news for safe handling. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopoff, Damián A.

    2016-09-01

    The recent review paper [4] constitutes a valuable contribution on the understanding, modeling and simulation of crowd dynamics in extreme situations. It provides a very comprehensive revision about the complexity features of the system under consideration, scaling and the consequent justification of the used methods. In particular, macro and microscopic models have so far been used to model crowd dynamics [9] and authors appropriately explain that working at the mesoscale is a good choice to deal with the heterogeneous behaviour of walkers as well as with the difficulty of their deterministic identification. In this way, methods based on the kinetic theory and statistical dynamics are employed, more precisely the so-called kinetic theory for active particles [7]. This approach has successfully been applied in the modeling of several complex dynamics, with recent applications to learning [2,8] that constitutes the key to understand communication and is of great importance in social dynamics and behavioral sciences.

  20. Still playing the game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Krueger, Norris

    2005-01-01

    of organizational and leadership practices are influenced by one important type of human capital: namely socialization from being trained to compete in sports involving such factors as physical strength, speed, endurance, a competitive mind, strategizing and team spirit; all ingredients necessary in building a new...

  1. Effect of interactions with humans on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as contented on arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-10-01

    Sustained positive affect may decrease vulnerability to upper respiratory infections in cats admitted to a shelter. Incidence of upper respiratory infections was examined in cats rated as Content upon admission to an animal shelter when provided with or without treatment to sustain contentment. Ninety-six cats rated as Content upon admission were provided with either human interaction, including petting, playing, and grooming, in four 10min sessions/d for 10 days or were exposed to a control treatment of a human standing in front of the cage with eyes averted for the same period. Changes in emotional state and mucosal immune responses were measured daily in treated and control groups. Infectious status was determined upon admission and on days 4 and 10 using combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by quantitative real-time PCR for feline herpes virus type 1, feline calicivirus, Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The onset of upper respiratory disease (URD) was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, including ocular or nasal discharge. Treated cats were more likely to remain Content (Incident Rate Ratio [IRR]:1.13, Confidence Interval: 0.98-1.30, P <0.0001) and less likely to be rated as Anxious or Frustrated than Control cats over a 10 day period (IRR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88, P =0.007). Feline secretory IgA (S-IgA) quantified in faeces by ELISA techniques, was greater for Treated than Control cats (1451 Vs 846μg/g). Within the Treatment group, S-IgA was greater for cats that sustained Contentment throughout the study period compared to cats that became Anxious or Frustrated (1846 Vs 1394μg/g). An increasing proportion of Control than Treated cats shed pathogens over time (Control 22%, 36%, 61%; Treated 35%, 26%, 32% on d 1, 4 and 10, respectively; P =0.006). Control cats were more likely to develop URD than Treated cats (HR 2.9, CI: 1.30-6.67, P =0.01). Cats that responded positively to

  2. Playing The Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...... of a toilet)? what boosters may they obtain in the lobby (e.g. coffee, help, souvenirs, signs)? And how can we make this an enjoyable experience? The object of the games is to understand the lobby in a new way to identify problems, and think of ways to improve the functions, flow, and services of the lobby....

  3. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (SRCD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., t

  4. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (HBSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., p

  5. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (CAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., p

  6. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-07-28

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  7. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  8. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  9. Aggregatory behaviour of platelets incubated with subcellular fractions of normal and chagasic human syncytiotrophoblast Comportamento agregatório das plaquetas incubadas com frações subcelulares de sinciciotrofoblasto humano normal e chagásico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Eynard

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface of human syncytiotrophoblast does not induce maternal blood platelet aggregation even though it is not an endothelium. It can be surmised that as occurs in endothelial injury the subcellular components of the syncytiotrophoblast may have pro-or antiaggregatory activity. During congenital Chagas' disease which is associated to trophoblast lesions, platelets may play a role in the development of T. cruzi-induced placentitis. In the present work the aggregatory behaviour of normal human blood platelets was recorded after their challenging with subcellular fractions of syncytiotrophoblast isolated from normal and chagasic women. Nuclear, Mitochondrial, Microsomal and Supernatant fractions isolated from normal and chagasic syncytiotrophoblast failed to induce per se any aggregatory reaction on platelets. When samples of platelet-rich plasma (PRP were preincubated with normal and chagasic nuclear fractions and then stimulated with collagen at threshold level (CT-PRP an inhibition of the aggregatory response was observed. Treatment of CT-PRP with normal and chagasic mitochondrial fractions induced inhibition of platelet aggregation whereas only chagasic fraction reduced latency time. Microsornal fraction from normal placentas showed no significant effects on platelet aggregation. It is concluded that subcellular fractions of normal human syncytiotrophoblast do not exhibit any effect on platelet aggregation, whereas those subcellular fractions enriched in intracellular membrane components isolated from chagasic placentas inhibit platelet aggregation.A superficie do sinciciotrofoblasto humano não induz agregação das plaquetas maternas apesar de não ser um endotélio. Lesões endoteliais propiciam o aparecimento de agregados plaquetários, o que nos leva a questionar se os componentes subcelulares do sinciciotrofoblasto também poderiam propiciar eventos semelhantes. Na doença de Chagas congênita, que está associada a lesões a nivel de

  10. Still playing the game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Krueger, Norris

    2012-01-01

    This paper arose from a study exploring the contribution of various forms of capital to the development of the entrepreneurial firm. It centres on the influence of human capital, which constitutes the foundation of knowledge-based societies and bears on how entrepreneurs organize and manage new...... strength, speed, endurance, a competitive mind, strategizing and team spirit; all ingredients necessary in building a new business. The paper is based on two data sets, triangulating qualitative and quantitative data....

  11. Playing it Real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubert, Jens; Morrison, Ann; Munz, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Magic lens and static peephole interfaces are used in numerous consumer mobile phone applications such as Augmented Reality browsers, games or digital map applications in a variety of contexts including public spaces. Interface performance has been evaluated for various interaction tasks involving...... spatial relationships in a scene. However, interface usage outside laboratory conditions has not been considered in depth in the evaluation of these interfaces. We present findings about the usage of magic lens and static peephole interfaces for playing a find-and-select game in a public space and report...... on the reactions of the public audience to participants’ interactions. Contrary to our expectations participants favored the magic lens over a static peephole interface despite tracking errors, fatigue and potentially conspicuous gestures. Most passersby did not pay attention to the participants and vice versa...

  12. CpG methylation plays a vital role in determining tissue- and cell-specific expression of the human cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector A gene through the regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Da, Liang; Tang, Hong; Li, Tsaiping; Zhao, Mujun

    2008-01-01

    Cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector A (CIDE-A) belongs to a family of proapoptotic proteins, the expression of which is highly restricted in human tissues and cells. Here, the core region of the human CIDE-A promoter was characterized. Surprisingly, two Sp1/Sp3-binding sites, rather than tissue-specific transcription factors, were found to be required for the promoter activity. Although the ubiquitously expressed Sp1 and Sp3 were crucial, they alone could not adequately regulate the specific expression of CIDE-A. We found that the expression of CIDE-A was further regulated by CpG methylation of the promoter region. By performing bisulfite sequencing, we observed dense CpG methylation of the promoter region in tissues and cells with low or no expression of CIDE-A but not in tissues with high level of CIDE-A expression. In vitro methylation of this region showed significantly reduced transcriptional activity. Treatment of CIDE-A-negative cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylated the CpG sites; this opened the closed chromatin conformation and markedly enhanced the binding affinity of Sp1/Sp3 to the promoter in vivo, thereby restoring CIDE-A expression. These data indicated that CpG methylation plays a crucial role in establishing and maintaining tissue- and cell-specific transcription of the CIDE-A gene through the regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding.

  13. Relationship between verbal language and symbolic play - A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Segal

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic ability and play of  a language-impaired child were analysed to determine whether a breakdown in symbolic play occurs together with a language deficit. Observation of  play was conducted at the child's nursery school (unstructured situation and in a situation designed to elicit specific  play behaviours (structured situation. Imaginative play and its concomitants — affect,  mood variability, concentration, aggression and interaction — were rated along descriptive scales, while each individual play unit was scored for  organization of  behaviour. Syntactic, semantic and phonological aspects of  language were recorded during free  play and analyzed within a syntactic framework.  The normal developmental sequence provided the baseline of comparison for  both language and play. Results indicated a developmental lag in play and a linguistic deviation from the normal pattern, which supported the possibility of a general representational deficit.  A method for  incorporating symbolic play into a language programme was suggested and the necessity for  normative studies in this area was stressed.

  14. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angeline S Lillard

    2013-01-01

      Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning-pretend play, or fantasy-for young children...

  15. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  16. RESEARCH ON MOTIVATION MODEL BASED BEHAVIOUR SELECTION OF AUTONOMOUS VIRTUAL HUMAN%基于动机模型的自主性虚拟人行为选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰; 刘肖健

    2012-01-01

    Research on autonomous virtual human is a new field that integrates artificial life and computer animation together. But as a result, people' s psychological activity is a whole process, all of these parameters are interdependent and mutually influential, such as motivation, perception and so on, and current research is still local and limited. In this paper, a selection mechanism for autonomous behaviour of virtual human controlled by a simplified inhibition and fatigue model is proposed based on motivation model and use for reference on Maslow Theory. Experiments show that our method well solves the problem that how the virtual human makes arbitration and selection on behaviour among mutually inhibited behaviours in dynamic virtual environment with limited resources. Experiments also prove that this study can be applied to intelligent interaction and other fields.%自主性虚拟人的研究是人工生命和计算机动画交叉融合的新领域.但是由于人的心理活动是一个整体的过程,动机、感知等这些参数都是互有联系和影响的,目前的研究仍然只是局部和有限的.借鉴马斯洛理论,基于动机模型框架提出一种简化的抑制和疲劳模型控制的虚拟人自主行为选择机制,实验结果表明,该方法较好地解决了在资源有限的动态虚拟环境中,虚拟人如何在多个相互抑制的行为之间对行为进行仲裁和选择.经实验证明,该研究可以应用于智能交互领域.

  17. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  18. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  19. Modelling Reactive and Proactive Behaviour in Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the simulation model behaviour of a traditional and combined discrete event as well as agent based simulation models when modelling human reactive and proactive behaviour in human centric complex systems. A departmental store was chosen as human centric complex case study where the operation system of a fitting room in WomensWear department was investigated. We have looked at ways to determine the efficiency of new management policies for the fitting room operation through simulating the reactive and proactive behaviour of staff towards customers. Once development of the simulation models and their verification had been done, we carried out a validation experiment in the form of a sensitivity analysis. Subsequently, we executed a statistical analysis where the mixed reactive and proactive behaviour experimental results were compared with some reactive experimental results from previously published works. Generally, this case study discovered that simple proactive individual behaviou...

  20. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.