WorldWideScience

Sample records for human behaviour plays

  1. Instinct(ive) play behaviour in human and non-human players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirman, Hanna; Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    ), the part of instinctual also remains a mystery. In Wirman’s recent studies (e.g. Wirman 2015), however, we can recognise a human tendency to see ‘instinctive’ in animal behaviour while ‘play’ substitutes it in categorising human actions. This poses intriguing questions for multispecies game and play...... studies: Why is it commonsensical to label an animal’s touch screen interaction as ‘instinctive’? While we consider a human ‘playing’ a game? How much do we actually know about the instinctive aspects of human and non-human animal play behaviour? What is the specific importance and role of instincts...... in human play? What kind of definition of ‘instinctual’ is meaningful for the study of games and play? Finally, how to design for instinctual or for non-instinctual play? While many such questions remain out of the reach of a humanist or a design researcher, this paper aims to focus on one single aspect...

  2. Promoting positive states: the effect of early human handling on play and exploratory behaviour in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, M; Rehn, T; de Oliveira, D; Keeling, L J

    2016-01-01

    It is known that tactile stimulation (TS) during ontogeny modifies brain plasticity and enhances the motor and cognitive skills. Our hypothesis was that early handling including TS would increase play and exploratory behaviour in commercial pigs under standardized test conditions. Piglets from 13 litters were subjected to three handling treatments from 5 to 35 days of age: all the piglets were handled (H), none of the piglets were handled (NH) or half of the piglets in the litter were handled (50/50). At 42 days of age, the pigs' behaviour was observed in pairs in a novel pen with a 'toy' (tug rope). The main results were that more locomotor play was performed by pigs from litters where all or half of them had been handled, whereas social exploratory behaviour was more pronounced in pigs from litters where half of them had been handled. Although behaviour was affected by the interaction of treatment with sex or with weight category, we propose that the handling procedure does seem to have acted to increase locomotor skills and that handling half of the piglets in the litter may have triggered a series of socio-emotional interactions that were beneficial for the whole group.

  3. Cultural dimensions of children's games and play behaviour in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural dimensions of children's games and play behaviour in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. ... The socio-cultural analysis of games and play behaviour is an integral exponent of anthropological ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Indigenous games and play behaviour of children in Gauteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous games and play behaviour of children in Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... Research on play behaviour and games within the South African context has over the years been ad hoc, guided by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Children's Gendered Drawings of Play Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Tabasum; Lao, Mary Grace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    According to child psychologists, vital links exist between children's drawings and their emotional, social, and cognitive development. Previous research has explored the important relations between drawings and play in educational settings. Given the vast research that explores the ambiguous topic of children's play, according to Richer (1990),…

  6. Paradigms of children's play behaviour and the study of games ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's play behaviour and the study of games have since the 1800s attracted academic interest and scholarly research from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. This paper provides a theoretical framework explaining and conceptualising play-related phenomena to be utilized for cross-cultural comparisons in terms of ...

  7. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, H.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Functional integrity of the habenula is necessary for social play behaviour in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kerkhof, L.W.; Damsteegt, R.; Trezza, V.; Voorn, P.; Vanderschuren, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    During post-weaning development, a marked increase in peer-peer interactions is observed in mammals, including humans, which is signified by the abundance of social play behaviour. Social play is highly rewarding, and known to be modulated through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Recently, the

  9. The brain at play: neural substrates of social play behaviour in adolescent rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kerkhof, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The period between weaning and sexual maturity (i.e. childhood and adolescence in humans, roughly equivalent to the juvenile and adolescent stages in rodents) has received widespread attention because of its importance for behavioural development, and conversely, because of the emergence of certain

  10. Reward, Context, and Human Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L. Blaukopf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of reward processing have revealed an extensive network of brain areas that process different aspects of reward, from expectation and prediction to calculation of relative value. These results have been confirmed and extended in human neuroimaging to encompass secondary rewards more unique to humans, such as money. The majority of the extant literature covers the brain areas associated with rewards whilst neglecting analysis of the actual behaviours that these rewards generate. This review strives to redress this imbalance by illustrating the importance of looking at the behavioural outcome of rewards and the context in which they are produced. Following a brief review of the literature of reward-related activity in the brain, we examine the effect of reward context on actions. These studies reveal how the presence of reward vs. reward and punishment, or being conscious vs. unconscious of reward-related actions, differentially influence behaviour. The latter finding is of particular importance given the extent to which animal models are used in understanding the reward systems of the human mind. It is clear that further studies are needed to learn about the human reaction to reward in its entirety, including any distinctions between conscious and unconscious behaviours. We propose that studies of reward entail a measure of the animal's (human or nonhuman knowledge of the reward and knowledge of its own behavioural outcome to achieve that reward.

  11. Dissociating the role of endocannabinoids in the pleasurable and motivational properties of social play behaviour in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-01-01

    Social play behaviour is a vigorous form of social interaction, abundant during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life in many mammalian species, including humans. Social play is highly rewarding and it is important for social and cognitive development. Being a rewarding activity, social play

  12. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  13. Dissociating the role of endocannabinoids in the pleasurable and motivational properties of social play behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-08-01

    Social play behaviour is a vigorous form of social interaction, abundant during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life in many mammalian species, including humans. Social play is highly rewarding and it is important for social and cognitive development. Being a rewarding activity, social play can be dissociated in its pleasurable and motivational components. We have previously shown that endocannabinoids modulate the expression of social play behaviour in rats. In the present study, we investigated whether endocannabinoids modulate the motivational and pleasurable properties of social play behaviour, using operant and place conditioning paradigms, respectively. Treatment with the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 did not affect operant responding or social play-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) when administered at a dose (0.1mg/kg) known to increase the expression of social play behaviour, while it modestly reduced operant responding at a higher dose (0.2mg/kg). The cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant reduced operant responding when administered at a dose (1mg/kg) known to decrease the expression of social play behaviour, although this effect may be secondary to concurrent drug-induced stereotypic behaviours (i.e., grooming and scratching). These data demonstrate that enhancing endocannabinoid levels does not differentially affect the motivational and pleasurable aspects of social play behaviour, whereas CB1 receptor blockade reduces the motivational aspects of social play behaviour, possibly due to response competition. Thus, endocannabinoids likely drive the expression of social play behaviour as a whole, without differentially affecting its motivational or pleasurable properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Games people play the psychology of human relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The bestselling Games People Play is the book that has helped millions of people understand the dynamics of relationships, by psychiatrist Eric Berne.We all play games. In every encounter with other people we are doing so. The nature of these games depends both on the situation and on who we meet.Eric Berne's classic Games People Play is the most accessible and insightful book ever written about the games we play: those patterns of behaviour that reveal hidden feelings and emotions. Wise and witty, it shows the underlying motivations behind our relationships and explores the roles that we try to play - and are forced to play.Games People Play gives you the keys to unlock the psychology of others - and yourself. You'll become more honest, more effective, and a true team player.'A brilliant, amusing, and clear catalogue of the psychological theatricals that human beings play over and over again' Kurt VonnegutEric Berne was a prominent psychiatrist and bestselling author.After inventing his groundbreaking Transa...

  15. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  16. Effects of a Redesigned Classroom on Play Behaviour among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek; Gözen, Göksu; Firat, Zehra Saadet; Kefeli, Hatice; Aslan, Büsra

    2016-01-01

    Current research exists regarding the play behaviour of students in various settings and with varying abilities. Regardless, there needs to be improved understanding of how students' play behaviour is affected when their classroom environment is significantly redesigned. This study examined, over a 21-week period between December 2013 and May…

  17. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836

  18. Children's Play Behaviour and Social Communication in Integrated Special Day-Care Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Eira; Nislin, Mari A.; Alijoki, Alisa; Sajaniemi, Nina K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate children's social communication abilities and play to reveal possible changes during a one year period in the context of Finnish early childhood special education. The data we collected during 2012-2013 consisted of assessments of play behaviour (Preschool Play Behavior Scale) and social communication…

  19. Imitating human playing styles in Super Mario Bros

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Juan; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    We describe and compare several methods for generating game character controllers that mimic the playing style of a particular human player, or of a population of human players, across video game levels. Similarity in playing style is measured through an evaluation framework, that compares the play trace of one or several human players with the punctuated play trace of an AI player. The methods that are compared are either hand-coded, direct (based on supervised learning) or...

  20. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-jaap; Schulze, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  1. Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G

    1998-09-01

    In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent.

  2. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  3. FCJ-175 Humans at play in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Innocent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of the Anthropocene recognises the significant global impact of human activity on the Earth’s ecosystems. Building on Huizingia’s understanding of the relationship between play and culture, this essay explores the role that play could have in survival strategies or to provide awareness of the impact of human processes in the Anthropocene. In this worldview, play has a primary function in culture through its role in modelling modes of human survival: simulation is good tool for understanding the impact of systems on the world; play enables the possibility to become adaptive and ‘hack’ the world as conditions change; and lastly, play suggests that a changed philosophical perspective may offer an evolutionary edge for survival in a changing world. Drawing on Lévy, Bogost, Harman and Parikka strategies for play are explored using micronations and pervasive games; demonstrated and illustrated by analysis of games from recent experience within the Micronation of Ludea.

  4. Ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzee social play: similarities with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Cordoni

    Full Text Available Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases.

  5. Imitating human playing styles in Super Mario Bros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Juan; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    We describe and compare several methods for generating game character controllers that mimic the playing style of a particular human player, or of a population of human players, across video game levels. Similarity in playing style is measured through an evaluation framework, that compares the play...... trace of one or several human players with the punctuated play trace of an AI player. The methods that are compared are either hand-coded, direct (based on supervised learning) or indirect (based on maximising a similarity measure). We find that a method based on neuroevolution performs best both...... in terms of the instrumental similarity measure and in phenomenological evaluation by human spectators. A version of the classic platform game “Super Mario Bros” is used as the testbed game in this study but the methods are applicable to other games that are based on character movement in space....

  6. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Playing with food. A novel approach to understanding nutritional behaviour development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the use of a novel method of collecting data on nutritional behaviour development in young children: videos posted on the Internet site YouTube. YouTube videos (n=115) of children alone and interacting with parents in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using constant comparison analysis. Results revealed that in the videos of play nutritional behaviours, children showed influences of their real social environments, and that this medium enabled the observation of parent-child interactions in a more natural context without the researcher's presence. These findings encourage further research in the development and validity of alternative methods of data collection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in children's problem behaviours in competitive play with friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Rosie; Hart, Martha; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders are much more common in boys than girls (Office of National Statistics, 1999); in contrast, gender differences in normative problem behaviours are poorly understood. To address this issue, 228 6-year-olds (134 boys, 94 girls) were each observed playing a board game with a same-gender friend. Ratings of aggression, disruption, arousal and negativity were used to index problem behaviours. Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the latent factor had the same metric for boys and girls, but a mean that was approximately half a standard deviation higher for boys than girls. In addition, the association between the latent factor and teachers' ratings of total difficulties was significantly stronger for boys than girls.

  9. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding behavioural intention to play online game: The case of VocBlast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Research has shown that mobile learning enables its users to learn at any time and place. The current study investigates the use of VocBlast; an app that integrates technical and engineering vocabulary, in terms of understanding the behavioural intention of its players. The study employs 129 engineering and technical students from Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP). Online survey was used to collect their opinions; in particular male and female students’ opinions on the use of the app in the future. The results of the study indicated that there was no significant difference pertaining to their behavioural intention using VocBlast in the course of time. The study implies that more time needs to be given to the students in playing VocBlast as it is believed that playing the game repetitively would promote positive perceptions among its players.

  11. The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-06-01

    Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling. Eleven studies were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria, comprising nine experimental and two qualitative studies (one self-report focus group study and one observational study). There was a consistent finding across studies that games with faster speeds of play were preferred and rated as more exciting for all gamblers, ranging from non-problem to problem gamblers. Of concern, was the repeated finding that fast games are particularly appealing to those suffering with a gambling problem. Behavioural results were more inconsistent across studies, though the general trend supports the notion that games with faster speeds of play encourage more wagers, longer game play, and caused players, particularly problem gamblers, to experience difficulty in ceasing gambling. The implications of these findings for gambling policy, harm minimisation approaches, and future research are discussed.

  12. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  13. Exploratory Manipulation and Play in the Human Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B.

    1974-01-01

    Reports a series of studies conducted to investigate possible differences in the exploratory manipulation and play behavior of human infants 7-1/2- 11-1/2 months of age as a function of the attributes of the stimulus, the familiarity of the subject with the stimuli, the age and sex of the infants, and individual differences. (Author/CS)

  14. Human behaviour in tunnels: what further steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; Jenssen, G.D.; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel safety, especially in case of fires, has received a lot of attention due to heavy disasters. However, much attention is paid to controlling and extinguishing the fire, and not so much on the role of human behaviour. In this case, human behaviour includes the behaviour of road users, rail

  15. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix; Johannsen, Niels N; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects - sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools - and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. © 2018 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Niels N.; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life‐history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche‐construction perspective. Niche‐construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects — sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools — and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. PMID:29446561

  17. The behavioural immune system and the psychology of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark

    2011-12-12

    Because immunological defence against pathogens is costly and merely reactive, human anti-pathogen defence is also characterized by proactive behavioural mechanisms that inhibit contact with pathogens in the first place. This behavioural immune system comprises psychological processes that infer infection risk from perceptual cues, and that respond to these perceptual cues through the activation of aversive emotions, cognitions and behavioural impulses. These processes are engaged flexibly, producing context-contingent variation in the nature and magnitude of aversive responses. These processes have important implications for human social cognition and social behaviour-including implications for social gregariousness, person perception, intergroup prejudice, mate preferences, sexual behaviour and conformity. Empirical evidence bearing on these many implications is reviewed and discussed. This review also identifies important directions for future research on the human behavioural immune system--including the need for enquiry into underlying mechanisms, additional behavioural consequences and implications for human health and well-being.

  18. A Comparison of the Interactive Play Behaviours between Children with Albinism and Their Siblings and Children without Albinism and Their Non-Albino Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javangwe, Gwatirera; Mukondyo, Rachel Z.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the nature of the interactive play behaviours of children with albinism and children without albinism and compared the interactive behaviours of both children with albinism and children without albinism. Naturalistic observations were conducted during periods of free play, using the interactive play behaviour checklist aided by…

  19. Modelling the influence of human behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Sebastian; Salathé, Marcel; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2010-09-06

    Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour on the spread of diseases can be key to improving control efforts. While behavioural responses to the spread of a disease have often been reported anecdotally, there has been relatively little systematic investigation into how behavioural changes can affect disease dynamics. Mathematical models for the spread of infectious diseases are an important tool for investigating and quantifying such effects, not least because the spread of a disease among humans is not amenable to direct experimental study. Here, we review recent efforts to incorporate human behaviour into disease models, and propose that such models can be broadly classified according to the type and source of information which individuals are assumed to base their behaviour on, and according to the assumed effects of such behaviour. We highlight recent advances as well as gaps in our understanding of the interplay between infectious disease dynamics and human behaviour, and suggest what kind of data taking efforts would be helpful in filling these gaps.

  20. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  1. Greek Preschool Children's Playful Behaviour: Assessment and Correlation with Personal and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Yet, the pure essence of play is playfulness a notion not new, yet limitedly researched. Playfulness refers to the individual style each child has to play, which is linked to personality descriptors and attributes. The present study had a twofold aim. On the one hand, it…

  2. Intrinsic motivation: how can it play a pivotal role in changing clinician behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantha, Yogarabindranath Swarna

    2013-01-01

    In the light of an increasing healthcare burden, this paper seeks to offer insight about how intrinsic motivation could play a pivotal role in improving the pre-existing healthcare service delivery systems by altering clinician behaviour. The paper argues the case for four salient dimensions worth exploring through the lens of intrinsic motivation--non-financial incentives, positive affective states, organizational culture and prescribing quality. This article reviews literature from both social sciences and health management practices to provide rationale on how intrinsic motivational approaches could optimize healthcare service delivery systems. The scrutiny of the body of evidence leads to the assertion that there is neglect in the initiatives to reinforce intrinsic motivation as a method to address the ailing morale of doctors. This seems to have exacerbated negative outcomes that include job dissatisfaction, compromise in the quality of care and poor patient-doctor relationships. Diminution in positive affective states amongst doctors, largely controlled by intrinsic motivation, led to strained doctor-patient communication and poor quality of care. Barriers in a healthcare organizational culture that restricts autonomy and empowerment seem to directly undermine job satisfaction. The article argues that it is crucial to shift away from the conventional tendencies promoting tangible rewards. A more holistic approach should be adopted by conducting formal research into intrinsic motivation and how it could aid the formulation of policies tailored to meet the current demands of the healthcare system.

  3. Play therapy for a boy with emotional/behavioural problems: the therapist’s working experience with the child

    OpenAIRE

    Salles, Andréia Mansk Boone; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo

    2015-01-01

    Play therapy offers children the opportunity to “play out” their intensive feelings, conflicts and issues in a constructive atmosphere, and with a sense of safety and acceptance given to them by the play therapist. Bering this in mind, the therapist employed Non-Directive Play Therapy approach during 31 sessions of 45 minutes each with a nine-years-old boy who was exhibiting emotional/behavioural problems at school. The client’s psychotherapeutic process is presented divided in three stages: ...

  4. Revisiting human behaviour in relation to HIV/AIDS | Bandawe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely recognised that human behaviour change is a key element in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The reality of the situation however is that the current approaches to instigating sexual behaviour change appear to have borne little fruit. This paper shall argue that in the fight against HIV/AIDS, a fundamental error is made ...

  5. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  6. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  7. Representation of human behaviour in probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittingham, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the representation of human behaviour in probabilistic safety assessment. Human performance problems which may result in errors leading to accidents are considered in terms of methods of identification using task analysis, screening analysis of critical errors, representation and quantification of human errors in fault trees and event trees and error reduction measures. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  8. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N

    2009-01-01

    Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence

  10. Comparing Fathers' Physical and Toy Play and Links to Child Behaviour: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Palazzi, Kerrin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing amounts of research show that fathers' involvement in children's lives contributes to the child's social, emotional and cognitive development; however, much of the evidence comes from fathers' caregiving and object play. This exploratory study compared the characteristics of 24 Australian fathers' play in two contexts--toy play and…

  11. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  12. Play, a mechanism for developing peaceful behaviour among elementary school pupils for sustainable peace in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A. Ndifon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work was aimed at investigating play, as a mechanism for developing peaceful behaviour among elementary school pupils for sustainable peace in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to determine this, Ex-post facto research design was used. Some determinants of play such as; playing age preference of pupils, gender differences and willingness to play with opposite sex and pupils’ home background were identified as variables for the study. The population of the study was 26,363. A total of 200 primary six pupils formed the sample for the study through which the data were obtained, using purposive sampling technique. The instruments were faced validated and reliability ascertained. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product Movement Correlation Analysis (PPMCA and Independent T-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed a significant relationship between playing age preference of pupils and their home background, between boys and girls exist no significant difference in their willingness to play with opposite sex.. The implication is that when pupils play together they develop peaceful behavior which will help the interact freely in their adult life leading to sustainable peace wherever they find themselves. Also, when pupils are allowed to play with their peers at home, they learn to tolerate others and develop peaceful behaviours. It was therefore recommended that Children should be allowed to play with their age mates and also with the ones of the same sex and opposite sex as this will help them to interact freely and also develop the social relationship that will bring about peaceful co-existence.

  13. The human papillomavirus immunisation programme and sexual behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has caused some parents to report concern that their daughters may change their sexual behaviour following vaccination. This concern consistently relates to vaccination acceptance, but had not been investigated in detail. Accordingly, five studies addressed the thesis objective: to explore parents’ concern about adolescent sexual behaviour following HPV vaccination in the context of the UK immunisation programme and to ...

  14. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  15. Homo ludens in the loop playful human computation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The human mind is incredible. It solves problems with ease that will elude machines even for the next decades. This book explores what happens when humans and machines work together to solve problems machines cannot yet solve alone. It explains how machines and computers can work together and how humans can have fun helping to face some of the most challenging problems of artificial intelligence. In this book, you will find designs for games that are entertaining and yet able to collect data to train machines for complex tasks such as natural language processing or image understanding. You wil

  16. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little

  17. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Ton; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little evidence exists. In this paper, the authors present…

  18. Australian "Play School": Viewing and Post-Viewing Behaviours in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Cathie Anne; van Vliet, Helen Elizabeth; Anderson, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Australian "Play School" is a children's television programme developed in collaboration with early childhood educators. It is screened free to air across Australia. Two hundred and twenty-four adult carers of young children aged 1-8 years completed an online survey via a link on the "Play School" website. The survey addressed…

  19. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  20. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  1. Laughter in popular games and in sport. The other health of human play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Hurling in Cornwall, la soule in Britanny, Shrovetide football in England: Popular games have normally been treated as forerunners of modern sport, sport having regulated the space and the time of the game, the (non-) violence of behaviour, the control of results, the planning, strategy, tactics, techniques and evaluation of the competitive action. This is told as a story of social improvement and progress--and about turning unhealthy wildness into civilized 'healthy' sport activity. What sociological analysis of game-playing tended to ignore was the laughter of the participants. With the seriousness of modern sport, as it was established in the nineteenth century, a culture of laughter disappeared. This study tries to counter this mainstream by a phenomenology of laughter in popular games. A contrasting attention is turned towards the seriousness of sporting competition, the smile in modern sport and fitness, and the 'underground' dimension of laughter in modern sports. By comparative analysis, laughter reveals as a bodily discourse about the imperfect human being. It tells an oppositional story about the perfectionism in the order of Western thinking--in sports as well as in health. The bodily 'physiology' of laughter, the exploding psychical energy, and the inter-bodily social relations in laughter and play and game point towards the multi-dimensionality of health, as it was formulated by WHO: as "physical, mental, and social well-being".

  2. Playing with Gladys: A case study integrating drama therapy with behavioural interventions for the treatment of selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Phei Phei

    2010-04-01

    This case study examines an integrative approach combining drama therapy and the behavioural skill "shaping", as offered to Gladys, a 5-year-old girl diagnosed with selective mutism. This study found that shaping, when implemented in the context of play, with play as the primary reinforcer, elicited from Gladys vocalization and eventually speech within a very short time. Her vocalizations allowed her to enter dramatic play, which in turn propelled spontaneous speech. This article looks at how the three elements of dramatherapy - the playspace, role-playing and dramatic projection - brought about therapeutic changes for Gladys. Aside from spontaneous speech, Gladys also developed positive self-esteem and a heightened sense of spontaneity. Subsequently, these two qualities helped her generalize her speech to new settings on her own. Gladys's newly harnessed spontaneity further helped her become more sociable and resilient.This study advances the possibility of integrating a behavioural skill with drama therapy for the therapeutic benefits of a child with an anxiety-related condition like selective mutism.

  3. The role played by the South African human rights commission's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contains the commitment to, amongst other things, establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights, lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law and improve the quality ...

  4. The Relationship between Robot's Nonverbal Behaviour and Human's Likability Based on Human's Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsoonthorn, Chidchanok; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2018-05-30

    At current state, although robotics technology has been immensely developed, the uncertainty to completely engage in human-robot interaction is still growing among people. Many current studies then started to concern about human factors that might influence human's likability like human's personality, and found that compatibility between human's and robot's personality (expressions of personality characteristics) can enhance human's likability. However, it is still unclear whether specific means and strategy of robot's nonverbal behaviours enhances likability from human with different personality traits and whether there is a relationship between robot's nonverbal behaviours and human's likability based on human's personality. In this study, we investigated and focused on the interaction via gaze and head nodding behaviours (mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony) between introvert/extravert participants and robot in two communication strategies (Backchanneling and Turn-taking). Our findings reveal that the introvert participants are positively affected by backchanneling in robot's head nodding behaviour, which results in substantial head nodding synchrony whereas the extravert participants are positively influenced by turn-taking in gaze behaviour, which leads to significant mutual gaze convergence. This study demonstrates that there is a relationship between robot's nonverbal behaviour and human's likability based on human's personality.

  5. Exploring the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Jorge; Travassos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Mourão, Paulo; Viana, João L; Sampaio, Jaime

    2018-01-04

    This study aimed to identify the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games. Twenty-three semi-professional footballers integrated three different playing formations in a 7-a-side small-sided game, according to their specific player positions: team 4:3:0 (4 defenders, 3 midfielders); team 4:1:2 (4 defenders, 1 midfielder, 2 forwards); and team 0:4:3 (4 midfielders, 3 forwards). Based on players' movement trajectories, the following individual and collective tactical variables were calculated: total distance covered and distance covered while walking, jogging, running and sprinting, distance from each player to both own and opponent's team centroid (Dist CG and Dist OPP CG, respectively), individual area, team length, team width and surface area. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was computed to identify the regularity of each variable. The team 4:3:0 promoted players' space exploration with moderate physical efforts. The team 4:1:2 promoted compactness and regularity of the team with increase in the physical efforts. The team 0:4:3 promoted team balance and adaptability on space coverage with increase in physical efforts. Concluding, different playing formations support different game dynamics, and variations on external load were directly linked with the variations on tactical behaviour. The analysis tactical behaviour through quantification of variability of patterns of play and quantification of distance covered at different velocities were the most useful information for the analysis of the effects of practice task manipulations. Therefore, in a practical sense, strength and conditioning coaches should plan and monitor these tasks in interaction with the head coaches.

  6. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  7. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on

  8. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  9. Methodology for eliciting, encoding and simulating human decision making behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, Conrad Edgar Scott

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) are an increasingly important research tool for describing and predicting interactions among humans and their environment. A key challenge for such models is the ability to faithfully represent human decision making with respect to observed behaviour. This thesis aims to address this challenge by developing a methodology for empirical measurement and simulation of decision making in humanenvironment systems. The methodology employs the Beliefs-Desires-I...

  10. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  11. Universal bursty behaviour in human violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, S.; Castillo-Mussot, M. Del; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying the dynamics of collective violence is of considerable current interest. Recent studies indicated the presence of robust patterns characterizing the size and timing of violent events in human conflicts. Since the size and timing of violent events arises as the result of a dynamical process, we explore the possibility of unifying these observations. By analyzing available catalogs on violent events in Iraq (2003-2005), Afghanistan (2008-2010) and Northern Ireland (1969-2001), we show that the inter-event time distributions (calculated for a range of minimum sizes) obeys approximately a simple scaling law which holds for more than three orders of magnitude. This robust pattern suggests a hierarchical organization in size and time providing a unified picture of the dynamics of violent conflicts.

  12. Play-Personas: Behaviours and Belief Systems in User-Centred Game Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canossa, Alessandro; Drachen, Anders

    Game designers attempt to ignite affective, emotional responses from players via engineering game designs to incite definite user experiences. Theories of emotion state that definite emotional responses are individual, and caused by the individual interaction sequence or history. Engendering desired emotions in the audience of traditional audiovisual media is a considerable challenge; however it is potentially even more difficult to achieve the same goal for the audience of interactive entertainment, because a substantial degree of control rests in the hand of the end user rather than the designer. This paper presents a possible solution to the challenge of integrating the user in the design of interactive entertainment such as computer games by employing the "persona" framework introduced by Alan Cooper. This approach is already in use in interaction design. The method can be improved by complementing the traditional narrative description of personas with quantitative, data-oriented models of predicted patterns of user behaviour for a specific computer game Additionally, persona constructs can be applied both as design-oriented metaphors during the development of games, and as analytical lenses to existing games, e.g. for evaluation of patterns of player behaviour.

  13. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  14. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  15. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  16. Influence of the relative humidity and the temperature on the in-vivo friction behaviour of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Schipper, D. J.; Masen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Both temperature and relative humidity are known to influence the frictional behaviour of human skin. However, literature does not completely cover to what extent both parameters play a role. Measurements were conducted using an in-house built reciprocating tribometer inside an enclosure in which

  17. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian

    2014-01-01

    it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state......, its context within an organisation and the effects on security as outcomes of a theorem proving analysis....

  18. Human Resources and Innovative Behaviour : Improving Nursing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xerri, Matthew; Reid, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This study examines, using the social exchange theory, the mediating effect of employees’ perception of wellbeing on the relationship between two human resource (HR) management factors (satisfaction with teamwork and satisfaction with training opportunities) and innovative behaviour of nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Current nurse shortages and limited budgets have increased the need for hospitals to improve their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It is proposed th...

  19. The urban environment, its hazards and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Polič

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical environment is only a tool, a medium or a place enabling human interrelations to develop. This is perhaps the most evident in cases of dangers people confront within an environment. Everything from disasters and minor incidents to vandalism and crime is reflected in human behaviour, from satisfying our basic needs all the way to discerning the sense of reality. The article presents an array of reflections from accidents and dangers in an urban environment that can hurt the largest number of people, to less dangerous, but unpleasant acts for an individual.

  20. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  1. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  2. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    that affect the results accuracy. Above all, the real energy performance can be affected by the actual behaviour of the building occupants. Thus, there are great benefits to be derived from improving models that simulate the behaviour of human beings within the context of engineered complex systems...... for modelling the human behaviour related to the control of indoor environment. The procedure is applied at models of occupants’ interactions with windows (opening and closing behaviour). Models of occupants’ window opening behaviour were inferred based on measurements and implemented in a simulation program......An energy simulation of a building is a mathematical representation of its physical behaviour considering all the thermal, lighting, acoustics aspects. However, a simulation cannot precisely replicate a real construction because all the simulations are based on a number of key assumptions...

  3. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Spirou, Dean; Brock, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an "intentional stance" by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants' behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative "joint attention" game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other's eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm ("Computer" condition). The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room ("Human" condition). Those in the "Human" condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the "Computer" condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect on the achievement of the application's goals.

  4. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K. B.; Nettle, D.; McElreath, R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such ‘strong situations’ will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background. PMID:26503684

  5. Do maternal attributions play a role in the acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yee Ki Kathy; Kovshoff, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between parental attributions and treatment acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mothers of children with ASD aged 3–9 years (N = 139) completed survey measures that assessed demographics, parental attributions, treatment acceptability of parent-focused and child-focused behavioural interventions, severity of their child's disruptive behaviour, and severity of their child'...

  6. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Caruana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an “intentional stance” by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants’ behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative “joint attention” game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other’s eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm (“Computer” condition. The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room (“Human” condition. Those in the “Human” condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the “Computer” condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect

  7. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  8. Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2003-01-01

    It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were filmed during 3-min play sessions in which the owner was allowed to choose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a 1-hr test designed to measure elements of behavior commonly ascribed to "dominance" and "attachment." Principal components analysis of the data produced 2 dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and 4 factors describing aspects of attachment (Nonspecific Attention Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behavior). Amenability, in particular, varied significantly between breeds. In the study, we then compared types of games played to each of these factors. Dogs playing rough-and-tumble scored higher for Amenability and lower on Separation-Related Behavior than did dogs playing other types of games. Dogs playing tug-of-war and fetch scored high on Confident Interactivity. Winning or losing these games had no consistent effect on their test scores. If the dog started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less amenable and more likely to exhibit aggression. The results suggest that how dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and relationship with their owner. This study provides no evidence that games play a major deterministic role on dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but the results suggest that playing games involving considerable body contact may affect attachment dimensions.

  9. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  10. Human Evolution, Movement, and Intelligence: Why Playing Games Counts as Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2018-01-01

    The article investigates several ways in which creating, entering, and playing games requires uniquely human levels of intelligence. It examines an element of our evolutionary heritage and the possibility that games (particularly in the form of sport) were among the first elements of culture. It describes sport as a "way of knowing," a…

  11. DEVELOPING ETHICAL BEHAVIOURS AT BPK THROUGH HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Setiawan Syukur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the 1945 Constitution, the Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia (BPK has an important role in fostering good governance and combating corruption in Indonesia’s public sector through its audit works. To be successful, BPK must implement and enforce ethical behaviours within the organisation. There are laws and regulations (e.g., civil servants’ code of ethics and employee discipline and systems, policies, and practices set up by authorities at BPK (e.g., BPK’s code of ethics, whistle-blowing procedure, the Honourary Council of BPK’s Code of Ethics (MKKE, and ethics training that regulate and influence behaviours of employees and members of the board. When reviewing literature, this paper attempts to understand the antecedents of ethical/unethical behaviours in organisations and look for best practices (including human resource management practices in developing ethical behaviours in organisations. It turns out that the ethical frameworks within BPK have a strong theoretical support. Despite the strong theoretical support from the literature, this study attempts to identify gaps between the best practices and ethical frameworks within BPK. In response to the gaps, this study attempts to offer recommendations so as to close the gaps and improve the ethical frameworks within BPK. In the end, this study produces seventeen recommendations. KEYWORDS code of ethics, ethical behaviours, human resource management, ethics audit, and ethical climate survey. ABSTRAK Berdasarkan Undang-undang Dasar 1945, Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (BPK mempunyai peran penting dalam meningkatkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang baik dan memberantas korupsi di sektor publik di Indonesia melalui kegiatan pemeriksaannya. Agar sukses dalam mencapai tujuan tersebut, BPK harus menerapkan dan menegakkan perilaku etis di dalam organisasi. Ada undang-undang dan peraturan peraturan (contoh: kode etik Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS dan peraturan disiplin

  12. Escape behaviour of birds in urban parks and cemeteries across Europe: Evidence of behavioural adaptation to human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Mikula, Peter; Benedetti, Yanina; Bussière, Raphaël; Jerzak, Leszek; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2018-08-01

    Urban environments are very heterogeneous, and birds living in the proximity of humans have to adapt to local conditions, e.g. by changing their behavioural response to potential predators. In this study, we tested whether the escape distance of birds (measured as flight initiation distance; FID) differed between parks and cemeteries, areas characterized by different microhabitat conditions and human conduct, that are determinants of animal behaviour at large spatial scales. While escape behaviour of park populations of birds was often examined, cemetery populations have not been studied to the same extent and a large-scale comparison is still missing. Overall, we collected 2139 FID estimates for 44 bird species recorded in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries in four European countries: Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland. Mixed model procedure was applied to study escape behaviour in relation to type of area (park or cemetery), environmental characteristics (area size, coverage by trees, shrubs, grass, chapels, tombstones, flowerbeds, number of street lamps) and human activity (human density, pedestrians speed and ratio of men/women). Birds allowed people closer in cemeteries than in parks in all countries. This pattern was persistent even when focusing on intraspecific differences in FID between populations of the most common bird species. Escape distance of birds was negatively correlated with the size of parks/cemeteries, while positively associated with tombstone coverage and human density in both types of habitat. Our findings highlight the ability of birds to adapt their behaviour to different types of urban areas, based on local environmental conditions, including the character of human-bird interactions. Our results also suggest that this behavioural pattern may be widespread across urban landscapes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of oxytocin on human-directed social behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Ciobica, Alin; Topál, József

    2017-08-01

    The oxytocin system has recently received increasing attention due to its effect on complex human behaviours. In parallel to this, over the past couple of decades, the human-analogue social behaviour of dogs has been intensively studied. Combining these two lines of research (e.g. studying the relationship between dog social behaviour and the oxytocin system) is a promising new research area. The present paper reviews the existing literature on how oxytocin is related to different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural play therapy on the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Balaghi, Atena; Moharrari, Fatemeh

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered to be the most prevalent disorder of childhood and adolescence, and a variety of methods have been used in its diagnosis and treatment. This study was conducted to study the efficacy of play therapy on the symptoms of ADHD in children aged 7-9 years. Using a clinical trial design, we selected 30 study participants among individuals who had been referred to the Ebne-sina hospital, child and adolescent outpatient clinic, Mashhad, Iran, and who had been diagnosed with ADHD by psychiatrists. The 30 study participants were then divided into two groups, experimental and control, based on similar characteristics (Birth order, parents' educational level, parents' occupation and average of last year school marks). Pre-tests (the Rutter Parental Questionnaire and the Rutter Children Behaviour Questionnaire for teachers) were performed prior to play therapy, and all patients in both groups had been receiving medication. Following play therapy, post-tests were also conducted for both groups. Eight sessions of sham play therapy has been performed for case group. (Cognitive-behavioural play therapy has not been performed basically.) All results were evaluated using an independent t test and a comparative test. Play therapy appeared to significantly reduce the symptoms of ADHD. The significant differences found between the experimental and control groups indicate that play therapy could be used as an effective treatment method for children with ADHD.

  15. Functions of pointing by humans, and dogs’ responses, during dog-human play between familiar and unfamiliar players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Mitchell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although much research focuses on human index finger pointing to hidden items for dogs in experimental settings, there is little research about human pointing in naturalistic interactions. We examined human pointing to dogs during 62 dog-human play interactions, spanning 4.8 hours of videotape, to determine the functions of human pointing and dogs’ responses to that pointing. Participants were 26 humans and 27 dogs. Humans played with their own dog(s and, almost always, an unfamiliar dog. Seventeen people (16 players and one passerby pointed for 20 dogs a total of 101 times (once with a foot during 26 interactions. Most (49.5% points were toward an object (almost always a ball, to direct attention or action toward the object; 36.6% were to the ground in front of the (almost always familiar pointer, directing the dog to come, and/or drop a ball the dog held, here; 10.9% directed the dog toward the designated player and/or play area; and 3.0% directed the dog to move away from a ball the dog had dropped. Humans almost always pointed such that the dog could see the point (92.1%, and pointed more with their own than with an unfamiliar dog. Dogs responded appropriately (i.e., did what the pointer requested for only 24.7% of the visible points, more often for points to the ground than for points to objects. The proportion of dogs’ appropriate responses to visible points was similar for both familiar (30% and unfamiliar (18% humans. Six dogs who responded appropriately to some points resisted responding appropriately to others. Future research should examine non-object directed uses of pointing with dogs and their responses in naturalistic and experimental settings, and experimentally assess diverse explanations, including resistance, when dogs and other animals fail standard pointing tasks.

  16. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms.

  17. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  18. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  19. Behavioural responses of spinner dolphins to human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Maddalena; Cesario, Amina; Costa, Marina; Harraway, John; Notarbartolo di Sciara, Giuseppe; Slooten, Elisabeth

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that whale and dolphin watching activities have detrimental effects on targeted cetacean populations. In Egypt, spinner dolphins regularly occur in the resting areas of Samadai, Satayah and Qubbat'Isa reefs. In-water human interactions with dolphins are regulated with a time-area closure system at Samadai, unregulated at Satayah and non-existent at Qubbat'Isa. This provided an ideal experimental setting to advance our understanding of the effects of tourism on a species highly sensitive to disturbances. Our study confirmed that the intensity and duration of interactions, and therefore, dolphin exposure to tourism, differed among the study sites. Compared with the Qubbat'Isa control site, behavioural reactions to boats and swimmers at the two tourism sites suggested that dolphin rest was disrupted, especially around the middle of the day and especially at Satayah, where dolphin tourism is unregulated. Our results indicate also that the dolphin protection measures at Samadai reduce the level of disturbance. We recommend that similar measures be implemented at other dolphin tourism locations, and that no new operations be initiated until the long-term impacts on dolphin populations are better understood. Our experience emphasizes the need to adopt precautionary approaches in research and management of whale and dolphin watching.

  20. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  1. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  2. Investigating microenvironmental regulation of human chordoma cell behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Patel

    Full Text Available The tumour microenvironment is complex and composed of many different constituents, including matricellular proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, and is characterized by gradients in oxygen levels. In various cancers, hypoxia and CCN2 promote stem and progenitor cell properties, and regulate the proliferation, migration and phenotype of cancer cells. Our study was aimed at investigating the effects of hypoxia and CCN2 on chordoma cells, using the human U-CH1 cell line. We demonstrate that under basal conditions, U-CH1 cells express multiple CCN family members including CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5. Culture of U-CH1 cells in either hypoxia or in the presence of recombinant CCN2 peptide promoted progenitor cell-like characteristics specific to the notochordal tissue of origin. Specifically, hypoxia induced the most robust increase in progenitor-like characteristics in U-CH1 cells, including increased expression of the notochord-associated markers T, CD24, FOXA1, ACAN and CA12, increased cell growth and tumour-sphere formation, and a decrease in the percentage of vacuolated cells present in the heterogeneous population. Interestingly, the effects of recombinant CCN2 peptide on U-CH1 cells were more pronounced under normoxia than hypoxia, promoting increased expression of CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5, the notochord-associated markers SOX5, SOX6, T, CD24, and FOXA1 as well as increased tumour-sphere formation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of multiple factors within the tumour microenvironment and how hypoxia and CCN2 may regulate human chordoma cell behaviour.

  3. Comparison of the chemical behaviour of humanized ACMS VS. Human IGG radiolabeled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero Santamaria, Alejandro; Zayas Crespo, Francisco; Mesa Duennas, Niurka; Castillo Vitloch, Adolfo J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the chemical behaviour of humanized AcMs vs. human IgG radiolabeled with 99 mTc. to this end, 3 immunoglobulins were analyzed, the IgG (human), the humanized monoclonal antibody R3 (Acm-R3h) and the humanized monoclonal antibody T1. The results obtained reveal slight differences as regards the behaviour of theses immunoglobulins before the labelling with 99T c, which shows differences in the chemical behaviour of these proteins. Although in theory the modifications that are made to the AcMs in order to humanize them must not affect their chemical behaviour, the obtained data indicate that the conditions for their radiolabelling should not be extrapolated from other proteins; on the contrary, particular procedures should be elaborated for each AcM-h

  4. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this

  6. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human gut microbiota plays a role in the metabolism of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourova, Lenka; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Anzenbacherova, Eva

    2016-09-01

    The gut microbiome, an aggregate genome of trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gastrointestinal tract, is now known to play a critical role in human health and predisposition to disease. It is also involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and several recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota can affect the pharmacokinetics of orally taken drugs with implications for their oral bioavailability. Review of Pubmed, Web of Science and Science Direct databases for the years 1957-2016. Recent studies make it clear that the human gut microbiota can play a major role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and, the stability and oral bioavailability of drugs. Over the past 50 years, more than 30 drugs have been identified as a substrate for intestinal bacteria. Questions concerning the impact of the gut microbiota on drug metabolism, remain unanswered or only partially answered, namely (i) what are the molecular mechanisms and which bacterial species are involved? (ii) What is the impact of host genotype and environmental factors on the composition and function of the gut microbiota, (iii) To what extent is the composition of the intestinal microbiome stable, transmissible, and resilient to perturbation? (iv) Has past exposure to a given drug any impact on future microbial response, and, if so, for how long? Answering such questions should be an integral part of pharmaceutical research and personalised health care.

  8. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, S. M.; Riedstra, B. J.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last

  9. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  10. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  11. Neural and cortisol responses during play with human and computer partners in children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Elliot Kale; Merkle, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in reciprocal social interactions, including play, which can manifest as failure to show social preference or discrimination between social and nonsocial stimuli. To explore mechanisms underlying these deficits, we collected salivary cortisol from 42 children 8–12 years with ASD or typical development during a playground interaction with a confederate child. Participants underwent functional MRI during a prisoner’s dilemma game requiring cooperation or defection with a human (confederate) or computer partner. Search region of interest analyses were based on previous research (e.g. insula, amygdala, temporal parietal junction—TPJ). There were significant group differences in neural activation based on partner and response pattern. When playing with a human partner, children with ASD showed limited engagement of a social salience brain circuit during defection. Reduced insula activation during defection in the ASD children relative to TD children, regardless of partner type, was also a prominent finding. Insula and TPJ BOLD during defection was also associated with stress responsivity and behavior in the ASD group under playground conditions. Children with ASD engage social salience networks less than TD children during conditions of social salience, supporting a fundamental disturbance of social engagement. PMID:25552572

  12. Being a Modern Human: essentialist and hierarchical approaches to the emergence of 'modern human behaviour'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hopkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or

  13. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfes, K.; Shantz, A.D.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the mediating and moderating processes through which human resource management (HRM) practices are linked with behavioural outcomes. We developed and tested a moderated mediation model linking perceived HRM practices to organisational citizenship

  14. Human behaviour and energy demand : How behavioural science can be used to reduceenergy demand in the residential sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Haiko

    2015-01-01

    The threat of human induced climate change is imminent. The reason is an everyincreasing demand for energy and products, producing more and more greenhousegas emissions. Everybody needs to take responsibility now. The estimations are thatwith 2% annual energy savings from residential households 12TWh and 3.3 billionmetric tonnes of CO2 can be saved per year. Greenely, a startup from KIC InnoEnergy,wants to engage residential households to change their energy behaviour athome. They combine a s...

  15. Behavioural responses to human-induced change: Why fishing should not be ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pauli, Beatriz; Sih, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Change in behaviour is usually the first response to human-induced environmental change and key for determining whether a species adapts to environmental change or becomes maladapted. Thus, understanding the behavioural response to human-induced changes is crucial in the interplay between ecology, evolution, conservation and management. Yet the behavioural response to fishing activities has been largely ignored. We review studies contrasting how fish behaviour affects catch by passive (e.g., long lines, angling) versus active gears (e.g., trawls, seines). We show that fishing not only targets certain behaviours, but it leads to a multitrait response including behavioural, physiological and life-history traits with population, community and ecosystem consequences. Fisheries-driven change (plastic or evolutionary) of fish behaviour and its correlated traits could impact fish populations well beyond their survival per se , affecting predation risk, foraging behaviour, dispersal, parental care, etc., and hence numerous ecological issues including population dynamics and trophic cascades . In particular, we discuss implications of behavioural responses to fishing for fisheries management and population resilience. More research on these topics, however, is needed to draw general conclusions, and we suggest fruitful directions for future studies.

  16. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  17. Fair Play Game: A Group Contingency Strategy to Increase Students' Active Behaviours in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Lee, Chang-Hung; Azevedo, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    A dependent group contingency strategy called Fair Play Game was applied to promote increase in number of steps during physical education classes for sixth-grade students. Results from a multiple baseline design across three classes showed that the mean number of steps for baseline vs. intervention were: Class 1: 43 vs. 64 steps/minute; Class 2:…

  18. SuDS and human behaviour: Co-developing solutions to encourage sustainable behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are today widely considered to be a more progressive and environmentally sensitive approach to Flood Risk Management (FRM. However, this paper argues that the sustainability of SuDS should not be so simply presumed. Devices will depend upon correct behaviour from those local to them in order to function properly over time, and for Green Infrastructure SuDS to flourish and deliver their promised multiple benefits. This paper looks to the potential value in using Social Practice Theory as a lens for understanding current behaviours around SuDS devices, and for assessing possible strategies for encouraging positive behaviour amongst affected communities. It concludes in arguing that involving local people as much as possible in the co-design of systems and then working to maintain involvement and awareness will be the most cost-effective means by which SuDS might be made to live up to the sustainability they are celebrated for.

  19. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  20. The human LIS1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and plays a tumor suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Zhen; Tang, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Da, Liang; Song, Hai; Wang, Suiquan; Tiollais, Pierre; Li, Tsaiping; Zhao, Mujun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LIS1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in 70% HCC tissues. → Downregulation of LIS1 expression induces oncogenic transformation of QSG7701 and NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. → LIS1 downregulation leads to mitotic errors including spindle and chromosome defects. → Ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. → Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and progression of HCC. -- Abstract: The human lissencephaly-1 gene (LIS1) is a disease gene responsible for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDL). LIS1 gene is located in the region of chromosome 17p13.3 that is frequency deleted in MDL patients and in human liver cancer cells. However, the expression and significance of LIS1 in liver cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of LIS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of LIS1 were downregulated in about 70% of HCC tissues, and this downregulation was significantly associated with tumor progression. Functional studies showed that the reduction of LIS1 expression in the normal human liver cell line QSG7701 or the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 by shRNA resulted in colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrating that a decrease in the LIS1 level can promote the oncogenic transformation of cells. We also observed that the phenotypes of LIS1-knockdown cells displayed various defective mitotic structures, suggesting that the mechanism by which reduced LIS1 levels results in tumorigenesis is associated with its role in mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and

  1. The human LIS1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and plays a tumor suppressor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Zhen; Tang, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Da, Liang; Song, Hai; Wang, Suiquan [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Tiollais, Pierre [Unite' d' Organisation Nucleaire et Oncogenese, INSERM U.579, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Li, Tsaiping [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Mujun, E-mail: mjzhao@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} LIS1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in 70% HCC tissues. {yields} Downregulation of LIS1 expression induces oncogenic transformation of QSG7701 and NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. {yields} LIS1 downregulation leads to mitotic errors including spindle and chromosome defects. {yields} Ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. {yields} Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and progression of HCC. -- Abstract: The human lissencephaly-1 gene (LIS1) is a disease gene responsible for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDL). LIS1 gene is located in the region of chromosome 17p13.3 that is frequency deleted in MDL patients and in human liver cancer cells. However, the expression and significance of LIS1 in liver cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of LIS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of LIS1 were downregulated in about 70% of HCC tissues, and this downregulation was significantly associated with tumor progression. Functional studies showed that the reduction of LIS1 expression in the normal human liver cell line QSG7701 or the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 by shRNA resulted in colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrating that a decrease in the LIS1 level can promote the oncogenic transformation of cells. We also observed that the phenotypes of LIS1-knockdown cells displayed various defective mitotic structures, suggesting that the mechanism by which reduced LIS1 levels results in tumorigenesis is associated with its role in mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the

  2. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  3. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if a recently developed human Ranvier node model, which is based on a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, could predict the excitability behaviour in human peripheral sensory nerve fibres...

  4. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive

  5. Why infest the loved ones--inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter

    2012-05-01

    Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies.

  6. Metastatic behaviour of primary human tumours in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ines J; Bagowski, Christoph P; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Vlecken, Danielle H; Nitsche, Claudia; Bakkers, Jeroen; Lagendijk, Anne K; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Lerch, Markus M

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour. We fluorescently labelled small explants from gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish. In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature. Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen

  7. Typology of Human Behavioural Traits for Strategic Customer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...

  8. Alpha-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Paul G; Yuan, Kaiyu; Warram, Jason M; Klein, Michael J; Siegal, Gene P; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2013-04-01

    Osteosarcoma is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite improvements in osteosarcoma treatment, more specific molecular targets are needed as potential therapeutic options. One target of interest is α-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII), a ubiquitous mediator of Ca(2+)-linked signaling, which has been shown to regulate tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII in the growth and tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma. We show that α-CaMKII is highly expressed in primary osteosarcoma tissue derived from 114 patients, and is expressed in varying levels in different human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines [MG-63, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)/HOS, and 143B). To examine whether α-CaMKII regulates osteosarcoma tumorigenic properties, we genetically inhibited α-CaMKII in two osteosarcoma cell lines using two different α-CaMKII shRNAs delivered by lentiviral vectors and overexpressed α-CaMKII by retrovirus. The genetic deletion of α-CaMKII by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in MG-63 and 143B cells resulted in decreased proliferation (50% and 41%), migration (22% and 25%), and invasion (95% and 90%), respectively. The overexpression of α-CaMKII in HOS cells resulted in increased proliferation (240%), migration (640%), and invasion (10,000%). Furthermore, α-CaMKII deletion in MG-63 cells significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo (65%), whereas α-CaMKII overexpression resulted in tumor formation in a previously nontumor forming osteosarcoma cell line (HOS). Our results suggest that α-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of osteosarcoma, and its inhibition could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease. ©2013 AACR.

  9. Social experiments in the mesoscale: humans playing a spatial prisoner's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Grujić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolutionary origin of cooperation among unrelated individuals remains a key unsolved issue across several disciplines. Prominent among the several mechanisms proposed to explain how cooperation can emerge is the existence of a population structure that determines the interactions among individuals. Many models have explored analytically and by simulation the effects of such a structure, particularly in the framework of the Prisoner's Dilemma, but the results of these models largely depend on details such as the type of spatial structure or the evolutionary dynamics. Therefore, experimental work suitably designed to address this question is needed to probe these issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have designed an experiment to test the emergence of cooperation when humans play Prisoner's Dilemma on a network whose size is comparable to that of simulations. We find that the cooperation level declines to an asymptotic state with low but nonzero cooperation. Regarding players' behavior, we observe that the population is heterogeneous, consisting of a high percentage of defectors, a smaller one of cooperators, and a large group that shares features of the conditional cooperators of public goods games. We propose an agent-based model based on the coexistence of these different strategies that is in good agreement with all the experimental observations. CONCLUSIONS: In our large experimental setup, cooperation was not promoted by the existence of a lattice beyond a residual level (around 20% typical of public goods experiments. Our findings also indicate that both heterogeneity and a "moody" conditional cooperation strategy, in which the probability of cooperating also depends on the player's previous action, are required to understand the outcome of the experiment. These results could impact the way game theory on graphs is used to model human interactions in structured groups.

  10. Does human papilloma virus play a role in sinonasal inverted papilloma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Satish; Wang, Hailun

    2014-02-01

    Inverted papillomas are a benign sinonasal tumor with a propensity for recurrence and malignant transformation. Although many investigations have been made into the nature of this disease, its etiology and causes for malignant transformation have yet to be fully elucidated. It is the authors' objective to present a review on management of the disease and evaluate the present relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and inverted papilloma. A causal relationship between HPV and the pathogenesis and progression of inverted papilloma has been posited since the 1980s. Although widely varied HPV detection rates have been reported, recent studies have noted a substantial increase in both recurrence and malignant transformation in HPV-infected inverted papillomas. However, exact cellular mechanisms by which infection leads to subsequent recurrence and development of carcinoma have yet to be elucidated. Evidence exists suggesting that HPV infection plays a role in the progression of inverted papilloma and confers an increased risk for recurrence and malignant transformation. PCR is the preferred detection method, and fresh or frozen specimens are the ideal source of tissue for evaluation. Although multiple studies have detected an association between HPV and inverted papilloma (both recurrent and malignant transformation), further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways before an association can be changed to causation.

  11. Functional corticostriatal connection topographies predict goal directed behaviour in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Haak, K.V.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many

  12. Modelling human behaviours and reactions under dangerous environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions...

  13. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Downing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers’ preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies.

  14. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  15. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Agnvall

    Full Text Available Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0 and the fifth selected generation (S5, focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

  16. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication. PMID:27851792

  17. Do domestic dogs learn words based on humans' referential behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Tempelmann

    Full Text Available Some domestic dogs learn to comprehend human words, although the nature and basis of this learning is unknown. In the studies presented here we investigated whether dogs learn words through an understanding of referential actions by humans rather than simple association. In three studies, each modelled on a study conducted with human infants, we confronted four word-experienced dogs with situations involving no spatial-temporal contiguity between the word and the referent; the only available cues were referential actions displaced in time from exposure to their referents. We found that no dogs were able to reliably link an object with a label based on social-pragmatic cues alone in all the tests. However, one dog did show skills in some tests, possibly indicating an ability to learn based on social-pragmatic cues.

  18. Characterisation of mechanical behaviour of human skin in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, L.F.A.; Meijer, R.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization of the biomechanical properties of human skin in vivo is studied both experimentally and by numerical modeling. These properties can be important in the evaluation of skin condition (e.g. aging) as well as skin disorders. In this study the authors focus on the static behavior of the

  19. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    interaction is critical for the long term stability of a pharmaceutical. Protein complex formation is important for extended half-life in vivo and is essential to cellular communication such as the induction of the insulin response. This thesis focuses on human serum albumin (HSA) as a central player...

  20. Media and human capital development: Can video game playing make you smarter?

    OpenAIRE

    Suziedelyte, A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, video game playing can improve such cognitive skills as problem solving, abstract reasoning, and spatial logic. I test this hypothesis using the data from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The endogeneity of video game playing is addressed by using panel data methods and controlling for an extensive list of child and family characteristics. To address the measurement error in video game playing, I instrument children's weekday...

  1. A behavioural preparation for the study of human Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcediano, F; Ortega, N; Matute, H

    1996-08-01

    Conditioned suppression is a useful technique for assessing whether subjects have learned a CS-US association, but it is difficult to use in humans because of the need for an aversive US. The purpose of this research was to develop a non-aversive procedure that would produce suppression. Subjects learned to press the space bar of a computer as part of a video game, but they had to stop pressing whenever a visual US appeared, or they would lose points. In Experiment 1, we used an A+/B- discrimination design: The US always followed Stimulus A and never followed Stimulus B. Although no information about the existence of CSs was given to the subjects, suppression ratio results showed a discrimination learning curve-that is, subjects learned to suppress responding in anticipation of the US when Stimulus A was present but not during the presentations of Stimulus B. Experiment 2 explored the potential of this preparation by using two different instruction sets and assessing post-experimental judgements of CS A and CS B in addition to suppression ratios. The results of these experiments suggest that conditioned suppression can be reliably and conveniently used in the human laboratory, providing a bridge between experiments on animal conditioning and experiments on human judgements of causality.

  2. Media and human capital development: Can video game playing make you smarter?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, video game playing can improve such cognitive skills as problem solving, abstract reasoning, and spatial logic. I test this hypothesis using The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The endogeneity of video game playing is addressed by using panel data methods and controlling for an extensive list of child and family characteristics. To address the measurement error in video game playing, I instrument children's weekday time use with their weekend time use. After taking into account the endogeneity and measurement error, video game playing is found to positively affect children's problem solving ability. The effect of video game playing on problem solving ability is comparable to the effect of educational activities. PMID:25705064

  3. Media and human capital development: Can video game playing make you smarter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2015-04-01

    According to the literature, video game playing can improve such cognitive skills as problem solving, abstract reasoning, and spatial logic. I test this hypothesis using The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The endogeneity of video game playing is addressed by using panel data methods and controlling for an extensive list of child and family characteristics. To address the measurement error in video game playing, I instrument children's weekday time use with their weekend time use. After taking into account the endogeneity and measurement error, video game playing is found to positively affect children's problem solving ability. The effect of video game playing on problem solving ability is comparable to the effect of educational activities.

  4. Human Factors on the Flight Deck Safe Piloting Behaviour in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiderer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    What is for a professional pilot required to fly as safe as possible? Written by pilots the book gives a detailed introduction into the basics of accident prevention in air traffic. Explicit background knowledge as well as detailed listings of safety relevant features in human behaviour are included.

  5. Work psychology: understanding human behaviour in the workplace (5th ed)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, J.; Randall, R.; Patterson, F.; Silvester, J.; Robertson, I.; Cooper, C.; Burnes, B.; Swailes, S.; Harris, D.; Axtell, C.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fifth edition of this market-leading textbook retains its popular blend of theory, research and examples. Substantially revised and updated with extensive new material that reflects contemporary research and debate, the book offers an accessible and fascinating examination of human behaviour in

  6. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  7. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk

    2013-09-01

    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  8. Social and economic influences on human behavioural response in an emerging epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, P.; Wiwatanapataphee, B.; Wu, Y. H.

    2017-10-01

    The human behavioural changes have been recognized as an important key in shaping the disease spreading and determining the success of control measures in the course of epidemic outbreaks. However, apart from cost-benefit considerations, in reality, people are heterogeneous in their preferences towards adopting certain protective actions to reduce their risk of infection, and social norms have a function in individuals’ decision making. Here, we studied the interplay between the epidemic dynamics, imitation dynamics and the heterogeneity of individual protective behavioural response under the considerations of both economic and social factors, with a simple mathematical compartmental model and multi-population game dynamical replicator equations. We assume that susceptibles in different subpopulations have different preferences in adopting either normal or altered behaviour. By incorporating both intra- and inter-group social pressure, the outcome of the strategy distribution depends on the initial proportion of susceptible with normal and altered strategies in both subpopulations. The increase of additional cost to susceptible with altered behaviour will discourage people to take up protective actions and hence results in higher epidemic final size. For a specific cost of altered behaviour, the social group pressure could be a “double edge sword”, though. We conclude that the interplays between individual protective behaviour adoption, imitation and epidemic dynamics are necessarily complex if both economic and social factors act on populations with existing preferences.

  9. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the ‘stages of change model’, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to ‘global good’, so-called ‘social marketing’, to improve ‘welfare of the individual and society’ is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement ‘antibiotic mainstreaming’ as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  10. Effects of bone damage on creep behaviours of human vertebral trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Szarko, Matthew; Wang, Yue; Luo, Jin

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of patients suffering with vertebral fractures can develop progressive spinal deformities over time. The mechanism underlying such clinical observation, however, remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that creep deformation of the vertebral trabeculae may play a role. Using the acoustic emission (AE) technique, this study investigated effects of bone damage (modulus reduction) on creep behaviours of vertebral trabecular bone. Thirty-seven human vertebral trabeculae samples were randomly assigned into five groups (A to E). Bones underwent mechanical tests using similar experimental protocols but varied degree of bone damage was induced. Samples first underwent creep test (static compressive stress of 0.4MPa) for 30min, and then were loaded in compression to a specified strain level (0.4%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 4% for group A to E, respectively) to induce different degrees of bone damage (0.4%, no damage control; 1.0%, yield strain; 1.5%, beyond yield strain, 2.5% and 4%, post-ultimate strains). Samples were creep loaded (0.4MPa) again for 30min. AE techniques were used to monitor bone damage. Bone damage increased significantly from group A to E (P30% of modulus reduction in group D and E. Before compressive loading, creep deformation was not different among the five groups and AE hits in creep test were rare. After compressive loading, creep deformation was significantly greater in group D and E than those in other groups (Pcreep test were significantly greater in group D and E than in group A, B, and C (Pcreep deformation may occur even when the vertebra was under physiological loads. The boosted creep deformation observed may be attributed to newly created trabecular microfractures. Findings provide a possible explanation as to why some vertebral fracture patients develop progressive spinal deformity over time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  12. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  14. The influence of action video game playing on eye movement behaviour during visual search in abstract, in-game and natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.

  15. Rationality and irrationality in understanding human behaviour. An evaluation of the methodological consequences of conceptualising irrationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Toth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.

  16. A novel approach to measuring the frictional behaviour of human skin in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2012-01-01

    Friction involving human skin plays a key role in human life. The availability of a portable tribometer improves the accessibility to large number of both subjects and anatomical sites. This is the first mobile device suitable to measure skin friction with a controlled and variable normal load

  17. The impact of communication on human behaviour in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew

    Decision makers have constantly sought to find the most appropriate ways to use communication to influence behaviour during times of crises to assist in their recovery. This paper will investigate why policy makers wish to utilise effective crisis communications and explore the importance of crisis communication on influencing human behaviour in a time of crisis as well as the influence that the medium of communication can have. It will be noted that the medium of the message is important to ensure that the correct audience has been reached. This paper will suggest that, for decision makers to maximise the impact of crisis communications during a crisis, they must utilise rhetoric and cognitive response theory. It will also be suggested that the most importance factor in influencing behaviour in a time of crisis is that communications are provided from a credible source and are empathic in nature.

  18. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  19. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Safety

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.).

  20. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, L.

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.)

  1. Evidence that a functional fertilin-like ADAM plays a role in human sperm-oolemmal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, R A; Fusi, F M; Calzi, F; Doldi, N; Ferrari, A

    1999-05-01

    Fertilin is a protein initially identified in guinea pig spermatozoa; it is the prototype of a larger family of conserved, proteins designated as a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM). These heterodimers which consist of alpha and beta subunits, containing metalloproteinase-like and disintegrin-like domains, appear to play a role in mammalian fertilization. Peptides derived from the disintegrin domains of two ADAMs, fertilin and cyritestin, interfere with gamete adhesion and sperm-egg membrane fusion in non-human species. It has been suggested that fertilin-beta binds to an oolemmal integrin, and it is proposed that the tripeptide FEE (Phe-Glu-Glu) is the integrin recognition sequence in human fertilin-beta. We evaluated whether fertilin beta plays a role in human fertilization by studying the effects of a linear octapeptide containing the FEE sequence, SFEECDLP, and a scrambled octapeptide with the same amino acids, SFPCEDEL, on the incorporation of human spermatozoa by human zona-free eggs. The effects of G4120, a potent RGD-containing (Arg-Gly-Asp) thioether-bridged cyclic peptide which blocks both fibronectin and vitronectin receptors, and the relationship between FEE- and RGD-receptor interactions on sperm-egg interactions were also studied. The FEE-containing peptide, but not the scrampled peptide, inhibited sperm adhesion to oocytes and their penetration, over the range 1-5 microM. The inhibition induced by SFEECDLP was reversible and occurred only in the presence of peptide itself. The G4120 peptide exhibited 10-fold less inhibitory effects on sperm adhesion and penetration than did SFEECDLP. When combined, SFEECDLP and G4120 exhibited strong inhibition of both adhesion and penetration at concentrations that individually had been ineffective, suggesting co-operation between the two receptor-ligand interactions during fertilization. We propose that a fertilin-like molecule is functionally active on human spermatozoa and that its interaction with an

  2. A generic biokinetic model for predicting the behaviour of the lanthanide elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Leggett, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the biokinetics of the 15 elements of the lanthanide series, 57 La to 71 Lu, is too sparse to permit individual development of meaningful biokinetic models to describe the behaviour of each of the elements in humans. The lanthanides show a regular gradation in chemical properties across the series, and animal studies indicate that this is reflected in regular differences in their deposition in tissues such as the liver and skeleton. These regular differences in chemical and biological behaviour have been utilised to construct a generic lanthanide biokinetic model and to define element-specific parameters for each element in the series. This report describes the use of the available biokinetic data for humans and animals to derive the parameters for each of the elements. (author)

  3. Assessment of attachment behaviour to human caregivers in wolf pups (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Lord, Kathryn; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Wynne, Clive D L; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggested that 16-week old dog pups, but not wolf pups, show attachment behaviour to a human caregiver. Attachment to a caregiver in dog pups has been demonstrated by differential responding to a caregiver compared to a stranger in the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. We show here that 3-7 week old wolf pups also show attachment-like behaviour to a human caregiver as measured by preferential proximity seeking, preferential contact, and preferential greeting to a human caregiver over a human stranger in a modified and counterbalanced version of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. In addition, our results show that preferential responding to a caregiver over a stranger is only apparent following brief isolation. In initial episodes, wolf pups show no differentiation between the caregiver and the stranger; however, following a 2-min separation, the pups show proximity seeking, more contact, and more greeting to the caregiver than the stranger. These results suggest intensive human socialization of a wolf can lead to attachment--like responding to a human caregiver during the first two months of a wolf pup's life. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Nielsen, Tara; Weston, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Sandy beaches are primarily valued for their amenity and property values rather than for their ecological functions and properties. Some human usage of beaches potentially conflicts with the conservation and management of wildlife, such as beach-dwelling birds, on sandy shorelines. Because responses by birds to environmental change, including disturbance by humans, often involve behaviours that carry fitness costs, we quantify behaviour profiles of birds in relation to human occurrence along 200 km of sandy shoreline in Eastern Australia, including the large conservation area of Fraser Island. Disturbance to birds on these shores was considerable: 1) birds encountered motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, buses etc.) during 80% of focal bird observation bouts, 2) birds were flushed in over half (up to 86% in individual species) of all bouts, and 3) individuals spent, on average, one-third of their time on disturbance-related behaviours; this was particularly prevalent for Crested Terns (Thalasseus bergii) which were alert 42% of the time and spent 12% of their time escaping from human stimuli. Overall, this study demonstrated that motorized traffic is the prime agent of disturbance to birds on these beaches, resulting in frequent and time-consuming escape behaviours. These findings also emphasize that management of vehicle-based recreation on beaches needs to be re-aligned to meet conservation requirements in addition to providing leisure opportunities in National Parks and beyond; we identify some salient issue for this development: a) encouragement of social norms that promote environmentally benign beach use not involving motor vehicles, b) creation of spatial refuges for beach wildlife from traffic and other non-compatible uses, and c) investment in developing complementary management actions such as effective set-back distances.

  5. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  6. Marked referential communicative behaviours, but no differentiation of the "knowledge state" of humans in untrained pet dogs versus 1-year-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunet, Florence; Massioui, Farid El

    2014-09-01

    The study examines whether untrained dogs and infants take their caregiver's visual experience into account when communicating with them. Fifteen adult dogs and 15 one-year-old infants were brought into play with their caregivers with one of their own toys. The caregiver gave the toy to the experimenter, who, in different conditions, placed it either above or under one of two containers, with both the infant or dog and the caregiver witnessing the positioning; in a third condition, the caregiver left the room before the toy was placed under one of the two containers and later returned. Afterwards, for each condition, the caregiver asked the participant to indicate the location of the toy. Neither dogs nor infants-untrained to the use of the partner's knowledge state-showed much difference of behaviour between the three conditions. However, dogs showed more persistence for most behaviours (gaze at the owner, gaze at the toy and gaze alternation) and conditions, suggesting that the situation made more demands on dogs' communicative behaviours than on those of infants. When all deictic behaviours of infants (arm points towards the toy and gaze at the toy) were taken into account, dogs and infants did not differ. Phylogeny, early experience and ontogeny may all play a role in the ways that both species communicate with adult humans.

  7. GenPlay Multi-Genome, a tool to compare and analyze multiple human genomes in a graphical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajugie, Julien; Fourel, Nicolas; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    Parallel visualization of multiple individual human genomes is a complex endeavor that is rapidly gaining importance with the increasing number of personal, phased and cancer genomes that are being generated. It requires the display of variants such as SNPs, indels and structural variants that are unique to specific genomes and the introduction of multiple overlapping gaps in the reference sequence. Here, we describe GenPlay Multi-Genome, an application specifically written to visualize and analyze multiple human genomes in parallel. GenPlay Multi-Genome is ideally suited for the comparison of allele-specific expression and functional genomic data obtained from multiple phased genomes in a graphical interface with access to multiple-track operation. It also allows the analysis of data that have been aligned to custom genomes rather than to a standard reference and can be used as a variant calling format file browser and as a tool to compare different genome assembly, such as hg19 and hg38. GenPlay is available under the GNU public license (GPL-3) from http://genplay.einstein.yu.edu. The source code is available at https://github.com/JulienLajugie/GenPlay. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 1/21 the role played by the south african human rights commission's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2005-10-24

    Oct 24, 2005 ... The preamble of the South African Constitution1 contains the commitment to, amongst other things, establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights, lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and ...

  9. Human RecQL4 helicase plays critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Yanrong; Meador, Jarah A; Calaf, Gloria M

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths among men in the western countries. Here, we report that human RecQL4 helicase, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of cancer-prone Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, is highly elevated in metastatic prostate cancer c...

  10. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5aR signal...

  11. The behaviour of satellite cells in response to exercise: what have we learned from human studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, Fawzi; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards the underst......Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards...

  12. Growth and remodeling play opposing roles during postnatal human heart valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Pim J A; Holland, Maria A; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kuhl, Ellen; Loerakker, Sandra

    2018-01-19

    Tissue growth and remodeling are known to govern mechanical homeostasis in biological tissue, but their relative contributions to homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we use mechanical models, fueled by experimental findings, to demonstrate that growth and remodeling have different effects on heart valve stretch homeostasis during physiological postnatal development. Two developmental stages were considered: early-stage (from infant to adolescent) and late-stage (from adolescent to adult) development. Our models indicated that growth and remodeling play opposing roles in preserving tissue stretch and with time. During early-stage development, excessive tissue stretch was decreased by tissue growth and increased by remodeling. In contrast, during late-stage development tissue stretch was decreased by remodeling and increased by growth. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of native heart valve adaptation throughout life, and are highly relevant for the development of tissue-engineered heart valves.

  13. Playing to our human strengths to prepare medical students for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Chen

    2017-01-01

    We are living in an age where artificial intelligence and astounding technological advances are bringing truly remarkable change to healthcare. Medical knowledge and skills which form the core responsibility of doctors such as making diagnoses may increasingly be delivered by robots. Machines are gradually acquiring human abilities such as deep learning and empathy. What, then is the role of doctors in future healthcare? And what direction should medical schools be taking to prepare their gra...

  14. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos when approached by humans on foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Kvelprud Moen

    Full Text Available Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L. back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80% left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%. Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m than passive bears (69±47 m, and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  16. A critique and empirical assessment of Alexandra Horowitz and Julie Hecht's "Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    Horowitz and Hecht (Anim Cog 19:779-788, 2016) presented data about activities and vocalizations during brief videotaped dog-owner play provided by owners, examined these in relation to human affect during play, and made comparisons from their results to other research on activities and vocalizations during dog-human play. In this critique, I describe problems with Horowitz and Hecht's methodology, analyses, and evidence; in their interpretations of the data, evidence, and categorizations provided in other research, particularly my own studies of dog-human play; and in their claims of novelty for their findings. I argue that, to support their ideas about vocalizations and play types during dog-human play and their comparisons to other studies, their study requires fuller descriptions and reliability for their coding of vocalizations and play types, appropriate statistical analyses, and accurate descriptions of prior research. I also argue that their methodology provides results strikingly similar in many aspects to those of other researchers studying dog-human play, contrary to their claims of novel findings. Finally, I examine their suggestions about relationships between human affect and types of play activities and vocalizations using the videos of dog-human play I discussed in earlier publications, discovering minimal, if any, relationship.

  17. A vision-based system for intelligent monitoring: human behaviour analysis and privacy by context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaraoui, Alexandros Andre; Padilla-López, José Ramón; Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2014-05-20

    Due to progress and demographic change, society is facing a crucial challenge related to increased life expectancy and a higher number of people in situations of dependency. As a consequence, there exists a significant demand for support systems for personal autonomy. This article outlines the vision@home project, whose goal is to extend independent living at home for elderly and impaired people, providing care and safety services by means of vision-based monitoring. Different kinds of ambient-assisted living services are supported, from the detection of home accidents, to telecare services. In this contribution, the specification of the system is presented, and novel contributions are made regarding human behaviour analysis and privacy protection. By means of a multi-view setup of cameras, people's behaviour is recognised based on human action recognition. For this purpose, a weighted feature fusion scheme is proposed to learn from multiple views. In order to protect the right to privacy of the inhabitants when a remote connection occurs, a privacy-by-context method is proposed. The experimental results of the behaviour recognition method show an outstanding performance, as well as support for multi-view scenarios and real-time execution, which are required in order to provide the proposed services.

  18. Modelling human behaviour in a bumper car ride using molecular dynamics tools: a student project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Jorge J.; Lopez, Hector; Sanchis, Guillem; Pardo, Luis Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Amusement parks are excellent laboratories of physics, not only to check physical laws, but also to investigate if those physical laws might also be applied to human behaviour. A group of Physics Engineering students from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya has investigated if human behaviour, when driving bumper cars, can be modelled using tools borrowed from the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations, such as the radial and angular distribution functions. After acquiring several clips and obtaining the coordinates of the cars, those magnitudes are computed and analysed. Additionally, an analogous hard disks system is simulated to compare its distribution functions to those obtained from the cars’ coordinates. Despite the clear difference between bumper cars and a hard disk-like particle system, the obtained distribution functions are very similar. This suggests that there is no important effect of the individuals in the collective behaviour of the system in terms of structure. The research, performed by the students, has been undertaken in the frame of a motivational project designed to approach the scientific method for university students named FISIDABO. This project offers both the logistical and technical support to undertake the experiments designed by students at the amusement park of Barcelona TIBIDABO and accompanies them all along the scientific process.

  19. A Vision-Based System for Intelligent Monitoring: Human Behaviour Analysis and Privacy by Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Andre Chaaraoui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to progress and demographic change, society is facing a crucial challenge related to increased life expectancy and a higher number of people in situations of dependency. As a consequence, there exists a significant demand for support systems for personal autonomy. This article outlines the vision@home project, whose goal is to extend independent living at home for elderly and impaired people, providing care and safety services by means of vision-based monitoring. Different kinds of ambient-assisted living services are supported, from the detection of home accidents, to telecare services. In this contribution, the specification of the system is presented, and novel contributions are made regarding human behaviour analysis and privacy protection. By means of a multi-view setup of cameras, people’s behaviour is recognised based on human action recognition. For this purpose, a weighted feature fusion scheme is proposed to learn from multiple views. In order to protect the right to privacy of the inhabitants when a remote connection occurs, a privacy-by-context method is proposed. The experimental results of the behaviour recognition method show an outstanding performance, as well as support for multi-view scenarios and real-time execution, which are required in order to provide the proposed services.

  20. The development of human behaviour analysis techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Cheon, Se Woo; Shu, Sang Moon; Park, Geun Ok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Han Yeong; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Eu Jin; Lee, Seung Hee

    1994-04-01

    This project has two major areas ; one is the development of an operator task simulation software and another is the development of human error analysis and application technologies. In this year project, the second year, for the development of an operator task simulation software, we studied the followings: - analysis of the characteristics of operator tasks, - development of operator task structures : Macro Structures, - development of an operator task simulation analyzes, - analysis of performance measures. And the followings for the development of human error analysis and application technologies : - analysis of human error mechanisms, - analysis of human error characteristics in tasks, - analysis of human error occurrence in Korean Nuclear Power Plants, - establishment of an experimental environment for human error data collection with Compact Nuclear Simulator, - basic design of a Multimedia-based Human Error Representing System. (Author)

  1. Human AQP5 plays a role in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kwang Chae

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs have previously been associated with increased expression in solid tumors. However, its expression in hematologic malignancies including CML has not been described yet. Here, we report the expression of AQP5 in CML cells by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. While normal bone marrow biopsy samples (n = 5 showed no expression of AQP5, 32% of CML patient samples (n = 41 demonstrated AQP5 expression. In addition, AQP5 expression level increased with the emergence of imatinib mesylate resistance in paired samples (p = 0.047. We have found that the overexpression of AQP5 in K562 cells resulted in increased cell proliferation. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting AQP5 reduced the cell proliferation rate in both K562 and LAMA84 CML cells. Moreover, by immunoblotting and flow cytometry, we show that phosphorylation of BCR-ABL1 is increased in AQP5-overexpressing CML cells and decreased in AQP5 siRNA-treated CML cells. Interestingly, caspase9 activity increased in AQP5 siRNA-treated cells. Finally, FISH showed no evidence of AQP5 gene amplification in CML from bone marrow. In summary, we report for the first time that AQP5 is overexpressed in CML cells and plays a role in promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, our findings may provide the basis for a novel CML therapy targeting AQP5.

  2. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  3. The contribution of social behaviour to the transmission of influenza A in a human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Kwok, Kin O; Wei, Vivian W I; Cowling, Benjamin J; Read, Jonathan M; Lessler, Justin; Cummings, Derek A; Riley, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Variability in the risk of transmission for respiratory pathogens can result from several factors, including the intrinsic properties of the pathogen, the immune state of the host and the host's behaviour. It has been proposed that self-reported social mixing patterns can explain the behavioural component of this variability, with simulated intervention studies based on these data used routinely to inform public health policy. However, in the absence of robust studies with biological endpoints for individuals, it is unclear how age and social behaviour contribute to infection risk. To examine how the structure and nature of social contacts influenced infection risk over the course of a single epidemic, we designed a flexible disease modelling framework: the population was divided into a series of increasingly detailed age and social contact classes, with the transmissibility of each age-contact class determined by the average contacts of that class. Fitting the models to serologically confirmed infection data from the 2009 Hong Kong influenza A/H1N1p pandemic, we found that an individual's risk of infection was influenced strongly by the average reported social mixing behaviour of their age group, rather than by their personal reported contacts. We also identified the resolution of social mixing that shaped transmission: epidemic dynamics were driven by intense contacts between children, a post-childhood drop in risky contacts and a subsequent rise in contacts for individuals aged 35-50. Our results demonstrate that self-reported social contact surveys can account for age-associated heterogeneity in the transmission of a respiratory pathogen in humans, and show robustly how these individual-level behaviours manifest themselves through assortative age groups. Our results suggest it is possible to profile the social structure of different populations and to use these aggregated data to predict their inherent transmission potential.

  4. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2018-05-01

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. In Quest of a Meaningful Model of Human Self and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzurul Huq

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness among many modern psychologists that the will to meaning is a highly distinctive feature of man, distinguishing him from animals. Accordingly, a behaviour model for man, to be truly representative, must include the drive for meaning as a significant dimension of human personality. In the light of this realization, some major psychological models of personality, e.g., the psychoanalytical model, behaviouristic model, humanistic model, and the existential model have been briefly examined, and a model based on transcendental nature of man is proposed. According to this model, the realization of an abiding comprehensive meaning of life and the consequent all­ inclusive meaningful behaviour, both at the individual and social levels, is the junction of man's perception and belief in a transcendentally anchored integrated framework of life.

  6. Playing to our human strengths to prepare medical students for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an age where artificial intelligence and astounding technological advances are bringing truly remarkable change to healthcare. Medical knowledge and skills which form the core responsibility of doctors such as making diagnoses may increasingly be delivered by robots. Machines are gradually acquiring human abilities such as deep learning and empathy. What, then is the role of doctors in future healthcare? And what direction should medical schools be taking to prepare their graduates? This article will give an overview of the evolving technological landscape of healthcare and examine the issues undergraduate medical education may have to address. The experience at The University of Hong Kong will serve as a case study featuring several curricular innovations that aim to empower medical graduates with the capabilities to thrive in the future.

  7. Playing to our human strengths to prepare medical students for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julie

    2017-09-01

    We are living in an age where artificial intelligence and astounding technological advances are bringing truly remarkable change to healthcare. Medical knowledge and skills which form the core responsibility of doctors such as making diagnoses may increasingly be delivered by robots. Machines are gradually acquiring human abilities such as deep learning and empathy. What, then is the role of doctors in future healthcare? And what direction should medical schools be taking to prepare their graduates? This article will give an overview of the evolving technological landscape of healthcare and examine the issues undergraduate medical education may have to address. The experience at The University of Hong Kong will serve as a case study featuring several curricular innovations that aim to empower medical graduates with the capabilities to thrive in the future.

  8. The double helix revisited: a paradox of science and a paradigm of human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüelles, Juan Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern history of Science, few breakthroughs have caused an impact comparative to the Double Helix, the three-dimensional structure of DNA proposed by Watson & Crick in 1953, an event whose 50th anniversary was widely celebrated in the non-specialist media, three years ago. Although the discovery had little transcendence at the time, it has unquestionably been of great importance ever since. The Double Helix has underlined the true biological value of nucleic acids compared with proteins, demonstrating that genes are not amorphous entities but have a specific chemical composition and adopt an ordered spatial folding pattern. Elucidation of this key configuration made it possible to establish a direct relationship between the structure and the function of macromolecules, a relationship which is not so clear in the case of proteins. During these last fifty years much has been written and argued about the circumstances surrounding the discovery and about the behaviour and attitudes of many of the protagonists. Besides Watson & Crick, other scientists, whose contribution has not been adequately recognised, played an important part in solving the Double Helix mystery. This article contains some ethical and scientific reflections which revise some of these essential contributions and throws light on the role played in history by these comparatively «unknown soldiers» of science. The Double Helix story is undoubtedly a manifestation of the human side of science and many scientists believe that the available evidence taken as a whole permits an alternative story to be written.

    En la desarrollo histórico de la Ciencia moderna, pocos descubrimientos han causado un impacto comparativo a las repercusiones de la Doble Hélice, la estructura tridimensional del ADN, propuesta por Watson y Crick en 1953. El 50º aniversario de aquel evento fue ampliamente celebrado hace tres años, incluso por los medios no especializados en informaci

  9. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioural and functional MRI findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eCheetham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970 predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of realistic humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars dominates uncanny research, but findings are inconsistent. How objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DOH, defined only in terms of human physical similarity, is unknown. To examine whether the DOH can be defined also in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP, stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioural studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e. CP of fine-grained differences between face pairs at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs that presented category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical and category change within the uncanny valley hypothesis’ framework, an event-related fMRI study used the same stimuli in a paired repetition-priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula direction of category change. Our findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future uncanny studies consider CP and the DOH category structure in guiding experience of nonhuman objects.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hong Tham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process.

  11. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  12. Do Human Papilloma Viruses Play Any Role in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in North Indians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineeta; Husain, Nuzhat; Akhtar, Naseem; Kumar, Vijay; Tewari, Shikha; Mishra, Sridhar; Misra, Sanjeev; Khan, M Y

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignancy among males in India. While tobacco and alcohol are main aetiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) presence has surprisingly increased in head and neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) in the past two decade but its frequency in OSCCS is still uncertain. We aim to explore the frequency of HPV and its major genotypes in North Indian patients and their association with clinicopathological and histopathological features and p16 expression pattern. The study group comprised 250 histologically proven cases of OSCC. HPV was detected by real time PCR in tumor biopsy specimens and confirmed by conventional PCR with PGMY09/ PGMY11 primers. Genotyping for high-risk types 16/ 18 was conducted by type specific PCR. p16 expression was assessed by immunohistochemsitry. HPV presence was confirmed in 23/250 (9.2%) OSCC cases, of which 30.4% had HPV 16 infection, 17.4%were positive for HPV 18 and 26.1% had co-infections. HPV presence was significantly associated with male gender (p=0.02) and habit of pan masala chewing (p=0.01). HPV positive cases also had a history of tobacco consumption in 91.3% cases. p16 over expression was observed in 39.1% of HPV positive cases but this was not significantly different from negative cases (p=0.54). The frequency of HPV in OSCC is low in North-India and majority of cases are associated with a tobacco habit. It appears that tobacco shows a confounding effect in HPV positive cases and use of p16 protein as a reliable marker to assess the potential etiological role of HPV in OSCC in our population is not suggested.

  13. Bringing human information behaviour into information systems research: an application of systems modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In their influential paper, Dervin and Nilan compared and contrasted the "traditional" and "alternative" paradigms for human information behaviour research, highlighting the inadequacies of the former and promoting the importance of the latter. In this paper, we argue that the two paradigms are not irreconcilable. We offer a research framework that allows qualitative and quantitative views of the same problem to be combined using systems models. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to reconcile the six key differences between the two paradigms as argued by Dervin and Nilan.

  14. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  15. Extreme behavioural shifts by baboons exploiting risky, resource-rich, human-modified environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlmann, Gaelle; O'Riain, M Justin; Kerr-Smith, Catherine; Hailes, Stephen; Luckman, Adrian; Shepard, Emily L C; King, Andrew J

    2017-11-08

    A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as 'raiding'. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species' ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with 'rangers' (employed to manage the baboons' space use) revealed that baboons are at risk of being herded out of urban spaces that contain high-energy anthropogenic food sources. Baboon-attached motion/GPS tracking collars showed that raiding male baboons spent almost all of their time at the urban edge, engaging in short, high-activity forays into the urban space. Moreover, activity levels were increased where the likelihood of deterrence by rangers was greater. Overall, these raiding baboons display a time-activity balance that is drastically altered in comparison to individuals living in more remote regions. We suggest our methods can be used to obtain precise estimates of management impact for this and other species in conflict with people.

  16. The research history of the human behaviour from the probabilistic safety analysis viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    1993-01-01

    The so called human errors have always been apart of the everyday life of the mankind. In that sense, the discussion on man has a contributor to the operational safety of nuclear power plants is nothing new. It is interesting, that there do not exist widely accepted definitions of the human error nor the human reliability. Some of them are discussed at the beginning of this article. The second Chapter discusses the past and today of the research of man as a contributor to safety. Similarly, the development of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is described. The article, then, discusses the methods used in the contemporary HRA. The division between the identification of important human activities and their probability estimation is made. Especially, the pros and cons of the approaches and data sources used in the HRA are reviewed on a coarce level. At the end, a view on the use of expert judgment is given. The human behaviour has been an endless topic of research in the history - and will be it in future as well. In the conclusion of the article an opinion is given on the development during the past 30 years. Then, a rapid view on the possible future of the area is given. (orig.)

  17. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  18. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  19. Visual social network analysis: effective approach to model complex human social, behaviour & culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    The advent and adoption of internet-based social networking has significantly altered our daily lives. The educational community has taken notice of the positive aspects of social networking such as creation of blogs and to support groups of system designers going through the same challenges and difficulties. This paper introduces a social networking framework for collaborative education, design and modeling of the next generation of smarter products and services. Human behaviour modeling in social networking application aims to ensure that human considerations for learners and designers have a prominent place in the integrated design and development of sustainable, smarter products throughout the total system lifecycle. Social networks blend self-directed learning and prescribed, existing information. The self-directed element creates interest within a learner and the ability to access existing information facilitates its transfer, and eventual retention of knowledge acquired.

  20. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jacoba E; Hanekom, Tania; Hanekom, Johan J

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a recently developed human Ranvier node model, which is based on a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, could predict the excitability behaviour in human peripheral sensory nerve fibres with diameters ranging from 5.0 to 15.0 microm. The Ranvier node model was extended to include a persistent sodium current and was incorporated into a generalised single cable nerve fibre model. Parameter temperature dependence was included. All calculations were performed in Matlab. Sensory nerve fibre excitability behaviour characteristics predicted by the new nerve fibre model at different temperatures and fibre diameters compared well with measured data. Absolute refractory periods deviated from measured data, while relative refractory periods were similar to measured data. Conduction velocities showed both fibre diameter and temperature dependence and were underestimated in fibres thinner than 12.5 microm. Calculated strength-duration time constants ranged from 128.5 to 183.0 micros at 37 degrees C over the studied nerve fibre diameter range, with chronaxie times about 30% shorter than strength-duration time constants. Chronaxie times exhibited temperature dependence, with values overestimated by a factor 5 at temperatures lower than body temperature. Possible explanations include the deviated absolute refractory period trend and inclusion of a nodal strangulation relationship.

  1. Sociology and behaviour of West African blood donors: the impact of religion on human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J-P; Anokwa, M; Casbard, A; Owusu-Ofori, S; Dennis-Antwi, J

    2004-11-01

    Ghana is one of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in blood donors ranges between 1 and 4%. Considering the social importance of religion and the very high level of religious practice observed in Ghana, the hypothesis that these factors may play a role in containing HIV was tested. Consenting HIV-infected candidate blood donors, and two age- and gender-matched seronegative control donors, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their religious and sexual behaviour. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used. Irrespective of their HIV status or religion, 95% of the respondents believed that extra-marital sex was a sin, and 79% of those tempted to have an extra-marital affair considered that their religious beliefs helped them to abstain. In the multivariable models, having a formal role in church activities was associated with reduced odds of HIV [odds ratio (OR) = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.80]. Worshipping at the same location for more than 20 years was associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.08-1.10). In addition to other factors limiting HIV spread, such as male circumcision, relatively high level of education and an absence of armed conflicts in Ghana, the use of condoms conferred a reduced risk. An active role in religion, and reporting a lengthy duration of worship at the same place was beneficial. Collecting blood at places of worship with a strict behavioural code and from donors practicing in the community of their birth might improve blood safety.

  2. Noradrenaline might enhance assertive human social behaviours: an investigation in a flatmate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, W S; Bond, A J

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of noradrenaline on the social behaviour of healthy volunteers when they were interacting with a familiar person, their flatmate. Interaction with the flatmate was explored in a cooperative game situation. Ten pairs of same-sex healthy volunteer flatmates aged 18-25 years were recruited for the experiment. All volunteers gave written informed consent and the study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of reboxetine versus placebo was conducted. In each of the 10 pairs of volunteers, one (subject) volunteered to take the tablets and the other (flatmate) received no treatment. Reboxetine (4 mg/bd) and placebo were administered orally as identical capsules for 2 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive either reboxetine or placebo first and there was a two-week washout period following the first treatment. At baseline and the end of each treatment, they filled in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adapation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Then, they were instructed to play the Tangrams game. This task elicits face-valid social behaviours such as cooperation, giving commands and unilateral grasps. Analysis of covariance showed that there was a statistical trend for reboxetine treatment to increase commands (p=0.055). This study presents preliminary evidence that two weeks' enhancement of noradrenaline transmission induced by reboxetine makes healthy volunteers more self-confident and assertive.

  3. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  4. A novel method for delivering ramped cooling reveals rat behaviours at innocuous and noxious temperatures: A comparative study of human psychophysics and rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, James P; Hulse, Richard P; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-07-15

    Thermal sensory testing in rodents informs human pain research. There are important differences in the methodology for delivering thermal stimuli to humans and rodents. This is particularly true in cold pain research. These differences confound extrapolation and de-value nociceptive tests in rodents. We investigated cooling-induced behaviours in rats and psychophysical thresholds in humans using ramped cooling stimulation protocols. A Peltier device mounted upon force transducers simultaneously applied a ramped cooling stimulus whilst measuring contact with rat hind paw or human finger pad. Rat withdrawals and human detection, discomfort and pain thresholds were measured. Ramped cooling of a rat hind paw revealed two distinct responses: Brief paw removal followed by paw replacement, usually with more weight borne than prior to the removal (temperature inter-quartile range: 19.1 °C to 2.8 °C). Full withdrawal was evoked at colder temperatures (inter quartile range: -11.3 °C to -11.8 °C). The profile of human cool detection threshold and cold pain threshold were remarkably similar to that of the rat withdrawals behaviours. Previous rat cold evoked behaviours utilise static temperature stimuli. By utilising ramped cold stimuli this novel methodology better reflects thermal testing in patients. Brief paw removal in the rat is driven by non-nociceptive afferents, as is the perception of cooling in humans. This is in contrast to the nociceptor-driven withdrawal from colder temperatures. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of data generated in older cold pain models and consequently our understanding of cold perception and pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Baarspul, ANJ; Broekman, M; Creuwels, JCS; Reijnders, PJH

    We studied lactation behaviour in relation to pup growth in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island, and compared harems in areas of high and low human presence to determine if there is an effect attributable to human activities, including scientific research. Pup weaning

  6. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Baarspul, A.N.J.; Broekman, M.; Creuwels, J.C.S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied lactation behaviour in relation to pup growth in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island, and compared harems in areas of high and low human presence to determine if there is an effect attributable to human activitiesincluding scientific research. Pup weaning mass,

  7. Microsatellite polymorphisms associated with human behavioural and psychological phenotypes including a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Andrew T M; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Gemmell, Neil J; Kennedy, Martin A

    2017-02-03

    The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance. The repeats were a highly conserved poly-AC microsatellite in the upstream promoter region of the T-box brain 1 (TBR1) gene and three previously studied STRs in the activating enhancer-binding protein 2-beta (AP2-β) and androgen receptor (AR) genes. Where significance was found we used multiple regression to assess the influence of confounding factors. Carriers of the shorter, most common, allele of the AR gene's GGN microsatellite polymorphism had fewer anxiety-related symptoms, which was consistent with previous studies, but in our study this was not significant following Bonferroni correction. No associations with two repeats in the AP2-β gene withstood this correction. A novel finding was that carriers of the minor allele of the TBR1 AC microsatellite were at higher risk of conduct problems in childhood at age 7-9 (p = 0.0007, which did pass Bonferroni correction). Including maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) in models controlling for potentially confounding influences showed that an interaction between TBR1 genotype and MSDP was a significant predictor of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence (p behaviour up to age 25 years (p ≤ 0.02). This interaction remained significant after controlling for possible confounders including maternal age at birth, socio-economic status and education, and offspring birth weight. The potential functional importance of the TBR1 gene's promoter microsatellite

  8. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. genetic determinism to justify intellectual likeness between individuals such as twins) or in relation to groups of humans (e.g. genetic determinism to justify gender differences or the superiority of some human ethnic groups). A between-factor analysis discriminates between countries, showing very significant differences. There is more innatism among teachers' conceptions in African countries and Lebanon than in European countries, Brazil and Australia. Among the other controlled parameters, only two are significantly independent of the country: the level of training and the level of knowledge of biology. A co-inertia analysis shows a strong correlation between non-citizen attitudes towards and innatist conceptions of genetic determinism regarding human groups. We discuss these findings and their implications for education.

  9. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: evidence from a large survey of Nordic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari

    2014-09-03

    To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A multivariable model for predicting the frictional behaviour and hydration of the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veijgen, N K; van der Heide, E; Masen, M A

    2013-08-01

    The frictional characteristics of skin-object interactions are important when handling objects, in the assessment of perception and comfort of products and materials and in the origins and prevention of skin injuries. In this study, based on statistical methods, a quantitative model is developed that describes the friction behaviour of human skin as a function of the subject characteristics, contact conditions, the properties of the counter material as well as environmental conditions. Although the frictional behaviour of human skin is a multivariable problem, in literature the variables that are associated with skin friction have been studied using univariable methods. In this work, multivariable models for the static and dynamic coefficients of friction as well as for the hydration of the skin are presented. A total of 634 skin-friction measurements were performed using a recently developed tribometer. Using a statistical analysis, previously defined potential influential variables were linked to the static and dynamic coefficient of friction and to the hydration of the skin, resulting in three predictive quantitative models that descibe the friction behaviour and the hydration of human skin respectively. Increased dynamic coefficients of friction were obtained from older subjects, on the index finger, with materials with a higher surface energy at higher room temperatures, whereas lower dynamic coefficients of friction were obtained at lower skin temperatures, on the temple with rougher contact materials. The static coefficient of friction increased with higher skin hydration, increasing age, on the index finger, with materials with a higher surface energy and at higher ambient temperatures. The hydration of the skin was associated with the skin temperature, anatomical location, presence of hair on the skin and the relative air humidity. Predictive models have been derived for the static and dynamic coefficient of friction using a multivariable approach. These

  12. Play and optimal welfare: Does play indicate the presence of positive affective states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahloy-Dallaire, Jamie; Espinosa, Julia; Mason, Georgia

    2017-11-16

    Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs). Furthermore, research in children suggests that beyond the frequency or total duration of play, poor welfare may additionally be reflected in qualitative aspects of this heterogeneous behaviour (e.g. display of solitary over social play; and the 'fragmentation' of play bouts) that are often overlooked in animals. There are surprisingly few studies of play in subjects with pre-existing optimal welfare or in unambiguously highly positive affective states, making it currently impossible to determine whether play can distinguish optimal or good welfare from merely neutral welfare. This therefore represents an important and exciting area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  15. Evaluation of biexponential relaxation behaviour in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of individual biologic components in relaxation curves obtained in vivo may increase the specificity of tissue characterization by magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, the potential of biexponential curve analysis was evaluated in T1 and T2 measurements on the human...... brain at 1.5 tesla. Optimal experimental conditions were carefully observed, including the use of long TR values and a very small voxel size. T1 determination was based on a 12-points partial saturation inversion recovery pulse sequence. T2 determination involved a multiple spin echo sequence with 32...... echoes. No genuine biexponentiality was demonstrated in the T1 and T2 relaxation processes of white matter, cortical grey matter, or cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, a monoexponential model seems adequate for description of the relaxation behaviour in these cases. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  16. Human Behaviour Analysis of Barrier Deviations Using a Benefit-Cost-Deficit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Polet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Benefit-Cost-Deficit (BCD model is proposed for analyzing such intentional human errors as barrier removal, the deliberate nonrespect of the rules and instructions governing use of a given system. The proposed BCD model attempts to explain and predict barrier removal in terms of the benefits, costs, and potential deficits associated with this human behaviour. The results of an experimental study conducted on a railway simulator (TRANSPAL are used to illustrate the advantages of the BCD model. In this study, human operators were faced with barriers that they could choose to deactivate, or not. Their decisions were analyzed in an attempt to explain and predict their choices. The analysis highlights that operators make their decisions using a balance between several criteria. Though barriers are safety-related elements, the decision to remove them is not guided only by the safety criterion; it is also motivated by such criteria as productivity, workload, and quality. Results of prediction supported by the BCD demonstrate the predictability of barrier violation

  17. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  18. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  19. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Sengupta

    Full Text Available Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  20. Expression of mammalian GPCRs in C. elegans generates novel behavioural responses to human ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Gert

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current methods of studying receptor-ligand interactions involve in vitro systems. Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil-dwelling, bacteria-feeding nematode that uses GPCRs expressed in chemosensory neurons to detect bacteria and environmental compounds, making this an ideal system for studying in vivo GPCR-ligand interactions. We sought to test this by functionally expressing two medically important mammalian GPCRs, somatostatin receptor 2 (Sstr2 and chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 in the gustatory neurons of C. elegans. Results Expression of Sstr2 and CCR5 in gustatory neurons allow C. elegans to specifically detect and respond to somatostatin and MIP-1α respectively in a robust avoidance assay. We demonstrate that mammalian heterologous GPCRs can signal via different endogenous Gα subunits in C. elegans, depending on which cells it is expressed in. Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic animals to its ligand leads to receptor desensitisation and behavioural adaptation to subsequent ligand exposure, providing further evidence of integration of the mammalian GPCRs into the C. elegans sensory signalling machinery. In structure-function studies using a panel of somatostatin-14 analogues, we identified key residues involved in the interaction of somatostatin-14 with Sstr2. Conclusion Our results illustrate a remarkable evolutionary plasticity in interactions between mammalian GPCRs and C. elegans signalling machinery, spanning 800 million years of evolution. This in vivo system, which imparts novel avoidance behaviour on C. elegans, thus provides a simple means of studying and screening interaction of GPCRs with extracellular agonists, antagonists and intracellular binding partners.

  1. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls, implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2009-07-01

    . These are controlled by the topological architecture of the catchments that interacts with system states and the boundary conditions. Crossing the response thresholds means to establish connectedness of surface or subsurface flow paths to the catchment outlet. Subsurface stormflow in humid areas, overland flow and erosion in semi-arid and arid areas are examples, and explain that crossing local process thresholds is necessary but not sufficient to trigger a system response threshold. The third form of threshold behaviour involves changes in the "architecture" of human geo-ecosystems, which experience various disturbances. As a result substantial change in hydrological functioning of a system is induced, when the disturbances exceed the resilience of the geo-ecosystem. We present examples from savannah ecosystems, humid agricultural systems, mining activities affecting rainfall runoff in forested areas, badlands formation in Spain, and the restoration of the Upper Rhine river basin as examples of this phenomenon. This functional threshold behaviour is most difficult to predict, since it requires extrapolations far away from our usual experience and the accounting of bidirectional feedbacks. However, it does not require the development of more complicated model, but on the contrary, only models with the right level of simplification, which we illustrate with an instructive example. Following Prigogine, who studied structure formation in open thermodynamic systems, we hypothesise that topological structures which control response thresholds in the landscape might be seen as dissipative structures, and the onset of threshold processes/response as a switch to more efficient ways of depleting strong gradients that develop in the case of extreme boundary conditions.

  2. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Mediating human stem cell behaviour via defined fibrous architectures by melt electrospinning writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholz, Kian F; Hoey, David A

    2018-05-29

    The architecture within which cells reside is key to mediating their specific functions within the body. In this study, we use melt electrospinning writing (MEW) to fabricate cell micro-environments with various fibrous architectures to study their effect on human stem cell behaviour. We designed, built and optimised a MEW apparatus and used it to fabricate four different platform designs of 10.4±2μm fibre diameter, with angles between fibres on adjacent layers of 90°, 45°, 10° and R (random). Mechanical characterisation was conducted via tensile testing, and human skeletal stem cells (hSSCs) were seeded to scaffolds to study the effect of architecture on cell morphology and mechanosensing (nuclear YAP). Cell morphology was significantly altered between groups, with cells on 90° scaffolds having a lower aspect ratio, greater spreading, greater cytoskeletal tension and nuclear YAP expression. Long term cell culture studies were then conducted to determine the differentiation potential of scaffolds in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen and mineral production. Across these studies, an increased cell spreading in 3-dimensions is seen with decreasing alignment of architecture correlated with enhanced osteogenesis. This study therefore highlights the critical role of fibrous architecture in regulating stem cell behaviour with implications for tissue engineering and disease progression. This is the first study which has investigated the effect of controlled fibrous architectures fabricated via melt electrospinning writing on cell behaviour and differentiation. After optimising the process and characterising scaffolds via SEM and tensile testing, cells were seeded to fibrous scaffolds with various micro-architectures and studied in terms of cell morphology. Nuclear YAP expression was further investigated as a marker of cell shape, cytoskeletal tension and differentiation potential. In agreement with these early markers, long term cell culture studies

  4. Sexual Selection of Human Cooperative Behaviour: An Experimental Study in Rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could do...

  5. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships, based on unit averages, between the behavioural responses of lactating sows to humans and the performance of sows in 25 farrowing units at a large commercial farm. The behavioural responses of 25 sows in each farrowing unit were observed...... at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...... and the percentage of stillborn piglets. Units in which test sows were quicker to withdraw in the presence of the experimenter had a higher stillbirth rate than those units in which a reduced withdrawal response was displayed. The withdrawal response of sows in the close presence of the experimenter accounted...

  6. The Human Behaviour-Change Project: harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Thomas, James; Johnston, Marie; Aonghusa, Pol Mac; Shawe-Taylor, John; Kelly, Michael P; Deleris, Léa A; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Marques, Marta M; Norris, Emma; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; West, Robert

    2017-10-18

    Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support. The Human Behaviour-Change Project (HBCP) will use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to (i) develop and evaluate a 'Knowledge System' that automatically extracts, synthesises and interprets findings from BCI evaluation reports to generate new insights about behaviour change and improve prediction of intervention effectiveness and (ii) allow users, such as practitioners, policy makers and researchers, to easily and efficiently query the system to get answers to variants of the question 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what settings and why?'. The HBCP will: a) develop an ontology of BCI evaluations and their reports linking effect sizes for given target behaviours with intervention content and delivery and mechanisms of action, as moderated by exposure, populations and settings; b) develop and train an automated feature extraction system to annotate BCI evaluation reports using this ontology; c) develop and train machine learning and reasoning algorithms to use the annotated BCI evaluation reports to predict effect sizes for particular combinations of behaviours, interventions, populations and settings; d) build user and machine interfaces for interrogating and updating the knowledge base; and e) evaluate all the above in terms of performance and utility. The HBCP aims to revolutionise our ability to synthesise, interpret and deliver

  7. Gasdermin D plays a key role as a pyroptosis executor of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Jiang, Mingzuo; Chu, Yi; Wang, Weijie; Chen, Di; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Di; Fan, Daiming; Nie, Yongzhan; Shao, Feng; Wu, Kaichun; Liang, Jie

    2017-12-20

    Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-executed programmed necrosis is involved in inflammation and controls interleukin (IL)-1β release. However, the role of GSDMD in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We investigated the role of GSDMD in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. Human liver tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and control individuals were obtained to evaluate GSDMD expression. Gsdmd knockout (Gsdmd -/- ) mice, obese db/db mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) or control diet to induce steatohepatitis. The Gsdmd -/- and WT mice were also used in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD model. In addition, Alb-Cre mice were administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector that expressed the gasdermin-N domain (AAV9-FLEX-GSDMD-N) and were fed with either MCD or control diet for 10 days. GSDMD and its pyroptosis-inducing fragment GSDMD-N were upregulated in liver tissues of human NAFLD/NASH. Importantly, hepatic GSDMD-N protein levels were significantly higher in human NASH and correlated with the NAFLD activity score and fibrosis. GSDMD-N remained a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH. MCD-fed Gsdmd -/- mice exhibit decreased severity of steatosis and inflammation compared with WT littermates. GSDMD was associated with the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 [CCL2]) and persistent activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway. Gsdmd -/- mice showed lower steatosis, mainly because of reduced expression of the lipogenic gene Srebp1c (Srebf1) and upregulated expression of lipolytic genes, including Pparα, Aco [Klk15], Lcad [Acadl], Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14. Alb-Cre mice administered with AAV9-FLEX-GSDMD-N showed significantly aggravated steatohepatitis when fed with MCD diet. As an executor of pyroptosis, GSDMD plays a key role in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis, by controlling cytokine secretion, NF-ĸB activation, and lipogenesis

  8. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Freya A V; Keane, Aidan M; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W; Jones, Julia P G

    2012-02-22

    Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour.

  9. Cosimo: a cognitive simulation model of human decision making and behaviour in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.; Decortis, F.; Nordvik, J.P.; Drozdowicz, B.; Masson, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the Cognitive Simulation Model (COSIMO), currently implemented at the Ispra JRC, is described, with particular emphasis on its theoretical foundations, on its computational implementation and on a number of simulations cases of man-machine system interactions. COSIMO runs on a lisp machine and it interacts with the simulation of the physical system implemented on a Sun computer. In our case the physical system is a typical Nuclear Power Plant subsystem - the Auxiliary Feed-Water System (AFWS). One basic application is to explore human behaviour in simulated accident situations in order to identify suitable safety recommendations. To be more specific, COSIMO can be used to: - analyse how operators are likely to act given a particular context, - identify difficult problem solving situations, given problem solving resources and constraints (operator knowledge, man-machine interfaces, procedures), - identify situations that can lead to human errors and evaluate their consequences, - identify and test conditions for error recovery, - investigate the effects of changes in the man-machine system. Since the modelling of the AFWS, its control system and procedures have also been the object of a detailed description (Cacciabue et al., 1990a), the objective of this paper is the presentation of the state of the art of the COSIMO simulation

  10. Resorbable electrospun polydioxanone fibres modify the behaviour of cells from both healthy and diseased human tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kendal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tendinopathy in an active and ageing population represents an increasing burden to healthcare systems. Rotator cuff tendinopathy alone accounts for approximately 70 % of all shoulder pain. Tendinopathic tissue has a disorganised extracellular matrix, altered vasculature, and infiltration of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. This altered biology may contribute to the limited success of surgical repair strategies. Electrospun resorbable scaffolds can potentially enhance endogenous repair mechanisms by influencing the tissue microenvironment. Polydioxanone (PDO has an established safety profile in patients. We compared the response of healthy and diseased human tendon cells to electrospun PDO fibres using live cell imaging, proliferation, flow cytometry, and gene expression studies. Within 4 h of initial contact with electrospun PDO, healthy tendon cells underwent a marked transformation; elongating along the fibres in a fibre density dependent manner. Diseased tendon cells initially responded at a slower rate, but ultimately underwent a similar morphological change. Electrospun fibres increased the proliferation rate of diseased tendon cells and increased the ratio of type I:IIIcollagenmRNA expression. Flow cytometry revealed decreased expression of CD106, a marker of mesenchymal stem cells, and increased expression of CD10 on healthy versus diseased tendon cells. PDO electrospun scaffolds further promoted CD106negCD10pos expression of healthy tendon cells. Despite their behavioural differences, both healthy and diseased human tendon cells responded to electrospun PDO fibres. This encourages further work establishing their efficacy in augmenting surgical repair of diseased tendons.

  11. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  12. A novel video-tracking system to quantify the behaviour of nocturnal mosquitoes attacking human hosts in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita-Jaimes, N C; Parker, J E A; Abe, M; Mashauri, F; Martine, J; Towers, C E; McCall, P J; Towers, D P

    2016-04-01

    Many vectors of malaria and other infections spend most of their adult life within human homes, the environment where they bloodfeed and rest, and where control has been most successful. Yet, knowledge of peri-domestic mosquito behaviour is limited, particularly how mosquitoes find and attack human hosts or how insecticides impact on behaviour. This is partly because technology for tracking mosquitoes in their natural habitats, traditional dwellings in disease-endemic countries, has never been available. We describe a sensing device that enables observation and recording of nocturnal mosquitoes attacking humans with or without a bed net, in the laboratory and in rural Africa. The device addresses requirements for sub-millimetre resolution over a 2.0 × 1.2 × 2.0 m volume while using minimum irradiance. Data processing strategies to extract individual mosquito trajectories and algorithms to describe behaviour during host/net interactions are introduced. Results from UK laboratory and Tanzanian field tests showed that Culex quinquefasciatus activity was higher and focused on the bed net roof when a human host was present, in colonized and wild populations. Both C. quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae exhibited similar behavioural modes, with average flight velocities varying by less than 10%. The system offers considerable potential for investigations in vector biology and many other fields. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta- analysis in humans and other animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, J.M.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically

  14. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  15. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Behavioural strategies towards human disturbances explain individual performance in woodland caribou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Martin; Dussault, Christian; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2014-09-01

    Behavioural strategies may have important fitness, ecological and evolutionary consequences. In woodland caribou, human disturbances are associated with higher predation risk. Between 2004 and 2011, we investigated if habitat selection strategies of female caribou towards disturbances influenced their calf's survival in managed boreal forest with varying intensities of human disturbances. Calf survival was 53% and 43% after 30 and 90 days following birth, respectively, and 52% of calves that died were killed by black bear. The probability that a female lose its calf to predation was not influenced by habitat composition of her annual home range, but decreased with an increase in proportion of open lichen woodland within her calving home range. At the local scale, females that did not lose their calf displayed stronger avoidance of high road density areas than females that lost their calf to predation. Further, females that lost their calf to predation and that had a low proportion of ≤5-year-old cutovers within their calving home range were mostly observed in areas where these young cutovers were locally absent. Also, females that lost their calf to predation and that had a high proportion of ≤5-year-old cutovers within their calving home range were mostly observed in areas with a high local density of ≤5-year-old cutovers. Our study demonstrates that we have to account for human-induced disturbances at both local and regional scales in order to further enhance effective caribou management plans. We demonstrate that disturbances not only impact spatial distribution of individuals, but also their reproductive success.

  17. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  18. The role of the skin microrelief in the contact behaviour of human skin: contact between the human finger and regular surface textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, Julien; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2013-01-01

    The friction behaviour of the human fingerpad as a function of asperity geometry was investigated experimentally. Surface textures consisting of evenly distributed spherically tipped asperities were used for in vivo testing. Using analytical expressions, a multi-scale model was developed to explain

  19. The two Na+ sites in the human serotonin transporter play distinct roles in the ion coupling and electrogenicity of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H; Henry, L Keith

    2014-01-17

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na(+)-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca(2+) (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na(+) for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca(2+) promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na(+)-binding sites.

  20. The Two Na+ Sites in the Human Serotonin Transporter Play Distinct Roles in the Ion Coupling and Electrogenicity of Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na+, Cl−, and K+ gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na+-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca2+ (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na+ for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca2+ and Na+ illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca2+ promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na+-binding sites. PMID:24293367

  1. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  2. Should We Play Games Where Energy Is Concerned? Perceptions of Serious Gaming as a Technology to Motivate Energy Behaviour Change among Social Housing Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Boomsma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The invisibility and intangibility of energy are key challenges faced by communicators looking to reduce household energy demand. ‘Serious games’—defined as formalized, goal-oriented games designed to educate, or promote health and well-being—are one potential strategy that may help to alleviate these challenges. This paper discusses the suitability of serious gaming as an educational and behavioural change tool within the context of social housing—a faction often overlooked when it comes to household energy research. The paper takes a two-part approach. First, we review current literature on serious energy games, and second, we discuss perceptions of serious energy games amongst social housing residents using data from two surveys (Survey A, n = 536; Survey B, n = 78. Perceptions of serious energy games were found to be mixed. Some residents liked the idea of a game for energy, particularly if clear, actionable solutions for reducing energy bills were provided. However, others were disinterested, due to existing time pressures, negative perceptions of gaming, and limited confidence using computers or tablets. As such, uptake may be met with challenges. The findings highlight the need for interdisciplinary collaborations and user-led approaches for the design of successful and engaging serious energy games.

  3. Oviductal extracellular vesicles (oviductosomes, OVS) are conserved in humans: murine OVS play a pivotal role in sperm capacitation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathala, Pradeepthi; Fereshteh, Zeinab; Li, Kun; Al-Dossary, Amal A; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    Are extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the murine oviduct (oviductosomes, OVS) conserved in humans and do they play a role in the fertility of Pmca4-/- females? OVS and their fertility-modulating proteins are conserved in humans, arise via the apocrine pathway, and mediate a compensatory upregulation of PMCA1 (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1) in Pmca4-/- female mice during proestrus/estrus, to account for their fertility. Recently murine OVS were identified and shown during proestrus/estrus to express elevated levels of PMCA4 which they can deliver to sperm. PMCA4 is the major Ca2+ efflux pump in murine sperm and Pmca4 deletion leads to loss of sperm motility and male infertility as there is no compensatory upregulation of the remaining Ca2+ pump, PMCA1. Of the four family members of PMCAs (PMCA1-4), PMCA1 and PMCA4 are ubiquitous, and to date there have been no reports of one isoform being upregulated to compensate for another in any organ/tissue. Since Pmca4-/- females are fertile, despite the abundant expression of PMCA4 in wild-type (WT) OVS, we propose that OVS serve a role of packaging and delivering to sperm elevated levels of PMCA1 in Pmca4-/- during proestrus/estrus to compensate for PMCA4's absence. Fallopian tubes from pre-menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy were used to study EVs in the luminal fluid. Oviducts from sexually mature WT mice were sectioned after perfusion fixation to detect EVs in situ. Oviducts were recovered from WT and Pmca4-/- after hormonally induced estrus and sectioned for PMCA1 immunofluorescence (IF) (detected with confocal microscopy) and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reproductive tissues, luminal fluids and EVs were recovered after induced estrus and after natural cycling for western blot analysis of PMCA1 and qRT-PCR of Pmca1 to compare expression levels in WT and Pmca4-/-. OVS, uterosomes, and epididymal luminal fluid were included in the comparisons. WT and Pmca4-/- OVS were analyzed for the presence of known PMCA4 partners

  4. Communication, coordination and cooperation in construction projects: business environment and human behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah Alaloul, Wesam; Shahir Liew, Mohd; Zawawi, Noor Amila Wan

    2017-12-01

    The accomplishment of construction projects is extremely dependent on the integration of several stakeholders; therefore none of them has the control or the ability to accomplish the project alone. Each of them may influence and be influenced by the project management approach. There is no comprehensive theoretical platform for defining Communication, Coordination and Cooperation (3Cs) in the management of construction project. This paper deliberates the function of the 3Cs different theoretical perceptions. Through an analysis of selected articles from reputable academic journals in construction management, the business environment and human behaviour were identified as two main parts. A little has been done so far about the 3Cs, and how they are correlated with construction projects performance. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explain the definitions and the association between the 3Cs. There is a significant link between communication and coordination. Coordination alternatively, is trust-based a logic of mutual and exchange. Consequently, cooperation is much more sophisticated, which needing more time and attempts.

  5. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung; Lee, Heesu; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2009-01-01

    The attachment, growth behaviour and the genetic effect of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium and different zirconia surfaces were investigated. HGF cells were cultured on (1) titanium discs with a machined surface, (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with a smooth surface and (3) Y-TZP with 100 μm grooves. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated through a MTT assay at 24 h and 48 h, and the cell morphology was examined by SEM. The mRNA expression of integrin-β1, type I and III collagen, laminin and fibronectin in HGF were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24 h. From the MTT assay, the mean optical density values for the titanium and grooved zirconia surfaces after 48 h of HGF adhesion were greater than the values obtained for the smooth zirconia surfaces. SEM images showed that more cells were attached to the grooves, and the cells appeared to follow the direction of the grooves. The results of RT-PCR suggest that all groups showed comparable fibroblast-specific gene expression. A zirconia ceramic surface with grooves showed biological responses that were comparable to those obtained with HGF on a titanium surface.

  6. Sibship effects on dispersal behaviour in a pre-industrial human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, A; Lummaa, V; Faurie, C

    2016-10-01

    Understanding dispersal behaviour and its determinants is critical for studies on life-history maximizing strategies. Although many studies have investigated the causes of dispersal, few have focused on the importance of sibship, despite that sibling interactions are predicted to lead to intrafamilial differences in dispersal patterns. Using a large demographic data set from pre-industrial Finland (n = 9000), we tested whether the sex-specific probability of dispersal depended on the presence of same-sex or opposite-sex elder siblings who can both compete and cooperate in the family. Overall, following our predictions, the presence of same-sex elder siblings increased the probability of dispersal from natal population for both sexes, whereas the number of opposite-sex siblings had less influence. Among males, dispersal was strongly linked to access to land resources. Female dispersal was mainly associated with competition over availability of mates but likely mediated by competition over access to wealthy mates rather mate availability per se. Besides ecological constraints, sibling interactions are strongly linked with dispersal decisions and need to be better considered in the studies on the evolution of family dynamics and fitness maximizing strategies in humans and other species. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Behaviour of trace element concentration in human organs in dependence of age and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Schicha, H.; Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behaviour of trace elements in dependence of age and environment, samples of skin, lung, heart, aorta, kidney, liver and brain were assayed for concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sc, Sb, Cs, Al and partly Eu. All samples were dried at 100 deg C for two days. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine the element concentrations. The neutron flux was 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . After decay of the short lived radioisotopes, the Al-concentration was measured following a second irradiation of 1 minute and directly comparing with a standard sample. Nearly all element concentrations changed with processing age, but they showed no clear correlation to either parameter assessed. The non-essential elements Se, Sb and Sc were increasingly concentrated in all organs except the skin. Comparing lung samples of patients from highly industrialized regions with those of lesser industrialization, the elements Sc, Al, Sb, Eu and Co were accumulated by a factor of 10 to 100. Thus the concentrations of trace elements in human organism also depend on the degree of industrialization. (T.G.)

  8. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  9. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  10. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  11. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  12. Human CD134 (OX40) expressed on T cells plays a key role for human herpesvirus 6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamata, Satoshi; Nagasaka, Miwako; Kawabata, Akiko; Kishimoto, Kenji; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Morioka, Ichiro; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yamada, Hideto; Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mori, Yasuko

    2018-05-01

    CD134 (OX40), which is a cellular receptor for human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) and expresses on activated T cells, may play a key role for HHV-6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, we examined the CD134 expression on T cells and HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT, and analyzed the correlation between them. Twenty-three patients after allo-HSCT were enrolled. The percentages of CD134-positive cells within the CD4 + and CD8 + cell populations were measured by flow cytometry, and the viral copy number of HHV-6B was simultaneously quantified by real-time PCR. The correlation between CD134 and HHV-6B viral load was then statistically analyzed. HHV-6B reactivation occurred in 11 of 23 patients (47.8%). CD134 expression was seen on T cells and was coincident with the time of peak viral load. The percentage of CD134-positive cells decreased significantly when HHV-6B DNA disappeared (p = .005 in CD4 + T cells, p = .02 in CD8 + T cells). In the 4 patients who underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), the viral load varied with the percentage of CD134-positive cells. In the comparison between the HHV-6B reactivation group and non-reactivation group, maximum percentages of CD134-positive cells among CD4 + T cells in reactivation group were significantly higher than those in non-reactivation group (p = .04). This is the first study to show that a correlation of CD134 expression on T cells with HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT, especially in UCBT. The results possibly indicate that CD134 on T cells plays a key role for HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  14. Playing Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  15. Re-imagining malaria: heterogeneity of human and mosquito behaviour in relation to residual malaria transmission in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Durnez, Lies; Gerrets, René; Uk, Sambunny; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Phoeuk, Pisen; Sluydts, Vincent; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2015-04-24

    In certain regions in Southeast Asia, where malaria is reduced to forested regions populated by ethnic minorities dependent on slash-and-burn agriculture, malaria vector populations have developed a propensity to feed early and outdoors, limiting the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The interplay between heterogeneous human, as well as mosquito behaviour, radically challenges malaria control in such residual transmission contexts. This study examines human behavioural patterns in relation to the vector behaviour. The anthropological research used a sequential mixed-methods study design in which quantitative survey research methods were used to complement findings from qualitative ethnographic research. The qualitative research existed of in-depth interviews and participant observation. For the entomological research, indoor and outdoor human landing collections were performed. All research was conducted in selected villages in Ratanakiri province, Cambodia. Variability in human behaviour resulted in variable exposure to outdoor and early biting vectors: (i) indigenous people were found to commute between farms in the forest, where malaria exposure is higher, and village homes; (ii) the indoor/outdoor biting distinction was less clear in forest housing often completely or partly open to the outside; (iii) reported sleeping times varied according to the context of economic activities, impacting on the proportion of infections that could be accounted for by early or nighttime biting; (iv) protection by LLINs may not be as high as self-reported survey data indicate, as observations showed around 40% (non-treated) market net use while (v) unprotected evening resting and deep forest activities impacted further on the suboptimal use of LLINs. The heterogeneity of human behaviour and the variation of vector densities and biting behaviours may lead to a considerable proportion of exposure occurring during

  16. Sources, behaviour, and environmental and human health risks of high-technology rare earth elements as emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Mangori, Lynda; Danha, Concilia; Chaukura, Nhamo; Dunjana, Nothando; Sanganyado, Edmond

    2018-04-26

    Recent studies show that high-technology rare earth elements (REEs) of anthropogenic origin occur in the environment including in aquatic systems, suggesting REEs are contaminants of emerging concern. However, compared to organic contaminants, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on the anthropogenic sources, environmental behaviour, and public and ecological health risks of REEs. The current review aims to: (1) identify anthropogenic sources, transfer mechanisms, and environmental behaviour of REEs; (2) highlight the human and ecological health risks of REEs and propose mitigation measures; and (3) identify knowledge gaps and future research directions. Out of the 17 REEs, La, Gd, Ce and Eu are the most studied. The main sources of anthropogenic REE include; medical facilities, petroleum refining, mining and technology industries, fertilizers, livestock feeds, and electronic wastes and recycling plants. REEs are mobilized and transported in the environment by hydrological and wind-driven processes. Ecotoxicological effects include reduced plant growth, function and nutritional quality, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity in animals, trophic bioaccumulation, chronic and acute toxicities in soil organisms. Human exposure to REEs occurs via ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation, and direct intake during medical administration. REEs have been detected in human hair, nails, and biofluids. In humans, REEs cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and severe damage to nephrological systems associated with Gd-based contrast agents, dysfunctional neurological disorder, fibrotic tissue injury, oxidative stress, pneumoconiosis, cytotoxicity, anti-testicular effects, and male sterility. Barring REEs in medical devices, epidemiological evidence directly linking REEs in the environment to human health conditions remains weak. To minimize health risks, a conceptual framework and possible mitigation measures are highlighted. Future research is needed to better understand

  17. The neurobiology of social play and its rewarding value in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    In the young of many mammalian species, including humans, a vigorous and highly rewarding social activity is abundantly expressed, known as social play behaviour. Social play is thought to be important for the development of social, cognitive and emotional processes and their neural underpinnings,

  18. Anthropology and affect: a consideration of the idiosyncratic dimension of human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlian, H

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical perspective is presented in which affect occupies a central position and behaviour is viewed in terms of different degrees of affective expression. Such behaviour is conceptualized in terms of three models: a structural model, a rational model and a psychological model. While the first two models are frequently encountered in the literature, the psychological model has not received explicit formulation, although, as shown here, it is crucial in understanding certain forms of idiosyncratic behaviour that have political and social relevance.

  19. How organisational behaviours and human factors can positively impact contractors to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaldos Gonzalez, A.; Walker-Sutton, J.; Shannon, M.; Mendoza Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Organisational behaviours have a significant impact on individual and group behaviours but are frequently ignored during the design, planning and scheduling of work or when conducting an investigation of events. Why should it matter? It is important to calculate the personal and organisational impact and cost of those elements which contribute to organisational safety. We look at two nuclear contractor organisations (one in Spain and one in the UK) that are actively making a positive difference to their behaviours in a commercial nuclear environment. They are creating a better business environment for their staff, and a robust business differentiator for future work with their clients. We consider what the cost and impact is of the changes they have made to their organisational behaviours.

  20. Linking models of human behaviour and climate alters projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Brian; Gross, Louis J.; Lacasse, Katherine; Carr, Eric; Metcalf, Sara S.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Howe, Peter D.; Fefferman, Nina; Franck, Travis; Zia, Asim; Kinzig, Ann; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2018-01-01

    Although not considered in climate models, perceived risk stemming from extreme climate events may induce behavioural changes that alter greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we link the C-ROADS climate model to a social model of behavioural change to examine how interactions between perceived risk and emissions behaviour influence projected climate change. Our coupled climate and social model resulted in a global temperature change ranging from 3.4-6.2 °C by 2100 compared with 4.9 °C for the C-ROADS model alone, and led to behavioural uncertainty that was of a similar magnitude to physical uncertainty (2.8 °C versus 3.5 °C). Model components with the largest influence on temperature were the functional form of response to extreme events, interaction of perceived behavioural control with perceived social norms, and behaviours leading to sustained emissions reductions. Our results suggest that policies emphasizing the appropriate attribution of extreme events to climate change and infrastructural mitigation may reduce climate change the most.

  1. Human umbilical vein endothelium-derived exosomes play a role in foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction in gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáez, Tamara; Salsoso, Rocío; Leiva, Andrea; Toledo, Fernando; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) characterizes by foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from women with GDM show increased L-arginine transport via the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1). Moreover, expression of endothelial nitric

  2. Human umbilical vein endothelium-derived exosomes play a role in foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction in gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáez, Tamara; Salsoso, Rocío; Leiva, Andrea; Toledo, Fernando; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke; Sobrevia, Luis

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) characterizes by foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from women with GDM show increased L-arginine transport via the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1). Moreover, expression of endothelial nitric

  3. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2016-09-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  4. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  5. Potential of a smartphone as a stress-free sensor of daily human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Koki; Kishino, Hirohisa; Karino, Genta; Nitta, Etsuko; Senoo, Aya; Ikegami, Kentaro; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Nakamura, Shun; Sato, Kan; Koshiba, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour is one of the most powerful objective signals that connotes psychological functions regulated by neuronal network systems. This study searched for simple behaviours using smartphone sensors with three axes for measuring acceleration, angular speed and direction. We used quantitative analytic methodology of pattern recognition for work contexts, individual workers and seasonal effects in our own longitudinally recorded data. Our 13 laboratory members were involved in the care of common marmosets and domestic chicks, which lived in separate rooms. They attached a smartphone to their front waist-belts during feeding and cleaning in five care tasks. Behavioural characteristics such as speed, acceleration and azimuth, pitch, and roll angles were monitored. Afterwards, participants noted subjective scores of warmth sensation and work efficiency. The multivariate time series behavioral data were characterized by the subjective scores and environmental factors such as room temperature, season, and humidity, using the linear mixed model. In contrast to high-precision but stress-inducing sensors, the mobile sensors measuring daily behaviours allowed us to quantify the effects of the psychological states and environmental factors on the behavioural traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of human behaviour on the energy consumption in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    the indoor climate in an energy efficient way. The simulated occupant could manipulate six controls, such as turning on or off the heat and adjusting clothing. All control actions were carried out with the aim of keeping the PMV value within predefined limits. An energy consuming and an energy efficient...... behavioural mode were simulated. A reference simulation was made during which the occupant had no control over the environment. The occupant was able to keep the thermal indoor environment close to neutral when he/she had the possibility to manipulate the controls. The indoor environment was similar within...... patterns derived from the measurements were used while the reference used simulated behaviour patterns defined like they might have been by a consultant engineer. The simulated behaviour patterns resulted in large differences in indoor environmental variables between the two simulations. The heat...

  7. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  8. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  9. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  10. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  11. Playing Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  12. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  13. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  14. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta-analysis in humans and other animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, Kristina A; Bouma, Anke; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-04-12

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically testosterone. With the discovery that lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour among vertebrates, it has now become possible to experimentally test such hypotheses in animal models. The use of different taxa, humans, other mammalian species and birds (with oestradiol and not testosterone involved in sexual differentiation in birds) facilitates to differentiate between the hypotheses. We used meta-analyses for analysing papers that provided sufficient information, and a semi-quantitative approach based on all relevant studies that we extracted from the literature. We tested the predictions of these hypotheses regarding strength and direction of lateralization for motor output, language and visuospatial cognition in these three taxa. We tested for sex differences and early organizational effects of testosterone (both correlative and experimental studies). We found sex differences in the direction of lateralization for non-human mammals (motor biases similar to humans) and in direction and strength in birds (visual cognitive tasks). However, the prediction that prenatal testosterone exposure affects the direction of lateralization was not supported for humans. In birds and non-human mammals, opposite trends were found, with the effect in non-human mammals being opposite to the expectation based on sex differences. None of the four hypotheses was sufficiently supported and more studies, testing a wider array of functions in different taxa while reporting the data more completely are needed.

  15. Investigations on the visco-elastic behaviour of a human healthy heel pad: in vivo compression tests and numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G.; Carniel, Emanuele L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress–relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a threedimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected...... numerical analyses were performed to interpret the mechanical response of heel tissues, with loading conditions and displacement rate in agreement with experimental tests. The heel tissues showed a non-linear, viscoelastic behaviour described by characteristic hysteretic curves, stress......–relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative...

  16. Climate warming and humans played different roles in triggering Late Quaternary extinctions in east and west Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinru; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-03-29

    Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal-spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus ), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae). Rapid global warming was the predominant factor driving the total extinction of mammoths and rhinos in frigid zones from the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Humans showed significant, negative effects on extirpations of the four mammalian taxa, and were the predominant factor causing the extinction or major extirpations of rhinos and horses. Deer survived both rapid climate warming and extensive human impacts. Our study indicates that both the current rates of warming and range shifts of species are much faster than those from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. Our results provide new insight into the extinction of Late Quaternary megafauna by demonstrating taxon-, period- and region-specific differences in extinction drivers of climate change and human disturbances, and some implications about the extinction risk of animals by recent and ongoing climate warming. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T; Morales, Manuel B; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  18. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T.; Morales, Manuel B.; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse ( Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  19. The current 'state of play' of regenerative medicine in horses: what the horse can tell the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger Kw; Garvican, Elaine R; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The horse is an attractive model for many human age-related degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system because it is a large animal species that both ages and exercises, and develops naturally occurring injuries with many similarities to the human counterpart. It therefore represents an ideal species to use as a 'proving ground' for new therapies, most notably regenerative medicine. Regenerative techniques using cell-based therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal disease have been in use for over a decade. This review article provides a summary overview of the sources, current challenges and problems surrounding the use of stem cell and non-cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine in horses and is based on presentations from a recent Havemeyer symposium on equine regenerative medicine where speakers are selected from leading authorities in both equine and human regenerative medicine fields from 10 different countries.

  20. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  1. Higher threat avoidance costs reduce avoidance behaviour which in turn promotes fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human) geo-ecosystems : Manifestations, controls, implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehe, E.; Sivapalan, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a) suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b) discuss their

  3. Behaviour of motor units of human arm muscles: differences between slow isometric contraction and relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, J.J.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zuylen, Van E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of motor units in the m. biceps brachii (long head), in the m. brachialis and in the m. supinator during slow isometric contraction and relaxation was studied when subjects were performing different motor tasks. These tasks were: flexion of the elbow joint, supination of the forearm

  4. Free time, play and game

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Ratko R.

    2008-01-01

    Free time and play are mutually dependent categories that are always realized together. We either play because we have free time or we have free time because we play (E. Fink). Play, no matter whether it is children's or artistic play or a spontaneous sports game (excluding professional sports) most fully complements human existence and thereby realizes free time as a time in freedom and freedom of time. Therefore, free time exists and is most prominent in play. Moreover, one game releases it...

  5. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  6. Allelic variants in the PRR37 gene play and the human-mediated dispersal and diversification of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestication and spread of crops by early humans is of interest from a historical perspective and is of practical importance to present-day agriculturists. From its origin in northeastern Africa, cultivation of the tropical cereal sorghum spread north and south of the equator beginning approxi...

  7. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ2 = 7.447, P illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ2 = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (χ2 = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (χ2 = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ2 = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (χ2 = 9.823, P < 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness. PMID:26167021

  8. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100 with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (c2 = 7.447, P < 0.059 and serving in the same utensils (c2 = 10.866, P < 0.012, were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (c2 = 13.266, P < 0.004, not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (c2 = 21.133, P < 0.00 and called with filthy nicknames (c2 = 8.334, P < 0.040, were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (c2 = 9.459, P < 0.024, were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (c2 = 9.823, P < 0.044. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  9. Environment Playing Short-handed: Margin of Appreciation in Environmental Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-92 ISSN 2050-0394 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300681201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : European Court of Human Rights * margin of appreciation * environment Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/reel.12101/epdf

  10. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-06-13

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  12. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathenge Evan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African malaria vectors bite predominantly indoors at night so sleeping under an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN can greatly reduce malaria risk. Behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes to increasing ITN coverage could allow vector mosquitoes to bite outside of peak sleeping hours and undermine efficacy of this key malaria prevention measure. Methods High coverage with largely untreated nets has been achieved in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania through social marketing programmes. Direct surveys of nightly biting activity by An. gambiae Giles were conducted in the area before (1997 and after (2004 implementation of ITN promotion. A novel analytical model was applied to estimate the effective protection provided by an ITN, based on published experimental hut trials combined with questionnaire surveys of human sleeping behaviour and recorded mosquito biting patterns. Results An. gambiae was predominantly endophagic and nocturnal in both surveys: Approximately 90% and 80% of exposure occurred indoors and during peak sleeping hours, respectively. ITNs consistently conferred >70% protection against exposure to malaria transmission for users relative to non-users. Conclusion As ITN coverage increases, behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes remains a future possibility. The approach described allows comparison of mosquito biting patterns and ITN efficacy at multiple study sites and times. Initial results indicate ITNs remain highly effective and should remain a top-priority intervention. Combined with recently developed transmission models, this approach allows rapid, informative and cost-effective preliminary comparison of diverse control strategies in terms of protection against exposure before more costly and intensive clinical trials.

  13. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461435

  14. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  15. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, Veronica; Ordiz, Andrés; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  16. Programming Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Muphey, Todd

    2014-01-01

    but rather the agents that operate the puppets. Our goal is to emulate the control technique of human puppeteers to develop automated puppets that are capable of dynamic movement typically beyond the range of traditional animatronics - such as walking and flying. Using the natural dynamics of marionettes...

  17. Salmonella Typhi-specific multifunctional CD8+ T cells play a dominant role in protection from typhoid fever in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-03-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major public health problem worldwide. Development of novel vaccines remains imperative, but is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the immune responses that correlate with protection. Recently, a controlled human infection model was re-established in which volunteers received ~10(3) cfu wild-type S. Typhi (Quailes strain) orally. Twenty-one volunteers were evaluated for their cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Ex vivo PBMC isolated before and up to 1 year after challenge were exposed to three S. Typhi-infected targets, i.e., autologous B lymphoblastoid cell-lines (B-LCL), autologous blasts and HLA-E restricted AEH B-LCL cells. CMI responses were evaluated using 14-color multiparametric flow cytometry to detect simultaneously five intracellular cytokines/chemokines (i.e., IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a and MIP-1b) and a marker of degranulation/cytotoxic activity (CD107a). Herein we provide the first evidence that S. Typhi-specific CD8+ responses correlate with clinical outcome in humans challenged with wild-type S. Typhi. Higher multifunctional S. Typhi-specific CD8+ baseline responses were associated with protection against typhoid and delayed disease onset. Moreover, following challenge, development of typhoid fever was accompanied by decreases in circulating S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T effector/memory (TEM) with gut homing potential, suggesting migration to the site(s) of infection. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or no changes in circulating S. Typhi-specific TEM. These studies provide novel insights into the protective immune responses against typhoid disease that will aid in selection and development of new vaccine candidates.

  18. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, Gustavo V; Atienza, José M; Rojo, Francisco J; Yiqun, Li; Claes, Els; Elices, Manuel; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Goicolea, José M; García-Montero, Carlos; Burgos, Raúl L; Goicolea, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  19. [Sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus testing in university students from Cuzco (Peru)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, M Paz; Ramiro, M Teresa; Teva, Inmaculada; Ramiro-Sánchez, Tamara; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    To analyse sexual behaviour, HIV testing, HIV testing intentions and reasons for not testing for HIV in university students from Cuzco (Peru). The sample comprised 1,377 university students from several institutions from Cuzco (Peru). The size of the sample was set according to a maximum 3% error estimation and a 97% confidence interval. Ages ranged from 16 to 30 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire regarding sexual behaviour and HIV testing. The data were collected in classrooms during teaching hours. A higher percentage of males than females reported having had vaginal, anal and oral sex, a higher number of sexual partners and an earlier age at first vaginal and oral sex. A higher percentage of females than males did not use condoms when they first had anal sex and had a higher anal sex-risk index. Most of the participants had never been HIV tested. The main reason was that they were sure that they were not HIV infected. It seems that there was a low HIV risk perception in these participants despite the fact that they had been involved in sexual risk behaviours. Prevention campaigns focused on the general population as well as the at-risk populations and young people are needed. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Insulin Plays a Permissive Role for the Vasoactive Effect of GIP Regulating Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in combination with hyperinsulinemia increases blood flow and triglyceride (TAG) clearance in subcutaneous (sc) abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans. The present experiments were performed to further investigate the role...... of insulin for the vasoactive effect of GIP in adipose tissue metabolism and whether the vasodilatory effect of GIP is dependent on C-peptide. METHODS: Six lean healthy subjects were studied. The sc abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was assessed by Fick's principle during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol...

  1. Cooperation of endothelin-1 signaling with melanosomes plays a role in developing and/or maintaining human skin hyperpigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Murase

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized by increased melanin synthesis and deposition that can cause significant psychosocial and psychological distress. Although several cytokine-receptor signaling cascades contribute to the formation of ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation, their possible involvement in other types of skin hyperpigmentation has never been clearly addressed. Since our continuous studies using skin specimens from more than 30 subjects with ethnic skin diversity emphasized a consistent augmentation in the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and its receptor (Endothelin B receptor, ET-B in hyperpigmented lesions, including senile lentigos (SLs, the precise function of ET-1 signaling was investigated in the present study. In line with previous studies, ET-1 significantly induced melanogenesis followed by increases in melanosome transport in melanocytes and in its transfer to keratinocytes while inhibition of ET-B function substantially depressed melanogenic ability in tissue-cultured SLs. Additionally, in agreement with a previous report that the formation of autophagosomes rather than melanosomes is stimulated according to starvation or defective melanosome production, ET-1 was found to remarkably augment the expression of components necessary for early melanosome formation, indicating its counteraction against autophagy-targeting melanosome degradation in melanocytes. Despite the lack of substantial impact of ET-1 on keratinocyte melanogenic functions, the expression of ET-1 was enhanced following melanosome uptake by keratinocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 plays a substantial role in the development and/or maintenance of skin hyperpigmentation in reciprocal cooperation with increased melanosome incorporation.

  2. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe

    2018-01-01

    South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  3. Behaviour of human mesenchymal stem cells on a polyelectrolyte-modified HEMA hydrogel for silk-based ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, M; Boccafoschi, F; Calarco, A; Leigheb, M; Gatti, S; Piffanelli, V; Peluso, G; Cannas, M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a functional bio-engineered material to be used as scaffold for autologous mesenchymal stem cells in ligament tissue engineering. Polyelectrolyte modified HEMA hydrogel (HEMA-co-METAC), applied as coating on silk fibroin fibres, has been formulated in order to take advantage of the biocompatibility of the polyelectrolyte by increasing its mechanical properties with silk fibres. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells behaviour on such reinforced polyelectrolyte has been studied by evaluating cell morphology, cell number, attachment, spreading and proliferation together with collagen matrix production and its mRNA expression. Silk fibroin fibres matrices with HEMA-co-METAC coating exhibited acceptable mechanical behaviour compared to the natural ligament, good human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and with mRNA expression studies higher levels of collagen types I and III expression when compared to control cells on polystyrene. These data indicate high expression of mRNA for proteins responsible for the functional characteristics of the ligaments and suggest a potential for use of this biomaterial in ligament tissue-engineering applications.

  4. Learning and adaptation: neural and behavioural mechanisms behind behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    This special issue presents perspectives on learning and adaptation as they apply to a number of cognitive phenomena including pupil dilation in humans and attention in robots, natural language acquisition and production in embodied agents (robots), human-robot game play and social interaction, neural-dynamic modelling of active perception and neural-dynamic modelling of infant development in the Piagetian A-not-B task. The aim of the special issue, through its contributions, is to highlight some of the critical neural-dynamic and behavioural aspects of learning as it grounds adaptive responses in robotic- and neural-dynamic systems.

  5. Calcineurin plays key roles in the dimorphic transition and virulence of the human pathogenic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogenic fungi are dimorphic and switch between yeast and filamentous states. This switch alters host-microbe interactions and is critical for pathogenicity. However, in zygomycetes, whether dimorphism contributes to virulence is a central unanswered question. The pathogenic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides exhibits hyphal growth in aerobic conditions but switches to multi-budded yeast growth under anaerobic/high CO₂ conditions. We found that in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, Mucor exhibits exclusively multi-budded yeast growth. We also found that M. circinelloides encodes three calcineurin catalytic A subunits (CnaA, CnaB, and CnaC) and one calcineurin regulatory B subunit (CnbR). Mutations in the latch region of CnbR and in the FKBP12-FK506 binding domain of CnaA result in hyphal growth of Mucor in the presence of FK506. Disruption of the cnbR gene encoding the sole calcineurin B subunit necessary for calcineurin activity yielded mutants locked in permanent yeast phase growth. These findings reveal that the calcineurin pathway plays key roles in the dimorphic transition from yeast to hyphae. The cnbR yeast-locked mutants are less virulent than the wild-type strain in a heterologous host system, providing evidence that hyphae or the yeast-hyphal transition are linked to virulence. Protein kinase A activity (PKA) is elevated during yeast growth under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of FK506, or in the yeast-locked cnbR mutants, suggesting a novel connection between PKA and calcineurin. cnaA mutants lacking the CnaA catalytic subunit are hypersensitive to calcineurin inhibitors, display a hyphal polarity defect, and produce a mixture of yeast and hyphae in aerobic culture. The cnaA mutants also produce spores that are larger than wild-type, and spore size is correlated with virulence potential. Our results demonstrate that the calcineurin pathway orchestrates the yeast-hyphal and spore size dimorphic transitions that contribute to

  6. Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio C; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J; Motea, Edward A; Patidar, Praveen L; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L; Boothman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed γ-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair.

  7. PRDM1 expression via human parvovirus B19 infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei-Chen; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Qing-Guo; Guo, Ying; Fan, Lin-Ni; Liu, Yi-Xiong; Huang, Gao-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Ectopic lymphoid follicle infiltration is a key event in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1), which is induced by antigen stimulation, can regulate all lymphocyte lineages. Several groups independently demonstrated that human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is closely associated with HT. Hence, we determined whether PRDM1 is expressed in HT thyroid tissue and whether there is any correlation between PRDM1 expression and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. We detected PRDM1 expression in HT (n = 86), normal thyroid tissue (n = 30), and nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 20) samples using immunohistochemistry. We also detected PVB19 protein in HT samples in a double-blind manner and analyzed the correlation between the 2 proteins using immunofluorescence confocal detection and coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we detected changes of the expression levels of PRDM1 and PVB19 in transfected primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that PRDM1 protein is significantly highly expressed in the injured follicular epithelial cells in HT (83/86 cases) than in normal thyroid cells (0/30 cases) or in nontoxic nodular goiter cells (0/20 cases) (P thyroid epithelial cells also showed PRDM1 up-regulation after PVB19 NS1 transfection. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of PRDM1 and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Dickinson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind

  9. Analysing playing using the note-time playing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Deborah L E; Schubert, Emery

    2011-03-01

    This article introduces a new method of data analysis that represents the playing of written music as a graph. The method, inspired by Miklaszewski, charts low-level note timings from a sound recording of a single-line instrument using high-precision audio-to-MIDI conversion software. Note onset times of pitch sequences are then plotted against the score-predicted timings to produce a Note-Time Playing Path (NTPP). The score-predicted onset time of each sequentially performed note (horizontal axis) unfolds in performed time down the page (vertical axis). NTPPs provide a visualisation that shows (1) tempo variations, (2) repetitive practice behaviours, (3) segmenting of material, (4) precise note time positions, and (5) time spent on playing or not playing. The NTPP can provide significant new insights into behaviour and cognition of music performance and may also be used to complement established traditional approaches such as think-alouds, interviews, and video coding.

  10. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  11. Poroelastic behaviour of the degenerating human intervertebral disc: a ten-day study in a loaded disc culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KS Emanuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intervertebral disc (IVD allows flexibility to the vertebral column, and transfers the predominant axial loads during daily activities. Its axial biomechanical behaviour is poroelastic, due to the water-binding and releasing capacity of the nucleus pulposus. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc presumably affects both the instantaneous elastic response to the load on the IVD and the subsequent interstitial flow of fluid. This study aims to quantify the poroelastic behaviour of the IVD and its change with degeneration, as defined by the magnetic resonance imaging-based Pfirrmann Score (PS. For a period of ten days, 36 human lumbar IVDs were loaded with a simulated physiological axial loading regime, while deformation was monitored. The IVDs responded to the loads with instantaneous elastic and slow poroelastic axial deformation. Several mechanical parameters changed throughout the first five days of the experiment, until the IVDs settled into a dynamic equilibrium. In this equilibrium, degeneration was significantly related to a decrease in disc height loss during the daytime high load phase (ρ = -0.49, and to a decrease in the rate of this deformation during the final half hour of each day (ρ = -0.53. These properties were related to the nucleus glycosaminoglycan/hydroxyproline (GAG/HYP ratio, rather than GAG content alone, indicating that remodelling of the extracellular matrix reduces poroelastic properties of the IVD. This implies that the degenerated discs have a reduced capacity to bind water and/or a reduced resistance against fluid flow. The resulting loss in hydrostatic pressure may further change cell behaviour in the nucleus pulposus.

  12. Human excretion behaviour in a schistosomiasis endemic area of the Geizira, Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheesmond, A.K.; Fenwick, A.

    1981-06-01

    A 12-month study of the excretory behaviour of resident and migrant labourers in Gezira, Sudan, was undertaken to contribute base-line information towards the development of a new control strategy. Of 398 observed acts of excretion 70% of urinations and 93% of defaecations occurred in sites far removed from any water body. After excretion only 31% people washed themselves (and only 7.1% actually washed their genital region directly into a water body). People excreting far from water were as likely to wash afterwards as those excreting near a water body. This finding contradicted previous expectations based on the hygienic precepts of Islam. The results show that privacy is a more important consideration than proximity of water in the selection of a site for excretion, and suggest that there is only limited regular contamination by S. mansoni eggs under the observed conditions.

  13. A cognitive model of human behaviour for simulating operators of complex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.; Mancini, G.; Bersini, U.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the need of a 'deterministic' representation of the operator's reasoning and sensory-motor behaviour in order to approach correctly the overall problem of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI). Such type of modelling represents a fundamental complement to the merely probabilistic quantification of operator performances for safety as well as for design purposes. A cognitive model, formally based on a hierarchical goal-oriented approach and driven by fuzzy logic methodology, is then presented and briefly discussed, including the psychological criteria by which the content of operators' knowledge is exploited for instantiation of strategies during emergencies. Finally the potential applications of such methodology are reviewed identifying limits and advantages in comparison to more classical and mechanicistic approaches. (author)

  14. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  15. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schoetter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP, such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB, parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  16. A dynamic approach for the impact of a toxic gas dispersion hazard considering human behaviour and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Maragkos, Georgios; Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart

    2016-11-15

    The release of toxic gases due to natural/industrial accidents or terrorist attacks in populated areas can have tragic consequences. To prevent and evaluate the effects of these disasters different approaches and modelling tools have been introduced in the literature. These instruments are valuable tools for risk managers doing risk assessment of threatened areas. Despite the significant improvements in hazard assessment in case of toxic gas dispersion, these analyses do not generally include the impact of human behaviour and people movement during emergencies. This work aims at providing an approach which considers both modelling of gas dispersion and evacuation movement in order to improve the accuracy of risk assessment for disasters involving toxic gases. The approach is applied to a hypothetical scenario including a ship releasing Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on a crowd attending a music festival. The difference between the results obtained with existing static methods (people do not move) and a dynamic approach (people move away from the danger) which considers people movement with different degrees of sophistication (either a simple linear path or more complex behavioural modelling) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Psustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  18. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P pain models (P pain sensitivity, but probe size and shape should be standardized. Hypersensitivity to blunt pressure-the leading positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species.

  19. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  20. The neurobiology of social play and its rewarding value in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; Trezza, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    In the young of many mammalian species, including humans, a vigorous and highly rewarding social activity is abundantly expressed, known as social play behaviour. Social play is thought to be important for the development of social, cognitive and emotional processes and their neural underpinnings, and it is disrupted in pediatric psychiatric disorders. Here, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the brain mechanisms of social play behaviour, with a focus on its rewarding properties. Opioid, endocannabinoid, dopamine and noradrenaline systems play a prominent role in the modulation of social play. Of these, dopamine is particularly important for the motivational properties of social play. The nucleus accumbens has been identified as a key site for opioid and dopamine modulation of social play. Endocannabinoid influences on social play rely on the basolateral amygdala, whereas noradrenaline modulates social play through the basolateral amygdala, habenula and prefrontal cortex. In sum, social play behaviour is the result of coordinated activity in a network of corticolimbic structures, and its monoamine, opioid and endocannabinoid innervation. PMID:27587003

  1. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  2. Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium spp.) that is transmitted between human individuals by mosquitoes, belonging to the order of insects, Diptera, family of Culicidae (mosquitoes) and genus of Anopheles (malaria

  3. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benazzi, S.; Douka, K.; Fornai, C.; Bauer, C. C.; Kullmer, O.; Svoboda, Jiří; Pap, I.; Mallegni, F.; Bayle, P.; Coquerelle, M.; Condemi, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Harvati, K.; Weber, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 479, č. 7374 (2011), s. 525-528 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : modern humans * Neanderthals * behavior * Europe * Grotta del Cavallo * paleoanthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 36.280, year: 2011

  4. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  5. Spring-like leg behaviour, musculoskeletal mechanics and control in maximum and submaximum height human hopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass

  6. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses methodological considerations of user-centred design for non-human animals. These considerations are illustrated through a design research project that aims to apply digital technology to build games for orangutans’ enrichment. The article argues that design for other species......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  7. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  8. Reported changes in sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus knowledge in Peruvian female sex workers following participation in a human papillomavirus vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Heidari, O; Carcamo, C; Halsey, N A

    2013-07-01

    Limited data exist on the effect of clinical trial participation on sexual behavioural change. Two hundred female sex workers working in Lima, Peru received human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in either the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or modified (0, 3, 6 months) schedule. Participants received comprehensive screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), counselling on safe sex practices, education about HPV and the HPV vaccine, contraceptives (oral and condoms) and family planning at each visit. We assessed vaccine completion rates, change in sexual practices, and changes in HPV knowledge before and after participation in the vaccine trial. There were high rates of vaccine completion, 91% overall. The estimated number of reported new and total clients over a 30-day period decreased significantly (P Knowledge about HPV and HPV-related disease increased among all participants. In addition, all participants listed at least one preventive strategy during the month 7 follow-up survey.

  9. Human Behaviour Representation in Constructive Modelling (Representation du comportement humain dans des modelisations creatives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Resources and Performance. Action Group 19. Representation of Human Behavior. Lanchester , F. W. (1916). Aircraft in warfare . The dawn of the fourth...Operations and non-kinetic warfare . The second keynote presentation, by Mr. Mike Greenley, CAE Inc. provided an industry perspective, noting the need for...concentrated on tactical-conventional warfare and the emergence of world-wide “irregular warfare ” and “small wars” drive the present and future need

  10. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    on their needs and desires. This paper presents results from SoundScapes body of research which is utilising technology in assistive (re)habilitation from Virtual Interactive Space (VIS); furthermore the paper describes what emerges in play scenarios that utilise enabling technology. The involved study exhibits...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...

  11. Towards infant formula biomimetic of human milk structure and digestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlieu Claire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids of human milk or infant formula convey most of the energy necessary to support the newborn growth. Until recently, infant formula chemical composition had been optimized but not their structure. And yet, more and more proofs of evidence have shown that lipids structure in human milk modulates digestion kinetics and is involved in metabolic programming. Indeed there is a striking difference of structure between human milk which is an emulsion based on dispersed milk fat globules (4 μm secreted by the mammary gland and submicronic neoformed lipid droplets (0.5 μm found in infant formula. These droplets result from a series of operation units. This difference of structure modifies digestion kinetics and emulsion disintegration in the intestinal tract of the newborn. This difference persists along gastric phase which is mainly dominated by acid and enzyme-induced aggregation. Lipid droplets size is thus the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis and emptying and intestinal lipolysis. This parameter also controls proteolysis since adsorbed proteins are more rapidly hydrolyzed than when in solution. In animal models, these differences of lipid structure would also impact digestive and immune systems' maturation and microbiota. Lipid structure during neonatal period would also be involved in the early programming of adipose tissues and metabolism. The supplementation of infant formulas with bovine milk fractions (milk fat globule membrane extracts, triacylglycerol or recent development of large droplets infant formula, along with new fields of innovation in neonatal nutrition, are here reviewed.

  12. Reviewing the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Psychological Contract and Their Impact on Employee Attitude and Behaviours: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…

  13. Comparative Analysis of Pain Behaviours in Humanized Mouse Models of Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Lei

    Full Text Available Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell anemia (SCA but management of chronic as well as acute pain remains a major challenge. Mouse models of SCA are essential to examine the mechanisms of pain and develop novel therapeutics. To facilitate this effort, we compared humanized homozygous BERK and Townes sickle mice for the effect of gender and age on pain behaviors. Similar to previously characterized BERK sickle mice, Townes sickle mice show more mechanical, thermal, and deep tissue hyperalgesia with increasing age. Female Townes sickle mice demonstrate more hyperalgesia compared to males similar to that reported for BERK mice and patients with SCA. Mechanical, thermal and deep tissue hyperalgesia increased further after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R treatment in Townes sickle mice. Together, these data show BERK sickle mice exhibit a significantly greater degree of hyperalgesia for all behavioral measures as compared to gender- and age-matched Townes sickle mice. However, the genetically distinct "knock-in" strategy of human α and β transgene insertion in Townes mice as compared to BERK mice, may provide relative advantage for further genetic manipulations to examine specific mechanisms of pain.

  14. Behavioural controversy concerning homo economicus: a Humean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Elahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his monumental masterpiece, A Treatise on Human Nature, which explains the methodology of human reasoning concerning matters of fact and describes the roles that passions and morals play in it, Hume arrives at an enormously interesting maxim: An academic controversy cannot continue for long unless the disputants assign different meanings to the major terms employed in the debate. This theory has been applied in this paper to examine the behavioural criticisms about Homo Economicus (HE, the pivotal perception in the neoclassical microeconomic model.To achieve this objective, the paper discusses the origin and evolution of the concept, reviews behavioural criticisms, summarises the main tenets of Hume’s philosophy of human knowledge and finally examines the behavioural opinions from Hume’s perspective. The paper concludes that Hume’s theory convincingly explains the reason why the HE controversy is continuing for over half century- a fact that both the mainstream and behavioural economists are ignoring.

  15. Growth, development, reproduction, physiological and behavioural studies on living organisms, human adults and children exposed to radiation from video displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.; North, M.O.; Tritto, J.

    2001-01-01

    Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained before switching on the VDT. Various effects related to the irradiation time were demonstrated, i.e. growth delay in algae and Drosophila, a body weight deficiency in rats, abnormal peaks of mortality in Daphnia and Drosophila, teratological effects in chick embryos and behavioural disturbances in rats. The embryonic and neonatal periods showed a high sensitivity to the VDT radiation. In humans, after 4 h of working in front of a VDT screen, an increase in tiredness and a decrease in the resistance of the immune system were observed in workers. In prepubertal children, 20 min of exposure were sufficient to induce neuropsychological disturbances; pre-pubertal young people appear to be particularly sensitive to the effect of the radiation. In human testicular biopsies cultured in vitro for 24 h in front of a VDT screen, mitotic and meiotic disturbances, the appearance of degeneration in some aspects of the cells and significant disorganisation of the seminiferous tubules were demonstrated and related to modification of the metabolism of the sample. An experimental apparatus has been developed and tested that aims to prevent the harm from VDT radiation. Known commercially as the 'emf-Bioshield', it ensures effective protection against harmful biological effects of VDT radiation. (author)

  16. Human Behaviour and Responses Challenge towards Emergence of Infectious Diseases: E.coli clinical isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Mohlisi Mohd Asmawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of verotoxin-producing E.coli. It is estimated that non-O157 verotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC can cause diarrhea.The sample was isolated from Universiti Malaya Medical Centre. All the isolates were identified using agarose gel electrophoresis method. This study aims to detect the verotoxin genes and detect the link or involvement of plasmids with these verotoxin genes. Therefore, this study will contribute to shed new light on resolving the significant and global problem of diarrheal disease caused by this particular pathogenic organism and help in improvising novel therapeutic approaches to improve human healthcare.

  17. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J

    2009-01-01

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH - , CO 3 2- and PO 4 3- FTIR bands were also found.

  18. Behaviour of human endothelial cells on surface modified NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Stuart D; Grant, David M; Leach, Lopa

    2005-09-01

    Intravascular stents are being designed which utilise the shape memory properties of NiTi alloy. Despite the clinical advantages afforded by these stents their application has been limited by concerns about the large nickel ion content of the alloy. In this study, the surface chemistry of NiTi alloy was modified by mechanical polishing and oxidising heat treatments and subsequently characterised using X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of these surfaces on monolayer formation and barrier integrity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was then assessed by confocal imaging of the adherens junctional molecule VE-cadherin, perijunctional actin and permeability to 42kDa dextrans. Dichlorofluoroscein assays were used to measure oxidative stress in the cells. XPS analysis of NiTi revealed its surface to be dominated by TiO(2). However, where oxidation had occurred after mechanical polishing or post polishing heat treatments at 300 and 400 degrees C in air, a significant amount of metallic nickel or nickel oxide species (10.5 and 18.5 at%) remained on the surface. Exposure of HUVECs to these surfaces resulted in increased oxidative stress within the cells, loss of VE-cadherin and F-actin and significantly increased paracellular permeability. These pathological phenomena were not found in cells grown on NiTi which had undergone heat treatment at 600 degrees C. At this temperature thickening of the TiO(2) layer had occurred due to diffusion of titanium ions from the bulk of the alloy, displacing nickel ions to sub-surface areas. This resulted in a significant reduction in nickel ions detectable on the sample surface (4.8 at%). This study proposes that the integrity of human endothelial monolayers on NiTi is dependent upon the surface chemistry of the alloy and that this can be manipulated, using simple oxidising heat treatments.

  19. New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, C; Stassen, B; Depta, K; Silber, G

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse. Employing an experimental-numerical approach, a procedure is presented to evaluate multidirectional tensile properties of superficial tissue layers of the face in vivo. Specifically, in addition to stress relaxation, displacement-controlled multi-step ramp-and-hold protocols were performed to separate elastic from inelastic properties. For numerical representation, an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in conjunction with a time domain linear viscoelasticity formulation with Prony series was employed. Model parameters were inversely derived, employing finite element models, using multi-criteria optimization. The methodology provides insight into mechanical superficial facial tissue properties. Experimental data shows pronounced anisotropy, especially with large strain. The stress relaxation rate does not depend on the loading direction, but is strain-dependent. Preconditioning eliminates equilibrium hysteresis effects and leads to stress-strain repeatability. In the preconditioned state tissue stiffness and hysteresis insensitivity to strain rate in the applied range is evident. The employed material model fits the nonlinear anisotropic elastic results and the viscoelasticity model reasonably reproduces time-dependent results. Inversely deduced maximum anisotropic long-term shear modulus of linear elasticity is G ∞,max aniso =2.43kPa and instantaneous initial shear modulus at an

  20. Effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on human gingival fibroblast, osteoblast and periodontal ligament cell behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Sculean, Anton; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel; Schaller, Benoit; Dőri, Ferenc; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-02

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP, GLO) has been used as an adjunct to various regenerative dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the influence of PRP on human gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and osteoblast cell behavior in vitro. Human gingival fibroblasts, PDL cells and osteoblasts were cultured with conditioned media from PRP and investigated for cell migration, proliferation and collagen1 (COL1) immunostaining. Furthermore, gingival fibroblasts were tested for genes encoding TGF-β, PDGF and COL1a whereas PDL cells and osteoblasts were additionally tested for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, COL1a2, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). It was first found that PRP significantly increased cell migration of all cells up to 4 fold. Furthermore, PRP increased cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days of gingival fibroblasts, and at 3 days for PDL cells, whereas no effect was observed on osteoblasts. Gingival fibroblasts cultured with PRP increased TGF-β, PDGF-B and COL1 mRNA levels at 7 days and further increased over 3-fold COL1 staining at 14 days. PDL cells cultured with PRP increased Runx2 mRNA levels but significantly down-regulated OCN mRNA levels at 3 days. No differences in COL1 staining or ALP staining were observed in PDL cells. Furthermore, PRP decreased mineralization of PDL cells at 14 days post seeding as assessed by alizarin red staining. In osteoblasts, PRP increased COL1 staining at 14 days, increased COL1 and ALP at 3 days, as well as increased ALP staining at 14 days. No significant differences were observed for alizarin red staining of osteoblasts following culture with PRP. The results demonstrate that PRP promoted gingival fibroblast migration, proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-wound healing molecules. While PRP induced PDL cells and osteoblast migration and proliferation, it tended to have

  1. 'Goats that stare at men'--revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Being able to recognise when one is being observed by someone else is thought to be adaptive during cooperative or competitive events. In particular for prey species, this ability should be of use in the context of predation. A previous study reported that goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) alter their behaviour according to the body and head orientation of a human experimenter. During a food anticipation task, an experimenter remained in a particular posture for 30 s before delivering a reward, and the goats' active anticipation and standing alert behaviour were analysed. To further evaluate the specific mechanisms at work, we here present two additional test conditions. In particular, we investigated the effects of the eye visibility and head orientation of a human experimenter on the behaviour of the goats (N = 7). We found that the level of the subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the conditions where the experimenter was directing his head and body towards the goat ('Control' and 'Eyes closed' conditions), but the anticipatory behaviour was significantly decreased when the body ('Head only') or the head and body of the experimenter were directed away from the subject ('Back' condition). For standing alert, we found no significant differences between the three conditions in which the experimenter was directing his head towards the subject ('Control', 'Eyes closed' and 'Head only'). This lack of differences in the expression of standing alert suggests that goats evaluate the direction of a human's head as an important cue in their anticipatory behaviour. However, goats did not respond to the visibility of the experimenter's eyes alone.

  2. Compressive behaviour of gyroid lattice structures for human cancellous bone implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yánez, A.; Herrera, A.; Martel, O.; Monopoli, D.; Afonso, H.

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds. Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. Both parameters increased as the angle decreased. Finally, the specific strength of the gyroid structures was compared with that of the diamond structures and other types of structures. It is shown that, for angles lower than 35°, the gyroid structures had a high strength to weight ratios. - Highlights: • Gyroid and diamond lattice structures were fabricated by electron beam melting. • Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. • Some gyroid structures show a higher specific strength than other types of structures.

  3. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M.; Sagarra, O.; Oltra, A.; Palmer, J. R. B.; Bartumeus, F.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; Perelló, J.

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  4. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M; Sagarra, O; Oltra, A; Palmer, J R B; Bartumeus, F; Díaz-Guilera, A; Perelló, J

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  5. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009 on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1 the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2 the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3 the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4 the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  6. Compressive behaviour of gyroid lattice structures for human cancellous bone implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yánez, A., E-mail: alejandro.yanez@ulpgc.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Herrera, A. [Julius Wolff Institute, Berlin (Germany); Martel, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Monopoli, D.; Afonso, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds. Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. Both parameters increased as the angle decreased. Finally, the specific strength of the gyroid structures was compared with that of the diamond structures and other types of structures. It is shown that, for angles lower than 35°, the gyroid structures had a high strength to weight ratios. - Highlights: • Gyroid and diamond lattice structures were fabricated by electron beam melting. • Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. • Some gyroid structures show a higher specific strength than other types of structures.

  7. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. Overall, trials included in this review ( n  = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions are effective in reducing key HIV infection risk

  8. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  9. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  10. A behavioural investigation of human visual short term memory for colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, V A; Parry, N R A; McKeefry, D J

    2010-09-01

    We examined visual short term memory (VSTM) for colour using a delayed-match-to-sample paradigm. In these experiments we measured the effects of increasing inter-stimulus interval (ISI), varying between 0 and 10 s, on the ability of five colour normal human observers to make colour matches between a reference and subsequently presented test stimuli. The coloured stimuli used were defined by different chromatic axes on the isoluminant plane of DKL colour space. In preliminary experiments we used a hue scaling procedure to identify a total of 12 colour stimuli which served as reference hues in the colour memory experiments: four stimuli were exemplars of red, green, blue and yellow colour appearance categories, four were located between these categories and a further four were located on the cardinal axes that isolated the activity of the cone-opponent mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that there is a reduction in the ability of observers to make accurate colour matches with increasing ISIs and that this reduced performance was similar for all colour stimuli. However, the shifts in hue that were measured between the reference and matched test stimuli were significantly greater for the cardinal stimuli compared to those measured for the stimuli defined by the hue scaling procedure. This deterioration in the retention of hue in VSTM for stimuli that isolate cone-opponent mechanisms may be a reflection of the reorganisation of colour processing that occurs in the cortex where colour appearance mechanisms become more prominent. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Cognitive modelling with Coloured Petri Nets for the analysis of human behaviour; Kognitive Modellierung mit farbigen Petrinetzen zur Analyse menschlichen Verhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werther, B.

    2006-07-01

    The thesis presents a model based approach for a holistic consideration of human-machine systems. The model supports the design and formation of the operator's work sequences. In scope of the thesis a Formal Cognitive Resource (FCR)-Model is developed which treats limitation of the human operators processing capability as a main property. From this limitation stems the need to integrate and organize different action sequences into a balanced working process. The model is implemented as a Coloured Petri Net. Typical characteristics of net components find inherent consideration in the FCR-Model. In a first validation example behaviour of the FCR-Model is analyzed and compared with empirical results obtained in an experimental study performed on the operation of a micro world. Reasons for a specific behaviour of human operators in a working environment are being identified depending on cognitive parameters of the FCR-Model. It is shown how these parameters correspond to psychological performance properties. The FCR-Model is its current version serves for analysis of human information processing and discloses critical situations and faults in human behaviour. (Orig.)

  12. Investigation of binding behaviour of procainamide hydrochloride with human serum albumin using synchronous, 3D fluorescence and circular dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthi Byadagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of procainamide hydrochloride (PAH with human serum albumin (HSA is of great significance in understanding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of the drug. Multi-spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the binding mode of PAH to HSA and results revealed the presence of static type of quenching mechanism. The number of binding sites, binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed a spontaneous binding of PAH to HSA and hydrophobic interactions played a major role. In addition, the distance between PAH and the Trp–214 was estimated employing the Förster's theory. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that the binding of PAH to HSA primarily took place in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I. The influence of interference of some common metal ions on the binding of PAH to HSA was studied. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS, 3D fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD results indicated the conformational changes in the structure of HSA.

  13. A study of the behaviour of 0.5 μm aerosol particles in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Ramu, M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of the tissue dose of inhaled aerosol particles (including radioactive particles) requires a study of the behaviour of particles in the human lung. Half-micron particles (unit density spheres) of di-2-ethyl hexyl subacate have been used for carrying out the study since their deposition is mostly in the pulmonary region and they are good tracers of air flow in the lung. The deposition measured is the lowest reported so far and is affected by physiological parameters like the tidal volume, the breathing frequency and the resting expiratory level. Steady-state and single-breath aerosol experiments show that the particles inhaled remain airborne in the lung during several breaths and support the view that mechanical mixing is completely absent in the alveolated airways of the lung. Studies of the effect of breath-holding on the deposition of 0.5 μm particles in the lung show that these particles may be used for the calculation of the diameter of the alveolar space in life. (author)

  14. Prevalence and risk behaviour for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection in Marajó Island, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Aguiar, Samantha; Sá, Keyla G; Freitas, Felipe Bonfim; Ferreira, Glenda; Lima, Sandra Souza; Hermes, Renata Bezerra; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura; Ishak, Marluísa; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global public health problem, but, so far, there is no published information regarding the epidemiology of HIV-1 in Marajó Archipelago (Pará, Brazil). The present study reports the occurrence of infection by HIV-1 in four municipalities of the Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil. A total of 1877 samples were collected from volunteer blood donors (1296 women and 551 men) living in the municipalities of Anajás, Chaves, Portel and São Sebastião da Boa Vista. Information about risk behaviour assessment was obtained from a questionnaire. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies using serological tests. The infection was confirmed by nucleic acid amplification assays. Twelve samples were seropositive for HIV by ELISA. Western blot analysis showed four positive samples, eight indeterminate patterns and one found to be negative. Molecular analysis revealed three positive samples. Risk factors for HIV-1 infection included absence of condoms during sexual intercourse (41.3%, São Sebastião da Boa Vista), use of illicit drugs (5.8%, Anajás) and early initiation of sexual activities, from 10-15 years (30.7%). Although the study indicates a low HIV-1 prevalence in Marajó Island, some factors may increase the risk for HIV-1 and these include early sexual initiation, unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of illicit drugs.

  15. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  16. The ERK5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways play opposing regulatory roles during chondrogenesis of adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Brent E; Matsche, Alexander I; Chen, Faye H; Tuan, Rocky S

    2010-07-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) are able to differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types, including chondrocytes, and are considered a promising candidate cell source for use in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we examined the regulation of MPC chondrogenesis by mitogen-activated protein kinases in an attempt to better understand how to generate hyaline cartilage in the laboratory that more closely resembles native tissue. Specifically, we employed the high-density pellet culture model system to assess the roles of ERK5 and ERK1/2 pathway signaling in MPC chondrogenesis. Western blotting revealed that high levels of ERK5 phosphorylation correlate with low levels of MPC chondrogenesis and that as TGF-beta 3-enhanced MPC chondrogenesis proceeds, phospho-ERK5 levels steadily decline. Conversely, levels of phospho-ERK1/2 paralleled the progression of MPC chondrogenesis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK5 pathway components MEK5 and ERK5 resulted in increased MPC pellet mRNA transcript levels of the cartilage-characteristic marker genes SOX9, COL2A1, AGC, L-SOX5, and SOX6, as well as enhanced accumulation of SOX9 protein, collagen type II protein, and Alcian blue-stainable proteoglycan. In contrast, knockdown of ERK1/2 pathway members MEK1 and ERK1 decreased expression of all chondrogenic markers tested. Finally, overexpression of MEK5 and ERK5 also depressed MPC chondrogenesis, as indicated by diminished activity of a co-transfected collagen II promoter-luciferase reporter construct. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel role for the ERK5 pathway as an important negative regulator of adult human MPC chondrogenesis and illustrate that the ERK5 and ERK1/2 kinase cascades play opposing roles regulating MPC cartilage formation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  19. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  20. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  1. Entomological aspects and the role of human behaviour in malaria transmission in a highland region of the Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Harbach, Ralph E; Briscoe, Andrew G; Barnish, Guy; Azazy, Ahmed; McCall, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    The Republic of Yemen has the highest incidence of malaria in the Arabian Peninsula, yet little is known of its vectors or transmission dynamics. A 24-month study of the vectors and related epidemiological aspects of malaria transmission was conducted in two villages in the Taiz region in 2004-2005. Cross-sectional blood film surveys recorded an overall malaria infection rate of 15.3 % (250/1638), with highest rates exceeding 30 % in one village in May and December 2005. With one exception, Plasmodium malariae, all infections were P. falciparum. Seven Anopheles species were identified among 3407 anophelines collected indoors using light traps (LT) and pyrethrum knockdown catches (PKD): Anopheles arabiensis (86.9 %), An. sergentii (9 %), An. azaniae, An. dthali, An. pretoriensis, An. coustani and An. algeriensis. Sequences for the standard barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene confirmed the presence of two morphological forms of An. azaniae, the typical form and a previously unrecognized form not immediately identifiable as An. azaniae. ELISA detected Plasmodium sporozoites in 0.9 % of 2921 An. arabiensis (23 P. falciparum, two P. vivax) confirming this species as the primary malaria vector in Yemen. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in An. sergentii (2/295) and a single female of An. algeriensis, incriminating both species as malaria vectors for the first time in Yemen. A vector in both wet and dry seasons, An. arabiensis was predominantly anthropophilic (human blood index = 0.86) with an entomological inoculation rate of 1.58 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles sergentii fed on cattle (67.3 %) and humans (48.3; 20.7 % mixed both species), but only 14.7 % were found in PKDs, indicating predominantly exophilic behaviour. A GIS analysis of geographic and socio-economic parameters revealed that An. arabiensis were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in houses with televisions, most likely due to the popular evening habit of viewing television

  2. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlington, Lee

    2017-07-01

    The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  3. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  4. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course...... collaboration at the cost of individual performance and possible long-term collective performance as well....

  5. Cystathionine metabolic enzymes play a role in the inflammation resolution of human keratinocytes in response to sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunyoung [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-June [Basic Research and Innovation Division, AmorePacific Corporation R& D Center, Yongin, Gyeounggi-do 17074 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moonyoung [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Seyeon; Kim, Sae On [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Wook [Basic Research and Innovation Division, AmorePacific Corporation R& D Center, Yongin, Gyeounggi-do 17074 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Taek [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoonoh@snu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Low-level formaldehyde exposure is inevitable in industrialized countries. Although daily-life formaldehyde exposure level is practically impossible to induce cell death, most of mechanistic studies related to formaldehyde toxicity have been performed in cytotoxic concentrations enough to trigger cell death mechanism. Currently, toxicological mechanisms underlying the sub-cytotoxic exposure to formaldehyde are not clearly elucidated in skin cells. In this study, the genome-scale transcriptional analysis in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) was performed to investigate cutaneous biological pathways associated with daily life formaldehyde exposure. We selected the 175 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 116 downregulated DEGs in NHKs treated with 200 μM formaldehyde. In the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of the 175 upregulated DEGs, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) was identified as the most significant GO biological process in the formaldeyde-treated NHKs. Interestingly, the sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde affected NHKs to upregulate two enzymes important in the cellular transsulfuration pathway, cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). In the temporal expression analysis, the upregulation of the pro-inflammatory DEGs such as MMP1 and PTGS2 was detected earlier than that of CTH, CBS and other ER UPR genes. The metabolites of CTH and CBS, L-cystathionine and L-cysteine, attenuated the formaldehyde-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory DEGs, MMP1, PTGS2, and CXCL8, suggesting that CTH and CBS play a role in the negative feedback regulation of formaldehyde-induced pro-inflammatory responses in NHKs. In this regard, the sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde-induced CBS and CTH may regulate inflammation fate decision to resolution by suppressing the early pro-inflammatory response. - Highlights: • Sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde upregulates ER UPR-associated genes in NHKs. • Formaldehyde-induced ER UPR

  6. Neighbourhood human capital and the development of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems: the mediating role of parenting and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  8. Effect of D-amphetamine on emotion-potentiated startle in healthy humans: implications for psychopathy and antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Kumari, Veena

    2013-01-01

    An emerging literature associates increased dopaminergic neurotransmission with altered brain response to aversive stimuli in humans. The direction of the effect of dopamine on aversive motivation, however, remains unclear, with some studies reporting increased and others decreased amygdala activation to aversive stimuli following the administration of dopamine agonists. Potentiation of the startle response by aversive foreground stimuli provides an objective and directional measure of emotional reactivity and is considered useful as an index of the emotional effects of different drugs. We investigated the effects of two doses of D-amphetamine (5 and 10 mg), compared to placebo, for the first time to our knowledge, using the affect-startle paradigm. The study employed a between-subjects, double-blind design, with three conditions: 0 mg (placebo), and 5 and 10 mg D-amphetamine (initially n = 20/group; final sample: n = 18, placebo; n = 18, 5 mg; n = 16, 10 mg). After drug/placebo administration, startle responses (eyeblinks) to intermittent noise probes were measured during viewing of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant images. Participants' general and specific impulsivity and fear-related personality traits were also assessed. The three groups were comparable on personality traits. Only the placebo group showed significant startle potentiation by unpleasant, relative to neutral, images; this effect was absent in both 5- and 10-mg D-amphetamine groups (i.e. the same effect of D-amphetamine observed at different doses in different people). Our findings demonstrate a reduced aversive emotional response under D-amphetamine and may help to account for the known link between the use of psychostimulant drugs and antisocial behaviour.

  9. Inhibition of the ERK phosphorylation plays a role in terbinafine-induced p21 up-regulation and DNA synthesis inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.-Y.; Hsu, S.-P.; Liang, Y.-C.; Kuo, M.-L.; Ho, Y.-S.; Lee, W.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we showed that terbinafine (TB) induces cell-cycle arrest in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) through an up-regulation of the p21 protein. The aim of this study is to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying TB-induced increase of p21 protein. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the mRNA levels of p21 and p53 were increased in the TB-treated HUVEC. The p21 promoter activity was also increased by TB treatment. Transfection of HUVEC with p53 dominant negative (DN) abolished the TB-induced increases of p21 promoter activity and protein level, suggesting that the TB-induced increase of p21 is p53-dependent. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TB decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Over-expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-1, the immediate upstream activator kinase of ERK, abolished the TB-induced increases of p21 and p53 protein and decrease of thymidine incorporation. The ERK inhibitor (PD98059) enhanced the TB-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation into HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that the decrease of ERK activity plays a role in the TB-induced up-regulation of p21 in HUVEC. On the other hand, pretreatment of the cells with geranylgeraniol (GGOH), farnesol (FOH), or Ras inhibitor peptide did not affect the TB-induced decrease of thymidine incorporation. Taken together, our results suggest that TB might cause a decrease of MEK, which in turn up-regulates p53 through the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, and finally causes an increase of p21 expression and cell-cycle arrest

  10. Tunical Outer Layer Plays an Essential Role in Penile Veno-occlusive Mechanism Evidenced from Electrocautery Effects to the Corpora Cavernosa in Defrosted Human Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Huang, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Chen, Heng-Shen; Huang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Wu; Hsu, Geng-Long

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact anatomical structure for establishing penile veno-occlusive function, we sought to conduct a hemodynamic study on defrosted human cadavers. Thirteen penises were used for this experiment, and 11 intact penises were allocated into the electrocautery group (EG, n = 6) and the ligation group (LG, n = 5). A circumcision was made on the penis to access the veins. Two #19 scalp needles were fixed in the 3 and 9 o'clock positions in the distal penis for colloid infusion and intracavernous pressure (ICP) monitoring, respectively. For the EG, the deep dorsal vein and cavernosal vein trunks were freed for 3-5 cm where at least 3 emissary veins were identified via opening Buck's fascia; these veins underwent electrocautery at 45 watts, while the ICP was maintained at 0, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mmHg, respectively. For control, venous ligation was made but at the ICP of 150 mmHg. A tissue block including the emissary vein was then obtained for histological analysis. Except all in the EG and those whose ICP exceed 125 mmHg in the EG, the sinusoids of the corpora cavernosa sustained varied fulgurated fibrosis in every specimen and the severity appeared reversely commensurate with the ICP regarding sinusoidal clumping and darkish bands (P electrocautery damage to intracavernous sinusoids once the ICP reached a level corresponding to a rigid erection. The outer tunica plays an essential role in fulfilling the veno-occlusive mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biting behaviour of African malaria vectors: 1. where do the main vector species bite on the human body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braack, Leo; Hunt, Richard; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Gericke, Anton; Munhenga, Givemore; Haddow, Andrew D; Becker, Piet; Okia, Michael; Kimera, Isaac; Coetzee, Maureen

    2015-02-04

    Malaria control in Africa relies heavily on indoor vector management, primarily indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated bed nets. Little is known about outdoor biting behaviour or even the dynamics of indoor biting and infection risk of sleeping household occupants. In this paper we explore the preferred biting sites on the human body and some of the ramifications regarding infection risk and exposure management. We undertook whole-night human landing catches of Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa and Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus in Uganda, for seated persons wearing short sleeve shirts, short pants, and bare legs, ankles and feet. Catches were kept separate for different body regions and capture sessions. All An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus group individuals were identified to species level by PCR. Three of the main vectors of malaria in Africa (An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus) all have a preference for feeding close to ground level, which is manifested as a strong propensity (77.3% - 100%) for biting on lower leg, ankles and feet of people seated either indoors or outdoors, but somewhat randomly along the lower edge of the body in contact with the surface when lying down. If the lower extremities of the legs (below mid-calf level) of seated people are protected and therefore exclude access to this body region, vector mosquitoes do not move higher up the body to feed at alternate body sites, instead resulting in a high (58.5% - 68.8%) reduction in biting intensity by these three species. Protecting the lower limbs of people outdoors at night can achieve a major reduction in biting intensity by malaria vector mosquitoes. Persons sleeping at floor level bear a disproportionate risk of being bitten at night because this is the preferred height for feeding by the primary vector species. Therefore it is critical to protect children sleeping at floor level (bednets; repellent-impregnated blankets or sheets, etc

  12. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  13. FATHER PLAY: IS IT SPECIAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori

    2017-11-01

    Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Emotions and consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    I. Soscia

    2013-01-01

    This stimulating book scrutinizes how emotions function in consumers, from both a psychological and a managerial perspective. It demonstrates how gratitude, happiness, guilt, anger, pride and sadness determine different post-consumption behaviours such as positive and negative word of mouth, repurchase intention and complaint behaviour. The emotional side of consumption seems to play an essential role in explaining choices made and actions taken by consumers. Isabella Soscia explores the ...

  15. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hadlington

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ‘risky’ cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  16. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Lea M M; Leonhard, Anne K; Widen Zakhary, Carina; Jørgensen, Annemette; Blaakaer, Jan; Dybkaer, Karen; Baandrup, Ulrik; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an association between human papillomavirus infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported human papillomavirus prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investigate human papillomavirus infection in placental tissue of a Danish study cohort. Furthermore, we studied the cellular localization of human papillomavirus. In this prospective case-control study, placental tissue was analyzed for human papillomavirus infection by nested PCR in the following four study groups: full-term delivery (n = 103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 69), elective abortion (n = 54), and spontaneous abortion (n = 44). Moreover, human papillomavirus cellular target was identified using in situ hybridization. Human papillomavirus prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. Twelve different human papillomavirus types were detected, and placental human papillomavirus infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells, and in parts of the encasing endometrium. Placental human papillomavirus infections are not likely to constitute a risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor or spontaneous abortions in the Danish population, although an effect of human papillomavirus DNA in placental cells cannot be excluded. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  18. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine fo...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  19. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  20. Understanding human behaviour in fire : validation of the use of serious gaming for research into fire safety psychonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobes, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text contains chapter 5,6,8 and 9, the other chapters are under embargo. The primary aim of the project is the validation of a behavioural assessment and research tool. The tool is a serious game that makes use of an interactive, real-time, physics-based virtual environment with realistic 3D

  1. Sexuality and Human Reproduction: A Study of Scientific Knowledge, Behaviours and Beliefs of Portuguese Future Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…

  2. Human resource practices and organisational performance: Can the HRM-performance linkage be explained by the cooperative behaviours of employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, Mattijs; Sanders, Karin; Koster, Ferry; Zwiers, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether the linkage between HRM and organisational performance can be explained by the effect of the internal and strategic fit of HRM on the cooperative behaviours of employees. We expect that the more HRM practices are aligned within themselves (internal

  3. Poroelastic behaviour of the degenerating human intervertebral disc: a ten-day study in a loaded disc culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emanuel, K. S.; Vergroesen, P.-P. A.; Peeters, M.; Holewijn, R. M.; Kingma, I.; Smit, T. H.

    2015-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) allows flexibility to the vertebral column, and transfers the predominant axial loads during daily activities. Its axial biomechanical behaviour is poroelastic, due to the water-binding and releasing capacity of the nucleus pulposus. Degeneration of the intervertebral

  4. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  5. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  6. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  7. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  8. Variability of Heart Rate in Primitive Horses and Their Relatives as an Indicator of Stress Level, Behavioural Conduct Towards Humans and Adaptation to Living in Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluta Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmental and genetic factors. Studies were conducted in three populations of horses: two herds of Polish Konik and one herd of Biłgoraj horses. The studies were performed between 1993 and 2010. They concerned the behaviour of horses during grooming - breeding procedures (hooves clearing, body measurements performed cyclically and the daily observations when HR was monitored continuously. HR results for the respective age categories, during particular grooming - breeding procedures and reserve observations indicate that Polish Konik horses, closely related to the primitive Tarpan breed, are genetically better adapted to living in conditions similar to the natural (reserve than the Biłgoraj horses. They show less stress symptoms, which are evidenced by HR values noted during inhabiting the natural environment.

  9. Playful learning in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    in higher education through the metaphor of the ‘magic circle’. This approach stimulates intrinsic motivation and educational drive, creates safe spaces for academic experimentation and exploration, and promotes reflective risk-taking, ideation, and participation in education. We present a model of playful......Increased focus on quantifiable performance and assessment in higher education is creating a learning culture characterised by fear of failing, avoidance of risk, and extrinsic goal-oriented behaviours. In this article, we explore possibilities of a more playful approach to teaching and learning...... learning, drawing on notions of signature pedagogies, field literature, and two qualitative studies on learner conceptions of enjoyment and reasons for disengagement. We highlight the potential of this approach to invite a different mind-set and environment, providing a formative space in which failure...

  10. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  11. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Hadlington

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ?risky? cybersecurity ...

  12. Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leah M; Kaufman, Jay S; Strumpf, Erin C; Lévesque, Linda E

    2015-02-03

    Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Using Ontario's administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario's grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non-HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10-12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls -0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] -10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls -0.25 (95% CI -4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  13. Measurement Devices and the Psychophysiology of Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    of the type of subjectivity that underlies consumer behaviour. I argue instead that a posthuman view of the relationship between brain, mind and behaviour underpinned neurophysiological research into consumers from its very beginning in the late nineteenth century. By tracing the biopolitical potentialities...... of neuromarketing back to the Fin-de-Siècle neurophysiological laboratory, I show that consumers' bodies and later on their brains became reconfigured as part of a dispositif made up of laboratory-based artefacts (measurement devices) and new ways of seeing the human brain and human behaviour. This dispositif......From the 1890s, psychophysiological measurement devices have played an important, but as yet under-theorized role in marketing and consumer research. Because of the recent advances made in neuromarketing, it is often assumed that these measurement devices ushered in a radically new understanding...

  14. Alibis for Adult Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The social meanings of play sit at odds with norms of responsible and productive adult conduct. To be “caught” playing as an adult therefore risks embarrassment. Still, many designers want to create enjoyable, nonembarrassing play experiences for adults. To address this need, this article reads instances of spontaneous adult play through the lens of Erving Goffman’s theory of the interaction order to unpack conditions and strategies for nonembarrassing adult play. It identifies established frames, segregated audiences, scripts supporting smooth performance, managing audience awareness, role distancing, and, particularly, alibis for play: Adults routinely provide alternative, adult-appropriate motives to account for their play, such as child care, professional duties, creative expression, or health. Once legitimized, the norms and rules of play themselves then provide an alibi for behavior that would risk being embarrassing outside play.

  15. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Roesch, Scott C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lindsay, Suzanne; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Gaines, Tommi L

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735). Latent class analysis identified discrete classes of polydrug use characterised by 11 indicators of past 6 months substance use. Multinomial logistic regression examined class membership association with HIV risk behaviours, overdose and other covariates using an automated three-step procedure in mplus to account for classification error. Participants were classified into five subgroups. Two polydrug and polyroute classes were defined by use of multiple substances through several routes of administration and were primarily distinguished from each other by cocaine use (class 1: 5%) or no cocaine use (class 2: 29%). The other classes consisted primarily of injectors: cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 3: 4%); methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 4: 10%); and heroin injection (class 5: 52%). Compared with the heroin-only injection class, memberships in the two polydrug and polyroute use classes were independently associated with both HIV injection and sexual risk behaviours. Substance use patterns among PWID in Tijuana are highly heterogeneous, and polydrug and polyroute users are a high-risk subgroup who may require more tailored prevention and treatment interventions. [Meacham MC, Roesch SC, Strathdee SA, Lindsay S, Gonzalez-Zuniga P, Gaines TL. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:128-136].

  16. Human behaviours associated with dominance in elite amateur boxing bouts: A comparison of winners and losers under the Ten Point Must System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Emily C; Humberstone, Clare E; Iredale, K Fiona; Martin, David T; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Humans commonly ascertain physical dominance through non-lethal fighting by participating in combat sports. However, the behaviours that achieve fight dominance are not fully understood. Amateur boxing competition, which is judged using the subjective "Ten Point Must-System", provides insight into fight dominance behaviours. Notational analysis was performed on 26 elite male competitors in a national boxing championship. Behavioural (guard-drop time; movement style [stepping/bouncing time]; clinch-time; interaction-time) and technical (total punches; punches landed [%Hit]; air punches [%Air]; defence) measures were recorded. Participants reported effort required (0-100%) and perceived effect of fatigue on their own performance (5-point Likert scale) following bouts. Differences between winners and losers, and changes across the duration of the bout were examined. Winners punched more accurately than losers (greater %Hit [33% vs. 23%] and lower %Air [17% vs. 27%]) but total punches, defence and interaction-time were similar. From rounds 1-2, clinch-time and guard drops increased whilst bouncing decreased. Perceived effect of fatigue increased throughout the bout while perceived effort increased only from rounds 2-3. %Hit and movement index together in regression analysis correctly classified 85% of bout outcomes, indicating that judges (subjectively) chose winning (dominant) boxers according to punch accuracy and style, rather than assertiveness (more punches thrown). Boxers appear to use tactical strategies throughout the bout to pace their effort and minimise fatigue (increased guard drops, reduced bouncing), but these did not influence perceived dominance or bout outcome. These results show that judges use several performance indicators not including the total number of successful punches thrown to assess fight dominance and superiority between fighters. These results provide valuable information as to how experienced fight observers subjectively rate superiority

  17. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  18. The Effect of Parental Involvement and Encouragement on Preschool Children's Symbolic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Podlesek, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the ways in which parents engage in play with their children within the family context and to establish which parental play behaviour predicts the play behaviour of their children during interactive play with toys. The sample included 58 children from 2;6 to 6 years old and their parents. The parent-child…

  19. The Quartet does not play alone. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mas-Herrero, Ernest

    2015-06-01

    The study of emotions has been an important topic in cognitive and affective neuroscience in the last decades. In the present manuscript, Koelsch et al. [1] propose a new neurobiological framework based on four emotional core systems (the Quartet), involved in different aspects of human emotion processing. This is an interesting theory that goes beyond classical emotion classification to describe the emotional experience based on four main cerebral components (brainstem, diencephalon, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex). This approach allows the description of different classes of affects, including those that are unique in humans as emotional responses associated to abstract stimuli (for example, aesthetical stimuli such as art and music).

  20. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  1. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  3. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  4. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  5. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  6. SOX2 plays a critical role in EGFR-mediated self-renewal of human prostate cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Adrian P; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    SOX2 is an essential transcription factor for stem cells and plays a role in tumorigenesis, however its role in prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) remains unclear. We report here a significant upregulation of SOX2 at both mRNA and protein levels in DU145 PCSCs propagated as suspension spheres in vitro. The expression of SOX2 in DU145 PCSCs is positively regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Activation of EGFR signaling, following the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or ectopic expression of a constitutively-active EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII), increased SOX2 expression and the self-renewal of DU145 PCSCs. Conversely, a small molecule EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) blocked EGFR activation, reduced SOX2 expression and inhibited PCSC self-renewal activity, implicating SOX2 in mediating EGFR-dependent self-renewal of PCSCs. In line with this notion, ectopic SOX2 expression enhanced EGF-induced self-renewal of DU145 PCSCs, while SOX2 knockdown reduced PCSC self-renewal with EGF treatment no longer capable of enhancing their propagation. Furthermore, SOX2 knockdown reduced the capacity of DU145 PCSCs to grow under anchorage-independent conditions. Finally, DU145 PCSCs generated xenograft tumors more aggressively with elevated levels of SOX2 expression compared to xenograft tumors derived from non-PCSCs. Collectively, we provide evidence that SOX2 plays a critical role in EGFR-mediated self-renewal of DU145 PCSCs. © 2013.

  7. The Pedagogy of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  8. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  9. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  10. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei; Zhao Yimin; Chai Feng; Hildebrand, Hartmut F; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Traisnel, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (E r ) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate E r and a good passive current density (I p ), but a high corrosion potential (E c ) and a very low breakdown potential (E b ) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better E r and E c and very high E b . No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable E c and an increased I p . The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  11. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Mei; Chai, Feng; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Zhao, Yi Min; Traisnel, Michel; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2009-02-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (Er) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate Er and a good passive current density (Ip), but a high corrosion potential (Ec) and a very low breakdown potential (Eb) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better Er and Ec and very high Eb. No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable Ec and an increased Ip. The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  12. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  13. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations......This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  14. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  15. FairyPlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2018-01-01

    in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context......Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...

  16. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea M.M.; Leonhard, Anne K.; Widen Zakhary, Carina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported HPV prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investig......INTRODUCTION: Recently, an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported HPV prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed...... (n=103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n=69), elective abortion (n=54), and spontaneous abortion (n=44). Moreover, HPV cellular target was identified by the use of in situ hybridization. RESULTS: HPV prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm...... deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. 12 different HPV-types were detected and placental HPV infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. HPV DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells...

  17. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  18. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  19. Identification of protein expression alterations in gefitinib-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma: PCNT and mPR play key roles in the development of gefitinib-associated resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chen [Institute of Biomedical Science, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Science, and Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Education, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jing-Ting [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Meng-Wei [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chia-Hao [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu 30071, Taiwan (China); Wen, Yueh-Feng [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shin-Bei [Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chung, Ting-Wen [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lyu, Kevin W. [Lutheran Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Global Scholars Program, St. George' s University/Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Chou, Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: chouhc@mail.nhcue.edu.tw [Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-11-01

    Gefitinib is the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises nearly 85% of all lung cancer cases worldwide. However, most patients eventually develop drug resistance after 12–18 months of treatment. Hence, investigating the drug resistance mechanism and resistance-associated biomarkers is necessary. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, PC9 and gefitinib-resistant PC9/Gef, were established for examining resistance mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used for examining global protein expression changes between PC9 and PC9/Gef. The results revealed that 164 identified proteins were associated with the formation of gefitinib resistance in PC9 cells. Additional studies using RNA interference showed that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and pericentrin proteins have major roles in gefitinib resistance. In conclusion, the proteomic approach enabled identifying of numerous proteins involved in gefitinib resistance. The results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for treating gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. - Highlights: • 164 proteins associated with gefitinib resistance were identified through proteomic analysis. • In this study, a lung adenocarcinoma and its gefitinib resistant partner were established. • mPR and PCNT proteins have evidenced to play important roles in gefitinib resistance.

  20. Identification of protein expression alterations in gefitinib-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma: PCNT and mPR play key roles in the development of gefitinib-associated resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Jing-Ting; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chan, Chia-Hao; Wen, Yueh-Feng; Wu, Shin-Bei; Chung, Ting-Wen; Lyu, Kevin W.; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib is the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises nearly 85% of all lung cancer cases worldwide. However, most patients eventually develop drug resistance after 12–18 months of treatment. Hence, investigating the drug resistance mechanism and resistance-associated biomarkers is necessary. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, PC9 and gefitinib-resistant PC9/Gef, were established for examining resistance mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used for examining global protein expression changes between PC9 and PC9/Gef. The results revealed that 164 identified proteins were associated with the formation of gefitinib resistance in PC9 cells. Additional studies using RNA interference showed that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and pericentrin proteins have major roles in gefitinib resistance. In conclusion, the proteomic approach enabled identifying of numerous proteins involved in gefitinib resistance. The results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for treating gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. - Highlights: • 164 proteins associated with gefitinib resistance were identified through proteomic analysis. • In this study, a lung adenocarcinoma and its gefitinib resistant partner were established. • mPR and PCNT proteins have evidenced to play important roles in gefitinib resistance.

  1. Serological evidence that activation of ubiquitous human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) plays a role in chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, D H

    2016-02-01

    Acute infection with viral pathogens in the herpesviridae family can trigger acute urticaria, and reactivation of herpesviridae is associated with cutaneous urticarial-like syndromes such as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Reactivation of latent herpesviridae has not been studied systematically in chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU). This review proposes that CIU is an inflammatory disorder with autoimmune features (termed 'CVU' for chronic viral urticaria), based on serology consistent with the hypothesis that reactivation of a latent herpesvirus or -viruses may play a role in CIU. Serology obtained from a cohort of omalizumab (Xolair)-dependent patients with severe CIU was consistent with previous HHV-6 infection, persistent viral gene expression and replication. CIU patients also exhibited serological evidence of increased immune response to HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus, or EBV) but not all CIU patients were infected with EBV. These observations, combined with case reports of CIU response to anti-viral therapy, suggest that HHV-6, possibly interacting with HHV-4 in cutaneous tissues, is a candidate for further prospective study as a co-factor in CIU. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  3. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  4. Free riders play fair

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  5. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  6. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  7. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  8. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp.In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata, human cysticercosis (T. solium and pig cysticercosis (T. solium in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%-7.7%, and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%-26.4%. Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%-0.5%. Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively, gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02, level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09, use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02 and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Playing Hide-and-Seek: Understanding the TFH Cell Reservoir and Proposing Strategies to Overcome the Follicle Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Ann Leong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infects millions of people worldwide, and new cases continue to emerge. Once infected, the virus cannot be cleared by the immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Combination antiretroviral therapeutic regimen effectively suppresses viral replication and halts disease progression. The treatment, however, does not eliminate the virus-infected cells, and interruption of treatment inevitably leads to viral rebound. The rebound virus originates from a group of virus-infected cells referred to as the cellular reservoir of HIV. Identifying and eliminating the HIV reservoir will prevent viral rebound and cure HIV infection. In this review, we focus on a recently discovered HIV reservoir in a subset of CD4+ T cells called the follicular helper T (TFH cells. We describe the potential mechanisms for the emergence of reservoir in TFH cells, and the strategies to target and eliminate this viral reservoir.

  10. The HDL receptor SR-BI is associated with human prostate cancer progression and plays a possible role in establishing androgen independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörghofer, David; Kinslechner, Katharina; Preitschopf, Andrea; Schütz, Birgit; Röhrl, Clemens; Hengstschläger, Markus; Stangl, Herbert; Mikula, Mario

    2015-08-07

    Human prostate cancer represents one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men worldwide. Currently, diagnostic methods are insufficient to identify patients at risk for aggressive prostate cancer, which is essential for early treatment. Recent data indicate that elevated cholesterol levels in the plasma are a prerequisite for the progression of prostate cancer. Here, we analyzed clinical prostate cancer samples for the expression of receptors involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. We screened mRNA microarray files of prostate cancer samples for alterations in the expression levels of cholesterol transporters. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry analysis on human primary prostate cancer tissue sections derived from patients to investigate the correlation of SR-BI with clinicopathological parameters and the mTOR target pS6. In contrast to LDLR, we identified SR-BI mRNA and protein expression to be induced in high Gleason grade primary prostate cancers. Histologic analysis of prostate biopsies revealed that 53.6 % of all cancer samples and none of the non-cancer samples showed high SR-BI staining intensity. The disease-free survival time was reduced (P = 0.02) in patients expressing high intra-tumor levels of SR-BI. SR-BI mRNA correlated with HSD17B1 and HSD3B1 and SR-BI protein staining showed correlation with active ribosomal protein S6 (RS = 0.828, P prostate cancer formation, suggesting that increased levels of SR-BI may be involved in the generation of a castration-resistant phenotype.

  11. Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention. The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.

  12. Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-190b Plays a Role for Decreased IGF-1 That Induces Insulin Resistance in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tzu-Min; Ho, Cheng-Maw; Liu, Yen-Chun; Lee, Jia-Ling; Liao, Yow-Rong; Wu, Yao-Ming; Ho, Ming-Chih; Chen, Chien-Hung; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Insulin-like growth factor, (IGF)-1, is produced mainly by the liver and plays important roles in promoting growth and regulating metabolism. Previous study reported that development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was accompanied by a significant reduction in serum IGF-1 levels. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNA) in HCC can modulate IGF-1 expression post-transcriptionally. Methods The miRNAs expression profiles in a dataset of 29 HCC patients were examined using illumina BeadArray. Specific miRNA (miR)-190b, which was significantly up-regulated in HCC tumor tissues when compared with paired non-tumor tissues, was among those predicted to interact with 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of IGF-1. In order to explore the regulatory effects of miR-190b on IGF-1 expression, luciferase reporter assay, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorecence analysis were performed in HCC cells. Results Overexpression of miR-190b in Huh7 cells attenuated the expression of IGF-1, whereas inhibition of miR-190b resulted in up-regulation of IGF-1. Restoration of IGF-1 expression reversed miR-190b-mediated impaired insulin signaling in Huh7 cells, supporting that IGF-1 was a direct and functional target of miR-190b. Additionally, low serum IGF-1 level was associated with insulin resistance and poor overall survival in HCC patients. Conclusions Increased expression of miR-190 may cause decreased IGF-1 in HCC development. Insulin resistance appears to be a part of the physiopathologic significance of decreased IGF-1 levels in HCC progression. This study provides a novel miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanism for controlling IGF-1 expression in HCC and elucidates the biological relevance of this interaction in HCC. PMID:24586785

  13. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be

  14. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  15. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children...

  16. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  17. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...

  18. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  19. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  20. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  1. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  2. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  3. Gimme Gimme Gimme. The recent signing behaviour of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in interactions with longterm human companions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, E.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation starts with a critical analysis of the scientific projects with signing chimpanzees, which were set up to see if chimpanzees could learn a human language. These projects consist of the research by the Gardners, the Fouts and the Terrace group. After the results of these projects

  4. Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low-resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, Emily K; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    2018-04-11

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognized as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans, animals and the environment in low-resource settings. This critical review seeks to identify the extent of One Health research on ABR in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing research has highlighted hotspots for environmental contamination; food-animal production systems that are likely to harbour reservoirs or promote transmission of ABR as well as high and increasing human rates of colonization with ABR commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli However, very few studies have integrated all three components of the One Health spectrum to understand the dynamics of transmission and the prevalence of community-acquired resistance in humans and animals. Microbiological, epidemiological and social science research is needed at community and population levels across the One Health spectrum in order to fill the large gaps in knowledge of ABR in low-resource settings. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Parental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviours towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Their Children: A Systematic Review from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Trim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A systematic review of parental surveys about HPV and/or child HPV vaccination to understand parental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour before and after FDA approval of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and the bivalent HPV vaccine. Search Strategy. Searches were conducted using electronic databases limited to published studies between 2001 and 2011. Findings. The percentage of parents who heard about HPV rose over time (from 60% in 2005 to 93% in 2009, as did their appreciation for the HPV infection and cervical cancer link (from 70% in 2003 to 91% in 2011. During the FDA approval, there was a stronger vaccine awareness but it has waned. The same pattern is seen with parents whose children received the HPV vaccine (peak at 84% in 2010 and now 36% in 2011 or the intention to vaccinate (peak at 80% in 2008 and now 41% in 2011. Conclusions. Parents had safety concerns and wanted more information their physician from to recommend and to confidently HPV vaccinate their children.

  6. PKA-GSK3β and β-Catenin Signaling Play a Critical Role in Trans-Resveratrol Mediated Neuronal Differentiation in Human Cord Blood Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, S; Singh, S; Srivastava, A; Kumar, V; Kumar, D; Pandey, A; Rajpurohit, C S; Purohit, A R; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2018-04-01

    The role of resveratrol (RV), a natural polyphenol, is well documented, although its role on neurogenesis is still controversial and poorly understood. Therefore, to decipher the cellular insights of RV on neurogenesis, we investigated the potential effects of the compound on the survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hCBMSCs). For neuronal differentiation, purified and characterized hCBMSCs were exposed to biological safe doses of RV (10 μM) alone and in combination with nerve growth factor (NGF-50 ng). The cells exposed only to NGF (50 ng/mL) served as positive control for neuronal differentiation. The genes showing significant involvement in the process of neuronal differentiation were further funneled down at transcriptional and translational level. It was observed that RV promotes PKA-mediated neuronal differentiation in hCBMSCs by inducing canonical pathway. The studies with pharmacological inhibitors also confirmed that PKA significantly induces β-catenin expression via GSK3β induction and stimulates CREB phosphorylation and pERK1/2 induction. Besides that, the studies also revealed that RV additionally possesses the binding sites for molecules other than PKA and GSK3β, with which it interacts. The present study therefore highlights the positive impact of RV over the survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation in hCBMSCs via PKA-mediated induction of GSK3β, β catenin, CREB, and ERK1/2.

  7. The administrative – political function of human settlements and the role it plays in organizing geographical space. Case study – Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Săgeată

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional typology of human settlements is shaped, among others, by their political-administrative function. Its distinctive place is determined by subjective factors, such as the political-administrative decisions, which have changed the course of some settlements to the benefit of others, or reverted them from their normal, natural evolution. That means outside involvement in space organization to the detriment of self-organization, the latter being the outcome of the permanent tendency of territorial systems to rebalance from exogenous factors-induced dysfunctions. Lately, the country’s territorial-administrative organization has been steadily challenged years over the past few based either on the 1925 administrative map, or on the disparities in the structure of the present counties and the economic and social fluxes going on at the local level of the settlements system. In view of the above, we have attempted to work out an optimal model for the administrative organization of Romania’s territory by proceeding from the distance between communal seats and the town towards which they gravitate. The latter’s capacity for discharging an administrative function, and the relations of subordination or competition amongst these towns in also discussed.

  8. Interaction of rotavirus with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role in stimulating memory rotavirus specific T cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Martha C; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Franco, Manuel A; Angel, Juana

    2007-09-15

    We studied the interaction of RV with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from adult volunteers. After exposure of PBMC to rhesus RV (RRV), T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells expressed RV non-structural proteins, at variable levels. Expression of these RV proteins was abolished if infection was done in the presence of anti-VP7 neutralizing antibodies or 10% autologous serum. Supernatants of RRV exposed PBMC contained TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-10. Plasmacytoid DC were found to be the main source of IFN-alpha production, and in their absence the production of IFN-gamma and the frequency of RV specific T cells that secrete IFN-gamma diminished. Finally, we could not detect RV-antigen associated with the PBMC or expression of RV non-structural proteins in PBMC of acutely RV-infected children. Thus, although PBMC are susceptible to the initial steps of RV infection, most PBMC of children with RV-gastroenteritis are not infected.

  9. Behaviour of Human Hemodynamics under Microcavity –a Proposal for the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Blazek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All astronauts often feel uncomfortable during first encounter microgravity because of fluid shifts from the lower extremities to the head caused by weightlessness. Parabolic flights offer a great possibility for research of this phenomenon under “zero gravity”. With a combination of the optoelectronic sensor concepts PPG and PPGI and an ultrasound device it should be possible to measure all relevant parameters for description and further explanation of rapid fluid shifts along the body axis in humans during parabolic flights. A research team of the RWTH Aachen University and the Charité University Berlin will participate in the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign in September 2005 and perform the experiments under micro gravitation. A combination of used non-invasive strategies will reveal new insights into the human hemodynamics under microgravity conditions. The optoelectronic part of this interdisciplinary research experiment, details from the measuring setup, data collecting and post processing will be discussed.

  10. Improving care by understanding the way we work: human factors and behavioural science in the context of intensive care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevdalis, Nick; Brett, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Effectiveness and efficiency of care of the critically ill patient are subject to a number of systemic influences, including skills of individual physicians/nurses (technical and non-technical), team-working in the intensive care unit (ICU), and the ICU environment. We first discuss the paper of Fackler and colleagues as a contribution to the systems approach to clinical performance in the context of intensive care. We then highlight features of care delivery that are unique to intensive care and discuss the need for better understanding of human and non-human elements of the system of care of the critically ill patient as a driver for improvement of care delivery. PMID:19439048

  11. Object recognition in images by human vision and computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Object recognition plays a major role in human behaviour research in the built environment. Computer based object recognition techniques using images as input are challenging, but not an adequate representation of human vision. This paper reports on the differences in object shape recognition

  12. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  13. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  14. The design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction and human immunodeficiency virus prevention videogame intervention in minority adolescents: PlayForward: Elm City Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiellin, Lynn E; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Duncan, Lindsay R; Dziura, James D; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, David A

    2016-08-01

    To address the need for risk behavior reduction and human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions that capture adolescents "where they live," we created a tablet-based videogame to teach skills and knowledge and influence psychosocial antecedents for decreasing risk and preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection in minority youth in schools, after-school programs, and summer camps. We developed PlayForward: Elm City Stories over a 2-year period, working with researchers, commercial game designers, and staff and teens from community programs. The videogame PlayForward provides an interactive world where players, using an avatar, "travel" through time, facing challenges such as peer pressure to drink alcohol or engage in risky sexual behaviors. Players experience how their choices affect their future and then are able to go back in time and change their choices, creating different outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of PlayForward. Participants were randomly assigned to play PlayForward or a set of attention/time control games on a tablet at their community-based program. Assessment data were collected during face-to-face study visits and entered into a web-based platform and unique real-time "in-game" PlayForward data were collected as players engaged in the game. The innovative methods of this randomized controlled trial are described. We highlight the logistical issues of conducting a large-scale trial using mobile technology such as the iPad(®), and collecting, transferring, and storing large amounts of in-game data. We outline the methods used to analyze the in-game data alone and in conjunction with standardized assessment data to establish correlations between behaviors during gameplay and those reported in real life. We also describe the use of the in-game data as a measure of fidelity to the intervention. In total, 333 boys and girls, aged 11-14 years, were randomized over a 14-month period: 166 were

  15. Play as Self-Realization: Toward a General Theory of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    In a wide-ranging essay that reviews the major theories of plays and relates them to significant notions of the self, the author addresses the question of why we play. He does so to argue that play is a biologically driven project of self-understanding and self-realization, one that humans--although they also share the experience with other…

  16. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  17. Leisure Today--the Many Faces of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This series of papers examines the role of play from various angles, discussing play as an essential human function and universal experience, the role of play in developing cultural values and awareness, a symbolic interactionist view of play, early therapeutic recreation specialists, and the direction of commercialized play. (SM)

  18. Work hard, play hard

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Mark; Bradley, William

    2014-01-01

    Existing cultural and sociological research cites ‘play’ as a commonly used tactic for developing specific ‘practices’ (or behaviours) and knowledge, where it can then be offset by the more serious notion of ‘work’. Parodying the conceptual stringency of Modernism, both in approaches to painting and issues of authenticity in the age of mechanical (and digital) reproduction, the project took a collaborative methodology – working with abstract painter William Bradley. Art production can be...

  19. Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing

  20. [Play therapy--psychotherapy with play as the medium: II. New developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gontard, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2003-02-01

    A wide array of new forms and combinations of play therapy have been developed. The aim of the second part of this paper is to present an overview of these newer approaches, including: focussed therapies for specific disorders; behavioural approaches like the Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy and the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy; various combinations with family therapy; and therapies especially for preschool children like Filial Therapy, Developmental Play Therapy and Thera-play. Following a phase of experiments and combinations, the empirical evaluation of many play-therapy forms is needed. Especially questions of the differential indication of specific play-therapies and their effectiveness in the therapeutical practice need to be studied.

  1. Behavioural research on human working memory: mixing qualitative and quantitative methods (Investigación conductual sobre memoria de trabajo: Integrando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Bacigalupe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The long lasting opposition between qualitative and quantitative methods for studying behaviour has been overridden by interdisciplinary work in which methods can be combined to approach animal and human behaviour, thus contributing to drawing rigorous and useful conclusions. We show an example of this by combining a quasi-experimental design and descriptive methods to study working memory for the resolution of a spatial problem task (the Tower of Hanoi in a neuropsychiatric hospital inpatient with amnesia and executive deficits. Results from the quasi-experiment showed that the patient acquired strategies to solve the task with a high level of efficiency (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Qualitatively speaking, the patient developed more than one strategy to solve the problem, which indicates the presence of learning based on working memory. In the light of these findings, we discuss issues of mixed methods research and suggest the importance of developing mixed methods to study behaviour. RESUMEN: La oposición duradera entre métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos para estudiar el comportamiento ha sido anulada por el trabajo interdisciplinario en que los métodos pueden combinarse para enfocar el comportamiento humano y animal, contribuyendo así a obtener conclusiones útiles y rigurosas. Se presenta una muestra, combinando métodos descriptivos y un diseño cuasiexperimental para estudiar la memoria de trabajo en la resolución de una tarea de problema espacial (la Torre de Hanoi, en un paciente internado en un hospital neuropsiquiátrico con amnesia y déficit ejecutivo. Resultados del cuasiexperimento demostraron que el paciente adquirió estrategias para resolver la tarea con un alto nivel de eficiencia (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Cualitativamente el paciente desarrolló más de una estrategia para resolver el problema, lo cual indica la presencia de aprendizaje basado en memoria de trabajo. A la luz de estos resultados, se discuten m

  2. Behavioural syndromes differ predictably between 12 populations of three-spined stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Wright, Jonathan; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Thomas, Dawn K.; Hickling, Rachael; Dawnay, Nick

    2007-01-01

    1. Animals often differ in suites of correlated behaviours, comparable with how humans differ in personality. Constraints on the architecture of behaviour have been invoked to explain why such 'behavioural syndromes' exist. From an adaptationist viewpoint, however, behavioural syndromes should

  3. Differential substrate behaviours of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide towards human glutathione transferase theta hGSTT1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, R; Wiebel, F A; Bolt, H M

    1999-11-01

    The transformation of ethylene oxide (EO), propylene oxide (PO) and 1-butylene oxide (1-BuO) by human glutathione transferase theta (hGSTT1-1) was studied comparatively using 'conjugator' (GSTT1 + individuals) erythrocyte lysates. The relative sequence of velocity of enzymic transformation was PO > EO > 1-BuO. The faster transformation of PO compared to EO was corroborated in studies with human and rat GSTT1-1 (hGSTT1-1 and rGSTT1-1, respectively) expressed by Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. This sequence of reactivities of homologous epoxides towards GSTT1-1 contrasts to the sequence observed in homologous alkyl halides (methyl bromide, MBr; ethyl bromide, EtBr; n-propyl bromide, PrBr) where the relative sequence MeBr > EtBr > PrBr is observed. The higher reactivity towards GSTT1-1 of propylene oxide compared to ethylene oxide is consistent with a higher chemical reactivity. This is corroborated by experimental data of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of a number of aliphatic epoxides, including ethylene oxide and propylene oxide and consistent with semi-empirical molecular orbital modelings.

  4. The chemical behaviour and ecological transfer in the human food chain of some radionuclides in aqueous ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnica, Gh.

    1980-01-01

    The aqueous ecosystem of the Danube has been investigated in the period of 1976-1979. Data on the ecological transfer of radionuclides in the human food chain made an estimation available on the risk of the affected population. In the assessment of population exposure, the internal radiation dose for a period of one year and the continuous external irradiation determined by TLD have been considered. - The results revealed very low Sr-90 and Cs-137 contents in the Danube water and in the drinking water. The radioactivity contents are higher in the sediment and in some biota than in the water. The H-3 content in the Danube water varies in a wider range and higher concentration was found in fish than in the water. Both the Danube sediment and the irrigated sandy soil contain very low concentrations of fission products. During 1976-1979, the radioiodine content in air, milk and cow thyroid around the 679-Km is continuously decreasing. - Based on the data obtained, the corresponding collective dose equivalent value was calculated and the risk on the health of the population was found to be very low from contamination during 1975-1978. The radioactivity concentration values in critical human food chain, however, are not negligible. (author)

  5. Behavioural design: A process for integrating behaviour change and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen

    2017-01-01

    Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....

  6. Measurement of Androgen and Estrogen Concentrations in Cord Blood: Accuracy, Biological Interpretation and Applications to Understanding Human Behavioural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P Hollier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no ‘gold standard’ approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and therefore surrogate markers of fetal hormone levels must be utilized. Umbilical cord blood can be readily obtained at birth and largely reflects fetal circulation in late gestation. This review examines the accuracy and biological interpretation of the measurement of androgens and estrogens in cord blood. The use of cord blood hormones to understand and investigate human development is then discussed.

  7. Extended prospect theory : Findings on choice behaviour from economics and the behavioural sciences and their relevance for travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to

  8. Communities of Play - a collective unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of play in organizations and its ability to create a community of play regarded as a group of people deeply engaged in play. The elaboration is based on an empirical study of adults playing in the Danish international toy company LEGO. The study confirms that play can...... support organizations in solving present day challenges, such as learning, communication, innovation and collaboration. But before talking about solving anything, this paper argues – primarily through the perspective of Gadamer – that it is equally intriguing to look into what play as a universal life....... By introducing the new term ‘community of play’ into the discussion of play among adults in organizational contexts, the paper tries to spark an existential inquiry into the more intangible and human aspects of organizations....

  9. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  10. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  11. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  12. Multiple scales modelling approaches to social interaction in crowd dynamics and crisis management. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucu, Dumitru

    2016-09-01

    In this comprehensive review concerning the modelling of human behaviours in crowd dynamics [3], the authors explore a wide range of mathematical approaches spanning over multiple scales that are suitable to describe emerging crowd behaviours in extreme situations. Focused on deciphering the key aspects leading to emerging crowd patterns evolutions in challenging times such as those requiring an evacuation on a complex venue, the authors address this complex dynamics at both microscale (individual level), mesoscale (probability distributions of interacting individuals), and macroscale (population level), ultimately aiming to gain valuable understanding and knowledge that would inform decision making in managing crisis situations.

  13. Human Avatars in Playful and Humorous Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Chung, WJ.; Sungsoo Shin, C.

    2016-01-01

    In future smart environments sensors and actuators know about the environment’s inhabitants and visitors. This knowledge allows them to predict and suggest activities and behavior and even to take care that certain activities and behavior are enforced on inhabitants and visitors. For example, in a

  14. The therapeutic power of play: examining the play of young children with leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, N; Howe, N

    2003-11-01

    The therapeutic function of play has been investigated in relation to recognized stressors such as hospitalization, illness and medical treatments for ill children. While medical treatments in the past 30 years have improved survival rates, children's psychological experiences and quality of life during and after their illness have received limited attention. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of play on 3- to 5-year-old children with leukaemia compared with a control group of healthy children. The participants with leukaemia (n = 11) were from the external oncology clinic of an urban children's hospital; control children (n = 11) attended a day care centre. Measures included children's experience of stress, social and cognitive play behaviours, and daily mood. A series of manova revealed that the children with leukaemia, compared with the control children, engaged in (a) significantly fewer total play behaviours, and in particular less (b) parallel, (c) group and (d) dramatic play. Pearson correlations revealed significant relationships between reports of 'being happy' and play only for children with leukaemia. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed a pattern of repetitive play activities week after week for children with leukaemia, but not controls. Findings are discussed in light of the theoretical and practical implications for children undergoing treatment for leukaemia.

  15. The Value of Play for Conflict Management: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Lyn; Blunt, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of a conflict management intervention in two secondary schools in post-apartheid South Africa. The feature of the intervention that we examine is the use of play as an educational strategy. The literature attests that play can facilitate change by allowing learners freedom to change their behaviour and opportunities to explore…

  16. Effects of electric fields on human mesenchymal stem cell behaviour and morphology using a novel multichannel device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, T A; Luckman, P S B; Frith, J E; Cooper-White, J J

    2015-06-01

    The intrinsic piezoelectric nature of collagenous-rich tissues, such as bone and cartilage, can result in the production of small, endogenous electric fields (EFs) during applied mechanical stresses. In vivo, these EFs may influence cell migration, a vital component of wound healing. As a result, the application of small external EFs to bone fractures and cutaneous wounds is actively practiced clinically. Due to the significant regenerative potential of stem cells in bone and cartilage healing, and their potential role in the observed improved healing in vivo post applied EFs, using a novel medium throughput device, we investigated the impacts of physiological and aphysiological EFs on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) for up to 15 hours. The applied EFs had significant impacts on hBM-MSC morphology and migration; cells displayed varying degrees of conversion to a highly elongated phenotype dependent on the EF strength, consistent perpendicular alignment to the EF vector, and definitive cathodal migration in response to EF strengths ≥0.5 V cm(-1), with the fastest migration speeds observed at between 1.7 and 3 V cm(-1). We observed variability in hBM-MSC donor-to-donor responses and overall tolerances to applied EFs. This study thus confirms hBM-MSCs are responsive to applied EFs, and their rate of migration towards the cathode is controllable depending on the EF strength, providing new insight into the physiology of hBM-MSCs and possibly a significant opportunity for the utilisation of EFs in directed scaffold colonisation in vitro for tissue engineering applications or in vivo post implantation.

  17. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults...

  18. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  19. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  20. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Life-skills of Children Under Difficult Circumstances: The. Case of Two ... Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-a standardized instrument) were obtained from 17 ... From a developmental point of view, play ... preventing mild problems becoming worse, .... records) and a socially withdrawn child-for example ...

  1. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  2. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  3. Still playing the game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Krueger, Norris

    2005-01-01

    This paper centres on the influence of human capital which constitutes the foundation of knowledge-based societies and bears on how entrepreneurs organize and manage new technology and knowledge-based ventures. It extends existing theory on human capital by suggesting that the choice of organizat......This paper centres on the influence of human capital which constitutes the foundation of knowledge-based societies and bears on how entrepreneurs organize and manage new technology and knowledge-based ventures. It extends existing theory on human capital by suggesting that the choice...... of organizational and leadership practices are influenced by one important type of human capital: namely socialization from being trained to compete in sports involving such factors as physical strength, speed, endurance, a competitive mind, strategizing and team spirit; all ingredients necessary in building a new...

  4. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Adita; Chandrashekaran, Shanti; Sharma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  5. Do behavioural insights matter for competition policy?

    OpenAIRE

    CIRIOLO Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural insights make use of behavioural economics and psychology to analyse how humans behave when adopting economic decisions. The use of behavioural insights to improve policy-making is becoming increasing popular all over the world. Pensions, taxes, unemployment, energy efficiency, adult education, charitable giving and, of course, competition policy have benefitted from the application of behavioural insights. Emanuele Ciriolo, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre, expl...

  6. Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, H G; Bakken, I J; Johansson, A; Götestam, K G; Øren, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Computer games are the most advanced form of gaming. For most people, the playing is an uncomplicated leisure activity; however, for a minority the gaming becomes excessive and is associated with negative consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate computer game-playing behaviour in the general adult Norwegian population, and to explore mental health problems and self-reported consequences of playing. The survey includes 3,405 adults 16 to 74 years old (Norway 2007, response rate 35.3%). Overall, 65.5% of the respondents reported having ever played computer games (16-29 years, 93.9%; 30-39 years, 85.0%; 40-59 years, 56.2%; 60-74 years, 25.7%). Among 2,170 players, 89.8% reported playing less than 1 hr. as a daily average over the last month, 5.0% played 1-2 hr. daily, 3.1% played 2-4 hr. daily, and 2.2% reported playing > 4 hr. daily. The strongest risk factor for playing > 4 hr. daily was being an online player, followed by male gender, and single marital status. Reported negative consequences of computer game playing increased strongly with average daily playing time. Furthermore, prevalence of self-reported sleeping problems, depression, suicide ideations, anxiety, obsessions/ compulsions, and alcohol/substance abuse increased with increasing playing time. This study showed that adult populations should also be included in research on computer game-playing behaviour and its consequences.

  7. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  8. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  9. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...... evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...

  10. Learning from the mistakes of others: How female elk (Cervus elaphus) adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurfjell, Henrik; Ciuti, Simone; Boyce, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i.e., human hunters. Using fine-scale satellite telemetry relocations, we tested whether differences in behaviour depending on age were due solely to selection pressure imposed by human hunters, meaning that females that were more cautious were more likely to survive and become older. Or whether learning also was involved, meaning that females adjusted their behaviour as they aged. Our results indicated that both human selection and learning contributed to the adoption of more cautious behavioural strategies in older females. Whereas human selection of behavioural traits has been shown in our previous research, we here provide evidence of additive learning processes being responsible for shaping the behaviour of individuals in this population. Female elk are indeed almost invulnerable to human hunters when older than 9-10 y.o., confirming that experience contributes to their survival. Female elk monitored in our study showed individually changing behaviours and clear adaptation as they aged, such as reduced movement rates (decreased likelihood of encountering human hunters), and increased use of secure areas (forest and steeper terrain), especially when close to roads. We also found that elk adjusted behaviours depending on the type of threat (bow and arrow vs. rifle hunters). This fine-tuning by elk to avoid hunters, rather than just

  11. Learning from the mistakes of others: How female elk (Cervus elaphus adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Thurfjell

    Full Text Available In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i.e., human hunters. Using fine-scale satellite telemetry relocations, we tested whether differences in behaviour depending on age were due solely to selection pressure imposed by human hunters, meaning that females that were more cautious were more likely to survive and become older. Or whether learning also was involved, meaning that females adjusted their behaviour as they aged. Our results indicated that both human selection and learning contributed to the adoption of more cautious behavioural strategies in older females. Whereas human selection of behavioural traits has been shown in our previous research, we here provide evidence of additive learning processes being responsible for shaping the behaviour of individuals in this population. Female elk are indeed almost invulnerable to human hunters when older than 9-10 y.o., confirming that experience contributes to their survival. Female elk monitored in our study showed individually changing behaviours and clear adaptation as they aged, such as reduced movement rates (decreased likelihood of encountering human hunters, and increased use of secure areas (forest and steeper terrain, especially when close to roads. We also found that elk adjusted behaviours depending on the type of threat (bow and arrow vs. rifle hunters. This fine-tuning by elk to avoid hunters, rather

  12. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  13. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  14. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Spruit, Berry M; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2009-01-01

    similarities with behavioural disorders present in other bird species. Feather pecking (FP) in poultry is of particular interest in this case. Because of the major impacts on welfare and economy, the disorder has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that genetic, socio-environmental...... and neurobiological factors all play a role in FP. Several theories have been postulated about the different motivational systems that affect the behaviour, of which (redirected) foraging appears to be the most generally accepted. FDB may result from similar motivations and underlying mechanisms, but has also been......Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately...

  15. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  16. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  17. 'Goats that stare at men': dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to human head orientation, but do not spontaneously use head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, comparative research on the mechanisms and species-specific adaptive values of attributing attentive states and using communicative cues has gained increased interest, particularly in non-human primates, birds, and dogs. Here, we investigate these phenomena in a farm animal species, the dwarf goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). In the first experiment, we investigated the effects of different human head and body orientations, as well as human experimenter presence/absence, on the behaviour of goats in a food-anticipating paradigm. Over a 30-s interval, the experimenter engaged in one of four different postures or behaviours (head and body towards the subject-'Control', head to the side, head and body away from the subject, or leaving the room) before delivering a reward. We found that the level of subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the control condition and decreased with a decreasing level of attention paid to the subject by the experimenter. Additionally, goats 'stared' (i.e. stood alert) at the experimental set-up for significantly more time when the experimenter was present but paid less attention to the subject ('Head' and 'Back' condition) than in the 'Control' and 'Out' conditions. In a second experiment, the experimenter provided different human-given cues that indicated the location of a hidden food reward in a two-way object choice task. Goats were able to use both 'Touch' and 'Point' cues to infer the correct location of the reward but did not perform above the level expected by chance in the 'Head only' condition. We conclude that goats are able to differentiate among different body postures of a human, including head orientation; however, despite their success at using multiple physical human cues, they fail to spontaneously use human head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

  18. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2011-01-01

    participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However......, there are also certain barriers, when seniors interact with the system. Speed and complexity of what is displayed on the screen are examples of barriers that affect the seniors’ satisfactory use of the technology. Based on these findings, we discuss how physical rehabilitation may be facilitated by computer...

  19. Playing Second Fiddle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book poses the inconvenient question whether he European Union has become a secondary actor on the global arena, or whether it has perhaps for a long time already been playing second fiddle without wishing to admit it. What indicators would today, after a prolonged economic and socio......-political crisis in the Eurozone, imply that the EU can challenge the United States, China, or for that matter Russia, and take a position as a true global powerhouse? Has the train already left the station for what is still a very unique experiment, the European Union? Four different visions of Europes’s future...

  20. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.