WorldWideScience

Sample records for human behavioral studies

  1. Behavioral responses to epidemics in an online experiment: using virtual diseases to study human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a 'self-protection fatigue' effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time.

  2. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  3. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  4. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  5. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived......, thereby implying that interactions between spreading processes are driving forces of attention dynamics. Overall, the thesis contributes to a quantitative understanding of a wide range of different human behaviors by applying mathematical modeling to behavioral data. There can be no doubt......During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...

  6. A Comparative Study of Two Different Teaching and Curricular Agreements in Human Behavior and Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, William C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The use of social work faculty to teach human behavior and social environment content to undergraduate social work students vs using faculty from other departments is examined in this research study. The data suggest there were no significant differences between groups of students. (Author/MLW)

  7. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  8. Using ontologies to model human navigation behavior in information networks: A study based on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Daniel; Strohmaier, Markus; Helic, Denis; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    The need to examine the behavior of different user groups is a fundamental requirement when building information systems. In this paper, we present Ontology-based Decentralized Search (OBDS), a novel method to model the navigation behavior of users equipped with different types of background knowledge. Ontology-based Decentralized Search combines decentralized search, an established method for navigation in social networks, and ontologies to model navigation behavior in information networks. The method uses ontologies as an explicit representation of background knowledge to inform the navigation process and guide it towards navigation targets. By using different ontologies, users equipped with different types of background knowledge can be represented. We demonstrate our method using four biomedical ontologies and their associated Wikipedia articles. We compare our simulation results with base line approaches and with results obtained from a user study. We find that our method produces click paths that have properties similar to those originating from human navigators. The results suggest that our method can be used to model human navigation behavior in systems that are based on information networks, such as Wikipedia. This paper makes the following contributions: (i) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the utility of ontologies in modeling human navigation and (ii) it yields new insights and understanding about the mechanisms of human navigation in information networks.

  9. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  10. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinects and Human Kinetics: A New Approach for Studying Crowd Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Seer, Stefan; Ratti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Modeling crowd behavior relies on accurate data of pedestrian movements at a high level of detail. Imaging sensors such as cameras provide a good basis for capturing such detailed pedestrian motion data. However, currently available computer vision technologies, when applied to conventional video footage, still cannot automatically unveil accurate motions of groups of people or crowds from the image sequences. We present a novel data collection approach for studying crowd behavior which uses the increasingly popular low-cost sensor Microsoft Kinect. The Kinect captures both standard camera data and a three-dimensional depth map. Our human detection and tracking algorithm is based on agglomerative clustering of depth data captured from an elevated view - in contrast to the lateral view used for gesture recognition in Kinect gaming applications. Our approach transforms local Kinect 3D data to a common world coordinate system in order to stitch together human trajectories from multiple Kinects, which allows for ...

  12. Comparative Study of the Critical Chain and PERT Planning Methods: No Bad Human Behaviors Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM method has received a lot of attention and hundreds of successful cases have also been reported and all claims that it is possible to rapidly achieve highly reliable on-time delivery (OTD with short project lead time (PLT in multi-project environment. The main reason that CCPM can achieve highly reliable OTD and short PLT in multi-project environment can be contributed to that CCPM makes good use of safety time imbedded in tasks by two changes: logistical change and bad human behaviors change. However, if no bad human behaviors involved, does the mere emphasis on logistical change contributed to the success of project time reduction and OTD improvement? This is the key question still remained. A comparative study of the critical chain and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT planning methods, no bad human behaviors involved, was performed in this study. The simulation results showed that in terms of mean project time, CCPM is no significantly better than PERT. However, in terms of plan reliability, CCPM achieve higher reliable than PERT did and this is the contribution of CCPM logistical change.

  13. Choice, Communication, and Conflict. A System's Approach to the Study of Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackoff, Russell L.

    This book presents a teleological analysis of the concepts of human behavior. Through distinctions and definitions, a model or system is developed, upon which all aspects of behavior are interrelated. The model of choice or purposeful state is discussed with its underlying concepts. Human communication and feeling, and cooperation and conflict…

  14. Motivational Interviewing: A Theoretical Framework for the Study of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine van Wormer

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of motivational interviewing stages of change model. Although rarely included in textbooks on human behavior and the social environment, this model has much to teach us about that aspect of human behavior most germane to social work practice—personal motivation for change of behaviors that are dysfunctional. The basic concepts that underlie motivational interviewing are derived from empirically-based principles from the science of social psychology. T...

  15. Superstitious behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K

    1987-05-01

    Twenty undergraduate students were exposed to single response-independent schedules of reinforcer presentation, fixed-time or variable-time, each with values of 30 and 60 s. The reinforcer was a point on a counter accompanied by a red lamp and a brief buzzer. Three color signals were presented, without consistent relation to reinforcer or to the subjects' behavior. Three large levers were available, but the subjects were not asked to perform any particular behavior. Three of the 20 subjects developed persistent superstitious behavior. One engaged in a pattern of lever-pulling responses that consisted of long pulls after a few short pulls; the second touched many things in the experimental booth; the third showed biased responding called sensory superstition. However, most subjects did not show consistent superstitious behavior. Reinforcers can operate effectively on human behavior even in the absence of a response-reinforcer contingency and can, in some cases, shape stable superstitious patterns. However, superstitious behavior is not a consistent outcome of exposure of human subjects to response-independent reinforcer deliveries.

  16. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior.

  17. Wearable wireless sensor platform for studying autonomic activity and social behavior in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Amemori, Ken-ichi; Goodwin, Matthew; Graybiel, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    A portable system has been designed to enable remote monitoring of autonomic nervous system output in non-human primates for the purpose of studying neural function related to social behavior over extended periods of time in an ambulatory setting. In contrast to prior systems which only measure heart activity, are restricted to a constrained laboratory setting, or require surgical attachment, our system is comprised of a multi-sensor self-contained wearable vest that can easily be transferred from one subject to another. The vest contains a small detachable low-power electronic sensor module for measuring electrodermal activity (EDA), electrocardiography (ECG), 3-axis acceleration, and temperature. The wireless transmission is implemented using a standard Bluetooth protocol and a mobile phone, which enables freedom of movement for the researcher as well as for the test subject. A custom Android software application was created on the mobile phone for viewing and recording live data as well as creating annotations. Data from up to seven monkeys can be recorded simultaneously using the mobile phone, with the option of real-time upload to a remote web server. Sample data are presented from two rhesus macaque monkeys showing stimulus-induced response in the laboratory as well as long-term ambulatory data collected in a large monkey cage. This system enables new possibilities for studying underlying mechanisms between autonomic brain function and social behavior with connection to human research in areas such as autism, substance abuse, and mood disorders.

  18. A study on how organizational citizenship behavior influences on human resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa mahouti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been some evidences to believe that organizational citizenship behavior (OCB could significantly influence on the success of organizations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of OCB on human resource management. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some 260 experts who worked for an Iranian auto industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, examines three hypotheses including the relationship between conscientiousness and information quality, courtesy and work efficiency and between civic virtue and work efficiency. Cronbach alphas for Courtesy, Civic virtue and Information Quality are calculated as 0.75, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed existence of positive and meaningful relationships among various components of the survey, which confirms all three hypotheses of the survey.

  19. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  20. Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) applied to the study of mechanical behavior of human jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan F.; Moreno de las Cuevas, Vincente; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Suarez, David; Fernandez, Paula; Gallas, Mercedes; Blanchard, Alain

    1996-01-01

    The study of the mechanical behavior of the human jaw during chewing is helpful in several specific medical fields that cover the maxillo-facial area. In this work, electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been applied to study dead jaw bones under external stress which simulates the deformations induced during chewing. Fringes obtained after subtraction of two images of the jaw, the image of the relaxed jaw and that of the jaw under stress, give us information about the most stressed zones. The interferometric analysis proposed here is attractive as it can be done in real time with the jaw under progressive stress. Image processing can be applied for improving the quality of fringes. This research can be of help in orthognathic surgery, for example in diagnosis and treatment of fractured jaws, in oral surgery, and in orthodontics because it would help us to know the stress dispersion when we insert an osseointegrated implant or place an orthodontic appliance, respectively. Studying fragments of human jaw some results about its elasticity and flexibility were obtained.

  1. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given.

  2. The phase behavior study of human antibody solution using multi-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George B.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2016-11-01

    Phase transformation in antibody solutions is of growing interest in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Recent experimental studies have shown that, as in near-spherical proteins, antibodies can undergo a liquid-liquid phase separation under conditions metastable with respect to crystallization. However, the phase diagram of the Y-shaped antibodies exhibits unique features that differ substantially from those of spherical proteins. Specifically, antibody solutions have an exceptionally low critical volume fraction (CVF) and a broader and more asymmetric liquid-liquid coexistence curve than those of spherical proteins. Using molecular dynamics simulation on a series of trimetric Y-shaped coarse-grained models, we investigate the phase behavior of antibody solutions and compare the results with the experimental phase diagram of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), one of the most common Y-shape typical of antibody molecules. With the fitted size of spheres, our simulation reproduces both the low CVF and the asymmetric shape of the experimental coexistence curve of IgG antibodies. The broadness of the coexistence curve can be attributed to the anisotropic nature of the inter-protein interaction. In addition, the repulsion between the inner parts of the spherical domains of IgG dramatically expands the coexistence region in the scaled phase diagram, while the hinge length has only a minor effect on the CVF and the overall shape of the coexistence curve. We thus propose a seven-site model with empirical parameters characterizing the exclusion volume and the hinge length of the IgG molecules, which provides a base for simulation studies of the phase behavior of IgG antibodies.

  3. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caselli

    Full Text Available The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b, in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  4. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Luana; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b), in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  5. Human Behavior from a Chronobiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Carol Noll

    1980-01-01

    The rhythmic patterning of man's biochemical, physiological, and psychological behavior and the temporal relationships among various functions are the province of chronobiology. Citing animal and human studies, the author documents the progress of this new science and poses complex questions that it may answer about human behavior. (Editor/SJL)

  6. Diversity in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    As befitting an evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior, the papers in this special issue of Human Nature cover a diversity of topics in modern and traditional societies. They include the goals of hunting in foraging societies, social bias, cooperative breeding, the impact of war on women, leadership, and social mobility. In combination these contributions demonstrate the utility of selectionist's thinking on a wide variety of topics. While many of the contributions employ standard evolutionary biological approaches such as kin selection, cooperative breeding and the Trivers-Willard model, others examine important human issues such as the problems of trust, the cost of war to women, the characteristics of leaders, and what might be called honest or rule-bound fights. One striking feature of many of the contributions is a novel reexamination of traditional research questions from an evolutionary perspective.

  7. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  8. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  9. The development of human behavior analysis techniques - A study on knowledge representation methods for operator cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Tack [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The main objective of this project is modeling of human operator in a main control room of Nuclear Power Plant. For this purpose, we carried out research on knowledge representation and inference method based on Rasmussen`s decision ladder structure. And we have developed SACOM(Simulation= Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) using G2 shell on Sun workstations. SACOM consists of Operator Model, Interaction Analyzer, Situation Generator. Cognitive model aims to build a more detailed model of human operators in an effective way. SACOM is designed to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators more easily. The followings are main research topics carried out this year. First, in order to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators, more detailed scenarios are constructed. And, knowledge representation and inference methods are developed to support the scenarios. Second, meta knowledge structures are studied to support human operators 4 types of diagnoses. This work includes a study on meta and scheduler knowledge structures for generate-and-test, topographic, decision tree and case-based approaches. Third, domain knowledge structure are improved to support meta knowledge. Especially, domain knowledge structures are developed to model topographic diagnosis model. Fourth, more applicable interaction analyzer and situation generator are designed and implemented. The new version is implemented in G2 on Sun workstations. 35 refs., 49 figs. (author)

  10. Manganese Neurotoxicity: New Perspectives from Behavioral, Neuroimaging, and Neuropathological Studies in Humans and Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas R Guilarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential metal and has important physiological functions for human health. However, exposure to excess levels of Mn in occupational settings or from environmental sources has been associated with a neurological syndrome comprising cognitive deficits, neuropsychological abnormalities and parkinsonism. Historically, studies on the effects of Mn in humans and experimental animals have been concerned with effects on the basal ganglia and the dopaminergic system as it relates to movement abnormalities. However, emerging studies are beginning to provide significant evidence of Mn effects on cortical structures and cognitive function at lower levels than previously recognized. This review advances new knowledge of putative mechanisms by which exposure to excess levels of Mn alters neurobiological systems and produces neurological deficits not only in the basal ganglia but also in the cerebral cortex. The emerging evidence suggests that working memory is significantly affected by chronic Mn exposure and this may be mediated by alterations in brain structures associated with the working memory network including the caudate nucleus in the striatum, frontal cortex and parietal cortex. Dysregulation of the dopaminergic system may play an important role in both the movement abnormalities as well as the neuropsychiatric and cognitive function deficits that have been described in humans and non-human primates exposed to Mn.

  11. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equa...

  12. Digital Libraries for Humanities Scholars: An empirical study of users’ information behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available While user-centered design has been emphasized, much of the discussion of digital libraries is concerned about choosing Web-based technology to create a digitized collection and establish related infrastructure. An investigation into the potential users of a community-based digital library suggests that some critical social, ecological and cultural aspects of information-related behavior of those users need to be taken into account for a digital library to accomplish its goals. This paper reports on an empirical study of scholarly communication among users of the Taiwan Historical Archives and how those scholars and researchers find and use information. Several design principles are suggested based on the findings of such user study.[Article content in Chinese

  13. Human Behaviors with Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Podcasts, i.e. digital media files (audio and video) distributed over the Internet, have become particularly popular since the introduction of podcasting in 2004. Podcasts are bringing changes to patterns of media production and consumption, and indeed to the way Internet users communicate. Many...... podcasts repurpose content, in some cases adding a play-on-demand dimension to broadcast media. But most podcast productions introduce original content on a myriad of subjects. The most widespread uses of podcasts, however, are within education, professional communication, and individual self......-expression. Podcasts are normally dealt with in the context of established research disciplines such as media studies, social studies, and educational studies. Schools have yet to develop in the research on podcasts. But it is possible to identify a number of directions and issues within the disciplines where podcasts...

  14. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Nahum

    Full Text Available Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13 and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  15. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Louis; Gabriel, Damien; Schnider, Armin

    2011-01-27

    Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13) and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  16. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  17. Structure and behavior of human α-thrombin upon ligand recognition: thermodynamic and molecular dynamics studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian de Almeira Silva

    Full Text Available Thrombin is a serine proteinase that plays a fundamental role in coagulation. In this study, we address the effects of ligand site recognition by alpha-thrombin on conformation and energetics in solution. Active site occupation induces large changes in secondary structure content in thrombin as shown by circular dichroism. Thrombin-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK exhibits enhanced equilibrium and kinetic stability compared to free thrombin, whose difference is rooted in the unfolding step. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS measurements in solution reveal an overall similarity in the molecular envelope of thrombin and thrombin-PPACK, which differs from the crystal structure of thrombin. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with thrombin lead to different conformations than the one observed in the crystal structure. These data shed light on the diversity of thrombin conformers not previously observed in crystal structures with distinguished catalytic and conformational behaviors, which might have direct implications on novel strategies to design direct thrombin inhibitors.

  18. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  19. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  20. Fractal Analysis on Human Behaviors Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Zha, Yi-Long

    2010-01-01

    The study of human dynamics has attracted much interest from many fields recently. In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The Hurst exponents and length of non-periodic cycles calculated through Rescaled Range Analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors is fractal with long-range correlation. Then the time series are converted to complex networks by visibility graph algorithm. The topological properties of the networks, such as scale-free property, small-world effect and hierarchical structure imply that close relationships exist between the amounts of repetitious actions performed by people during certain periods of time, especially for some important days. Finally, the networks obtained are verified to be not fractal and self-similar using box-counting method. Our work implies the intrinsic regularity shown in human collective repetitious behaviors.

  1. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue.

  3. Women's sexual behavior. Population-based study among 65,000 women from four Nordic countries before introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Munk, Christian; Sparen, Par

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is of public health interest because of the association with reproductive health and sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus, which is the causal factor of cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to describe patterns in women's sexual behavior in four Nordic...

  4. Nonlinear dynamics in human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huys, Raoul [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Jirsa, Viktor K. (eds.) [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Humans engage in a seemingly endless variety of different behaviors, of which some are found across species, while others are conceived of as typically human. Most generally, behavior comes about through the interplay of various constraints - informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, and so on - operating at multiple scales in space and time. Over the years, consensus has grown in the research community that, rather than investigating behavior only from bottom up, it may be also well understood in terms of concepts and laws on the phenomenological level. Such top down approach is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization using tools from nonlinear dynamics. The present compendium brings together scientists from all over the world that have contributed to the development of their respective fields departing from this background. It provides an introduction to deterministic as well as stochastic dynamical systems and contains applications to motor control and coordination, visual perception and illusion, as well as auditory perception in the context of speech and music. (orig.)

  5. On our best behavior: optimality models in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses problems associated with the use of optimality models in human behavioral ecology. Optimality models are used in both human and non-human animal behavioral ecology to test hypotheses about the conditions generating and maintaining behavioral strategies in populations via natural selection. The way optimality models are currently used in behavioral ecology faces significant problems, which are exacerbated by employing the so-called 'phenotypic gambit': that is, the bet that the psychological and inheritance mechanisms responsible for behavioral strategies will be straightforward. I argue that each of several different possible ways we might interpret how optimality models are being used for humans face similar and additional problems. I suggest some ways in which human behavioral ecologists might adjust how they employ optimality models; in particular, I urge the abandonment of the phenotypic gambit in the human case.

  6. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of

  7. Circumcision and sexual behavior: factors independently associated with human papillomavirus detection among men in the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lazcano, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa Lina; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2009-03-15

    There is growing interest in understanding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related disease among men. To date there have been numerous studies reporting HPV DNA prevalence among men from several different countries, however, few have incorporated multivariable analyses to determine factors independently associated with male HPV detection. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors independently associated with HPV detection in men ages 18-70 years residing in Brazil (n = 343), Mexico (n = 312), and the United States (US) (n = 333). In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum, we evaluated factors associated with any, oncogenic, and nononcogenic HPV infections. In multivariable analyses, detection of any HPV infection was significantly associated with reported race of Asian/Pacific Islander, lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. Oncogenic HPV detection was independently associated with lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. NonOncogenic HPV infection was independently associated with lifetime number of sexual partners. Circumcision, assessed by clinical examination, was associated with reduced risk of HPV detection across all categories of HPV evaluated. HPV detection in men in the current study was strongly related to sexual behavior and circumcision status. Interventions such as circumcision may provide a low-cost method to reduce HPV infection.

  8. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behaviors in Pigs and its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Genome Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behaviors inDanish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behaviors in humans.Individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of dailyvisits to feeder (NVD), time spent to eat...... chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD (p =9.6E-07). Thirty six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs havepreviously been reported...... for geneticimprovement of pig feed efficiency. The results of pig-human comparative genemapping revealed some important genomic regions and/or genes on the humangenome that may influence eating behavior in human and consequently affect thedevelopment of obesity and metabolic syndromes. This is the first...

  10. Human Behavior Cognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kaistinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on sensing context, modeling human behavior and developing a new architecture for a cognitive phone platform. We combine the latest positioning technologies and phone sensors to capture human movements in natural environments and use the movements to study human behavior. Contexts in this research are abstracted as a Context Pyramid which includes six levels: Raw Sensor Data, Physical Parameter, Features/Patterns, Simple Contextual Descriptors, Activity-Level Descriptors, and Rich Context. To achieve implementation of the Context Pyramid on a cognitive phone, three key technologies are utilized: ubiquitous positioning, motion recognition, and human behavior modeling. Preliminary tests indicate that we have successfully achieved the Activity-Level Descriptors level with our LoMoCo (Location-Motion-Context model. Location accuracy of the proposed solution is up to 1.9 meters in corridor environments and 3.5 meters in open spaces. Test results also indicate that the motion states are recognized with an accuracy rate up to 92.9% using a Least Square-Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM classifier.

  11. Human behavior representation of military teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual structure for the behaviors of artificial intelligence agents, with emphasis on creating teamwork through individual behaviors. The goal is to set up a framework which enables teams of simulation agents to behave more realistically. Better team behavior can lend a higher fidelity of human behavior representation in a simulation, as well as provide opportunities to experiment with the factors that create teamwork. The framework divides agent behaviors into three...

  12. Clinical science and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J

    2001-09-01

    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors.

  13. Does the Macaque Monkey Provide a Good Model for Studying Human Executive Control? A Comparative Behavioral Study of Task Switching

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be gre...

  14. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  15. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogang; CHEN; Dehu; ZHOU; Hui; LIN

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior,company and government policy,it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  18. Human behavior in online social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.

    2009-06-01

    We present and study data concerning human behavior in four online social systems: (i) an Internet community of friends of over 107 people, (ii) a music community website with over 106 users, (iii) a gamers’ community server with over 5 × 106 users and (iv) a booklovers’ website with over 2.5 × 105 users. The purpose of those systems is different; however, their properties are very similar. We have found that the distribution of human activity (e.g., the sum of books read or songs played) has the form of a power law. Moreover, the relationship between human activity and time has a power-law form, too. We present a simple interest-driven model of the evolution of such systems which explains the emergence of two scaling regimes.

  19. How ionic strength affects the conformational behavior of human and rat beta amyloids--a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Kříž

    Full Text Available Progressive cerebral deposition of amyloid beta occurs in Alzheimers disease and during the aging of certain mammals (human, monkey, dog, bear, cow, cat but not others (rat, mouse. It is possibly due to different amino acid sequences at positions 5, 10 and 13. To address this issue, we performed series of 100 ns long trajectories (each trajectory was run twice with different initial velocity distribution on amyloid beta (1-42 with the human and rat amino acid sequence in three different environments: water with only counter ions, water with NaCl at a concentration of 0.15 M as a model of intracellular Na(+ concentration at steady state, and water with NaCl at a concentration of 0.30 M as a model of intracellular Na(+ concentration under stimulated conditions. We analyzed secondary structure stability, internal hydrogen bonds, and residual fluctuation. It was observed that the change in ionic strength affects the stability of internal hydrogen bonds. Increasing the ionic strength increases atomic fluctuation in the hydrophobic core of the human amyloid, and decreases the atomic fluctuation in the case of rat amyloid. The secondary structure analyses show a stable α-helix part between residues 10 and 20. However, C-terminus of investigated amyloids is much more flexible showing no stable secondary structure elements. Increasing ionic strength of the solvent leads to decreasing stability of the secondary structural elements. The difference in conformational behavior of the three amino acids at position 5, 10 and 13 for human and rat amyloids significantly changes the conformational behavior of the whole peptide.

  20. Middle Egypt in prehistory: A search for the origins of modern human behavior and human dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, D.; McPherron, S.; Dibble, H.; Soressi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the evolution of human behavior and dispersal in Egypt. Examination on the genetic relationship of groups of people living in the area; Importance of the study of stone artifacts the explain the origins of human behavior; Assumption on the routes taken by humans to disperse in the area.

  1. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  2. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Kevin P; Orr, Jeb S

    2009-02-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Low SNS activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. In contrast, SNS activation is characteristic of a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that occur more frequently in obese individuals. Until recently, the relation between obesity and SNS behavior has been controversial because previous approaches for assessing SNS activity in humans have produced inconsistent findings. Beginning in the early 1990s, many studies using state of the art neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques have provided important insight. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the region specific alterations in SNS behavior in human obesity. We will discuss findings from our own laboratory which implicate visceral fat as an important depot linking obesity with skeletal muscle SNS activation. The influence of weight change on SNS behavior and the potential mechanisms and consequences of region specific SNS activation in obesity will also be considered.

  3. Driving Human Motor Cortical Oscillations Leads to Behaviorally Relevant Changes in Local GABAA Inhibition: A tACS-TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena; Hinson, Emily; van Ede, Freek; Pogosyan, Alek; Guerra, Andrea; Quinn, Andrew; Brown, Peter; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-04-26

    Beta and gamma oscillations are the dominant oscillatory activity in the human motor cortex (M1). However, their physiological basis and precise functional significance remain poorly understood. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the physiological basis and behavioral relevance of driving beta and gamma oscillatory activity in the human M1 using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). tACS was applied using a sham-controlled crossover design at individualized intensity for 20 min and TMS was performed at rest (before, during, and after tACS) and during movement preparation (before and after tACS). We demonstrated that driving gamma frequency oscillations using tACS led to a significant, duration-dependent decrease in local resting-state GABAA inhibition, as quantified by short interval intracortical inhibition. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with the magnitude of GABAA decrease during movement preparation, when gamma activity in motor circuitry is known to increase. In addition, gamma tACS-induced change in GABAA inhibition was closely related to performance in a motor learning task such that subjects who demonstrated a greater increase in GABAA inhibition also showed faster short-term learning. The findings presented here contribute to our understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motor rhythms and suggest that tACS may have similar physiological effects to endogenously driven local oscillatory activity. Moreover, the ability to modulate local interneuronal circuits by tACS in a behaviorally relevant manner provides a basis for tACS as a putative therapeutic intervention.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Gamma oscillations have a vital role in motor control. Using a combined tACS-TMS approach, we demonstrate that driving gamma frequency oscillations modulates GABAA inhibition in the human motor cortex. Moreover, there is a clear relationship between the change in magnitude of GABAA inhibition induced

  4. Recognition of 48 Human Behaviors from Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Bouma, H.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Broek, S.P. van den; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a system that recognizes 48 human behaviors from video. The essential elements are (i) inference of the actors in the scene, (ii) assessment of event-related properties of actors and between actors, (iii) exploiting the event properties to recognize the behaviors. The performance o

  5. Risky sexual behavior related to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among seasonal labor migrants: A cross-sectional study from far Western Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global public health problem; enormously affecting the national economy, social development and human rights with posing a challenge to human civilization. Seasonal labor migrants are the most at risk population for HIV/AIDS and their risky sexual behaviors exacerbate its transmission. The aim of the study was to explore the HIV/AIDS related sexual behavior of migrant workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 372 migrant workers backing to Nepal from Banbasa border of India-Nepal during August-October 2010. Migrants having permanent residents of far western region, Nepal were individually contacted at the entry point of Nepal and interviewed in a confidential environment after obtaining informed consent. Data were analysed using the SPSS (16.0 version. Descriptive and inferencial statistics were applied considering P 3 sex partners. Most (82.25% had vaginal sex and 43.54% reported the consistent use of condom. About 64.76% had sex after drinking alcohol. Age, education, monthly income and nature of works were significant with risky behaviors. Conclusion: Inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners and sex after drinking alcohol have a cumulative effect on the risk of HIV transmission.

  6. How to learn about teaching: An evolutionary framework for the study of teaching behavior in humans and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Michelle Ann

    2015-01-01

    The human species is more reliant on cultural adaptation than any other species, but it is unclear how observational learning can give rise to the faithful transmission of cultural adaptations. One possibility is that teaching facilitates accurate social transmission by narrowing the range of inferences that learners make. However, there is wide disagreement about how to define teaching, and how to interpret the empirical evidence for teaching across cultures and species. In this article I argue that disputes about the nature and prevalence of teaching across human societies and nonhuman animals are based on a number of deep-rooted theoretical differences between fields, as well as on important differences in how teaching is defined. To reconcile these disparate bodies of research, I review the three major approaches to the study of teaching - mentalistic, culture-based, and functionalist - and outline the research questions about teaching that each addresses. I then argue for a new, integrated framework that differentiates between teaching types according to the specific adaptive problems that each type solves, and apply this framework to restructure current empirical evidence on teaching in humans and nonhuman animals. This integrative framework generates novel insights, with broad implications for the study of the evolution of teaching, including the roles of cognitive constraints and cooperative dilemmas in how and when teaching evolves. Finally, I propose an explanation for why some types of teaching are uniquely human, and discuss new directions for research motivated by this framework.

  7. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  8. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  9. Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therman, E.; Susman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

  10. No difference in sexual behavior of adolescent girls following Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: a case study two districts in Uganda; Nakasongola and Luwero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujo, Judith Caroline; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Kiguli, Sarah; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-02-12

    Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) before sexual debut has been recommended by WHO as a primary prevention strategy against cervical cancer. In Uganda, vaccination against HPV started as a demonstration project among young girls in Nakasongola; and Ibanda districts. Studies have suggested that vaccination against HPV could result in risky sexual behavior and increase the risk of early sexual debut.This study was done to compare the sexual behavior of HPV vaccinated and non vaccinated adolescent girls in two neighboring districts in Uganda; and to assess whether HPV vaccination had any influence on sexual behavior of vaccinated adolescent girls. This was an unmatched comparative study, which used both qualitative and quantitative study methods. It was carried out among 400 primary school girls aged 12 to 15 years in the districts of Nakasongola (vaccinated) and Luwero (non vaccinated). Quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The main outcome measure was the number of sexually active girls in each group. Of the 400 girls, 8 volunteered information that they were sexually active, 5(2.5%) from Luwero (non vaccinated) and 3 (1.5%) from Nakasongola (vaccinated), but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. HPV vaccination was not significantly associated with being sexually active. There was no significant difference in sexual behavior between vaccinated and non vaccinated girls.

  11. Establishment of an In vitro System to Study Intracellular Behavior of Candida glabrata in Human THP-1 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Maruti Nandan; Borah, Sapan; Gorityala, Neelima; Kaur, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    A cell culture model system, if a close mimic of host environmental conditions, can serve as an inexpensive, reproducible and easily manipulatable alternative to animal model systems for the study of a specific step of microbial pathogen infection. A human monocytic cell line THP-1 which, upon phorbol ester treatment, is differentiated into macrophages, has previously been used to study virulence strategies of many intracellular pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we discuss a protocol to enact an in vitro cell culture model system using THP-1 macrophages to delineate the interaction of an opportunistic human yeast pathogen Candida glabrata with host phagocytic cells. This model system is simple, fast, amenable to high-throughput mutant screens, and requires no sophisticated equipment. A typical THP-1 macrophage infection experiment takes approximately 24 hr with an additional 24-48 hr to allow recovered intracellular yeast to grow on rich medium for colony forming unit-based viability analysis. Like other in vitro model systems, a possible limitation of this approach is difficulty in extrapolating the results obtained to a highly complex immune cell circuitry existing in the human host. However, despite this, the current protocol is very useful to elucidate the strategies that a fungal pathogen may employ to evade/counteract antimicrobial response and survive, adapt, and proliferate in the nutrient-poor environment of host immune cells. PMID:24378622

  12. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of man-enviro

  13. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  14. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  15. Modeling for the Dynamics of Human Innovative Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining with the evolutionary games and information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples' daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on "innovative centers", and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spacial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provide a basic framework on the study of the issue relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  16. Behavioral Entropy in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Department 2 Erwin R. Boer Consulting Brigham Young University San Diego, CA, USA Provo, UT, USA ABSTRACT The ability to quickly and accurately measure...AND ADDRESS(ES) Brigham Young University,Computer Science Department,33361 Talmage Building,Provo,UT,84602 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...in- teraction. To paraphrase Wiener, people work to re- duce entropy so skilled behavior minimizes entropy. This manifests itself in human behavior

  17. Studies of Sociosexual Interactions in Rats in an Externally Valid Procedure: Are They Relevant for Understanding Human Sexual Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When a prolonged observation of groups of rats in a seminatural environment is used as testing procedure, different behavioral patterns are shown compared with what observed in a pair housed in a small cage. Males and females copulate simultaneously, they show a promiscuously and random copulatory pattern. Females remain completely receptive from the first lordosis displayed in the period of behavioral estrus until the last. There is no reduction in paracopulatory behaviors and no increase in rejections towards the end of estrus. Female paracopulatory behavior and receptivity change in a most abrupt way at both initiation and termination of behavioral estrus. It appears that, in the seminatural environment, males copulate in bouts, and males do not pursue the females unless they are fully receptive. Non-sexual, social behavior including affiliative and nonaffiliative interaction among rats is rather unrelated to sexual activities in both sex.

  18. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  19. Problems and pit-falls in testing for G × E and epistasis in candidate gene studies of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Lindon; Verhulst, Brad

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions about the genetic architecture of a phenotype relating to the contributions of genetic additivity, dominance, epistasis or genotype × environment interaction, depend upon the statistical and distributional properties of the measured trait. This dependence is frequently ignored in contemporary genetic studies and can radically change the conclusions that may be drawn from the data. The interdependence of the conclusions about genetic architecture and instruments used for behavioral measurement is explored by simulated studies of the interaction between candidate genes and measured environment in psychiatric genetics. Trait values are simulated (N = 100,000) under several commonly encountered scenarios and subjected to two simulated 20-item psychological tests each comprising items with different patterns of difficulty and sensitivity to variation (discriminating power) in the latent trait. Test scores are generated for each test by summing the binary responses across all items. The full model for digenic additive and non-additive genetic effects and G × E is fitted to the trait values and test scores under a range of different simulated genetic architectures. Untransformed test scores show complex patterns of epistasis and G × E even when the underlying effects of genes and environment are purely additive and the transformation of symptom counts does not fully recover the simulated underlying genetic architecture. Accordingly, failing to allow for the theory of measurement when analyzing details of genetic architecture may frequently lead to replicable over-reporting of interactions and mislead potential investigators and funding agencies.

  20. Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, D.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

  1. Blunt impact as deterrent: human approach-avoidance behaviors and other stress responses studied within a paintball gaming context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kenneth R.; Bergen, Michael T.; DeMarco, Robert M.; Chua, Florence B.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Blunt impact munitions are often used by civilian law enforcement and in military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) missions to dissuade individuals and groups from approaching valued assets. The use of blunt munitions (rubber-ball or sponge) is predicated on their effectiveness as aversive stimuli; the effectiveness is weighed against the risk of serious injury or death. However, little empirical evidence supports effectiveness. Here, we use a paintball gaming context to study the effects of blunt impact on performance and approach behaviors. Volunteers individually traversed a course in which targets offer the opportunity to gain for accuracy. While completing the targeting task, subjects were bombarded with paintballs, which progressively became more numerous and the impact more intense as the subjects neared goal locations. Initial data suggest that over 30 blunt impacts by paintballs delivered at 280 ft/sec over 30 to 100 ft are insufficient to overcome intrinsic and extrinsic approach motivations or impair targeting or advance performance in an overwhelming majority of subjects. Our apparent ceiling effect was surprising. A sub-comparison of the few subjects who stopped the game before the end with those who did not suggests that personality factors influence the effectiveness of blunt impact as a deterrent. While paintballs differ from traditional blunt impact munitions on a number of physical characteristics, impact that was sufficient to repeatedly bruise volunteers was not an effective deterrent.

  2. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  3. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  4. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/48004

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet technology enables human explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e. traces), we can get insights about dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, book, and movie rating, are comprehensively investigated by using detrended fluctuation analysis technique and multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three type medias show the similar scaling property with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of interevent time series in three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest the stronger long-rang...

  5. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  6. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males......Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First...

  7. 商业街中人的行为与公共空间设计研究%Study on human behavior and public space design in commercial street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶晶; 肖平

    2016-01-01

    选取商业街中的公共空间作为研究对象,以昆明市中心区的南屏街作为调研场地,研究该商业街的公共空间中人的行为活动,分析了人在商业街中活动行为的特性、实际使用情况和行为倾向,提出了商业街公共空间的优化设计方法。%Selecting public space in commercial street as the research target,taking Nanping street in Kunming city center as the investigation field,the paper studies the human actions in public space of the commercial street,analyzes human behavior characteristics,actual utilization conditions and behavior trend in commercial street,finally puts forward public space optimizing design methods of commercial street.

  8. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten "major representative" functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions.

  9. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots.......-O-bot, a large service robot, in a medical measurement scenario, we compare the timing of the robot's behaviors in three between-subject conditions. The results show that the relative timing of robot behaviors has significant effects on the number of problems participants encounter, and that the robot's verbal...

  10. Multisensory interactions elicited by audiovisual stimuli presented peripherally in a visual attention task: a behavioral and event-related potential study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglong; Li, Qi; Bai, Ou; Touge, Tetsuo

    2009-12-01

    We applied behavioral and event-related potential measurements to study human multisensory interactions induced by audiovisual (AV) stimuli presented peripherally in a visual attention task in which an irrelevant auditory stimulus occasionally accompanied the visual stimulus. A stream of visual, auditory, and AV stimuli was randomly presented to the left or right side of the subjects; subjects covertly attended to the visual stimuli on either the left or right side and promptly responded to visual targets on that side. Behavioral results showed that responses to AV stimuli were faster and more accurate than those to visual stimuli only. Three event-related potential components related to AV interactions were identified: (1) over the right temporal area, approximately 200 to 220 milliseconds; (2) over the centromedial area, approximately 290 to 310 milliseconds; and (3) over the left and right ventral temporal area, approximately 290 to 310 milliseconds. We found that these interaction effects occurred slightly later than those reported in previously published AV interaction studies in which AV stimuli were presented centrally. Our results suggest that the retinotopic location of stimuli affects AV interactions occurring at later stages of cognitive processing in response to a visual attention task.

  11. L\\'evy flights in human behavior and cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    L\\'evy flights represent the best strategy to randomly search for a target in an unknown environment, and have been widely observed in many animal species. Here, we inspect and discuss recent results concerning human behavior and cognition. Different studies have shown that human mobility can be described in terms of L\\'evy flights, while fresh evidence indicates that the same pattern accounts for human mental searches in online gambling sites. Thus, L\\'evy flights emerge as a unifying concept with broad cross-disciplinary implications. We argue that the ubiquity of such a pattern, both in behavior and cognition, suggests that the brain regions responsible for this behavior are likely to be evolutionarily old (i.e. no frontal cortex is involved), and that fMRI techniques might help to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the introductory study. Human behavior recognition evaluation technology; 1997 nendo sentan kenkyu hokokusho. Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Importance of the human behavior technology was paid attention to to get true safety and comfortableness of life through adaptability of products/systems to all humans. In consideration of the social and technological background, the human behavior recognition evaluation technology avoids economic/social losses caused by accidents and troubles and also provides the safe life environment for living people including the aged. Further, the gist of the project was proposed to make it clear that it can give a course of making things from a viewpoint of development of products dealing with individuals (personal fit) and can give new added values and contribute to heightening of international competitiveness at the same time. Development is made of technology of dividing concrete behavior patterns into types and also accumulating them in usable forms at the time of product design and in emergency and of technology of measuring all the time information on human behaviors in daily life without restrictions and on site. Supporting technology is developed for making the most of behavior information of users for product design and in emergency. Effects of the spread are also estimated. 76 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    OpenAIRE

    Strumwasser, F.

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances...

  14. Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

  15. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  16. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  17. Mitigating Insider Threat Using Human Behavior Influence Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Change in Score Versus Time for Both Employees (over 3 years).......................94 45. Distribution of Sensitivity Tests Performed ...Human Behavior Human Behavior is defined as a “collection of activities performed by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions...values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis , persuasion, and/or coercion.” [6] The theory behind human behavior is humans react to “definite objective

  18. Collective unconscious: how gut microbes shape human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Stilling, Roman M; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F

    2015-04-01

    The human gut harbors a dynamic and complex microbial ecosystem, consisting of approximately 1 kg of bacteria in the average adult, approximately the weight of the human brain. The evolutionary formation of a complex gut microbiota in mammals has played an important role in enabling brain development and perhaps sophisticated social interaction. Genes within the human gut microbiota, termed the microbiome, significantly outnumber human genes in the body, and are capable of producing a myriad of neuroactive compounds. Gut microbes are part of the unconscious system regulating behavior. Recent investigations indicate that these microbes majorly impact on cognitive function and fundamental behavior patterns, such as social interaction and stress management. In the absence of microbes, underlying neurochemistry is profoundly altered. Studies of gut microbes may play an important role in advancing understanding of disorders of cognitive functioning and social interaction, such as autism.

  19. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  20. Neurogenetics of Aggressive BehaviorStudies in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models...

  1. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  2. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  3. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sarapultsev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004. From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007. An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  4. Novelty, stress, and biological roots in human market behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultsev, Alexey; Sarapultsev, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004). From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007). An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  6. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  7. Health, Human Capital, and Behavior Change: Essays in Development Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Angeli Elise

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation combines three empirical studies of household behaviors as they relate to investment in health and human capital in developing countries. The first explores how changes in children's nutrition in Uganda correspond to composition of a household's income. The second studies measurement activities in a cookstove intervention in Darfur, Sudan, with insights into what may be missed in traditional evaluation approaches as well as how technology adoption may benefit from an uninten...

  8. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  9. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  10. Finite element approach to study the behavior of fluid distribution in the dermal regions of human body due to thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khanday

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a complex structure where the balance of mass and heat transport in all tissues is necessary for its normal functioning. The stabilities of intracellular and extracellular fluids are important physiological factors responsible for homoeostasis. To estimate the effects of thermal stress on the behavior of extracellular fluid concentration in human dermal regions, a mathematical model based on diffusion equation along with appropriate boundary conditions has been formulated. Atmospheric temperature, evaporation rate, moisture concentration and other factors affecting the fluid concentration were taken into account. The variational finite element approach has been employed to solve the model and the results were interpreted graphically.

  11. Knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus infection and sexual behavior among drug users: a cross sectional study in Pokhara submetropolitan city, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse is one of the public health problems in Nepal. Only limited research has been done to explore knowledge and sexual behaviors of injection drug users in Nepal. The objective of this research was to explore knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexual behavior among drug users in Nepal. More than 90% of participants had heard of HIV. Almost all participants who had heard of HIV knew that HIV is transmitted through unsafe sexual intercourse and through syringe use. In comparison to that, a small percentage of participants knew of infected blood and mother to child as modes of transmission of HIV. Injection drug users were less likely to use condoms during sexual intercourse with their wives. Awareness programs and behavior-change communication to alert drug users to the risks of sharing syringes need to be conducted, in addition to promoting the use of condoms during sexual intercourse with other women as well as with their wives.

  12. Chaos in human behavior: the case of work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José; Arrieta, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    This study considers the complex dynamics of work motivation. Forty-eight employees completed a work-motivation diary several times per day over a period of four weeks. The obtained time series were analysed using different methodologies derived from chaos theory (i.e. recurrence plots, Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension and surrogate data). Results showed chaotic dynamics in 75% of cases. The findings confirm the universality of chaotic behavior within human behavior, challenge some of the underlying assumptions on which work motivation theories are based, and suggest that chaos theory may offer useful and relevant information on how this process is managed within organizations.

  13. Interaction versus Observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian eTylen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an ‘understanding of the other’, or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g. someone offering or showing you an object elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action. In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone ‘privately’ manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants’ experience, behavior and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  14. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images...

  15. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J.; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  16. Understanding the Heavy Tailed Dynamics in Human Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of electronic datasets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the inter-event times between consecutive communication events obey heavy tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are a statistical artifact which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based ...

  17. Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J

    1992-01-01

    Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology.

  18. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  19. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin modulate human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Uzefovsky, Florina; Shalev, Idan; Gritsenko, Inga; Riebold, Mathias; Salomon, Shahaf; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that two nonapeptides, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, shape human social behavior in both nonclinical and clinical subjects. Evidence is discussed that in autism spectrum disorders genetic polymorphisms in the vasopressin-oxytocin pathway, notably the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a), the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), neurophysin I and II, and CD38 (recently shown to be critical for social behavior by mediating oxytocin secretion) contribute to deficits in socialization skills in this group of patients. We also present first evidence that CD38 expression in lymphoblastoid cells derived from subjects diagnosed with autism is correlated with social skill phenotype inventoried by the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales. Additionally, we discuss molecular genetic evidence that in nonclinical subjects both AVPR1a and OXTR genes contribute to prosocial or altruistic behavior inventoried by two experimental paradigms, the dictator game and social values orientation. The role of the AVPR1a is also analyzed in prepulse inhibition. Prepulse inhibition of the startle response to auditory stimuli is a largely autonomic response that resonates with social cognition in both animal models and humans. First results are presented showing that intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin increases salivary cortisol levels in the Trier Social Stress test. To summarize, accumulating studies employing a broad array of cutting-edge tools in psychology, neuroeconomics, molecular genetics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, and brain imaging are beginning to elaborate the intriguing role of oxytocin and arginine vasopressin in human social behavior. We expect that future studies will continue this advance and deepen our understanding of these complex events.

  20. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  1. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  2. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  3. Human Wagering Behavior Depends on Opponents' Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Erik J.; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F.; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best “poker face” for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  4. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  5. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  6. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  7. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  8. Ontology-based Deep Learning for Human Behavior Prediction with Explanations in Health Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhathai; Dou, Dejing; Wang, Hao; Kil, David; Piniewski, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Human behavior modeling is a key component in application domains such as healthcare and social behavior research. In addition to accurate prediction, having the capacity to understand the roles of human behavior determinants and to provide explanations for the predicted behaviors is also important. Having this capacity increases trust in the systems and the likelihood that the systems actually will be adopted, thus driving engagement and loyalty. However, most prediction models do not provide explanations for the behaviors they predict. In this paper, we study the research problem, human behavior prediction with explanations, for healthcare intervention systems in health social networks. We propose an ontology-based deep learning model (ORBM(+)) for human behavior prediction over undirected and nodes-attributed graphs. We first propose a bottom-up algorithm to learn the user representation from health ontologies. Then the user representation is utilized to incorporate self-motivation, social influences, and environmental events together in a human behavior prediction model, which extends a well-known deep learning method, the Restricted Boltzmann Machine. ORBM(+) not only predicts human behaviors accurately, but also, it generates explanations for each predicted behavior. Experiments conducted on both real and synthetic health social networks have shown the tremendous effectiveness of our approach compared with conventional methods.

  9. Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary break-up rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.

  10. State dissociation, human behavior, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Mark W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is clearly not only a whole-brain or global phenomenon, but can also be a local phenomenon. This accounts for the fact that the primary states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and components of these states may appear in various combinations, with fascinating clinical consequences. Examples include: sleep inertia, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, out-of-body experiences, and reports of alien abduction. The incomplete declaration of state likewise has implications for consciousness - which also has fluid boundaries. Fluctuations in the degree of consciousness are likely explained by abnormalities of a "spatial and temporal binding rhythm" which normally results in a unified conscious experience. Dysfunctional binding may play a role in anesthetic states, autism, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. Further study of the broad spectrum of dissociated states of sleep and wakefulness that are closely linked with states of consciousness and unconsciousness by basic neuroscientists, clinicians, and members of the legal profession will provide scientific, clinical and therapeutic insights, with forensic implications.

  11. Structure and mechanical behavior of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0.06-0.1, is comparable to that of other keratinous materials and common synthetic polymers. The structures of the internal cortex and surface cuticle are affected by the large tensile extension. One distinguishing feature, the unwinding of the α-helix and the possible transformation to β-sheet structure of keratin under tension, which affects the ductility of hair, is analytically evaluated and incorporated into a constitutive equation. A good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. This model elucidates the tensile response of the α-keratin fibers. The contributions of elastic and plastic strains on reloading are evaluated and correlated to structural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior.

  13. Human exposure to a 60 Hz, 1800 micro tesla magnetic field: a neuro behavioral study; Exposition humaine a un champ magnetique de 1 800 microtesla a 60 Hz: une etude neurocomportementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, A.; Corbacio, M.; Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W. [Lawson Health Research Institute and University of Western Ontario, St Joseph Health' s Care (Canada); Beuter, A. [Laboratoire IMS Institut de Polytechnique de Bordeaux, Universite de Bordeaux, 33 (France); Goulet, D. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, Montreal (Canada); Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M. [Electricite de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Plante, M. [Hydro-Quebec, Direction Sante et securite, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The effects of time-varying magnetic fields (MF) on humans have been actively investigated for the past three decades. One important unanswered question that scientists continue to investigate is the potential for MF exposure to have acute effects on human biology. Different strategies have been used to tackle this question using various physiological, neuro-physiological and behavioral indicators. For example, researchers investigating electro-encephalography (EEG) have reported that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) MF can increase the resting occipital alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) [1, 2]. Interestingly, other studies have demonstrated that human motor behavior can be modulated by ELF MF exposure, reporting that such an exposure can reduce anteroposterior standing balance oscillations [3, 4] or decrease physiological tremor intensity [5]. However, the main limitation in this domain is the difficulty of reproducing the results. A possible reason for this is the large variety of experimental approaches employed. Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effects of a 60 Hz, 1800 muT MF exposure on physiological (i.e. heart rate and peripheral blood perfusion), neuro-physiological (brain electrical activity), and behavioral (postural oscillations, voluntary motor functions, and physiological tremor) aspects in humans using a single experimental procedure.Though the results from this study suggest a subtle reduction of human standing balance as well as a subtle increase of physiological tremor amplitude with MF exposure, no effect appeared on other investigated parameters, suggesting that one hour of 60 Hz, 1800 muT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the electrical activity of the brain. (authors)

  14. Kansei Behavior of Robots Following Instruction of Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Shibata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When coexisting with humans and support them, robots need to be instructed to move by humans without burden, and the motion should not to instigate anxiety but to be accepted to human psychology. To realize Kansei behavior of robots following instruction of human, the concept of “Kansei transfer function”, which can add softness and smoothness to robots, is explained, and the effectiveness of its applications to humanrobot interfaces is confirmed from psychological aspects.

  15. Detection of Unusual Human Activities Based on Behavior Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraishi, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A type of services that require human physical actions and intelligent decision making exists in various real fields, such as nursing in hospitals and caregiving in nursing homes. In this paper, we propose new formalism for modeling human behavior in such services. Behavior models are estimated from event-logs, and can be used for analysis of human activities. We show two analysis methods: one is to detect unusual human activities that appear in event-logs, and the other is to find staffs tha...

  16. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion. PMID:24039277

  17. Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Yee, Jason R; Hurlemann, René; Rilling, James K; Chen, Frances S; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2012-10-10

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is as high as 1 in 100 individuals and is a heavy burden to society. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. Here, we briefly review the topics covered in our 2012 Society for Neuroscience Mini-Symposium entitled "Integrative Approaches Using Oxytocin to Enhance Prosocial Behavior: From Animal and Human Social Behavior to ASD's Social Dysfunction." This work is not meant to be a comprehensive review of oxytocin and prosocial behavior. Instead, we wish to share the newest findings on the effects of oxytocin on social behavior, the brain, and the social dysfunction of ASD at the molecular, genetic, systemic, and behavior levels, in varied subjects ranging from animal models to humans suffering from autism for the purpose of promoting further study for developing the clinical use of oxytocin in treating ASD.

  18. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Volkswirtschaftslehre ’ i LDepartment of Economics Discussion Paper No. January 2005 34 Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior Markus G6bel...Diskussionspapiere der Faichergruppe Volkswirtschaftslehre "* Grbel, Markus & Tobias Thomas, Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior, No... Volkswirtschaftslehre "* Braiuninger, Michael, Social Capital and Regional Mobility, Nr. 4/2002. "* Schdfer, Wolf, EU-Erweiterung: Anmerkungen zum Balassa

  19. Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by

  20. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  1. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  2. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  3. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O;

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males...

  4. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous b

  5. Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrueger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that human trust behavior is heritable and intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances trust, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene is an excellent candidate to investigate genetic contributions to individual variations in trust behavior. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A/ guanine (G transition (rs53576 has been associated with socio-emotional phenotypes, its link to trust behavior is unclear. We combined genotyping of healthy male students with the administration of a trust game experiment. Our results show that a naturally occurring genetic variation (rs53576 in the OXTR gene is reliably associated with trust behavior rather than a general increase in trustworthy or risk behaviors. Individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG showed higher trust behavior than individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG. Although the molecular functionality of this polymorphism is still unknown, future research should clarify how the OXTR gene interacts with other genes and the environment in promoting socio-emotional behaviors.

  6. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  7. Frank A. Beach award. Homologies of animal and human sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical models of animal and human sexual behavior have evolved from two very different literatures, yet they contain many common behavioral components that may reflect the action of similar neuroendocrine and neurochemical systems. The study of animal sexual behavior has been largely concerned with mechanisms that underlie the pattern of consummatory behaviors observed during copulation, behaviors that tend to be highly stereotyped, sexually differentiated, and species-specific. There are important species differences in the behavioral topography, endocrine control, and neural substrates of consummatory behaviors, which tend to be extreme when comparing animals and humans. Although this has led to an increased interest in comparative animal behavior, it has also helped to foster a general perception that animals and humans are fundamentally different. In contrast to consummatory behaviors, appetitive behaviors (which serve to bring animals and humans into contact with sexual incentives) are more flexible, less sexually differentiated, and less species-specific and span a variety of situations other than sexual interactions. Appetitive behaviors are thus viewed as "sexually specific" when they are displayed under sexual circumstances and reinforced by sexual incentives. Interestingly, an appetitive/consummatory dichotomy has emerged in the human literature which distinguishes measures of sexual desire or arousal from "performance" measures of masturbation or copulation. In fact, sexual desire, which reflects fantasy and behavioral excitement, has been further differentiated from sexual arousal, which reflects genital blood flow. The present analysis attempts to pull together these seemingly disparate literatures into a coherent theoretical framework that emphasizes similarities and differences in the structure of sexual behavior across rats and humans.

  8. A STUDY OF THE INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR BASED ON BEHAVIORAL FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  9. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  10. Thermomechanical behavior of human carotid arteries in the passive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea, G V; Atienza, J M; Elices, M; Aragoncillo, P; Hayashi, K

    2005-06-01

    Localized heating or cooling is expanding the clinical procedures used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Advantageous implementation and development of these methods are linked indissolubly to a deeper understanding of the arterial response to combined mechanical and thermal loads. Despite this, the basic thermomechanical behavior of human blood vessels still remains largely unknown, primarily due to the lack of appropriate experimental data. In this work, the influence of temperature on the passive behavior of human carotid arteries was studied in vitro by means of inflation tests. Eleven carotid segments were tested in the range 0-200 mmHg at four different temperatures of 17, 27, 37, and 42 degrees C. The results show that the combined change of temperature and stress has a dramatic effect on the dilatation coefficient of the arterial wall, which is shifted from negative to positive depending on the stress state, whereas the structural stiffness of the arterial wall does not change appreciably in the range of temperatures tested.

  11. EXTRACTING HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS BY MINING GEO-SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forghani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one’s travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users’ network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  12. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  13. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    software interfaces. The major components of the reseach program included the Diaiogue Management System. (DMS) operating environment, the role of...specification; and new methods for modeling, designing, and developing human-computer interfaces based on syntactic and semantic specification. The DMS...achieving communication is language. Accordingly, the transaction model employs a linguistic model consisting of parts that relate computer responses

  14. Model of Competencies for Decomposition of Human Behavior: Application to Control System of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Vicente Berna-Martinez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans and machines have shared the same physical space for many years. To share the same space, we want the robots to behave like human beings. This will facilitate their social integration, their interaction with humans and create an intelligent behavior. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how human behavior is generated, analyze tasks running our nerves and how they relate to them. Then and only then can we implement these mechanisms in robotic beings. In this study, we propose a model of competencies based on human neuroregulator system for analysis and decomposition of behavior into functional modules. Using this model allow separate and locate the tasks to be implemented in a robot that displays human-like behavior. As an example, we show the application of model to the autonomous movement behavior on unfamiliar environments and its implementation in various simulated and real robots with different physical configurations and physical devices of different nature. The main result of this study has been to build a model of competencies that is being used to build robotic systems capable of displaying behaviors similar to humans and consider the specific characteristics of robots.

  15. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  16. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral “triggers” to help focus the analyst’s attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  17. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  18. From human behavior to the spread of mobile phone viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu

    Percolation theory was initiated some 50 years ago as a mathematical framework for the study of random physical processes such as the flow of a fluid through a disordered porous medium. It has been proved to be a remarkably rich theory, with applications from thermodynamic phase transitions to complex networks. In this dissertation percolation theory is used to study the diffusion process of mobile phone viruses. Some methodologies widely used in statistical physics are also applied to uncover the underlying statistical laws of human behavior and simulate the spread of mobile phone viruses in a large population. I find that while Bluetooth viruses can reach all susceptible handsets with time, they spread slowly due to human mobility, offering ample opportunities to deploy antiviral software. In contrast, viruses utilizing multimedia messaging services (MMS) could infect all users in hours, but currently a phase transition on the underlying call graph limits them to only a small fraction of the susceptible users. These results explain the lack of a major mobile virus breakout so far and predict that once a mobile operating system's market share reaches the phase transition point, viruses will pose a serious threat to mobile communications. These studies show how the large datasets and tools of statistical physics can be used to study some specific and important problems, such as the spread of mobile phone viruses.

  19. Talking with a Virtual Human: Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these intend

  20. Genomic imprinting and human psychology: cognition, behavior and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.

  1. Human Behavior Classification Using Multi-Class Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogameena, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In computer vision and robotics, one of the typical tasks is to identify specific objects in an image and to determine each object’s position and orientation relative to coordinate system. This study presented a Multi-class Relevance Vector machine (RVM classification algorithm which classifies different human poses from a single stationary camera for video surveillance applications. Approach: First the foreground blobs and their edges are obtained. Then the relevance vector machine classification scheme classified the normal and abnormal behavior. Results: The performance proposed by our method was compared with Support Vector Machine (SVM and multi-class support vector machine. Experimental results showed the effectiveness of the method. Conclusion: It is evident that RVM has good accuracy and lesser computational than SVM.

  2. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf eToelch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance level of others provides one possible cue to assess the potential benefits of changing behavior, since out-performance in similar circumstances indicates that novel behaviors (innovations are potentially useful. We demonstrate that social performance cues, in the form of previous players’ scores in a problem-solving computer game, influence behavioral flexibility. Participants viewed only performance indicators, not the innovative behavior of others. While performance cues (high, low, or no scores had little effect on innovation discovery rates, participants that viewed high scores increased their utilization of innovations, allowing them to exploit the virtual environment more effectively than players viewing low or no scores. Perceived conspecific performance can thus shape human decisions to adopt novel traits, even when the traits employed cannot be copied. This simple mechanism, social performance feedback, could be a driver of both the facultative adoption of innovations and cumulative cultural evolution, processes critical to human success.

  3. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  4. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, S O; Kucukyilmaz, A; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Basdogan, C

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human negotiation scenarios. For this purpose, we introduce a two-party negotiation game specifically built for studying the effectiveness of haptic and audio-visual cues in conveying negotiation related behaviors. The game is centered around a real-time continuous two-party negotiation scenario based on the existing game-theory and negotiation literature. During the game, humans are confronted with a computer opponent, which can display different behaviors, such as concession, competition, and negotiation. Through a user study, we show that the behaviors that are associated with human negotiation can be incorporated into human-computer interaction, and the addition of haptic cues provides a statistically significant increase in the human-recognition accuracy of machine-displayed behaviors. In addition to aspects of conveying these negotiation-related behaviors, we also focus on and report game-theoretical aspects of the overall interaction experience. In particular, we show that, as reported in the game-theory literature, certain negotiation strategies such as tit-for-tat may generate maximum combined utility for the negotiating parties, providing an excellent balance between the energy spent by the user and the combined utility of the negotiating parties.

  5. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  6. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    In order to assess human movement patterns and behaviors in public spaces we present a method using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) technology, combined with the analytical virtues of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to track people in urban streets and plazas. The method enables...

  7. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...

  8. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...

  9. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  10. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  11. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  12. Common Fallacies About Heredity, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Anne

    Much of our thinking about contemporary social problems reflects tacit presuppositions regarding the operation of heredity and environment in human behavior. These beliefs have important implications for practical decisions. Advances in genetics, psychology, anthropology, and other disciplines have contributed much to a clarification of the…

  13. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  14. The Impact of Human Resource Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Babaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The examination of organizational citizenship behaviors as the mediating variable through which human resource practices affect firm performance is still scarce. Approach: This study examined the mediation effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on the relationships between selected human resource practices and firm performance. The human resource practices studied were reward and performance appraisal practices and firm performance was studied in terms of quality of services. Data were collected from a sample of 179 branches of two banks in Tehran, Iran. The participants in this study included 176 managerial employees, 352 non-managerial employees and 871 customers. To achieve these objectives a mediation model was tested using structural equation modeling procedure to examine if the hypothesized model fit the data. Results: The results showed that organizational citizenship behaviors fully mediated the relationships between reward practices and quality of services and partially mediated the relationships between performance appraisal practices and quality of services. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study suggest that human resource practices play a critical role in enhancing employees organizational citizenship behaviors and firm performance. Organizational citizenship behaviors mediate the effects of reward and performance appraisal practices on service quality. To improve service quality, employers should improve reward and performance appraisal practices since these practices have an impact on employees organizational citizenship behaviors which in turn would affect service quality.

  15. Human Behavior Recognition Using Foot Pressure Sensing Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chika; Ozaki, Kenji; Ezoe, Ryosuke; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Yamato, Hiroyuki

    To recognize human behavior in unlimited environments, sensing shoes for measuring foot pressure distribution were developed. Seven pressure sensors were installed on an insole, and a measurement module was embedded in the shoe. An analysis for discriminating the user's movements from the foot pressure distribution was examined, considering the movements, walking, running, standing, sitting, going upstairs and downstairs, and cycling. These seven actions were discriminated using feature quantities such as the average, standard deviation, maximum, and difference deviation extracted from the data of three sensors by discriminant analysis. The evaluation results showed highly accurate behavior recognition based on foot pressure at some points. In addition, by canonical discriminant analysis, six discriminant functions which classify the seven actions with an accuracy of 100% were derived by using feature quantities extracted from five sensors. The results confirmed that discriminant analysis can be used for automatically recognizing human behaviors based on foot pressure data.

  16. Behavioral Pharmacology of Human Drug Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    biological basis and are not considered to be addictions, such as the search for food, sex, warmth , pain avoidance, etc. Although some features of a starving...Clopton, P.L., Leichner, P.P., Abrams, A.A., Judd, L.L., and Pechnick, R. Interpersonal effects of marijuana. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 36:781-785, 1979...would be premature to pass final judgement on the results of the animal studies of nicotine and/or tobacco woke self-administration, firstly, because

  17. The double power law in human collaboration behavior: The case of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    We study human behavior in terms of the inter-event time distribution of revision behavior on Wikipedia, an online collaborative encyclopedia. We observe a double power law distribution for the inter-editing behavior at the population level and a single power law distribution at the individual level. Although interactions between users are indirect or moderate on Wikipedia, we determine that the synchronized editing behavior among users plays a key role in determining the slope of the tail of the double power law distribution.

  18. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  19. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  1. Does awareness of status and risks of human immunodeficiency virus impact risky transmission behavior among infected adolescents? A case study of clients Attending an Antiretroviral Therapy (ART clinic in Kano, Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Muhammad Lawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive adolescents by virtue of their position are prone to dangerous behaviors including risk-taking for HIV transmission. Objective: To determine the awareness of HIV status and risk factors for HIV transmission among HIV-positive adolescents, and how these impact their behavior. Materials and Methods: A case study approach was used to study a random sample of 400 HIV-positive adolescent children attending an antiretroviral (ART clinic in Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 computer statistical software. Result: The mean age of the adolescents was 14.9 ± 3.15 years. The majority were females (54.8% from a polygamous family (57.5%. About two-thirds or 251 (62.8% patients knew their HIV status. The age of 14 years and above (z = 11.36, P = 0.0001 and having at least secondary school level of education (z = 2.78, P = 0.005 were significantly associated with awareness of HIV status on binary logistic regression. Up to 311 (77.8% patients had good awareness of the risks of HIV transmission. Awareness of risk of HIV transmission was associated with awareness of HIV status (X 2 = 166.2, P = 0.0001. There was a significant variation in the behaviors between those who were aware of their HIV status and those who were not. Paradoxically, the percentage differences in risk-taking were remarkably high in all the variables examined, and were all in the direction of the adolescents who had good knowledge of the risk factors for HIV transmission. Conclusion and Recommendation: Health ministries, development partners working in this field, and behavioral change communication experts should develop formidable strategies for addressing this menace. There is also a dire need for further research in this area.

  2. Linear and nonlinear behavior of human and artificial lip reeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray; Richards, Orlando

    2003-10-01

    In a musical instrument of the lip reed aerophone class, the flow of air from the player's lungs into the resonating air column is modulated by the periodic opening and closing of the pressure-controlled valve formed by the player's lips. The nature of the operation of this valve has been the subject of considerable study in recent years. Since the pressure-flow relationship is strongly nonlinear, the behavior of the coupled system of lips and air column can only be modeled using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. Extensive studies of artificial lip reeds, in which the lips are simulated by water-filled latex tubes, have shown them to be capable of reproducing musically important features of human playing, including the lipping of notes both below and above an acoustic resonance of the air column. Measurements of the linear response of artificial reeds have guided the development of more realistic models of the lip reed, while studies of both real and artificial lips using a high-speed digital camera have shed fresh light on the nature of the lip motion at the large amplitudes typical of loud playing. [Work supported by EPSRC.

  3. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  4. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  5. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  6. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  7. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  8. Behavior management approach for agitated behavior in Japanese patients with dementia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Junko Sato,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Katsuyoshi Torii,1 Mizuki Oka,2 Atsushi Negi,1 Hiroshi Tatsumi,3 Jin Narumoto,4 Toshi A Furukawa,5 Masaru Mimura21Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Department of Health Science, Faculty of Psychological and Physical Science, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 5Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Agitated behaviors are frequently observed in patients with dementia and can cause severe distress to caregivers. However, little evidence of the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for agitated behaviors exists for patients with dementia. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate a behavioral management program developed by the Seattle Protocols for patients with agitated behaviors in Japan.Methods: Eighteen patients with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, n = 14; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 4 participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of a behavioral management program. The intervention consisted of 20 sessions over the course of 3 months. The primary outcomes were severity of agitation in dementia, as measured using the Agitated Behavior in Dementia scale (ABID and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI.Results: The behavioral management program resulted in significant reductions in total scores on both the ABID and CMAI. Although both physically agitated and verbally agitated behavior scores on the ABID improved significantly, symptoms of psychosis did not improve after the intervention.Conclusion: The behavioral management technique may be beneficial to distressed caregivers of

  9. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  10. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  11. Discrimination of complex human behavior by pigeons (Columba livia and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A J Qadri

    Full Text Available The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors ("martial arts" vs. "Indian dance". Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species.

  12. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  13. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sircova

    Full Text Available In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP, a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1 The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940 and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2 The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3 The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4 diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index. It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global

  14. Spatiotemporal Detection of Unusual Human Population Behavior Using Mobile Phone Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dobra, Adrian; Eagle, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to contribute to humanitarian response to disasters and violent events, scientists have proposed the development of analytical tools that could identify emergency events in real-time, using mobile phone data. The assumption is that dramatic and discrete changes in behavior, measured with mobile phone data, will indicate extreme events. In this study, we propose an efficient system for spatiotemporal detection of behavioral anomalies from mobile phone data and compare sites with behavioral anomalies to an extensive database of emergency and non-emergency events in Rwanda. Our methodology successfully captures anomalous behavioral patterns associated with a broad range of events, from religious and official holidays to earthquakes, floods, violence against civilians and protests. Our results suggest that human behavioral responses to extreme events are complex and multi-dimensional, including extreme increases and decreases in both calling and movement behaviors. We also find significant temporal a...

  15. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  16. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  17. Learning dynamics explains human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative behavior lies at the very basis of human societies, yet its evolutionary origin remains a key unsolved puzzle. Whereas reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas, recent experimental findings on networked Prisoner's Dilemma games suggest that conditional cooperation also depends on the previous action of the player---namely on the `mood' in which the player currently is. Roughly, a majority of people behaves as conditional cooperators if they cooperated in the past, while they ignore the context and free-ride with high probability if they did not. However, the ultimate origin of this behavior represents a conundrum itself. Here we aim specifically at providing an evolutionary explanation of moody conditional cooperation. To this end, we perform an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics for players' behavioral traits---ranging from standard processes used in game theory based on pa...

  18. Reassembling the Social Environment: A Network Approack to Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

    2007-01-01

    This paper critically examines the influence of the structural elements of human behavior that are often neglected in social work literature (Robbins et al., 1998). It incorporates a new multi-theoretical framework that critically examines the significance of a network approach in analyzing social, ideological, and economic structures and their influence on individual actors. This paper discusses two interrelated theories: social network theory and social capital theory, and critiques their r...

  19. Some theoretical aspects of human categorization behavior: similarity and generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jäkel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Explanations of human categorization behavior often invoke similarity. Stimuli that are similar to each other are grouped together whereas stimuli that are very different are kept separate. Despite serious problems in defining similarity, both conceptually and experimentally, this is the prevailing view of categorization in prototype models (Posner & Keele, 1968; Reed, 1972) and exemplar models (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1986). This is also the prevailing approach in machine learning ...

  20. Training together: how another human's presence affects behavior during virtual human-based team training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite research showing that team training can lead to strong improvements in team performance, logistical difficulties can prevent team training programs from being adopted on a large scale. A proposed solution to these difficulties is the use of virtual humans to replace missing teammates. Existing research evaluating the use of virtual humans for team training has been conducted in settings involving a single human trainee. However, in the real world multiple human trainees would most likely train together. In this paper, we explore how the presence of a second human trainee can alter behavior during a medical team training program. Ninety-two nurses and surgical technicians participated in a medical training exercise, where they worked with a virtual surgeon and virtual anesthesiologist to prepare a simulated patient for surgery. The agency of the nurse and the surgical technician were varied between three conditions: human nurses and surgical technicians working together; human nurses working with a virtual surgical technician; and human surgical technicians working with a virtual nurse. Variations in agency did not produce statistically significant differences in the training outcomes, but several notable differences were observed in other aspects of the team's behavior. Specifically, when working with a virtual nurse, human surgical technicians were more likely to assist with speaking up about patient safety issues that were outside of their normal responsibilities; human trainees spent less time searching for a missing item when working with a virtual partner, likely because the virtual partner was physically unable to move throughout the room and assist with the searching process; and more breaks in presence were observed when two human teammates were present. These results show that some behaviors may be influenced by the presence of multiple human trainees, though these behaviors may not impinge on core training goals. When

  1. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  2. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  3. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  4. Behavioral corporate governance : four empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis consists of studies of corporate governance from a behavioral perspective. The chapters are about trust between chief executive officers (CEOs) and board chairpersons, asymmetric effects of corporate social responsibility on corporate financial performance, compliance with corporate

  5. Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

    CERN Document Server

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Perello, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sanchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental works have adopted a game-theoretical perspective, which has allowed to obtain valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals' behavior when facing different situations, and more importantly, to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. Here, we present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals' actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency...

  6. [The evolution of human cultural behavior: notes on Darwinism and complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mikael; Murrieta, Rui Sérgio Sereni

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes three schools that can be understood as central in studies of the evolution of human behavior within the paradigm of evolution by natural selection: human behavioral ecology (HBE), evolutionary psychology, and dual inheritance. These three streams of thought are used to depict the Darwinist landscape and pinpoint its strong suits and limitations. Theoretical gaps were identified that seem to reduce these schools' ability to account for the diversity of human evolutionary behavior. Their weak points include issues related to the concept of reproductive success, types of adaptation, and targets of selection. An interdisciplinary approach is proposed as the solution to this dilemma, where complex adaptive systems would serve as a source.

  7. Following Human Footsteps: Proposal of a Decision Theory Based on Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior is a complex nature which depends on circumstances and decisions varying from time to time as well as place to place. The way a decision is made either directly or indirectly related to the availability of the options. These options though appear at random nature, have a solid directional way for decision making. In this paper, a decision theory is proposed which is based on human behavior. The theory is structured with model sets that will show the all possible combinations for making a decision, A virtual and simulated environment is considered to show the results of the proposed decision theory

  8. Behavior of the thermal diffusivity of native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein solutions studied by the Z-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Priscila R.; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Monteiro, Andrea M.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M.

    2012-10-01

    Modifications in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have emerged as a major pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Measurements of the heat diffusivity of human LDL solutions in their native and in vitro oxidized states are presented by using the Z-Scan (ZS) technique. Other complementary techniques were used to obtain the physical parameters necessary to interpret the optical results, e.g., pycnometry, refractometry, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry, and to understand the oxidation phase of LDL particles. To determine the sample's thermal diffusivity using the thermal lens model, an iterative one-parameter fitting method is proposed which takes into account several characteristic ZS time-dependent and the position-dependent transmittance measurements. Results show that the thermal diffusivity increases as a function of the LDL oxidation degree, which can be explained by the increase of the hydroperoxides production due to the oxidation process. The oxidation products go from one LDL to another, disseminating the oxidation process and caring the heat across the sample. This phenomenon leads to a quick thermal homogenization of the sample, avoiding the formation of the thermal lens in highly oxidized LDL solutions.

  9. Behavior of the thermal diffusivity of native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein solutions studied by the Z-scan technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Priscila R; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C; Monteiro, Andrea M; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M

    2012-10-01

    Modifications in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have emerged as a major pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Measurements of the heat diffusivity of human LDL solutions in their native and in vitro oxidized states are presented by using the Z-Scan (ZS) technique. Other complementary techniques were used to obtain the physical parameters necessary to interpret the optical results, e.g., pycnometry, refractometry, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry, and to understand the oxidation phase of LDL particles. To determine the sample's thermal diffusivity using the thermal lens model, an iterative one-parameter fitting method is proposed which takes into account several characteristic ZS time-dependent and the position-dependent transmittance measurements. Results show that the thermal diffusivity increases as a function of the LDL oxidation degree, which can be explained by the increase of the hydroperoxides production due to the oxidation process. The oxidation products go from one LDL to another, disseminating the oxidation process and caring the heat across the sample. This phenomenon leads to a quick thermal homogenization of the sample, avoiding the formation of the thermal lens in highly oxidized LDL solutions.

  10. Predicting Team Performance through Human Behavioral Sensing and Quantitative Workflow Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Information Theory · Operations Research · Decision- Making . 1 Introduction From network operations control centers to expeditionary military...instantiation of this approach, shown in Fig. 1, and its application to the study of teams’ abilities to effectively discover data, make sense of...Predicting Team Performance Through Human Behavioral Sensing and Quantitative Workflow Instrumentation Matthew Daggett1, Kyle O’Brien1, Michael

  11. To survive and protect: testosterone and the neuroendocrinology of human social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis show that despite the development that the human brain has undergone during evolution, this organ and the behavior it brings forth is still strongly sensitive to the effects of testosterone. Testosterone strengthens the neural response to sounds of crying babies,

  12. Cultivating Curiosity: Integrating Hybrid Teaching in Courses in Human Behavior in the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Keyes, Elizabeth; Schneider, Dana A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates an experience of implementing a hybrid model for teaching human behavior in the social environment in an urban university setting. Developing a hybrid model in a BSW program arose out of a desire to reach students in a different way. Designed to promote curiosity and active learning, this particular hybrid model has students…

  13. The Psychological Evaluation of Child Sexual Abuse Using the Louisville Behavior Checklist and Human Figure Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Lisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated methods for accurately identifying sexually abused children (n=26), mental health clinic-referred children (n=37), and community children (n=39), ages 6-12. Results suggest limited support for the Louisville Behavior Checklist but caution in using the Emotional Indicator Scoring System for Human Figure Drawings in the…

  14. To survive and protect: testosterone and the neuroendocrinology of human social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis show that despite the development that the human brain has undergone during evolution, this organ and the behavior it brings forth is still strongly sensitive to the effects of testosterone. Testosterone strengthens the neural response to sounds of crying babies,

  15. The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions versus Social Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Explores whether evolved disposition that differs by sex or social structure explains sex differences in human behavior. Illustrates the explanatory power of each theory, and reviews a study (D. Buss, 1989) that supports the social structural theory with respect to mate preference. (SLD)

  16. Rhythm patterns interaction--synchronization behavior for human-robot joint action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents' tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans.

  17. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Coupling infectious diseases, human preventive behavior, and networks--a conceptual framework for epidemic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Human-disease interactions involve the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and the practice of preventive behavior by individuals. Both infectious diseases and preventive behavior diffuse simultaneously through human networks and interact with one another, but few existing models have coupled them together. This article proposes a conceptual framework to fill this knowledge gap and illustrates the model establishment. The conceptual model consists of two networks and two diffusion processes. The two networks include: an infection network that transmits diseases and a communication network that channels inter-personal influence regarding preventive behavior. Both networks are composed of same individuals but different types of interactions. This article further introduces modeling approaches to formulize such a framework, including the individual-based modeling approach, network theory, disease transmission models and behavioral models. An illustrative model was implemented to simulate a coupled-diffusion process during an influenza epidemic. The simulation outcomes suggest that the transmission probability of a disease and the structure of infection network have profound effects on the dynamics of coupled-diffusion. The results imply that current models may underestimate disease transmissibility parameters, because human preventive behavior has not been considered. This issue calls for a new interdisciplinary study that incorporates theories from epidemiology, social science, behavioral science, and health psychology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  20. Migraine- and dystonia-related disease-mutations of Na+/K+-ATPases: Relevance of behavioral studies in mice to disease symptoms and neurological manifestations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Doganli, Canan; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    with classical FHM2 and RDP symptoms additionally suffer from other manifestations, such as epilepsy/seizures and developmental disabilities. Recent studies of FHM2 and RDP mouse models provide valuable tools for dissecting the vital roles of the Na+/K+-ATPases, and we discuss their relevance to the complex...... have broad potentials for future research concerning migraine and dystonia-related diseases, which will contribute towards understanding the, yet unknown, pathophysiologies...

  1. Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2010-09-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

  2. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  3. Support Vector Machine-Based Human Behavior Classification in Crowd through Projection and Star Skeletonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogameena, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Detection of individual’s abnormal human behaviors in the crowd has become a critical problem because in the event of terror strikes. This study presented a real-time video surveillance system which classifies normal and abnormal behaviors in crowds. The aim of this research was to provide a system which can aid in monitoring crowded urban environments. Approach: The proposed behaviour classification was through projection which separated individuals and using star skeletonization the features like body posture and the cyclic motion cues were obtained. Using these cues the Support Vector Machine (SVM classified the normal and abnormal behaviors of human. Results: Experimental results demonstrated the method proposed was robust and efficient in the classification of normal and abnormal human behaviors. A comparative study of classification accuracy between principal component analysis and Support Vector Machine (SVM classification was also presented. Conclusion: The proposed method classified the behavior such as running people in a crowded environment, bending down movement while most are walking or standing, a person carrying a long bar and a person waving hand in the crowd is classified.

  4. Evaluation technology of human behavior cognition; Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Performance Simulation and Analysis for LTE System Using Human Behavior Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tsang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of traffic has been a key concern of the researchers particularly over the last two decades and it has been noticed through extensive high quality studies that traffic found in different kinds of IP/wireless IP networks is human operators . Despite the recent findings of real time human behavior in measured traffic from data networks, much of the current understanding of IP traffic modeling is still based on simplistic probability distributed traffic. Unlike most existing studies that areprimarily based on simplistic probabilistic model and traditional scheduling algorithms, this research presents an analytical performance model for real time human behavior queue systems with intelligent task management traffic input scheduled by anovel and promising scheduling mechanism for 4G -LTE system. Our proposed model is substantiated on human behavior queuing system that considers real time of traffic exhibiting homogeneous tasks characteristics. We analyze the model on the basis of newly proposed scheduling scheme for 4G - LTE system. We present closed form expressions of expected response times for real time traffic classes. We develop a discrete event simulator to understand the behavior of real time of arriving tasks traffic under this newly proposed scheduling mechanism for 4G - LTE system . The results indicate that our proposed scheduling algorithm provides preferential treatment to real -time applications such as voice and video but not to that extent that data applications are starving for bandwidth and outperforms all other scheduling schemes that are available in the market.

  6. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified......-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits....

  7. Sexual risk behavior among injection drug-using human immunodeficiency virus positive clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B K; Koman, J J; Catan, V M; Souply, K L; Birkel, R C; Golaszewski, T J

    1993-06-01

    This study examined sexual risk behavior of 154 seropositive Hispanic injection drug-using clients who were a subsample of a larger study. The results revealed that while nearly 71% followed safe sex practices at a 6-month follow-up, the other 29% were following risky sexual behaviors. Among males who were 25 years of age or younger, slightly over 58% were practicing unsafe sex. Among females, those in the 31-35 age group were all following risky sexual behaviors. Generally, those who lived with their sexual partners, females, and younger clients tended to follow risky sexual behaviors. These findings are very significant in the light of the heterosexual transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Educational and case management programs are needed to provide such clients with an understanding of the possibility of HIV transmission to their sexual partners and to their children in case of pregnancies.

  8. The Scent of Blood: A Driver of Human Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James K; Dietrich, Daniel R; Elbert, Thomas; Pause, Bettina M; Kübler, Lisa; Weierstall, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The scent of blood is potentially one of the most fundamental and survival-relevant olfactory cues in humans. This experiment tests the first human parameters of perceptual threshold and emotional ratings in men and women of an artificially simulated smell of fresh blood in contact with the skin. We hypothesize that this scent of blood, with its association with injury, danger, death, and nutrition will be a critical cue activating fundamental motivational systems relating to either predatory approach behavior or prey-like withdrawal behavior, or both. The results show that perceptual thresholds are unimodally distributed for both sexes, with women being more sensitive. Furthermore, both women and men's emotional responses to simulated blood scent divide strongly into positive and negative valence ratings, with negative ratings in women having a strong arousal component. For women, this split is related to the phase of their menstrual cycle and oral contraception (OC). Future research will investigate whether this split in both genders is context-dependent or trait-like.

  9. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  10. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Chan, J.S.; Pattij, T.; Jong, T.R. de; Oosting, R.S.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over tim

  11. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-08-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  12. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents’ risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 ad...

  13. Biomechanical behavior study of dog's small intestines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏; 周银生; 穆晓枫

    2002-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of dog's duodenum and jejunum were studied and a formulation of the stress-strain relation is presented in this paper. The results obtained indicated that the exponential coefficient α and the incremental duodenum of the elastic modulus are both larger than those of the jejunum. It means that the duodenum is more deformable than the jejunum. The experimental results of this work provide basal data for kinematics study of a robotic endoscope.

  14. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  15. Human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma experiments suppresses network reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Sanchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    During the last few years, much research has been devoted to strategic interactions on complex networks. In this context, the Prisoner's Dilemma has become a paradigmatic model, and it has been established that imitative evolutionary dynamics lead to very different outcomes depending on the details of the network. We here report that when one takes into account the real behavior of people observed in the experiments, both at the mean-field level and on utterly different networks the observed level of cooperation is the same. We thus show that when human subjects interact in an heterogeneous mix including cooperators, defectors and moody conditional cooperators, the structure of the population does not promote or inhibit cooperation with respect to a well mixed population.

  16. Human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma experiments suppresses network reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    During the last few years, much research has been devoted to strategic interactions on complex networks. In this context, the Prisoner's Dilemma has become a paradigmatic model, and it has been established that imitative evolutionary dynamics lead to very different outcomes depending on the details of the network. We here report that when one takes into account the real behavior of people observed in the experiments, both at the mean-field level and on utterly different networks, the observed level of cooperation is the same. We thus show that when human subjects interact in a heterogeneous mix including cooperators, defectors and moody conditional cooperators, the structure of the population does not promote or inhibit cooperation with respect to a well mixed population.

  17. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  18. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-06-29

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  20. The moderating role of human values in planned behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Y.; Thøgersen, John; Ruan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    and behavioral intentions: the attitude towards buying organic food and perceived behavioral control. Both of these antecedents have a stronger impact on intentions among consumers with strong selftranscendence values than among consumers with weak ones. Research limitations/implications – The study is based......Purpose – This article aims to study the role of personal values as moderators of the antecedents of consumers’ “green” buying intentions in the context of Chinese consumers’ inclination to buy organic food. Design/methodology/approach – Ordinary Chinese consumers (n ¼ 479) were intercepted...... contribute positively to the development of the economy. Originality/value – This article extends the rare literature analyzing Chinese consumers’ inclination to buy organic food. It also extends the understanding of the role of personal values as moderators of antecedents of consumers’ buying intentions...

  1. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  2. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: statistical behavior and its modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  3. AUTHENTICITY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN FREUD AND HEIDEGGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ ŞTEFAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research theme is the question of the authenticity of human behavior examined from two perspectives: the psychoanalytical one, developed by Sigmund Freud, and the one of philosophy of being embodied by Martin Heidegger. As concerns the Freudian psychoanalysis, I am primarily interested in the conflict among: self, ego, and superego. Because of the requisitions of the supergo, the subject mostly behaves according to the censorships imposed by this psychic instance. The self, dominated by sexuality and aggressiveness, exhibits the pulsional tendency to manifest itself in the conscious behavior of the individual. As regards the Heideggerian endeavor, I am interested in distinguishing between the authentic and non-authentic existences. In Heidegger’s vision, the nonauthentic existence manifests when we are living together with the others in society. This is the horizon of the impersonal “as it is done”, the Heideggerian das Man, which may be understood by the three dimensions: curiosity, ambiguity, and chatter. The authentic existence manifests when the individuals live on their own, in privacy, and acknowledge the fact that their existence develops over a strictly determined time period, the imminent confrontation with their own death coming closer and closer.

  4. Spatiotemporal detection of unusual human population behavior using mobile phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobra, Adrian; Williams, Nathalie E; Eagle, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to contribute to humanitarian response to disasters and violent events, scientists have proposed the development of analytical tools that could identify emergency events in real-time, using mobile phone data. The assumption is that dramatic and discrete changes in behavior, measured with mobile phone data, will indicate extreme events. In this study, we propose an efficient system for spatiotemporal detection of behavioral anomalies from mobile phone data and compare sites with behavioral anomalies to an extensive database of emergency and non-emergency events in Rwanda. Our methodology successfully captures anomalous behavioral patterns associated with a broad range of events, from religious and official holidays to earthquakes, floods, violence against civilians and protests. Our results suggest that human behavioral responses to extreme events are complex and multi-dimensional, including extreme increases and decreases in both calling and movement behaviors. We also find significant temporal and spatial variance in responses to extreme events. Our behavioral anomaly detection system and extensive discussion of results are a significant contribution to the long-term project of creating an effective real-time event detection system with mobile phone data and we discuss the implications of our findings for future research to this end.

  5. Spatiotemporal detection of unusual human population behavior using mobile phone data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Dobra

    Full Text Available With the aim to contribute to humanitarian response to disasters and violent events, scientists have proposed the development of analytical tools that could identify emergency events in real-time, using mobile phone data. The assumption is that dramatic and discrete changes in behavior, measured with mobile phone data, will indicate extreme events. In this study, we propose an efficient system for spatiotemporal detection of behavioral anomalies from mobile phone data and compare sites with behavioral anomalies to an extensive database of emergency and non-emergency events in Rwanda. Our methodology successfully captures anomalous behavioral patterns associated with a broad range of events, from religious and official holidays to earthquakes, floods, violence against civilians and protests. Our results suggest that human behavioral responses to extreme events are complex and multi-dimensional, including extreme increases and decreases in both calling and movement behaviors. We also find significant temporal and spatial variance in responses to extreme events. Our behavioral anomaly detection system and extensive discussion of results are a significant contribution to the long-term project of creating an effective real-time event detection system with mobile phone data and we discuss the implications of our findings for future research to this end.

  6. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance leve

  7. Influence of functional variant of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on impulsive behaviors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P; Rujescu, Dan; Herterich, Sabine; Lang, Sebastian; Gutknecht, Lise; Baehne, Christina G; Strobel, Alexander; Freitag, Christine M; Giegling, Ina; Romanos, Marcel; Hartmann, Annette; Rösler, Michael; Renner, Tobias J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Retz, Wolfgang; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Human personality is characterized by substantial heritability but few functional gene variants have been identified. Although rodent data suggest that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) modifies diverse behaviors including aggression, this has not been translated to human studies. To investigate the functionality of an NOS1 promoter repeat length variation (NOS1 Ex1f variable number tandem repeat [VNTR]) and to test whether it is associated with phenotypes relevant to impulsivity. Molecular biological studies assessed the cellular consequences of NOS1 Ex1f VNTR; association studies were conducted to investigate the impact of this genetic variant on impulsivity; imaging genetics was applied to determine whether the polymorphism is functional on a neurobiological level. Three psychiatric university clinics in Germany. More than 3200 subjects were included in the association study: 1954 controls, 403 patients with personality disorder, 383 patients with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 151 with familial ADHD, 189 suicide attempters, and 182 criminal offenders. For the association studies, the major outcome criteria were phenotypes relevant to impulsivity, namely, the dimensional phenotype conscientiousness and the categorical phenotypes adult ADHD, aggression, and cluster B personality disorder. A novel functional promoter polymorphism in NOS1 was associated with traits related to impulsivity, including hyperactive and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the short repeat variant was more frequent in adult ADHD, cluster B personality disorder, and autoaggressive and heteroaggressive behavior. This short variant came along with decreased transcriptional activity of the NOS1 exon 1f promoter and alterations in the neuronal transcriptome including RGS4 and GRIN1. On a systems level, it was associated with hypoactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is involved in the processing of emotion and reward in behavioral

  8. "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior": Correction to Payne et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reports an error in "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior" by B. Keith Payne, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi and Chris Loersch (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Oct], Vol 145[10], 1269-1279). In the article, the graph in Figure 5 did not contain the asterisk mentioned in the figure caption, which was intended to indicate a statistically significant difference between bet and pass prime. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-46925-002.) The effect of primes (i.e., incidental cues) on human behavior has become controversial. Early studies reported counterintuitive findings, suggesting that primes can shape a wide range of human behaviors. Recently, several studies failed to replicate some earlier priming results, raising doubts about the reliability of those effects. We present a within-subjects procedure for priming behavior, in which participants decide whether to bet or pass on each trial of a gambling game. We report 6 replications (N = 988) showing that primes consistently affected gambling decisions when the decision was uncertain. Decisions were influenced by primes presented visibly, with a warning to ignore the primes (Experiments 1 through 3) and with subliminally presented masked primes (Experiment 4). Using a process dissociation procedure, we found evidence that primes influenced responses through both automatic and controlled processes (Experiments 5 and 6). Results provide evidence that primes can reliably affect behavior, under at least some conditions, without intention. The findings suggest that the psychological question of whether behavior priming effects are real should be separated from methodological issues affecting how easily particular experimental designs will replicate. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Testosterone and its effects on human male adolescent mood and behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Sally Anne; Balzer, Ben W R; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2014-09-01

    During human puberty, there is an approximate 30-fold increase in testosterone production in boys. This increase is often linked to changes in mood and behavior in adolescence such as aggression, an increase in risk taking, and depression. The aim of this systematic review was to determine what evidence exists on the effects of endogenous testosterone on behavior and mood in males during adolescence. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, Education Resources Information Centre, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science. Only human studies were included. The study is community based, and the participants were healthy male adolescents within the age range of 9-18 years. Studies were required to have a validated mood and/or behavior assessment contemporaneous with a timed testosterone measurement. A total of 27 studies met the inclusion criteria of which only one was a longitudinal study. The remaining 26 studies were cross sectional in their analysis. As a variety of measurement tools were used, no meta-analysis was possible. Most studies focused on aggression. The one longitudinal study looking at testosterone and aggression showed little relationship with concurrent changes in aggression. Most of the cross-sectional studies of adolescent males observed relationships between aggression and testosterone levels. With respect to other behaviors and moods and/or affect, no consistent relationships with testosterone were observed in cross-sectional studies. This systematic review concludes that there are insufficient longitudinal data of high methodological quality to currently confirm that changing testosterone levels during puberty are significantly associated with mood and behavior in adolescent males. To discount these findings is to risk apportioning blame inappropriately and missing other important diagnoses in adolescent males. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator; Integracion de las expectativas de comportamiento humano en la formacion: simulacion de comportamiento humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  11. Group choice: the ideal free distribution of human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J R; Baum, W M

    2001-07-01

    Group choice refers to the distribution of group members between two choice alternatives over time. The ideal free distribution (IFD), an optimal foraging model from behavioral ecology, predicts that the ratio of foragers at two resource sites should equal the ratio of obtained resources, a prediction that is formally analogous to the matching law of individual choice, except that group choice is a social phenomenon. Two experiments investigated the usefulness of IFD analyses of human group choice and individual-based explanations that might account for the group-level events. Instead of nonhuman animals foraging at two sites for resources, a group of humans chose blue and red cards to receive points that could earn cash prizes. The groups chose blue and red cards in ratios in positive relation to the ratios of points associated with the cards. When group choice ratios and point ratios were plotted on logarithmic coordinates and fitted with regression lines, the slopes (i.e., sensitivity measures) approached 1.0 but tended to fall short of it (i.e., undermatching), with little bias and little unaccounted for variance. These experiments demonstrate that an IFD analysis of group choice is possible and useful, and suggest that group choice may be explained by the individual members' tendency to optimize reinforcement.

  12. Improving healthcare practice behaviors: an exploratory study identifying effective and ineffective behaviors in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D; Peterson, Tim O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of exploratory research designed to develop an awareness of healthcare behaviors, with a view toward improving the customer satisfaction with healthcare services. It examines the relationship between healthcare providers and their consumers/patients/clients. The study uses a critical incident methodology, with both effective and ineffective behavioral specimens examined across different provider groups. The effects of these different behaviors on what Berry (1999) identified as the common core values of service organizations are examined, as those values are required to build a lasting service relationship. Also examined are categories of healthcare practice based on the National Quality Strategy priorities. The most obvious is the retrospective nature of the method used. How accurate are patient or consumer memories? Are they capable of making valid judgments of healthcare experiences (Berry and Bendapudi, 2003)? While an obvious limitation, such recollections are clearly important as they may be paramount in following the healthcare practitioners' instructions, loyalty for repeat business, making recommendations to others and the like. Further, studies have shown retrospective reports to be accurate and useful (Miller et al., 1997). With this information, healthcare educators should be in a better position to improve the training offered in their programs and practitioners to better serve their customers. The findings would indicate that the human values of excellence, innovation, joy, respect and integrity play a significant role in building a strong service relationship between consumer and healthcare provider. Berry (1999) has argued that the overriding importance in building a lasting service business is human values. This exploratory study has shown how critical incident analysis can be used to determine both effective and ineffective practices of different medical providers. It also provides guidelines as

  13. Toward a Psychobiological Theory of Motivations for Human Communication Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jack B.

    Noting that recent research and theory from the expanding field of psychobiology have not been integrated into the study of human communication, this paper offers a synthesis of principles from several leading psychobiological scientists as a step toward a possible unifying approach to communication philosophy, theory, and research. The paper…

  14. Critical endpoint behavior: A Wang Landau study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D. P.; Wang, Fugao; Tsai, Shan-Ho

    2008-07-01

    We study the critical endpoint behavior using an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. The simulation method we use is Wang-Landau sampling in a two-dimensional parameter space. We observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the magnetization coexistence diameter derivative at the critical endpoint, and the exponents for both divergences agree well with previous theoretical predictions.

  15. Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussemart, Yves

    Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles operations are examples of such systems. In this context, the role of the operators is typically highly proceduralized due to the time and mission-critical nature of the tasks. Therefore, the ability to continuously monitor operator behavior so as to detect and predict anomalous situations is a critical safeguard for proper system operation. In particular, such models can help support the decision J]l8king process of a supervisor of a team of operators by providing alerts when likely anomalous behaviors are detected By exploiting the operator behavioral patterns which are typically reinforced through standard operating procedures, this thesis proposes a methodology that uses statistical learning techniques in order to detect and predict anomalous operator conditions. More specifically, the proposed methodology relies on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) to generate predictive models of unmanned vehicle systems operators. Through the exploration of the resulting HMMs in two distinct single operator scenarios, the methodology presented in this thesis is validated and shown to provide models capable of reliably predicting operator behavior. In addition, the use of HSMMs on the same data scenarios provides the temporal component of the predictions missing from the HMMs. The final step of this work is to examine how the proposed methodology scales to more complex scenarios involving teams of operators. Adopting a holistic team modeling approach, both HMMs and HSMMs are learned based on two team-based data sets. The results show that the HSMMs can provide valuable timing information in the single operator case, whereas HMMs tend to be more robust to increased team complexity. In addition, this thesis discusses the

  16. The contributions of oxytocin and vasopressin pathway genes to human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San

    2012-03-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are social hormones and mediate affiliative behaviors in mammals and as recently demonstrated, also in humans. There is intense interest in how these simple nonapeptides mediate normal and abnormal behavior, especially regarding disorders of the social brain such as autism that are characterized by deficits in social communication and social skills. The current review examines in detail the behavioral genetics of the first level of human AVP-OXT pathway genes including arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), AVP (AVP-neurophysin II [NPII]) and OXT (OXT neurophysin I [NPI]), oxytocinase/vasopressinase (LNPEP), ADP-ribosyl cyclase (CD38) and arginine vasopressin 1b receptor (AVPR1b). Wherever possible we discuss evidence from a variety of research tracks including molecular genetics, imaging genomics, pharmacology and endocrinology that support the conclusions drawn from association studies of social phenotypes and detail how common polymorphisms in AVP-OXT pathway genes contribute to the behavioral hard wiring that enables individual Homo sapiens to interact successfully with conspecifics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  17. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  18. The effects of estradiol on mood and behavior in human female adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Ben W R; Duke, Sally-Anne; Hawke, Catherine I; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2015-03-01

    Mood disorders and health risk behaviors increase in adolescence. Puberty is considered to contribute to these events. However, the precise impact of pubertal hormone changes to the emergence of mood disorders and risk behaviors is relatively unclear. It is important that inappropriate attribution is not made. Our aim was to determine what is known about the effect of endogenous estradiol on human adolescent girls' mood and behavior. The databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Pre-MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus for all dates to October 2014. For inclusion, contemporaneous hormone and mood or behavioral assessment was required. Data were extracted following a template created by the authors. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. There was some consistency in findings for mood and estradiol levels, with associations between estradiol and depression and emotional tone and risk taking. Results were less consistent for studies assessing other mood and behavioral outcomes. Most studies were cross-sectional in design; assay methodologies used in older studies may lack the precision to detect early pubertal hormone levels. Three longitudinal and several cross-sectional studies indicate potential associations between estradiol and certain mood or affective states, especially depression and mood variability though there are insufficient data to confirm that the rise in estradiol during puberty is causative. We believe that it is important for health professionals to take care when attributing adolescent psychopathology to puberty hormones, as the current data supporting these assertions are limited.

  19. STUDY ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PAPER COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang

    2004-01-01

    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  20. Organized spirochetal behavior in human subgingival plaques - A virulence factor in periodontal infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    The organization and behavior of spirochetes in human subgingival plaques was studied with phase-contrast microscopy. Wet-mounts of non-dispersed subgingival microbial specimens from deep pockets of 10 persons with untreated adult periodontitis revealed “brush formations” with outer coatings of closely-massed spirochetes exhibiting synchronized motility. Monolayers of closely-packed spirochetes co-aggregated with “brush formation” monofilaments were obtained by using mineral oil as a mounting...

  1. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  2. The perivascular phenotype and behaviors of dedifferentiated cells derived from human mature adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Kou, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Sugawara, Atsunori; Shimizu, Yutaka; Wu, Min-Ke; Du, Li; Wang, Hang; Sato, Soh; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2015-02-13

    Derived from mature adipocytes, dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells represent a special group of multipotent cells. However, their phenotype and cellular nature remain unclear. Our study found that human DFAT cells adopted perivascular characteristics and behaviors. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining revealed that human DFAT cells positively expressed markers highly related to perivascular cell lineages, such as CD140b, NG2 and desmin, but were negative for common endothelial markers, including CD31, CD34, and CD309. Furthermore, DFAT cells displayed vascular network formation ability in Matrigel, and they noticeably promoted and stabilized the vessel structures formed by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These results provide novel evidence on the pericyte nature of human DFAT cells, further supporting the recent model for the perivascular origin of adult stem cells, in which tissue-specific progenitor cells in mesenchymal tissues associate with blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular characteristics and functions.

  3. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  4. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  5. Social Differentiation in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that Engage in Human-Related Foraging Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Carolyn J; Perrtree, Robin M; Cox, Tara M

    2017-01-01

    Both natural and human-related foraging strategies by the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) have resulted in social segregation in several areas of the world. Bottlenose dolphins near Savannah, Georgia beg at an unprecedented rate and also forage behind commercial shrimp trawlers, providing an opportunity to study the social ramifications of two human-related foraging behaviors within the same group of animals. Dolphins were photo-identified via surveys conducted throughout estuarine waterways around Savannah in the summers of 2009-2011. Mean half-weight indices (HWI) were calculated for each foraging class, and community division by modularity was used to cluster animals based on association indices. Pairs of trawler dolphins had a higher mean HWI (0.20 ± 0.07) than pairs of non-trawler dolphins (0.04 ± 0.02) or mixed pairs (0.02 ± 0.02). In contrast, pairs of beggars, non-beggars, and mixed pairs all had similar means, with HWI between 0.05-0.07. Community division by modularity produced a useful division (0.307) with 6 clusters. Clusters were predominately divided according to trawler status; however, beggars and non-beggars were mixed throughout clusters. Both the mean HWI and social clusters revealed that the social structure of common bottlenose dolphins near Savannah, Georgia was differentiated based on trawler status but not beg status. This finding may indicate that foraging in association with trawlers is a socially learned behavior, while the mechanisms for the propagation of begging are less clear. This study highlights the importance of taking into account the social parameters of a foraging behavior, such as how group size or competition for resources may affect how the behavior spreads. The positive or negative ramifications of homophily may influence whether the behaviors are exhibited by individuals within the same social clusters and should be considered in future studies examining social relationships and foraging behaviors.

  6. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  7. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükyılmaz, Ayşe; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Başdoğan, Çağatay

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human nego...

  8. "Anatomical simulation" of the biomechanical behavior of the human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Cornelia; Hellmich, Christian; Stübinger, Stefan; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Sader, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The load-carrying behavior of the human mandible can be described using finite element simulation, enabling investigations about physiological and pathological skeletal adaption. "Anatomical simulation" implies a stepwise approximation towards the anatomical reality. The project is structured in three steps. In Step 1, the preprocessing, the simulation model is provided. Step 2 is the numerical computation. Step 3 is dedicated to the interpretation of the results. The requirements of the preprocessing are: a) realization of the organ's individual anatomy, namely its outer shape; b) the tissue's elastic properties, thus its inner consistency; and c) the organ's mechanical loads. For physiological mandibular loading, these are due to muscles, temporomandibular joints, and tooth forces. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of the macroscopic anatomy from computed tomography data is standard. The periodontal ligament is inserted ex post using an approach developed by the authors. The bone is modeled anisotropically and inhomogeneously. By the visualization of the individual fiber course, the muscular force vectors are realized. The mandibular condyle is freely mobile in a kind of simplified joint capsule. For the realization of bite forces, several approaches are available. An extendible software tool is provided, enabling the user - by variable input of muscle and bite forces - to examine the individual patient's biomechanics, eg, the influence of the periodontal ligament, the condition of the temporomandibular joints, atrophic processes, or the biomechanical situation of dental implants. By stepwise approximation towards the anatomical reality, the mandibular simulation will be advanced to a valuable tool for diagnosis and prognosis.

  9. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  10. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  11. The first year of behavioral development and maternal care of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calves in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M; Campbell, Carolyn; Dalton, Les; Osborn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The current study provides additional information for the behavioral development and maternal care of belugas or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the care of humans. The behaviors and mother-calf interactions of two female beluga calves were recorded from birth to 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of beluga behavioral development. As expected, the primary calf activity for both calves involved swimming with their mothers. The calves initiated the majority of the separations from and reunions with their mothers and exhibited early bouts of independence. Both mothers bonded with their calves and displayed similar maternal care behaviors but exhibited different behavioral patterns. Despite differences in social groupings, housing, and physical health, the two female belugas followed the behavioral development of beluga calves observed previously.

  12. Human Behavior, Social Environment, Social Reconstruction, and Social Policy: A System of Linkages, Goals, and Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Brij

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a wholesome relationship between human behavior and the forces of social environment is explored. The goals and foci of the human behavior and social environment component in social work education are reconceptualized in the light of knowledge that underscores the need for social reconstruction. (Author/MLW)

  13. Ontology-based high-level context inference for human behavior identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Lee, Sungyoung; Banos Legran, Oresti

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the utomatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based

  14. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-06-24

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual's contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation.

  15. Schedule of human-controlled periods structures bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) behavior in their free-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Isabella L K; Rödel, Heiko G; Cellier, Marjorie; Vink, Dennis; Michaud, Isaure; Mercera, Birgitta; Böye, Martin; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban; Delfour, Fabienne

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral patterns are established in response to predictable environmental cues. Animals under human care frequently experience predictable, human-controlled events each day, but very few studies have questioned exactly how behavioral patterns are affected by such activities. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) maintained for public display are good models to study such patterns since they experience multiple daily human-controlled periods (e.g., shows, training for shows, medical training). Thus, we investigated the effect of training session schedule on their "free-time" behavior, studying 29 individuals within 4 groups from 3 European facilities. Our initial time budget analyses revealed that among the behaviors studied, dolphins spent the most time engaged in synchronous swimming, and within this category swam most at slow speeds and in close proximity to each other. "Slow-close" synchronous swimming peaked shortly after training sessions and was low shortly before the next session. Play behavior had significantly higher frequencies in juveniles than in adults, but the effect was only seen during the in-between session period (interval neither shortly before nor after sessions). Anticipatory behavior toward sessions was significantly higher shortly before sessions and lower afterward. We conclude that dolphin behaviors unconnected to the human-controlled periods were modulated by them: slow-close synchronous swimming and age-dependent play, which have important social dimensions and links to welfare. We discuss potential parallels to human-controlled periods in other species, including humans themselves. Our findings could be taken into account when designing welfare assessments, and aid in the provision of enrichment and maintaining effective schedules beneficial to animals themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Methylphenidate (Ritalin): behavioral studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Erik P; Taber, Katherine H; Yang, Pamela B; Dafny, Nachum

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with an onset in childhood characterized by an inability to remain focused or to concentrate for prolonged periods of time. Children suffering from this disease are many times described as either inattentive or as hyperactive-impulsive depending on what form of the disease they manifest. Methylphenidate is the preferred treatment for this behavioral disorder and is used for long term disease management. Much still remains unknown concerning this stimulant and its effects on behavior and future abuse potential are pertinent questions. Since animal models are used to study the mechanism of drug action and rats are used often in drug studies, the objective of this review is to summarize the research reports that mainly have used rats as the model to investigate the action of methylphenidate. Topics discussed in this review include: (1) What effect does a single dose of methylphenidate have on locomotion activity; (2) Does repeated administration of methylphenidate result in tolerance or sensitization; and (3) Does methylphenidate have rewarding properties as measured by the self-administration and condition placed preference paradigms.

  17. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  18. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  19. Reward-based behaviors and emotional processing in human with narcolepsy-cataplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBayard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ajor advances in the past decade have led a better understanding of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy caused by the early loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons. Although a role for hypocretin in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness state is widely recognized, other functions, not necessarily related to arousal, have been identified. Hence, the hypocretin system enhances signaling in the mesolimbic pathways regulating reward processing, emotion and mood regulation, and addiction. Although studies on hypocretin-deficient mice have shown that hypocretin plays an essential role in reward-seeking, depression-like behavior and addiction, results in human narcolepsy remained subject to debate. Most of studies revealed that hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy patients either drug-free or medicated with psychostimulant had preferences towards risky choices in a decision-making task under ambiguity together with higher frequency of depressive symptoms and binge eating disorder compared to controls. However, human studies mostly reported the lack of association with pathological impulsivity and gambling, and substance and alcohol abuse in the context of narcolepsy-cataplexy. Prospective larger studies are required to confirm these findings in drug-free and medicated patients with narcolepsy. Inclusion of patients with other central hypersomnias without hypocretin deficiency will provide answer to the major question of the role of the hypocretin system in reward-based behaviors and emotional processing in humans.

  20. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Prat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine. The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements, they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  1. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G; Puaud, Simon J; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  2. Institutionalization: A Theory of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam McNown Johnson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalism is the syndrome first recognized and described in inpatient psychiatric facilities,which is now used to describe a set of maladaptive behaviors that are evoked by the pressures of living in any institutional setting. This article traces the development of the theory of institutionalization, which predicts and explains an individual’s response to that particular type of environment. The article makes note of key contributors and contributions, and of empirical studies that have advanced the theory. Underlying perspectives and assumptions are identified and earlier theoretical models are reviewed and critiqued. An updated model of the theory, which includes individual vulnerabilities, objective conditions of the institutional placement, and the resident’s perceptions of the environment, is presented. New directions in the field of institutional care and implications for social workers, particularly for those working in nursing home and prison settings, are discussed, along with recommendations for next steps for theory progression.

  3. Behavioral study with Erythrina velutina fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natlia Martins Lima; Lucas Siqueira de Lucena; Edilberto Rocha Silveira; Carlos Clayton Torres Aguiar; Paula Matias Soares; Francisca Cla Floreno de Sousa; Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the behavioral effects of semi purified fraction prepared from the stem bark of Erythrina ve-lutina on mice.Methods:Three chloroformic fractions (CA)at 50 or 100 mg/kg (CA1,CA2 and CA3)were tested in two behavioral tests:plus maze and open field.Results:In the plus maze test,it was observed a de-crease in the number of entries in the closed arms (NECA)CA2 at both doses as compared to the control group.In the open field test,CA2 and CA3 fractions decreased the number of squares crossed and the time of permanence on the bar,increased the number of falls at both doses in the rota rod test.The CA2 fraction de-creased the NECA,but this data did not characterize an anxiolytic effect.It was the consequence from de-crease of locomotor activity (LA)observed in the open field test,that the decrease of LA and rearing,the number of falls and the decrease in time of permanence on the bar in rota rod test were observed after treatment with CA2 and CA3 at both doses,suggesting sedative effect.Conclusion:The present work demonstrated that CA2 and CA3 fractions have impairing effect on LA and motor coordination.

  4. Do lambs perceive regular human stroking as pleasant? Behavior and heart rate variability analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Coulon

    Full Text Available Stroking by humans is beneficial to the human-animal relationship and improves welfare in many species that express intraspecific allogrooming, but very few studies have looked at species like sheep that do not express such contact except around parturition. This study investigated the way lambs perceive regular human tactile contact using behavioral and physiological responses. Twenty-four lambs were reared and bucket-fed in groups of four. All were stroked daily by their familiar caregiver. At 8 weeks of age, the lambs were individually tested in their home pen but in a 1×1m open-barred pen after a 15 h period of habituation to physical separation from peers while remaining in visual and auditory contact. Half of the lambs received stroking by their caregiver for 8 min and half were exposed to their caregiver's immobile presence. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded and analyzed by 2-min slots over the same interval based on three measures: mean heart rate value (HR, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD and standard deviation of all intervals measured between consecutive sinus beats (SDNN. Behavioral responses (ear postures of the lamb and time spent in contact with the familiar caregiver, on the knees of the familiar caregiver, and moving were recorded throughout the test. Lamb HR decreased continuously while in the presence of their caregiver. Lambs being stroked showed slower HR and higher RMSSD which reflected positive emotional states compared to lambs left unstroked. All behavioral variables were highly correlated with the main component axis of the PCA analyses: the more the animals stayed in contact with their caregiver, the less they moved and the more their ears were hanging. This first component clearly differentiates lambs being stroked or not. Behavioral and physiological observations support the hypothesis that gentle physical contact with the caregiver is perceived positively by lambs.

  5. Expectations are more predictive of behavior than behavioral intentions: evidence from two prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J; Norman, Paul; Alganem, Soud; Conner, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the gap between people's behavioral intentions and their subsequent behavior is a key problem for behavioral scientists, but little attention has been paid to how behavioral intentions are operationalized. Test the distinction between asking people what they intend to do, as opposed to what they expect they will do. Two studies were conducted in the domains of alcohol consumption (N = 152) and weight loss (N = 141). Participants completed questionnaires assessing their behavioral intentions, expectations, and self-efficacy at baseline; alcohol consumption/weight were assessed at both baseline and follow-up. In study 1, expectations were more predictive of alcohol consumption than behavioral intentions, controlling for baseline alcohol consumption and self-efficacy. In study 2, changes in expectations were more predictive of weight loss than changes in behavioral intentions, controlling for baseline weight and self-efficacy. The findings support a potentially important distinction between behavioral intentions and expectations.

  6. Social interactions model and adaptability of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eZhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to face interactions and mobile phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in whitin the model. This distribution in one limit is a power law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution.The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks.

  7. Using a Social Work Professor's Autobiography as a Teaching Tool in Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Jacquelyn

    2006-01-01

    Social work, like other disciplines, has long used case studies as a (1) methodological approach to communicating a body of knowledge, and (2) as a tangible means to acquaint students with archetypical applications of realistic conditions. In social work, one required course sequence enhanced by case study assessments is Human Behavior and the…

  8. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  10. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  11. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social relati

  12. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Wang, Yiwei; Nickel, Barry; Houghtaling, Paul; Shakeri, Yasaman; Allen, Maximilian L; Kermish-Wells, Joe; Yovovich, Veronica; Williams, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicating, and denning. We find that reproductive behaviors (communication and denning) require at least a 4× larger buffer from human development than non-reproductive behaviors (movement and feeding). In addition, pumas give a wider berth to types of human development that provide a more consistent source of human interference (neighborhoods) than they do to those in which human presence is more intermittent (arterial roads with speeds >35 mph). Neighborhoods were a deterrent to pumas regardless of behavior, while arterial roads only deterred pumas when they were communicating and denning. Female pumas were less deterred by human development than males, but they showed larger variation in their responses overall. Our behaviorally explicit approach to modeling animal response to human activity can be used as a novel tool to assess habitat quality, identify wildlife corridors, and mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  13. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Glenn; Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Skillful, collaborative conversations are powerful tools to improve physical and mental health. Whether you are a parent talking with your child about the dangers of substance abuse, an educator concerned about a student's signs of psychological distress, a veteran worried about a buddy who is contemplating suicide, or a healthcare professional wanting to better engage patients to increase treatment compliance, having the skill, confidence and motivation to engage in conversations can truly transform the health and well-being of those you interact with. Kognito develops role-play simulations that prepare individuals to effectively lead real-life conversations that measurably improve social, emotional, and physical health. The behavior change model that drives the simulations draws upon components of game mechanics, virtual human simulation technology and integrates evidence-based instructional design components as well as principles of social-cognitive theory and neuroscience such as motivational interviewing, emotional regulation, empathy and mindfulness. In the simulations, users or enter a risk-free practice environment and engage in a conversation with intelligent, fully animated, and emotionally responsive virtual characters that model human behavior. It is in practicing these conversations, and receiving feedback from a virtual coach, that users learn to better lead conversations in real life. Numerous longitudinal studies have shown that users who complete Kognito simulations demonstrate statistically significant and sustained increases in attitudinal variables that predict behavior change including preparedness, likelihood, and self-efficacy to better manage conversations. Pending the target population, each online or mobile simulation resulted in desired behavior changes ranging from increased referrals of students, patients or veterans in psychological distress to mental health support services, or increasing physician patient-centered communication or

  14. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Skillful, collaborative conversations are powerful tools to improve physical and mental health. Whether you are a parent talking with your child about the dangers of substance abuse, an educator concerned about a student’s signs of psychological distress, a veteran worried about a buddy who is contemplating suicide, or a healthcare professional wanting to better engage patients to increase treatment compliance, having the skill, confidence and motivation to engage in conversations can truly transform the health and well-being of those you interact with. Kognito develops role-play simulations that prepare individuals to effectively lead real-life conversations that measurably improve social, emotional, and physical health. The behavior change model that drives the simulations draws upon components of game mechanics, virtual human simulation technology and integrates evidence-based instructional design components as well as principles of social-cognitive theory and neuroscience such as motivational interviewing, emotional regulation, empathy and mindfulness. In the simulations, users or enter a risk-free practice environment and engage in a conversation with intelligent, fully animated, and emotionally responsive virtual characters that model human behavior. It is in practicing these conversations, and receiving feedback from a virtual coach, that users learn to better lead conversations in real life. Numerous longitudinal studies have shown that users who complete Kognito simulations demonstrate statistically significant and sustained increases in attitudinal variables that predict behavior change including preparedness, likelihood, and self-efficacy to better manage conversations. Pending the target population, each online or mobile simulation resulted in desired behavior changes ranging from increased referrals of students, patients or veterans in psychological distress to mental health support services, or increasing physician patient-centered communication or

  15. Study of thermal behavior of phytic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in galenic cosmetic emulsions. However, we have observed experimentally that phytic acid, when heated to 150 ºC for around one hour, shows evidence of thermal decomposition. Few studies investigating this substance alone with regard to its stability are available in the literature. This fact prompted the present study to characterize this species and its thermal behavior using thermal analysis (TG/DTG and DSC and to associate the results of these techniques with those obtained by elemental analysis (EA and absorption spectroscopy in the infrared region. The TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of the sample of phytic acid and enabled use of the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method to study the kinetics of the three main mass-loss events: dehydration I, dehydration II and thermal decomposition. The combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques allowed evaluation of the intermediate products of the thermal decomposition of phytic acid. The infrared spectra of samples taken during the heating process revealed a reduction in the intensity of the absorption band related to O-H stretching as a result of the dehydration process. Furthermore, elemental analysis results showed an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen content at temperatures of 95, 150, 263 and 380 °C. Visually, darkening of the material was observed at 150 °C, indicating that the thermal decomposition of the material started at this temperature. At a temperature of 380 °C, thermal decomposition progressed, leading to a decrease in carbon and hydrogen. The results of thermogravimetry coupled with those of elemental analysis allow us to conclude that there was agreement between the percentages of phytic acid found in aqueous solution. The kinetic study by the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method showed that the dehydration

  16. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  17. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  18. Leadership Behavior in Public Organizations : A Study of Supervisory Support by Police and Medical Center Middle Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knies, Eva; Leisink, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Leadership behavior is recognized as an important variable in the Human Resource Management (HRM)-Performance chain. However, in most studies, leadership behavior is viewed as an independent variable, and one that influences employees' attitudes and behavior. Because of this premise, claims that pub

  19. Leadership Behavior in Public Organizations : A Study of Supervisory Support by Police and Medical Center Middle Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knies, Eva; Leisink, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Leadership behavior is recognized as an important variable in the Human Resource Management (HRM)-Performance chain. However, in most studies, leadership behavior is viewed as an independent variable, and one that influences employees' attitudes and behavior. Because of this premise, claims that pub

  20. Craving for alcohol and drugs in animals and humans: biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N S; Goldsmith, R J

    2001-01-01

    Research studies indicate that sites and pathways for appetitive drive states, that are located in the limbic system, appear to be responsible for normal and pathological craving for alcohol and other addicting drugs. Pathological craving for alcohol and drugs in humans has been substantiated by animal studies, which have identified neurosubstrates and neurotransmitters associated with behavioral models of addiction. Repetitive administration of alcohol and drugs appears to affect hedonic homeostasis of the appetitive drives leading to the hedonic alleostasis where negative reinforcement exceeds positive returns despite continued drug use. Neuroimaging studies have concentrated on areas in the brain related to reward or reinforcement of alcohol/drug use, but the technique can be employed to find support for a neurosubstrate to distinguish normal craving or "liking" from pathological craving or "wanting" a drug. Identifying the neurobasis of "wanting" a drug long after not "liking it" is central to understanding pathological craving and loss of control over drug use in addiction in humans. Neuroimaging is currently the only method to directly visualize sites for craving in the brain in humans. Neuroimaging techniques will provide methods, which are not possible in animals, for studying addictive disease in humans.

  1. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Is "circling" behavior in humans related to postural asymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bestaven

    Full Text Available In attempting to walk rectilinearly in the absence of visual landmarks, persons will gradually turn in a circle to eventually become lost. The aim of the present study was to provide insights into the possible underlying mechanisms of this behavior. For each subject (N = 15 six trajectories were monitored during blindfolded walking in a large enclosed area to suppress external cues, and ground irregularities that may elicit unexpected changes in direction. There was a substantial variability from trial to trial for a given subject and between subjects who could either veer very early or relatively late. Of the total number of trials, 50% trajectories terminated on the left side, 39% on the right side and 11% were defined as "straight". For each subject, we established a "turning score" that reflected his/her preferential side of veering. The turning score was found to be unrelated to any evident biomechanical asymmetry or functional dominance (eye, hand.... Posturographic analysis, used to assess if there was a relationship between functional postural asymmetry and veering revealed that the mean position of the center of foot pressure during balance tests was correlated with the turning score. Finally, we established that the mean position of the center of pressure was correlated with perceived verticality assessed by a subjective verticality test. Together, our results suggest that veering is related to a "sense of straight ahead" that could be shaped by vestibular inputs.

  3. THE PREREQUISITES OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN ONTOGENY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina M. Sozinova; Alexey A. Sozinov; Seppo J. Laukka; Yuri I. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the development of moral attitudes toward unrelated individuals from different social groups may provide insights into the role of biological and cultural factors in prosocial behavior. Children (3–11 years old, N=80...

  4. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Representing Human Behavior Characteristics in a System of Systems Agent-Based Survivability Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    distribution is unlimited. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS IN A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AGENT-BASED SURVIVABILITY...27411 -0001 ABSTRACT A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS IN A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AGENT-BASED SURVIVABILITY SIMULATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS IN A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AGENT-BASED SURVIVABILITY

  6. Human papillomavirus vaccination and sexual behavior in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, Mary B; Kresowik, Jessica D K; Liu, Dawei; Mains, Lindsay; Lessard, Megan; Ryan, Ginny L

    2014-04-01

    To compare sexual attitudes and behaviors of young women who have received or declined the HPV vaccine. Cross-sectional survey. Obstetrics and gynecology and pediatrics clinics at a large, Midwestern, academic health center. 223 young women (ages 13-24): 153 who had received HPV vaccination and 70 with no prior HPV vaccination. Sexual behaviors; attitudes toward sexual activity. Vaccinated young women were slightly but significantly younger than unvaccinated (mean age 19.2 vs 20.0). Both groups showed a large percentage of participants engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (75% vs 77%). The mean age at sexual debut was not significantly different between the groups (16.8 vs 17.0) nor was the average number of sexual partners (6.6 for both). Unvaccinated participants were more likely to have been pregnant (20% vs 8.6%, P = .016), although this difference was not significant in multivariate analysis CI [0.902-5.177]. Specific questions regarding high-risk sexual behaviors and attitudes revealed no significant differences between the groups. We found that sexual behaviors, including high-risk behaviors, were similar between young women who had and had not received HPV vaccination. Our findings provide no support for suggestions that the vaccine is associated with increased sexual activity. Importantly, we found that young women in our population are sexually active at a young age and are engaged in high-risk behaviors, affirming the importance of early vaccination. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  8. Human dental pulp stem cell behavior using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Acasigua, Gerson Arisoly Xavier; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Scher, Cristiane Regina; Xavier Filho, Lauro; Pranke, Patricia Helena Lucas; Basmaji, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Adhesion and Viability study with human dental pulp stem cell using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine are presented at first time in this work. Nanotolith, are osteoinductors, i.e., they stimulate bone regeneration, enabling higher cells migration for bone tissue regeneration formation. This is mainly because nanotoliths are rich minerals present in the internal ear of bony fish. In addition, are part of a system which acts as a depth sensor and balance, acting as a sound vibrations detector and considered essential for the bone mineralization process, as in hydroxiapatites. Nanotoliths influence in bacterial cellulose was analyzed using transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results shows that fermentation process and nanotoliths agglomeration decrease initial human dental pulp stem cell adhesion however tested bionanocomposite behavior has cell viability increase over time.

  9. Behavior modification with culturally deprived school children: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, B H; Senn, K; Welch, R H; Cooper, B R

    1969-01-01

    Techniques of behavior modification were employed with two second-grade Negro girls in a demonstration school for culturally deprived children to increase the girls' appropriate classroom behaviors. A classification system that provided for continuous categorization of behavior was used to code the children's behavior in two classroom situations. Data were also taken on the type, duration, and frequency of the teachers' verbal interactions. The study included four conditions: Baseline, Modification I, Postmodification, and Modification II. The treatment variable was positive social reinforcement-attention and approval contingent upon desirable classroom behaviors-which was presented, withheld, or withdrawn (timeout from social reinforcement). Withholding of social reinforcement was contingent upon inappropriate attention-getting behaviors. Timeout from social reinforcement was contingent upon behaviors classified as aggressive and resistive. After 25 days of Modification I, desirable behavior increased markedly for each girl. The teachers were then asked to return to their Baseline level of performance. The resultant behaviors demonstrated that for one girl, behavior was still primarily under the control of the treatment contingencies. For the second child, many desirable behaviors that had increased in frequency during Modification I remained high, but inappropriate behaviors increased. When treatment was reinstated, the amount of time spent in desirable behaviors increased and remained high for both girls. Three checks during the three months following data collection showed that these behaviors continued to remain high.

  10. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  11. A Study of Taiwanese Teens' Traditional and Cyberbullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Lin, Chia-Ying; Chen, An-Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study examined several types of teen behaviors, specifically bullying, being bullied, and witnessing bullying, and analyzed teens' judgments of the seriousness of the bullying. A Bullying Behaviors Scale (BBS) was designed to investigate both traditional bullying (TB) and cyberbullying (CB) behaviors among teens in grades 5 through 11. The…

  12. Method for studies of behavior and physiology of sea mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, V B; Siniutin, S A; Siniutin, E S; Kavtsevich, N N; Zotov, A S

    2008-03-01

    The potentialities of an original programmed complex for long-term monitoring of oxygen supply and behavior of sea mammals under conditions of free behavior were evaluated. Results of pilot studies of behavioral activity and body systems of seals are presented.

  13. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocato Pamela; Hvitfeldt Forsberg Helena; von Thiele Schwarz Ulrica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial ph...

  14. The Difference of Structural State and Deformation Behavior between Teenage and Mature Human Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, Peter; Zaytsev, Dmitry; Antonova, Olga V; Alpatova, Victoria; Kiselnikova, Larissa P

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The cause of considerable elasticity and plasticity of human dentin is discussed in the relationship with its microstructure. Methods. Structural state of teenage and mature human dentin is examined by using XRD and TEM techniques, and their deformation behavior under compression is studied as well. Result. XRD study has shown that crystallographic type of calcium hydroxyapatite in human dentin (calcium hydrogen phosphate hydroxide Ca9HPO4(PO4)5OH; Space Group P63/m (176); a = 9,441 A; c = 6,881 A; c/a = 0,729; Crystallite (Scherrer) 200 A) is the same for these age groups. In both cases, dentin matrix is X-ray amorphous. According to TEM examination, there are amorphous and ultrafine grain phases in teenage and mature dentin. Mature dentin is stronger on about 20% than teenage dentin, while teenage dentin is more elastic on about 20% but is less plastic on about 15% than mature dentin. Conclusion. The amorphous phase is dominant in teenage dentin, whereas the ultrafine grain phase becomes dominant in mature dentin. Mechanical properties of human dentin under compression depend on its structural state, too.

  15. The Difference of Structural State and Deformation Behavior between Teenage and Mature Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Panfilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The cause of considerable elasticity and plasticity of human dentin is discussed in the relationship with its microstructure. Methods. Structural state of teenage and mature human dentin is examined by using XRD and TEM techniques, and their deformation behavior under compression is studied as well. Result. XRD study has shown that crystallographic type of calcium hydroxyapatite in human dentin (calcium hydrogen phosphate hydroxide Ca9HPO4(PO45OH; Space Group P63/m (176; a = 9,441 A; c = 6,881 A; c/a = 0,729; Crystallite (Scherrer 200 A is the same for these age groups. In both cases, dentin matrix is X-ray amorphous. According to TEM examination, there are amorphous and ultrafine grain phases in teenage and mature dentin. Mature dentin is stronger on about 20% than teenage dentin, while teenage dentin is more elastic on about 20% but is less plastic on about 15% than mature dentin. Conclusion. The amorphous phase is dominant in teenage dentin, whereas the ultrafine grain phase becomes dominant in mature dentin. Mechanical properties of human dentin under compression depend on its structural state, too.

  16. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Abubshait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human–robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human–robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot and behavior (reliable vs. random within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings in human–robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human–robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human–robot interaction are discussed.

  17. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the

  18. Modeling of Human Criminal Behavior using Probabilistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Ramesh Kumar Gopala

    2010-01-01

    Currently, criminals profile (CP) is obtained from investigators or forensic psychologists interpretation, linking crime scene characteristics and an offenders behavior to his or her characteristics and psychological profile. This paper seeks an efficient and systematic discovery of nonobvious and valuable patterns between variables from a large database of solved cases via a probabilistic network (PN) modeling approach. The PN structure can be used to extract behavioral patterns and to gain insight into what factors influence these behaviors. Thus, when a new case is being investigated and the profile variables are unknown because the offender has yet to be identified, the observed crime scene variables are used to infer the unknown variables based on their connections in the structure and the corresponding numerical (probabilistic) weights. The objective is to produce a more systematic and empirical approach to profiling, and to use the resulting PN model as a decision tool.

  19. A Human Motor Behavior Model for Direct Pointing at a Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Kopper, Regis; Bowman,Doug A.; Silva, Mara G.

    2008-01-01

    Models of human motor behavior are well known as an aid in the design of user interfaces (UIs). Most current models apply primarily to desktop interaction, but with the development of non-desktop UIs, new types of motor behaviors need to be modeled. Direct Pointing at a Distance is such a motor behavior. A model of direct pointing at a distance would be particularly useful in the comparison of different interaction techniques, because the performance of such techniques is highly dependent on ...

  20. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: Determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavio...

  1. Women in STEM and Human Information Behavior: Implications for LIS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary data from research that seeks to inform the readers about the way that human information behavior and the use of scholarly resources impacts on women in the STEM fields. By focusing on the information behavior and information needs of women in STEM, this could lead to an increased use of academic library resources…

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  3. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: comparing the health belief model and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2012-10-01

    Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later. Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

  4. Behavior management approach for agitated behavior in Japanese patients with dementia: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Torii, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Mizuki; Negi, Atsushi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Narumoto, Jin; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Background Agitated behaviors are frequently observed in patients with dementia and can cause severe distress to caregivers. However, little evidence of the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for agitated behaviors exists for patients with dementia. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate a behavioral management program developed by the Seattle Protocols for patients with agitated behaviors in Japan. Methods Eighteen patients with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, n = 14; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 4) participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of a behavioral management program. The intervention consisted of 20 sessions over the course of 3 months. The primary outcomes were severity of agitation in dementia, as measured using the Agitated Behavior in Dementia scale (ABID) and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Results The behavioral management program resulted in significant reductions in total scores on both the ABID and CMAI. Although both physically agitated and verbally agitated behavior scores on the ABID improved significantly, symptoms of psychosis did not improve after the intervention. Conclusion The behavioral management technique may be beneficial to distressed caregivers of patients with dementia. In the future, a well designed study to develop the behavioral management program more fully is needed. PMID:23293522

  5. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir

  6. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies, the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for 14 different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior, and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution whereas polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities whereas others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era, the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today.

  7. Quantifying nonverbal communicative behavior in face-to-face human dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhiri, Mustapha; Cerrato, Loredana

    2002-11-01

    The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that it is possible to measure and quantify the entity of these movements with the Qualisys MacReflex motion tracking system. Naturally elicited dialogues between humans have been analyzed with focus on the attention on those nonverbal behaviors that serve the very relevant functions of regulating the conversational flux (i.e., turn taking) and producing information about the state of communication (i.e., feedback). The results show that eyebrow raising, head nods, and head shakes are typical signals involved during the exchange of speaking turns, as well as in the production and elicitation of feedback. These movements can be easily measured and quantified, and this measure can be implemented in animated talking heads.

  8. Three-Dimensional Scaffold from Decellularized Human Gingiva for Cell Cultures: Glycoconjugates and Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Banihashem Rad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied both the presence of some carbohydrate compounds in a three-dimensional (3D matrix harvested from human gingiva and the cell behavior in this matrix.Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, in order to prepare 3D scaffolds, human palatal gingival biopsies were harvested and physically decellularized by freeze-thawing and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The scaffolds were placed within the rings of blastema tissues obtained from a pinna rabbit, in vitro. We evaluated the presence of glycoconjugatesand cellular behavior according to histological, histochemical and spectrophotometry techniques at one, two and three weeks after culture. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVAcomparedthe groups.Results: Extracellular matrix (ECM remained after decellularization of tissue with 1% SDS. Glycoconjugate contents decreased meaningfully at a higher SDS concentration (p<0.0001. After culture of the ECM scaffold with blastema, we observed increased staining of alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and toluidine blue in the scaffold and a number of other migrant cells which was caused by cell penetrationinto the scaffold. Spectrophotometry results showed an increase in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs of the decellularized scaffolds at three weeks after culture.Conclusion: The present study has shown that a scaffold generated from palatal gingival tissue ECM is a suitable substrate for blastema cell migration and activity.This scaffold maypotentially be useful as a biological scaffold in tissue engineering applications.

  9. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  10. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  11. Strategies for the study of flightcrew behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of any flightcrew at any given time is determined by multiple factors ranging from characteristics of individual crewmembers to the regulations governing flight operations. Attention is given to microcoding of communications, survey data on crewmember attitudes as indicators of culture and crew resource management (CRM) training effects, and systematic observation of crew behavior. Consideration is given to advanced CRM training of evaluators, analyses of crew behavior by aircraft type and characteristics, and survey data on crew reactions to line oriented flight training.

  12. Behavior generation for interpersonal coordination with virtual humans : on specifying, scheduling and realizing multimodal virtual human behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, van Herwin

    2011-01-01

    Interactive virtual humans, are used in many educational and entertain- ment settings. They have become very complex pieces of software. Building a state-of-the-art virtual human entails re-implementing several pieces of ex- isting work. The SAIBA initiative (consisting of several leading researcher

  13. Collective behavior quantification on human odor effects against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes-Open source development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Abdul Halim; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Leong, Cherng Shii; Lau, Yee Ling; Safdari Ghandari, Alireza; Apau, Alexlee; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2017-01-01

    Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average

  14. Collective behavior quantification on human odor effects against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes—Open source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Cherng Shii; Lau, Yee Ling; Safdari Ghandari, Alireza; Apau, Alexlee; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2017-01-01

    Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average

  15. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; De Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Van Der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; De Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; De Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrikke; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; De Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Roy Thurik, A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlyi

  17. Human Behavior and the Social Environment, Self-Disclosure, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliman, Diane Carol

    2001-01-01

    Describes how a social work course requires students to reflect upon their own theories of human development. Reflects upon the author's experiences as a student and teacher of Human Behavior and the Social Environment. Discusses the role of self-disclosure and shares several of her own poems that illustrate her own view of lifespan development…

  18. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Illa M.; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R. B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tonu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen-A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Toenjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Dania V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkila, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe', Vincent W. V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Kahonen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Paivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellstrom, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renee; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Porn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stockl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlyi

  19. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  20. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  1. Study of Behavior of Sterols at Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P. D.; Knight, J. C.; Szczepanik, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Behavior of sterols and sterol acetates on various types of interfaces indicates that the function of a sterol depends upon a surface orientation and surface energy of the interface. Column-chromatographic techniques determine the retention volume of various sterols under standard conditions.

  2. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  3. Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

  4. A Human-Centered Smart Home System with Wearable-Sensor Behavior Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianting; Liu, Ting; Shen, Chao; Wu, Hongyu; Liu, Wenyi; Su, Man; Chen, Siyun; Jia, Zhanpei

    2016-11-17

    Smart home has recently attracted much research interest owing to its potential in improving the quality of human life. How to obtain user's demand is the most important and challenging task for appliance optimal scheduling in smart home, since it is highly related to user's unpredictable behavior. In this paper, a human-centered smart home system is proposed to identify user behavior, predict their demand and schedule the household appliances. Firstly, the sensor data from user's wearable devices are monitored to profile user's full-day behavior. Then, the appliance-demand matrix is constructed to predict user's demand on home environment, which is extracted from the history of appliance load data and user behavior. Two simulations are designed to demonstrate user behavior identification, appliance-demand matrix construction and strategy of appliance optimal scheduling generation.

  5. Human skeletal muscle behavior in vivo: Finite element implementation, experiment, and passive mechanical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, Christof B; Benderoth, Günther E K; Schmidt, Andreas; Hübner, Frank; Vogl, Thomas J; Silber, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, useful methods for active human skeletal muscle material parameter determination are provided. First, a straightforward approach to the implementation of a transversely isotropic hyperelastic continuum mechanical material model in an invariant formulation is presented. This procedure is found to be feasible even if the strain energy is formulated in terms of invariants other than those predetermined by the software's requirements. Next, an appropriate experimental setup for the observation of activation-dependent material behavior, corresponding data acquisition, and evaluation is given. Geometry reconstruction based on magnetic resonance imaging of different deformation states is used to generate realistic, subject-specific finite element models of the upper arm. Using the deterministic SIMPLEX optimization strategy, a convenient quasi-static passive-elastic material characterization is pursued; the results of this approach used to characterize the behavior of human biceps in vivo indicate the feasibility of the illustrated methods to identify active material parameters comprising multiple loading modes. A comparison of a contact simulation incorporating the optimized parameters to a reconstructed deformed geometry of an indented upper arm shows the validity of the obtained results regarding deformation scenarios perpendicular to the effective direction of the nonactivated biceps. However, for a valid, activatable, general-purpose material characterization, the material model needs some modifications as well as a multicriteria optimization of the force-displacement data for different loading modes.

  6. Time-dependent mechanical behavior of human amnion: macroscopic and microscopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Arabella; Perrini, Michela; Ehret, Alexander E; De Focatiis, Davide S A; Mazza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanical response of the human amnion is essential to understand and to eventually prevent premature rupture of fetal membranes. In this study, a large set of macroscopic and microscopic mechanical tests have been carried out on fresh unfixed amnion to gain insight into the time-dependent material response and the underlying mechanisms. Creep and relaxation responses of amnion were characterized in macroscopic uniaxial tension, biaxial tension and inflation configurations. For the first time, these experiments were complemented by microstructural information from nonlinear laser scanning microscopy performed during in situ uniaxial relaxation tests. The amnion showed large tension reduction during relaxation and small inelastic strain accumulation in creep. The short-term relaxation response was related to a concomitant in-plane and out-of-plane contraction, and was dependent on the testing configuration. The microscopic investigation revealed a large volume reduction at the beginning, but no change of volume was measured long-term during relaxation. Tension-strain curves normalized with respect to the maximum strain were highly repeatable in all configurations and allowed the quantification of corresponding characteristic parameters. The present data indicate that dissipative behavior of human amnion is related to two mechanisms: (i) volume reduction due to water outflow (up to ∼20 s) and (ii) long-term dissipative behavior without macroscopic deformation and no systematic global reorientation of collagen fibers.

  7. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders.

  8. Modeling human decision making behavior in supervisory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, M. K.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision control model was developed, which is based primarily on a dynamic programming algorithm which looks at all the available task possibilities, charts an optimal trajectory, and commits itself to do the first step (i.e., follow the optimal trajectory during the next time period), and then iterates the calculation. A Bayesian estimator was included which estimates the tasks which might occur in the immediate future and provides this information to the dynamic programming routine. Preliminary trials comparing the human subject's performance to that of the optimal model show a great similarity, but indicate that the human skips certain movements which require quick change in strategy.

  9. Comparison of human face matching behavior and computational image similarity measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenFeng; LIU ChangHong; LANDER Karen; FU XiaoLan

    2009-01-01

    Computational similarity measures have been evaluated in a variety of ways, but few of the validated computational measures are based on a high-level, cognitive criterion of objective similarity. In this paper, we evaluate two popular objective similarity measures by comparing them with face matching performance In human observers. The results suggest that these measures are still limited in predicting human behavior, especially In rejection behavior, but objective measure taking advantage of global and local face characteristics may improve the prediction. It is also suggested that human may set different criterions for "hit" and "rejection" and this may provide implications for biologically-inspired computational systems.

  10. Asymmetry of brain and behavior in animals: Its development, function, and human relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of brain asymmetry in a wide range of vertebrate species, it has become possible to study development and expression of lateralized behavior accurately in well-controlled experiments. Several species have emerged as useful models for investigating aspects of lateralization. Discussed here are: (1) the influence of exposure to light during embryonic development on lateralization, (2) effects of steroid hormones on lateralization, (3) developmental changes in which hemisphere is controlling behavior, and (4) asymmetry in memory formation and recall. The findings have bearing on understanding the development of hemispheric specialization in humans and are likely to provide insight into dysfunctional behavior associated with weak or absent lateralization and impaired interhemispheric communication (e.g., autism, schizophrenia, and dyslexia). This review features research on chicks, pigeons, and zebrafish, with the addition of some recent evidence of lateralization in bees. Discoveries made using these species have highlighted the interaction between experience, hormones, and genetic factors during development, and have provided some of the first clear evidence of the advantage of having a lateralized brain.

  11. Travel Services Consumer Behavior Study at Meridian UTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Constantin Andronic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to study consumer behavior purchasing travel services offered byUTB Meridian. The main objectives of the research are: pre-purchase stage, the stage of purchase,post-purchase stage of the tourist product offered, having regardto the customer structure in terms ofsocio-professional category, age, income, gender. The collectivity investigated is represented byindividuals from which the information were obtained, that is the tourists military personnel who havepurchased services at UTB MERIDIAN-Eforie Nord. This collectivity is the population from whichthe sample will be drawn on which the investigation will be applied and the crowd on which theresults of research will be generalized. To obtain the information direct contact is used by aninvestigator for better control of conditions under which the investigation is conducted. Based on thisanalysis, it appears that the main components of the“mix”of marketing on which we can act toattract tourism consumers and to determine a certain purchase behavior are: product policy,promotional policy and human resources.

  12. Studies of human vision recognition: some improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chang, Lin-Song

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to improve human recognition by artificial intelligence, specifically of images without the interference of high frequencies. The human eye is the most delicate optical system. Notwithstanding the dramatic progression of its structure and functions through a long evolution, the capability of visual recognition is not yet close to perfection. This paper is a study, based on the limitations of recognition by the human eye, of image recognition through the application of artificial intelligence. Those aspects which have been explored focus on human eye modeling, including aberration analysis, creative models of the human eye, human vision recognition characteristics and various mathematical models for verification. By using images consisting of four black and white bands and modulation transfer function (MTF) curve evaluation recognition capability on all the studied models, the optimum model most compatible with the physiology of the human eye is found.

  13. Studying Human Dynamics Through Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasco, Jose; Goncalves, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    When Tim Berners Lee, a physicist at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) first conceived the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1990 as a way to facilitate the sharing of scientific information and results among the centers different researchers and groups, even the most ingenious of science fiction writers could not have imagined the role it would come to play in the following decades. The increasing ubiquitousness of Internet access and the frequency with which people interact with it raise the possibility of using it to better observe, understand, and even monitor several aspects of human social behavior. Websites with large numbers of frequently returning users, such as search engines, company or university websites, are ideal for this task. The properly anonymized logs detailing the access history to Emory University's website is studied. We find that a small number of users is responsible for a finite fraction of the total activity. A saturation phenomenon is observed where, certain connections age, becoming less attractive to new activity over time. Finally, by measuring the average activity as a function of the day of the week, we find that productivity seems to be higher on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, with Sundays being the least active day.

  14. Nursing instructors' perception of students' uncivil behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumpoor, Anahita; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rassouli, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Uncivil behavior is a serious issue in nursing education around the world, and is frequently faced by instructors and students. There is no study in relation to explain the concept and dimensions of uncivil behavior in nursing education of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of nursing educators about student incivility behavior. This was a qualitative study. Data from 11 semi-structured interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants and research context: In all, 11 nursing educators of 5 various nursing schools in Tehran, capital of Iran, participated. Ethical considerations: Organizational approval by the Universities, and informed consent were ensured before conducting the research. The principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, and anonymity were respected during the research process. Three themes were found: disruptive behavior affecting communication climate, disruptive behavior affecting ethical climate, and disruptive behavior affecting learning climate. Discussion and final considerations: The results of this study demonstrated that uncivil behavior affects every ethical, communicational, and learning climate and threaten peace of the instructors, students, and the academic community. With the consideration of mutuality in incivility behaviors, the authors propose to examine students' perceptions and identify dimensions of uncivil behavior of instructors for formulating strategies to minimize such behaviors in nursing educational society.

  15. Recognition and localization of relevant human behavior in videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Burghouts, G.J.; Penning, L. de; Hanckmann, P.; Hove, R.J.M. ten; Korzec, S.; Kruithof, M.C.; Landsmeer, S.; Leeuwen, C.J. van; Broek, S.P. van den; Halma, A.H.R.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ground surveillance is normally performed by human assets, since it requires visual intelligence. However, especially for military operations, this can be dangerous and is very resource intensive. Therefore, unmanned autonomous visual-intelligence systems are desired. In this paper, we present an im

  16. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  17. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G/hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Sime, Abiot Girma; Deresa, Benti; Tafese, Wubit; Hajito, Kifle Weldemichael; Gemeda, Desta Hiko

    2016-01-01

    Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  18. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  19. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    Full Text Available The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG and one known (rs8679684 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104 and Border Collie (N = 103 dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  20. The quartic piecewise-linear criterion for the multiaxial yield behavior of human trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Arnav; Scheffelin, Joanna; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-01-01

    Prior multiaxial strength studies on trabecular bone have either not addressed large variations in bone volume fraction and microarchitecture, or have not addressed the full range of multiaxial stress states. Addressing these limitations, we utilized micro-computed tomography (lCT) based nonlinear finite element analysis to investigate the complete 3D multiaxial failure behavior of ten specimens (5mm cube) of human trabecular bone, taken from three anatomic sites and spanning a wide range of bone volume fraction (0.09–0.36),mechanical anisotropy (range of E3/E1¼3.0–12.0), and microarchitecture. We found that most of the observed variation in multiaxial strength behavior could be accounted for by normalizing the multiaxial strength by specimen-specific values of uniaxial strength (tension,compression in the longitudinal and transverse directions). Scatter between specimens was reduced further when the normalized multiaxial strength was described in strain space.The resulting multiaxial failure envelope in this normalized-strain space had a rectangular boxlike shape for normal–normal loading and either a rhomboidal box like shape or a triangular shape for normal-shear loading, depending on the loading direction. The finite element data were well described by a single quartic yield criterion in the 6D normalized strain space combined with a piecewise linear yield criterion in two planes for normalshear loading (mean error SD: 4.660.8% for the finite element data versus the criterion).This multiaxial yield criterion in normalized-strain space can be used to describe the complete 3D multiaxial failure behavior of human trabecular bone across a wide range of bone volume fraction, mechanical anisotropy, and microarchitecture.

  1. Effect of human behavior on economizer efficacy and thermal comfort in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, TIghe Glennon

    California has set a zero net-energy conservation goal for the residential sector that is to be achieved by 2020 (California Energy Commission 2011). To reduce energy consumption in the building sector, modern buildings should fundamentally incorporate sustainable performance standards, involving renewable systems, climate-specific strategies, and consideration of a variety of users. Building occupants must operate in concert with the buildings they inhabit in order to maximize the potential of the building, its systems, and their own comfort. In climates with significant diurnal temperature swings, environmental controls designed to capitalize on this should be considered to reduce cooling-related loads. One specific strategy is the air-side economizer, which uses daily outdoor temperature swings to reduce indoor temperature swings. Traditionally a similar effect could be achieved by using thermal mass to buffer indoor temperature swings through thermal lag. Economizers reduce the amount of thermal mass typically required by naturally ventilated buildings. Fans are used to force cool nighttime air deep into the building, allowing lower mass buildings to take advantage of nighttime cooling. Economizers connect to a thermostat, and when the outdoor temperature dips below a programmed set-point the economizer draws cool air from outside, flushing out the warmed interior air. This type of system can be simulated with reasonable accuracy by energy modeling programs; however, because the system is occupant-driven (as opposed to a truly passive mass-driven system) any unpredictable occupant behavior can reduce its effectiveness and create misleading simulation results. This unpredictably has helped prevent the spread of economizers in the residential market. This study investigated to what extent human behavior affected the performance of economizer-based HVAC systems, based on physical observations, environmental data collections, and energy simulations of a residential

  2. On Understanding the Human Nature of Good and Bad Behavior in Business: A Behavioral Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe numerous scandals in business, such as those at AIG, Tyco, WorldCom, Enron and Ahold, have made all of us concerned about the emergence of unethical and irresponsible behavior in organizations. Such widespread corruption in business and politics has, as result, prompted a growth of i

  3. Social Learning in a Human Society: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi, Maziyar; Solman, Grayden; Kingstone, Alan; Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the learning and decision making behavior of individuals in a human society. Social learning is used as the mathematical basis for modelling interaction of individuals that aim to perform a perceptual task interactively. A psychology experiment was conducted on a group of undergraduate students at the University of British Columbia to examine whether the decision (action) of one individual affects the decision of the subsequent individu...

  4. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  5. Using different ELECTRE methods in strategic planning in the presence of human behavioral resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the multicriteria strategic planning of an organization, management should often be aware of employees' resistance to change before making new decisions; otherwise, a chosen strategy, though technologically acceptable, may not be efficient in the long term. This paper, using a sample case study within an organization, shows how different versions of ELECTRE methods can be used in choosing efficient strategies that account for both human behavioral resistance and technical elements. The effect of resistance from each subsystem of the organization is studied to ensure the reliability of the chosen strategy. The comparison of results from a select number of compensatory and noncompensatory models (ELECTRE I, III, IV, IS; TOPSIS; SAW; MaxMin suggests that when employee resistance is a decision factor in the multicriteria strategic planning problem, the models can yield low-resistance strategies; however, ELECTRE seems to show more reasonable sensitivity.

  6. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Langley, Michelle C; Moore, Mark W; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-04-18

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000-22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene "symbolic" artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia.

  7. Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

    2012-06-01

    Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders.

  8. Effects of contraction intensity on muscle fascicle and stretch reflex behavior in the human triceps surae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Peltonen, Jussi; Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V; Avela, Janne; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Voigt, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine changes in the distribution of a stretch to the muscle fascicles with changes in contraction intensity in the human triceps surae and to relate fascicle stretch responses to short-latency stretch reflex behavior. Thirteen healthy subjects were seated in an ankle ergometer, and dorsiflexion stretches (8 degrees ; 250 degrees /s) were applied to the triceps surae at different moment levels (0-100% of maximal voluntary contraction). Surface EMG was recorded in the medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles, and ultrasound was used to measure medial gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle lengths. At low forces, reflex amplitudes increased despite a lack of change or even a decrease in fascicle stretch velocities. At high forces, lower fascicle stretch velocities coincided with smaller stretch reflexes. The results revealed a decline in fascicle stretch velocity of over 50% between passive conditions and maximal force levels in the major muscles of the triceps surae. This is likely to be an important factor related to the decline in stretch reflex amplitudes at high forces. Because short-latency stretch reflexes contribute to force production and stiffness regulation of human muscle fibers, a reduction in afferent feedback from muscle spindles could decrease the efficacy of human movements involving the triceps surae, particularly where high force production is required.

  9. The importance of the olfactory sense in the human behavior and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoleanu, C; Mella, C; Georgescu, M; Perederco, C

    2009-01-01

    Not long ago it was believed that the human olfactory sense had a low importance, a vision which turned into the exploration of the environment. Recent studies have shown that, despite the weak representation of the olfactory receptor common in other species too, the cortical areas of integration of the olfactory sensations are very large and have important interconnections with memory, language, and neuro-vegetative areas. In humans, olfaction has a small contribution in identifying objects or other people, but plays an important social and emotional part. People learn to love or to hate certain foods or objects only by appreciating their odor and this proved to be a very important economic factor. The most significant role of olfactory signals in humans appears to be the modulation of their behavior and interpersonal relationships, of their affiliation to certain groups or social classes, having a major influence in their tastes and personality. signal that will be sent to the specialized areas in their tastes and personality.

  10. Habituation of adult Magellanic penguins to human visitation as expressed through behavior and corticosterone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian G; Boersma, P Dee; Wingfield, John C

    2006-02-01

    Ecotourism is increasing worldwide; hence, it is important to know how wildlife are affected behaviorally and physiologically by human visitation. We studied the effects of human visitation on the Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at Punta Tombo, Argentina, by monitoring changes in defensive head turns and plasma corticosterone (a hormone secreted in response to stress) for penguins with and without a history of tourist visitation. Habituation to human visitation was rapid. In penguins with no previous exposure to tourists, the number of defensive head turns and level of plasma corticosterone decreased significantly within 5 days of one 15-minute visit/day. Penguins living in tourist-visited and undisturbed areas secreted more corticosterone when captured and restrained than penguins visited by a person. Penguins in tourist areas, however did not show as strong a corticosterone response to capture and restraint as did penguins in areas without tourists. This difference was due to a decreased capability of the adrenocortical tissue to secrete corticosterone in tourist-visited birds. Although our data show no direct negative effects of tourism on Magellanic Penguins at Punta Tombo, consequences of a modification of physiological capabilities (e.g., adrenocortical function) may not become apparent until much later in life. The physiological differences between tourist-visited and undisturbed groups of Magellanic Penguins emphasize the importance of monitoring the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wildlife at multiple levels.

  11. STUDY CONCERNING THE SPECTATOR BEHAVIOR ON HANDBALL GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor BOGDAN; Lăcrămioara Cosmina Lazăr; Maria MACRA-OȘORHEAN

    2011-01-01

    specialists in recent years. Modern approaches to study the reasons and frequency aspects of the show audienceparticipation sport, the level of affiliation to the team, the aggressive behavior of spectators, most fitting that conductconsumer behavior.Aims - highlighting the structure and behavior of the general features of the audience to play handballSubjects and methods - I applied to a game of handball viewers a non-standardized questionnaire of 15 items, with themajor content themes devel...

  12. Sexual Risk Behaviors Constructed in Iranian Women's Life with Substance Use Disorders: A New Implication of Human Ecological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidimanesh, Mansoureh; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2016-07-01

    Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory. In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users. Data was collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data using Graneheim and Lundman procedure. Risky sexual behavior in drug use disorders in women was found in four themes with thirteen emerged; sexual untaught at micro-system with two subthemes "unsafe home" and "drop out of school", Perception of differences at meso-system with three subthemes "lack of link between family and school", "doing manly behavior" and "low awareness of health puberty than peers", inappropriate marriages at exo-system with three subthemes "stigma", "fear of losing love relationship" and "self-devotion", marginalization at macro-system with four subthemes "barrier access to rights", "selling sex as a tool of security", "lack of belief as a sex worker" and "mistrust and doubt partner" using implication of human ecological theory. Findings suggest that strategies supporting the discovery of risky sexual behaviors in drug use disorders in women are important in order to provide counseling and education to form their decisions toward safety sex.

  13. Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-12-01

    The mother-infant bond provides the foundation for the infant's future mental health and adaptation and depends on the provision of species-typical maternal behaviors that are supported by neuroendocrine and motivation-affective neural systems. Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain-behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. Such patterns of maternal care are mediated by the neuropeptide Oxytocin and by stress- and reward-related neural systems. Human studies have similarly shown that maternal synchrony--the coordination of maternal behavior with infant signals--and intrusiveness--the excessive expression of maternal behavior--describe distinct and stable maternal styles that bear long-term consequences for infant well-being. To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal-infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. In all, 23 mothers were videotaped at home interacting with their infants and plasma OT assayed. Sessions were micro-coded for synchrony and intrusiveness. Mothers were scanned while observing several own and standard infant-related vignettes. Synchronous mothers showed greater activations in the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and intrusive mothers exhibited higher activations in the right amygdala. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that among synchronous mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with emotion modulation, theory-of-mind, and empathy networks. Among intrusive mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with pro-action areas. Sorting points into neighborhood (SPIN) analysis demonstrated that in the synchronous group, left NAcc and right amygdala activations showed clearer

  14. Thermal behavior of human eye in relation with change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Aasma; Khanday, M A

    2016-12-01

    Extreme environmental and physiological conditions present challenges for thermal processes in body tissues including multi-layered human eye. A mathematical model has been formulated in this direction to study the thermal behavior of the human eye in relation with the change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and environmental temperatures. In this study, a comprehensive thermal analysis has been performed on the multi-layered eye using Pennes' bio-heat equation with appropriate boundary and interface conditions. The variational finite element method and MATLAB software were used for the solution purpose and simulation of the results. The thermoregulatory effect due to blood perfusion rate, porosity, ambient temperature and evaporation at various regions of human eye was illustrated mathematically and graphically. The main applications of this model are associated with the medical sciences while performing laser therapy and other thermoregulatory investigation on human eye.

  15. Sexual behavior of women with human papillomavirus in reference services of Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sexual behavior of women with human papillomavirus (HPV admitted to two referral health units for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in the city of Fortaleza. Methods: A quantitative and descriptive study, conducted in the months of August- September 2005 in two referral units for STDs. A questionnaire was applied to all women who were undergoing treatment for HPV in clinical or subclinical forms. The questionnaire comprised sociodemographic variables, behavioral and sexual. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics using Epi Info, version 15.1. Results: Joined in the study 39 women, of whom 25 (64.1% had clinical form of the disease. Most 22 (56.4% were in the age group of 20-29 years and 16 (41% had completed or incompleted high school. Most 31 (79.5% hace a steady partner, and of these, 19 (48.7% lived with their partners. Of all women, 29 (74.4% began their sexual life with less than 19 years. In 21 (53.8% cases the sexual partners had no verrucous lesions. The number of partners ranged from two to four for 20 (51.3% women, 27 (73% denied the concomitant presence of other STD and 32 (82.1% had already been tested for HIV. Conclusion: Women with HPV were generally young, with a steady partner. More than half of the partners had no symptoms. It is necessary to developpreventive strategies and of health promotion for youth.

  16. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  17. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  18. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  19. A Framework for Human-like Behavior in an Immersive Virtual World

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijk, Fons; Van Broeck, Sigurd; Dareau, Claude; Ravenet, Brian; Ochs, Magalie; Apostolakis, Konstantinos; Daras, Petros; Monaghan, David; O''Connor, Noel E.; Wall, Julie; Izquierdo, Ebroul

    2013-01-01

    Just as readers feel immersed when the story line adheres to their experiences, users will more easily feel immersed in a virtual environment if the behavior of the characters in that environment adheres to their expectations, based on their life-long observations in the real world. This paper introduces a framework that allows authors to establish natural, human-like behavior, physical interaction and emotional engagement of characters living in a virtual environment. Represented by realisti...

  20. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human--Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language--behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, ``internal dynamics'' refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language--behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language--behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  1. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  2. Estimating the postmortem interval of human skeletal remains by analyzing their optical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Jung, T; Jellinghaus, K; Bohnert, M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to figure out a new practically applicable method to distinguish between historical and recent human skeletal remains. Therefore, the optical behavior of bone cross sections was investigated using the combination of two methods: a modification of an already established test (UV-induced fluorescence) and a new method (490 nm-induced fluorescence). We evaluated the areal extent of fluorescence of 30 bone cross sections with known postmortem interval (PMI) using ultraviolet light and 490 nm light. For analysis, the areal extend of fluorescent surface was determined using photos of the samples and an image editing software. The results prove that there is a correlation between PMI and the areal extent of fluorescent surface in both tests. Furthermore, the combination of both methods is a good indicator to distinguish within the forensic relevant post mortem interval between PMI  30 years.

  3. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  4. The promises of big data and small data for travel behavior (aka human mobility) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia; Ma, Jingtao; Susilo, Yusak; Liu, Yu; Wang, Menglin

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed very active development in two broad, but separate fields, both involving understanding and modeling of how individuals move in time and space (hereafter called "travel behavior analysis" or "human mobility analysis"). One field comprises transportation researchers who have been working in the field for decades and the other involves new comers from a wide range of disciplines, but primarily computer scientists and physicists. Researchers in these two fields work with different datasets, apply different methodologies, and answer different but overlapping questions. It is our view that there is much, hidden synergy between the two fields that needs to be brought out. It is thus the purpose of this paper to introduce datasets, concepts, knowledge and methods used in these two fields, and most importantly raise cross-discipline ideas for conversations and collaborations between the two. It is our hope that this paper will stimulate many future cross-cutting studies that involve researchers from both fields.

  5. Are Social Studies Teachers Teaching Secular Humanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over teaching what religious fundamentalists and social conservatives consider secular humanism. Suggests that modern social studies does not support secular humanism even though they share epistemological and ethical assumptions (the use of the scientific method, intelligent reasoning). Provides suggestions for teachers…

  6. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  7. Behavioral estimates of human frequency selectivity at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado

    A fundamental property of our hearing organ is its ability to break down sound into different spectral components, allowing us to make use of the richness in natural sound phenomena. Auditory filters, which conceptualize this property of the ear, however, have not been appropriately described...... at low sound frequencies. As a consequence of our lack of knowledge, we cannot accurately model our perception of complex low-frequency sound (such as that emitted by wind turbines or industrial processes, which can easily produce annoyance) nor make meaningful predictions of our perception based...... on physical sound measurements. In this PhD thesis a detailed description of frequency selectivity at low frequencies is given. Different experiments have been performed to determine the properties of human auditory filters. Besides, loudness perception of low-frequency sinusoidal signals has been evaluated...

  8. Features of hand-foot crawling behavior in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Sylos Labini, F; Lacquaniti, F

    2012-01-01

    Interlimb coordination of crawling kinematics in humans shares features with other primates and nonprimate quadrupeds, and it has been suggested that this is due to a similar organization of the locomotor pattern generators (CPGs). To extend the previous findings and to further explore the neural control of bipedal vs. quadrupedal locomotion, we used a crawling paradigm in which healthy adults crawled on their hands and feet at different speeds and at different surface inclinations (13°, 27°, and 35°). Ground reaction forces, limb kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activity from 26 upper and lower limb muscles on the right side of the body were collected. The EMG activity was mapped onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron pools to characterize the general features of cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord activation. The spatiotemporal pattern of spinal cord activity significantly differed between quadrupedal and bipedal gaits. In addition, participants exhibited a large range of kinematic coordination styles (diagonal vs. lateral patterns), which is in contrast to the stereotypical kinematics of upright bipedal walking, suggesting flexible coupling of cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Results showed strikingly dissimilar directional horizontal forces for the arms and legs, considerably retracted average leg orientation, and substantially smaller sacral vs. lumbar motoneuron activity compared with quadrupedal gait in animals. A gradual transition to a more vertical body orientation (increasing the inclination of the treadmill) led to the appearance of more prominent sacral activity (related to activation of ankle plantar flexors), typical of bipedal walking. The findings highlight the reorganization and adaptation of CPG networks involved in the control of quadrupedal human locomotion and a high specialization of the musculoskeletal apparatus to specific gaits.

  9. An observational study of sexual behavior in demented male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, A M; Davies, H D; Tinklenberg, J R

    1996-11-01

    Concerns have been expressed that patients with dementia will display disinhibited, inappropriate sexual behavior. Retrospective research suggests that this is rare, but no observational research has been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct such an observational study. Subjects were 40 patients with a dementia diagnosis who were living in institutional settings; subjects ranged in age from 60 to 98. Coders observed subjects on nine separate occasions, three in the morning, three in the afternoon, and three in the evening. Subjects were observed in multiple situations; coding included appropriate, ambiguous, and inappropriate sexual behaviors. Reliability coding was obtained for 42% of the patients on 11% of coded episodes. Behaviors could be coded with high reliability (94% to 100% across categories of behavior). On average, patients displayed 43 appropriate sexual behaviors, 1.48 ambiguous behaviors, and .83 inappropriate behaviors across the nine observation periods. This was not evenly distributed across patients, however; only 18% of patients ever displayed a sexually inappropriate behavior, and these were usually brief and minor. Inappropriate sexual behavior was observed in only 1.6% of the observed one-minute time segments. Observational research documents what had been previously suggested by retrospective reports: inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommon in dementia patients and brief and minor even when it occurs. Ambiguous behaviors, such as appearing in public incompletely dressed, which could suggest exhibitionism but more likely reflects self-care deficits, were more common. Misinterpretation of these events may be the source for some of the persistent lore regarding sexually disinhibited behavior in dementia patients.

  10. Tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia: two case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a multidisciplinary group treatment for patients with fibromyalgia (FM) tailored to the patient's cognitive-behavioral pattern. METHOD: In a case-study design the tailored treatment approaches of two FM patients were described. One patient characterized by avoidance behavior

  11. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  12. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women.

  13. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  14. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  15. Depreciative Behavior in Forest Campgrounds: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    "Vandalism, theft, littering, rule violation, and nuisance behaviors were studied in 3 campgrounds during 1968 using participant observation techniques. Information was gathered on the extent and character of such behaviors and factors associated with their occurrence." Nuisance acts were most common (50%) followed by legal violations…

  16. Human biomonitoring pilot study DEMOCOPHES in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    on a European Scale) and DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) were formed, comprising 35 partners from 27 European countries. In COPHES a research scheme and guidelines were developed to exemplarily measure in a pilot study mercury in hair......Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring......, cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites in urine of 6–11 year old children and their mothers in an urban and a rural region. Seventeen European countries simultaneously conducted this cross-sectional DEMOCOPHES feasibility study. The German study population was taken in the city of Bochum...

  17. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhamre, Hanna [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Thorvaldsson, Anna, E-mail: anna.thorvaldsson@swerea.se [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Enochson, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Walkenström, Pernilla [Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Lindahl, Anders [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brittberg, Mats [Cartilage Research Unit, University of Gothenburg, Department Orthopaedics, Kungsbacka Hospital, Kungsbacka (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum.

  18. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S J; Day, N; Streissguth, A P

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development causes central nervous system alterations in both humans and animals. Although the most common behavioral manifestation of these alterations is a reduction in cognitive abilities, it is becoming increasingly apparent that deficits in social behavior may be very prevalent sequelae of developmental alcohol exposure. In infancy and early childhood, deficits in attachment behavior and state regulation are seen in both alcohol-exposed people and animals, suggesting that these changes are largely the result of the alcohol exposure rather than maternal behavior. In the periadolescent period, people exposed to alcohol during development show a variety of difficulties in the social domain as measured by checklists filled out by either a parent or teacher. Rats exposed to alcohol during development show changes in play and parenting behaviors. In adulthood, prenatal alcohol exposure is related to high rates of trouble with the law, inappropriate sexual behavior, depression, suicide, and failure to care for children. These high rates all suggest that there may be fundamental problems in the social domain. In other animals, perinatal alcohol exposure alters aggression, active social interactions, social communication and recognition, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in adults. In conclusion, research suggests that people exposed to alcohol during development may exhibit striking changes in social behavior; the animal research suggests that these changes may be largely the result of the alcohol insult and not the environment.

  19. Effects of human activity on physiological and behavioral responses of an endangered steppe bird

    OpenAIRE

    Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Morales, Manuel B.; Traba, Juan; Benítez-López, Ana; Casas, Fabián; Arroyo, Beatriz; Delgado, M. Paula; Mougeot, François

    2015-01-01

    This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Behavioral Ecology following peer review. The version of recordBehavioral Ecology 26.3 (2015): 828-838 is available online at: http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/04/02/beheco.arv016 Animals may perceive humans as a form of predatory threat, a disturbance, triggering behavioral changes together with the activation of physiological stress responses. These adaptive responses may allow indi...

  20. Modeling the tensile behavior of human Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Shaw, K M

    1997-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile stress, sigma versus strain, epsilon, data were obtained from 29 cadaveric Achilles tendons (donor ages: 36 to 100 years), at a strain rate of either 10 or 100%/s. These results were then used in modeling the elastic component of the tensile deformational behavior of this tissue. Two approaches were taken. In the first, it was shown that the following constitutive relation provided an excellent fit to the elastic section of the sigma-epsilon curve, sigma = C epsilon exp[D epsilon + F epsilon 2], with C, D and F being material constants, whose values for the present dataset were found to be C = 2.00 +/- 0.99, D = 0.089 +/- 0.087 and F = -0.0047 +/- 0.0095. The values of these coefficients were not statistically significantly affected by either donor age or test strain rate. In the second approach, the value of the modulus of elasticity of a filamentary polymer matrix composite material was computed as a function of various combinations of values of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber, the modulus of elasticity of the matrix, and angle of orientation of the principal material axes with respect to the reference coordinate axes (theta) for a fiber volume fraction of 0.6 and a material Poisson's ratio of 0.4. By comparing these results with the experimentally-obtained values of the tangent modulus of elasticity of the tendons (defined as the slope of the linear section of the post-toe zone in the sigma-epsilon plot), and assuming that the tendon may be idealized as a filamentary polymer matrix composite material, the suggestion is made that the winding angle of the fibers (collagen fibrils) in the tendon (taken to be equal to theta) is about 6 degrees.

  1. The neurobiology of social attachment: A comparative approach to behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly A; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2008-11-01

    The formation and maintenance of social bonds in adulthood is an essential component of human health. However studies investigating the underlying neurobiology of such behaviors have been scarce. Microtine rodents offer a unique comparative animal model to explore the neural processes responsible for pair bonding and its associated behaviors. Studies using monogamous prairie voles and other related species have recently offered insight into the neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurochemical underpinnings of social attachment. In this review, we will discuss the utility of the microtine rodents in comparative studies by exploring their natural history and social behavior in the laboratory. We will then summarize the data implicating vasopressin, oxytocin, and dopamine in the regulation of pair bonding. Finally, we will discuss the ways in which these neurochemical systems may interact to mediate this complex behavior.

  2. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  3. The animal and human neuroendocrinology of social cognition, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Cade; Singer, Tania

    2012-04-15

    Extensive animal and recent human research have helped inform neuroendocrinological models of social cognition, motivation and behavior. In this review, we first summarize important findings regarding oxytocin, arginine vasopressin and testosterone in the domains of affiliation, social cognition, aggression and stress/anxiety. We then suggest ways in which human research can continue to profit from animal research, particularly by exploring the interactive nature of neuromodulatory effects at neurochemical, organismic and contextual levels. We further propose methods inspired by the animal literature for the ecologically valid assessment of affiliative behavior in humans. We conclude with suggestions for how human research could advance by directly assessing specific social cognitive and motivational mechanisms as intermediate variables. We advocate a more comprehensive look at the distinct networks identified by social neuroscience and the importance of a motivational state, in addition to approach and avoidance, associated with quiescence and homeostatic regulation.

  4. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: Attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony eSheynin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability, due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during safe periods. Healthy young adults (n=122 were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms.

  5. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  6. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  7. Big Data, the perfect instrument to study today's consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STOICESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior study is a new, interdisciplinary and emerging science, developed in the 1960s. Its main sources of information come from economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology and artificial intelligence. If a century ago, most people were living in small towns, with limited possibilities to leave their community, and few ways to satisfy their needs, now, due to the accelerated evolution of technology and the radical change of life style, consumers begin to have increasingly diverse needs. At the same time the instruments used to study their behavior have evolved, and today databases are included in consumer behavior research. Throughout time many models were developed, first in order to analyze, and later in order to predict the consumer behavior. As a result, the concept of Big Data developed, and by applying it now, companies are trying to understand and predict the behavior of their consumers.

  8. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  9. Life-Cycle Labor Supply with Human Capital: Econometric and Behavioral Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane

    2015-01-01

    I examine the econometric and behavioral implications of including human capital in the life-cycle labor supply model. With human capital, the wage no longer equals the opportunity cost of time – which is, instead, the wage plus returns to work experience. This has a number of important implications, of which I highlight four: First, labor supply elasticities become functions of both preference and wage process parameters. Thus, one cannot estimate elasticities without also specifying and est...

  10. Morphological Variation and Sexual Behavior in the Human Past : II. The Origin of East Asians and their Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroto, Naora; Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University

    2007-01-01

    Sexual behavior is the crucial element of global migration and the population expansion of humans in the past Based on the previous proposal that female pubic length is inversely correlated with the sexual activity of her male partner, the sexual activity of hominids in Palaeolithic Europe, Middle East and East Asia was assessed. A long pubic feature in the female pelvis of current East Asians can be seen in the Asian Palaeolithic hominid, i.e. the Jinniushan (around 200,000 years old), China...

  11. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzocato Pamela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED. However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. Results We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. Conclusions This study illustrates how behavior analysis

  12. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2011-11-15

    Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. This study illustrates how behavior analysis can be used to understand discrepancies between planned and observed

  13. [Human papillomavirus infection, a possible biological marker of sexual behavior among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Uribe-Salas, Felipe; Conde-González, Carlos J

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) among university students and to use it as a biological marker to assess sexual behavior. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2000 and 2001 among 194 students at Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico. A data collection instrument was applied and genital samples were taken to detect oncogenic HPV DNA. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and odds ratios. Overall HPV prevalence was 14.4%. Women who had had two or more sexual partners during the previous year showed a greater risk of HPV infection (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.7-21.1), as did women who had used oral contraceptives and spermicides at their latest intercourse (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.7). Males who consumed cocaine were at a greater risk of HPV infection (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.3-45.1). HPV prevalence is relatively high. HPV is a reliable biological marker of sexual behavior among females. A greater sample size may be needed to assess its reliability among men.

  14. Study on Virtual Human Skeleton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧; 李亦

    2004-01-01

    A solution of virtual human skeleton system is proposed. Some issues on integration of anatomical geometry, biodynamics and computer animation are studied. The detailed skeleton system model that incorporates the biodynamic and geometric characteristics of a human skeleton system allows some performance studies in greater detail than that performed before. It may provide an effective and convenient way to analyze and evaluate the movement performance of a human body when the personalized anatomical data are used in the models. An example shows that the proposed solution is effective for the stated problems.

  15. Adolescent risk behaviors and religion: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jill W; Cnaan, Ram A; Gelles, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities from a parent or caretaker. Based on a national random sample of 2004 teens (ages 11-18), this study indicates that youth perceive religion as important, are active in religious worship and activities, and further shows that perceived importance of religion as well as participation in religious activities are associated with decreased risk behaviors. Looking at ten risk behaviors, religiosity variables were consistently associated with reduced risk behaviors in the areas of: smoking, alcohol use, truancy, sexual activity, marijuana use, and depression. In the case of these six risk variables, religiosity variables were significantly associated with reduced risk behaviors when controlling for family background variables and self-esteem. The study highlights the importance of further understanding the relationship between religious variables, background variables, self-esteem, and youth risk behaviors.

  16. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human-robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Lobato, Emilio J C; Jentsch, Florian G; Huang, Wesley H; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human-robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot Ava(TM) mobile robotics platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot's proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot's social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot's gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot's mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals.

  17. Towards understanding social cues and signals in human-robot interaction: Effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Fiore

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human-robot interaction (HRI. We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot Ava™ Mobile Robotics Platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot’s proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot’s social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot’s gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot’s mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals.

  18. Behavior of human serum albumin on strong cation exchange resins: I. experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitl, Agnes; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-08-20

    Experiments with human serum albumin on the strong cation exchange resin Fractogel EMD SE Hicap (M) were carried out. Even though human serum albumin was used at high purity, two peaks in gradient elution experiments occurred. The obtained data can be explained by considering that human serum albumin binds to Fractogel EMD SE Hicap (M) in two different binding conformations: the protein adsorbs instantaneously in the first conformation and then changes into the second one with a kinetic limitation. The two-peak behavior of human serum albumin was analyzed in detail, especially at various gradient lengths, concentrations and temperatures. Breakthrough curves were performed at four modifier concentrations and three velocities. The characteristic adsorption behavior, found for gradient experiments, was confirmed by the breakthrough curves. The two-peak elution pattern of human serum albumin was also found for other strong cation exchange resins, but not for weak cation exchange resins. It is concluded that the described behavior is peculiar for the interaction of human serum albumin with the strong cation exchange ligand of the resin.

  19. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  20. Excitability and firing behavior of single slow motor axons transmitting natural repetitive firing of human motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2017-08-01

    Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function, i.e., transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibers. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored. It was shown that axons displayed an early irresponsive period (within the first ~2-5 ms of a target ISI) that was followed by a responsive period (for the next 5-17 ms of the ISI), in which MUs fired axonal doublets, and a later irresponsive period. At the beginning of the responsive period, M-responses showed small latency delays. However, since at that ISI moment, MUs displayed excitability recovery with high firing index, slight latency changes may be considered as a functionally insignificant phenomenon. The duration of axonal doublet ISIs did not depend on motoneuron firing frequencies (range 4.3-14.6 imp/s). The question of whether or not traditionally described axonal recovery excitability cycle is realistic in natural motor control is discussed. In conclusion, the present approach, exploring, for the first time, excitability recovery in single slow axons during motoneuron natural activation, can provide further insight into axonal firing behavior in normal states and diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Excitability of single slow axons was estimated by motor unit firing index in response to motor nerve stimulation, and its changes throughout a target interspike interval were explored during transmitting human motoneuron natural firing. It was found that axons exhibited early irresponsive

  1. Cognitive model of trust dynamics predicts human behavior within and between two games of strategic interaction with computerized confederate agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gordon Collins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game’s optimal outcome as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game’s optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game. The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model’s a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model’s predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  2. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  3. Human papillomavirus infection: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among lesbian, gay men, and bisexual in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta P Pelullo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. RESULTS: Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV

  4. Human probing behavior of Aedes aegypti when infected with a life-shortening strain of Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are vectors of many serious pathogens in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Current control strategies almost entirely rely upon insecticides, which increasingly face the problems of high cost, increasing mosquito resistance and negative effects on non-target organisms. Alternative strategies include the proposed use of inherited life-shortening agents, such as the Wolbachia bacterium. By shortening mosquito vector lifespan, Wolbachia could potentially reduce the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. We have recently been able to stably transinfect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop, and are assessing various aspects of its interaction with the mosquito host to determine its likely impact on pathogen transmission as well as its potential ability to invade A. aegypti populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have examined the probing behavior of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in an attempt to understand both the broader impact of Wolbachia infection on mosquito biology and, in particular, vectorial capacity. The probing behavior of wMelPop-infected mosquitoes at four adult ages was examined and compared to uninfected controls during video-recorded feeding trials on a human hand. Wolbachia-positive insects, from 15 days of age, showed a drastic increase in the time spent pre-probing and probing relative to uninfected controls. Two other important features for blood feeding, saliva volume and apyrase content of saliva, were also studied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As A. aegypti infected with wMelPop age, they show increasing difficulty in completing the process of blood feeding effectively and efficiently. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes on average produced smaller volumes of saliva that still contained the same amount of apyrase activity as uninfected mosquitoes. These effects on blood feeding behavior may reduce vectorial capacity and point to underlying physiological

  5. Individual differences in the influence of task-irrelevant Pavlovian cues on human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eGarofalo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT refers to the process of a Pavlovian reward-paired cue acquiring incentive motivational proprieties that drive choices. It represents a crucial phenomenon for understanding cue-controlled behavior, and it has both adaptive and maladaptive implications (i.e., drug-taking. In animals, individual differences in the degree to which such cues bias performance have been identified in two types of individuals that exhibit distinct Conditioned Responses during Pavlovian conditioning: Sign-Trackers (ST and Goal-Trackers (GT. Using an appetitive PIT procedure with a monetary reward, the present study investigated, for the first time, the extent to which such individual differences might affect the influence of reward-paired cues in humans. In a first task, participants learned an instrumental response leading to reward; then, in a second task, a visual Pavlovian cue was associated with the same reward; finally, in a third task, PIT was tested by measuring the preference for the reward-paired instrumental response when the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue was presented, in the absence of the reward itself. In ST individuals, but not in GT individuals, reward-related cues biased behavior, resulting in an increased likelihood to perform the instrumental response independently paired with the same reward when presented with the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue, even if the reward itself was no longer available (i.e., stronger PIT effect. This finding has important implications for developing individualized treatment for maladaptive behaviors, such as addiction.

  6. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yin Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. CONCLUSIONS: The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and

  7. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  8. Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Fitness-The Maastricht Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, J.H. van der; Koster, A.; Berg, J.D. van der; Sep, S.J.; Kallen, C.J. van der; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schram, M.T.; Henry, R.M.; Eussen, S.J.; Dongen, M.C. van; Stehouwer, C.D.; Schaper, N.C.; Savelberg, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the mutual independent associations of sedentary behavior, lower intensity physical activity (LPA) and higher intensity physical activity HPA (an approximation of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF).

  9. QCM-D studies on polymer behavior at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    QCM-D Studies on Polymer Behavior at Interfaces reviews the applications of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in polymer research, including the conformational change of grafted polymer chains, the grafting kinetics of polymer chains, the growth mechanism of polyelectrolyte multilayers, and the interactions between polymers and phospholipid membranes. It focuses on how QCM-D can be applied to the study of polymer behavior at various solid-liquid interfaces. Moreover, it clearly reveals the physical significance of the changes in frequency and dissipation associated with the different polymer behaviors at the interfaces.

  10. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  11. Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to establish discriminative control of responding by an antecedent stimulus using differential punishment because the results of past studies on this topic have been mixed. Three adults with mental retardation who exhibited stereotypy not maintained by social consequences (i.e., automatic reinforcement)…

  12. Osteometric study of human femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton is playing important role in various like Medicine, Forensic sciences, Anthropology etc. Estimation of sex, age, race, stature by skeleton and the presence of disease is discovered by Krogman and Iscan (1986. Sex is determined after death by skeletal remains of that individual by some forensic anthropologists with the help of pelvis, skull and long bones. The study was undertaken in 50 femurs for measuring epicondylar breadth, Neck shaft angle, transverse and vertical diameter of head. The results were the average meanepicondylar breadth was 75.6 ± 6.06mm, mean right epicondylar breadth was 73.96 ± 4.99mm and left it was 76.35 ± 7.0mm. The average mean neck shaft angle was 125.3 ± 6.50mm, mean right neck shaft angle was 124.44 ± 5.7mm and left it was 126.3 ± 7.33mm. The average mean transverse diameter of head was 37.86 ± 3.06mm, mean right transverse diameter of head was 37.74 ± 3.05mm and left it was 38.00 ± 3.13mm. The average mean vertical diameter of head was 42.24 ± 3.53mm, mean right vertical diameter of head was 41.63 ± 3.09mm and left it was 42.96 ± 3.92mm, Neck shaft angle ranges from a minimum of 106° to maximum 135° with a mean value of 125.3°. The knowledge of osteometric values is helpful to anthropological and forensic practice. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 104-107

  13. Dysfunctional Audit Behaviors: An Exploratory Study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to draw attention of auditing researchers and practitioners in Pakistan towards occurrences of dysfunctional audit behaviors among auditors. This is a timely and important accounting text; first, it provides comprehensible explanation of when, how and why auditors resort dysfunctional audit behavior. Second, the organizational behavior and industrial psychology literatures provide the basis for developing and testing a model that may identifies emotional intelligence as moderator in the relationship between professional skepticism, under reporting of time and premature sign off behaviors. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM will be used to analyze data. Findings will bring practical implications to researchers and audit practitioners wanting to obtain a broader understanding of the underlying determinants of dysfunctional audit behaviors.

  14. Study on destination image, satisfaction, trust and behavioral intention

    OpenAIRE

    PUJIASTUTI ENY ENDAH; NIMRAN UMAR; SUHARYONO S.; KUSUMAWATI ANDRIANI

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop understanding about the influence of Destination image, and satisfaction towards pada trust and behavioral intention in the tourist village in Sleman, Yogyakarta. The sampes of the study were the domestic tourists whose ages were between 18 and 35 years old. The method of analysis was Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA) in order to analyze the correlation between Destination image as well as satisfaction and trust as well as behavioral inte...

  15. Effects of human-machine interface design for intelligent speed adaptation on driving behavior and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, A.M.; Hogema, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of human-machine interface (HMI) design for intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) on driving behavior and acceptance were measured in a moving-base research driving simulator. Sixty-four experienced drivers participated in two simulator experiments (32 in each). During the simulated runs wi

  16. Data-Driven Modeling of Target Human Behavior in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Military Operations Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. Gordon Cooke, MEME Gladstone Reid, MSBMS Robert DeMarco, MSBMS Charles Sheridan BA John...stress, and human behavior modeling and simulation issues. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the TBRL. He was also a Chief

  17. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  18. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  19. Human Behavior/Social Environment: Past and Present, Future or Folly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Winn Kelly

    1986-01-01

    Human behavior and social environment courses are traditionally the foundation on which the rest of the social work curriculum is based, but their development has been "chaotic." An analysis of 481 graduate courses at 66 graduate schools indicates that formal guidelines have been minimally implemented. (Author/MH)

  20. Using Intergenerational Oral History Service-Learning Projects to Teach Human Behavior Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Natalie; Diepstra, Stephene A.

    2006-01-01

    An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction…

  1. PUSH(ing) Limits: Using Fiction in the Classroom for Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Natasha S.; Bonta, Kimberly; Horn, Philip; Moore, Erin; Gibson, Allison; Simmons, David

    2012-01-01

    The use of fiction and autobiography in social science course work has been shown to enhance students' learning experience. Using the novel PUSH, by Sapphire, we designed a curriculum supplement for the social work course, human behavior and the social environment (HBSE) that encourages students to integrate course content in an innovative way and…

  2. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g

  3. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  4. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five

  5. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-11-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967.

  6. Defy or ally : Neuroendocrine regulation of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution has created a human brain that is characterized by a layered, hierarchical organization. These superimposed layers have gradually evolved to generate ever more complex forms of socio-emotional behavior. The present thesis centers on the neurobiological substrates that generate this behavio

  7. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  8. Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan

    2013-10-01

    Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.

  9. International Space Station Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model: Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    This document further defines the behavioral markers identified in the document "Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model" Vol. I. The Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies were recommended as requirements to participate in international long duration missions, and form the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers. This document provides details, examples, knowledge areas, and affective skills to support the use of the HBP competencies in training and evaluation. This document lists examples and details specific to HBP competencies required of astronauts/cosmonauts who participate in ISS expedition and other international long-duration missions. Please note that this model does not encompass all competencies required. While technical competencies are critical for crewmembers, they are beyond the scope of this document. Additionally, the competencies in this model (and subsequent objectives) are not intended to limit the internal activities or training programs of any international partner.

  10. Transitions in Body and Behavior : A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal t...

  11. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi Minassian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM, a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design

  12. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Luo; Wenguang Li; Nigel Bird; Swee Boon Chin; NA Hill; Alan G Johnson

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system.Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system,and finally the future challenges in the area.

  13. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  14. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  15. Understanding Salesforce Behavior using Genetic Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Berg (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using genetic association studies, this thesis aims to investigate the drivers of successful customer-salesperson interactions in a context where knowledge development has become crucial to the value creation process. Central to this thesis is the developing role of the

  16. Understanding Salesforce Behavior using Genetic Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Berg (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using genetic association studies, this thesis aims to investigate the drivers of successful customer-salesperson interactions in a context where knowledge development has become crucial to the value creation process. Central to this thesis is the developing role of the

  17. An Insight into the Behavior, Course and Kinetics of Acute Infection of Toxoplasma gondii Human RH Strain in Experimentally Infected Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Sudan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite, is capable of infecting a broad range of intermediate warm-blooded hosts including humans. The parasite seems to be capable of altering the natural behavior of the host to favor its transmission in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course, alterations in behavior along with normal kinetics of the abnormally induced experimental acute toxoplasmosis in murine models.Ten Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with 100 virulent RH strain tachyzoites and finally, the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals.The behavior and the other symptoms of the acute toxoplasmosis were recorded. Such mice showed typical symptoms like normal coat, severe ascites with pendulous abdomen and tachypnoea exhibited by resting fore legs either on walls of the cage, or nozzle of water bottle or other resting mice and yielded a creamy colored cloudy natured peritoneal fluid on aspiration.Finally the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals. The study has generated some important data related to possible causes of behavioral alterations and generation of suitable strategies for control of these alterations in behavior vis-à-vis better understanding of the effect of acute infection of parasite on normal behavior of infected intermediate host.

  18. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  19. Hogan's framework for the study of behavior as applied to personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C

    2015-08-01

    Hogan's framework for the study of behavior can be used as a guide to the study of personality, considered here as interindividual differences in typical behavioral tendency. For any given dimension of personality variation, one can examine its development, its causal biological bases, its genetic and environmental origins, and its function and evolutionary history. These topics are discussed after a brief introduction to personality assessment and structure, and are followed by a brief review of personality research on non-human animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  20. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsnoe, Isis M; Hickling, Graham J; Ginsberg, Howard S; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector.

  1. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior.

  2. The momentum of human behavior in a natural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F C; Lalli, J S; Shea, M C; Lalli, E P; West, B J; Roberts, M; Nevin, J A

    1990-11-01

    Adults with mental retardation in a group home received popcorn or coffee reinforcers for sorting plastic dinnerware. In Part 1 of the experiment, reinforcers were dispensed according to a variable-interval 60-s schedule for sorting dinnerware of one color and according to a variable-interval 240-s schedule for sorting dinnerware of a different color in successive components of a multiple schedule. Sorting rates were similar in baseline, but when a video program was shown concurrently, sorting of dinnerware was more resistant to distraction when correlated with a higher rate of reinforcement. In Part 2 of the experiment, popcorn or coffee reinforcers were contingent upon sorting both colors of dinnerware according to variable-interval 60-s schedules, but additional reinforcers were given independently of sorting according to a variable-time 30-s schedule during one dinnerware-color component. Baseline sorting rate was lower but resistance to distraction by the video program was greater in the component with additional variable-time reinforcers. These results demonstrate that resistance to distraction depends on the rate of reinforcers obtained in the presence of component stimuli but is independent of baseline response rates and response-reinforcer contingencies. Moreover, these results are similar to those obtained in laboratory studies with pigeons, demonstrating that the determination of resistance to change by stimulus-reinforcer relations is not confined to controlled laboratory settings or unique to the pigeon.

  3. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  4. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  5. Study on Dyeing Behavior of Modified Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lai-jiu; LI Hong; LIU Jian-yu

    2004-01-01

    The study of dyeability of the modified flax that uses dye-uptake to reflect its modifying effect is reported in this paper. The optimal technological condition is that the concentration of the modifying agent is 4g/l, and NaOH is 6g/l at liquor ratio of 1:30 for 60 min. at 85℃.Dyeability include uptake rate and color fastness. Dye-uptake of the modified flax is twice more than that of the unmodified. And their color fastness doesn't fall and some of them raise 0.5-1 level.

  6. Comparison of Synchronization Indices: Behavioral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dugué

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of a neuronal response to a given periodic stimulus is usually measured by Goldberg and Brown's vector strength metric. This index does not take omitted spikes into account. This particular limitation has motivated the development of two new indices: the corrected vector strength index and the corrected phase variance index, both including a penalty factor linked to the firing rate. In this paper, a theoretical study on the normalization of the corrected phase variance index is conducted. Both indices are compared to four existing ones using a simulated dataset which considers three desynchronizing disturbances: irregularity in firing, added spikes, and omitted spikes. In the case of unimodal responses, the two new indices are satisfying and appear the more promising in the case of real signals. In the multimodal case, the entropy-based index is better than the others even if this index is not drawback-free.

  7. Genetic and biomarker studies of human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, Joris

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify novel lifespan regulating loci that influence human longevity and population mortality. To this end, we performed two genome-wide association studies, one of long-lived individuals from the family-based Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) and an extended one of long-l

  8. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  9. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W-L Wu

    Full Text Available In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  10. A dual-task paradigm for behavioral and neurobiological studies in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2015-05-15

    The dual-task paradigm is a procedure in which subjects are asked to perform two behavioral tasks concurrently, each of which involves a distinct goal with a unique stimulus-response association. Due to the heavy demand on subject's cognitive abilities, human studies using this paradigm have provided detailed insights regarding how the components of cognitive systems are functionally organized and implemented. Although dual-task paradigms are widely used in human studies, they are seldom used in nonhuman animal studies. We propose a novel dual-task paradigm for monkeys that requires the simultaneous performance of two cognitively demanding component tasks, each of which uses an independent effector for behavioral responses (hand and eyes). We provide a detailed description of an optimal training protocol for this paradigm, which has been lacking in the existing literature. An analysis of behavioral performance showed that the proposed dual-task paradigm (1) was quickly learned by monkeys (less than 40 sessions) with step-by-step training protocols, (2) produced specific behavioral effects, known as dual-task interference in human studies, and (3) achieved rigid and independent control of the effectors for behavioral responses throughout the trial. The proposed dual-task paradigm has a scalable task structure, in that each of the two component tasks can be easily replaced by other tasks, while preserving the overall structure of the paradigm. This paradigm should be useful for investigating executive control that underlies dual-task performance at both the behavioral and neuronal levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  12. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  13. Effects of biophysical and biochemical cues on human corneal epithelial cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocce, Elizabeth J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in the design of biomaterials aim at mimicking the natural biophysical and biochemical components found in a tissue's extracellular environment (ECM). Of particular interest in this work is mimicking the specialized ECM of the human corneal epithelium called the basement membrane (BM) and understanding how corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) respond to biophysical and biochemical cues. To this end, well defined topographic features with dimension of the BM (20 to 200 nm) were fabricated to support controlled cell interactions with biochemical motifs (e.g., adhesive peptide ligands) found in the BM. Here, features of 30 to 70 nm that represent the smallest features found in the BM were used to demonstrate that the smallest features that HCECs can recognize are 30 and 45 nm, depending on the soluble environment. In addition, HCECs demonstrate contact guidance on the smallest BM features (30 to 70 nm) and on the largest BM features (200 nm), but differs from contact guidance on micron-scale features, suggesting that BM scale topography scale is an influential factor in regulating HCEC behavior. To study the simultaneous presentation of biophysical and biochemical cues, topographic features are coated with thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition of covalently reacting polymers, poly(ethylene imine) and poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (PEI/PVDMA). The films are functionalized with the bioactive peptide argenine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) to control cell-substrate interactions. We demonstrate that PEI/PVDMA films can be functionalized with monotonically increasing densities of ROD to control HCEC attachment and proliferation. In addition PEI/PVDMA films functionalized with RGD were used to demonstrate that HCEC response to topographic cues is dependent on the scale of the topography, the surface chemical composition and the soluble environment. Results from these studies will advance the understanding of how BM-relevant biophysical and biochemical

  14. Nanofiber orientation and surface functionalization modulate human mesenchymal stem cell behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolambkar, Yash M; Bajin, Mehmet; Wojtowicz, Abigail; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; García, Andrés J; Guldberg, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Electrospun nanofiber meshes have emerged as a new generation of scaffold membranes possessing a number of features suitable for tissue regeneration. One of these features is the flexibility to modify their structure and composition to orchestrate specific cellular responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of nanofiber orientation and surface functionalization on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) migration and osteogenic differentiation. We used an in vitro model to examine hMSC migration into a cell-free zone on nanofiber meshes and mitomycin C treatment to assess the contribution of proliferation to the observed migration. Poly (ε-caprolactone) meshes with oriented topography were created by electrospinning aligned nanofibers on a rotating mandrel, while randomly oriented controls were collected on a stationary collector. Both aligned and random meshes were coated with a triple-helical, type I collagen-mimetic peptide, containing the glycine-phenylalanine-hydroxyproline-glycine-glutamate-arginine (GFOGER) motif. Our results indicate that nanofiber GFOGER peptide functionalization and orientation modulate cellular behavior, individually, and in combination. GFOGER significantly enhanced the migration, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on nanofiber meshes. Aligned nanofiber meshes displayed increased cell migration along the direction of fiber orientation compared to random meshes; however, fiber alignment did not influence osteogenic differentiation. Compared to each other, GFOGER coating resulted in a higher proliferation-driven cell migration, whereas fiber orientation appeared to generate a larger direct migratory effect. This study demonstrates that peptide surface modification and topographical cues associated with fiber alignment can be used to direct cellular behavior on nanofiber mesh scaffolds, which may be exploited for tissue regeneration.

  15. Study of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone microstructure by the finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Villegas, Camila

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Cortical bone tissue is the responsible of giving support and structure to vertebrates. For that reason, understanding and analyzing its behavior is needed from each different hierarchical level that composes it. The lower the structural scale is, the greater the complexity and scarcity of studies in literature. These studies are relevant for understanding, preventing and solving important health problems that affect human beings. From a mechanical point of view is interesting to eval...

  16. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-07-20

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely unknown, partially owing to lack of animal model(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors. The mice were tested at 24 hours before and at 6, 9 and 24 hours after the Anesthesia/Surgery. Composite Z scores were calculated. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondria permeability transient pore, was used to determine potential mitochondria-associated mechanisms of these behavioral changes. Anesthesia/Surgery selectively impaired behaviors, including latency to eat food in buried food test, freezing time and time spent in the center in open field test, and entries and duration in the novel arm of Y maze test, with acute onset and various timecourse. The composite Z scores quantitatively demonstrated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced behavior impairment in mice. Cyclosporine A selectively ameliorated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced reduction in ATP levels, the increases in latency to eat food, and the decreases in entries in the novel arm. These findings suggest that we could use a battery of behavior tests to establish a mouse model to study postoperative delirium.

  17. Behavioral Processes in Long-Lag Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale T; Dannals, Jennifer E; Zlatev, Julian J

    2017-05-01

    We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones. To illustrate the roles that behavioral processes can play in long-lag experiments we examine field experiments motivated by three policy-relevant goals: prejudice reduction, health promotion, and educational achievement. In each of the experiments discussed we identify various behavioral pathways through which the manipulated psychological state could have produced the observed outcome. We argue that if psychologists conducting long-lag interventions posited a theory of change that linked manipulated psychological states to outcomes via behavioral pathways, the result would be richer theory and more practically useful research. Movement in this direction would also permit more opportunities for productive collaborations between psychologists and other social scientists interested in similar social problems.

  18. Human-robot trust. Is motion fluency an effective behavioral style for regulating robot trustworthiness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, M.; Brule, R. van den; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Finding good behavioral styles to express robot trustworthiness will optimize the usage of robots. In previous research, motion fluency as behavioral style was studied. Smooth robot motions were compared with trembling robot motions. In a video experiment an effect of motion fluency on trust was fou

  19. Cognitive conflict in human-automation interactions: a psychophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehais, Frédéric; Causse, Mickaël; Vachon, François; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    The review of literature in sociology and distributed artificial intelligence reveals that the occurrence of conflict is a remarkable precursor to the disruption of multi-agent systems. The study of this concept could be applied to human factors concerns, as man-system conflict appears to provoke perseveration behavior and to degrade attentional abilities with a trend to excessive focus. Once entangled in such conflicts, the human operator will do anything to succeed in his current goal even if it jeopardizes the mission. In order to confirm these findings, an experimental setup, composed of a real unmanned ground vehicle, a ground station is developed. A scenario involving an authority conflict between the participants and the robot is proposed. Analysis of the effects of the conflict on the participants' cognition and arousal is assessed through heart-rate measurement (reflecting stress level) and eye-tracking techniques (index of attentional focus). Our results clearly show that the occurrence of the conflict leads to perseveration behavior and can induce higher heart rate as well as excessive attentional focus. These results are discussed in terms of task commitment issues and increased arousal. Moreover, our results suggest that individual differences may predict susceptibility to perseveration behavior.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Group Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviors about Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Lopez, Cristina M; Ford, Marvella E; Brandt, Heather M; Gore, Elena I; Zapka, Jane G; Alberg, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Although there has been improvement in uptake, there are notable ethnic/racial disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand factors related to vaccine uptake among female adolescents from 3 racial/ethnic groups: African American (AA), Hispanic, and Caucasian. Findings can inform the development of optimal messages and strategies for clinical and population-based interventions. This mixed-methods descriptive study included completion of a brief structured survey and focus group discussion. Six focus groups were conducted with female adolescents, 2 each in the AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian groups. Brief structured survey questions and the focus group protocol addressed knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Participants were 60 female adolescents (ages 13-19, mean age = 16.6 years) recruited from high schools, public health clinics, and churches. Themes across questions were remarkably similar among AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian participants. Each group had high awareness of the terms HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer, but with little in-depth knowledge about these topics. There was a high acceptance of HPV vaccination. Misperceptions about optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies such as simply knowing one's partner and good hygiene were most common among Hispanic adolescents. Awareness about Pap testing was most common among Caucasian adolescents. Predominantly uniform perceptions of HPV vaccines across racial/ethnic groups suggest a "one size fits all" approach will likely have greater reach with cervical cancer prevention messaging than culturally tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  2. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  3. Applications of agent-based simulation for human socio-cultural behavior modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) has gained wide attention over the past few years. ABMS is a powerful simulation modeling technique that has a number of applications, including applications to real-world business problems [1]. This modeling technique has been used by scientists to analyze complex system-level behavior by simulating the system from the bottom up. The major application of ABMS includes social, political, biology, and economic sciences. This paper provides an overview of ABMS applications with the emphasis on modeling human socio-cultural behavior (HSCB).

  4. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-06-24

    Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.

  5. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  6. Folkbiology meets microbiology: a study of conceptual and behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong; Chan, Carol K K; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Cheung, Mike W L; Ho, Johnson Y S; Ip, Grace W M

    2008-08-01

    Health education can offer a valuable window onto conceptual and behavioral change. In Study 1, we mapped out 3rd-grade Chinese children's beliefs about causes of colds and flu and ways they can be prevented. We also explored older adults' beliefs as a possible source of the children's ideas. In Study 2, we gave 3rd- and 4th-grade Chinese children either a conventional cold/flu education program or an experimental "Think Biology" program that focused on a biological causal mechanism for cold/flu transmission. The "Think Biology" program led children to reason about cold/flu causation and prevention more scientifically than the conventional program, and their reasoning abilities dovetailed with their mastery of the causal mechanism. Study 3, a modified replication of Study 2, found useful behavioral change as well as conceptual change among children who received the "Think Biology" program and documented coherence among knowledge enrichment, conceptual change, and behavioral change.

  7. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors Are Resistant To Fear Extinction In Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVervliet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning. Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2. Most importantly, post-extinction availaibility of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings

  8. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors are Resistant to Fear Extinction in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet, Bram; Indekeu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear) would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning). Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2). Most importantly, post-extinction availability of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings increased again when

  9. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  10. The effect of laser-treated titanium surface on human gingival fibroblast behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltriukienė, D; Sabaliauskas, V; Balčiūnas, E; Melninkaitis, A; Liutkevičius, E; Bukelskienė, V; Rutkūnas, V

    2014-03-01

    Surface modification, as a means of enhancing soft tissue integration in titanium would have significant advantages including less marginal bone resorption, predictable esthetic outcome, improved soft tissue stability, and seal against bacterial leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser-roughened titanium surfaces on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) viability, proliferation, and adhesion. Titanium discs were ablated with impulse laser in four different patterns. Polished and sand-blasted titanium discs were used as control groups. Specimen surface properties were determined using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. HGF behavior on modified surfaces was analyzed using cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, and ELISA assays. Results suggested that modified Ti surfaces did not affect the viability of HGFs and improved adhesion was measured in laser treatment groups after 24 h. However, proliferation study showed that the adsorbance of fibroblast cells after 72 h cultured on polished titanium was higher and comparable with that of control cells. As for focal adhesion kinase (FAK), cells grown on laser modified surfaces had higher expression of FAK as compared with polished titanium. In conclusion, tested laser-treated surfaces seem to favor HGF adhesion. There were no significant differences between different laser treatment groups. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  11. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  12. Hydrology and human behavior: two key factors of diarrhea incidence in montane tropical humid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boithias, Laurie; Choisy, Marc; Souliyaseng, Noy; Jourdren, Marine; Quet, Fabrice; Buisson, Yves; Thammahacksa, Chanthamousone; Silvera, Norbert; Latsachack, Keooudone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Pierret, Alain; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Becerra, Sylvia; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. In this study we hypothesized that climate factors combined with human behavior control diarrhea incidence, either because higher rainfall, leading to higher stream discharges, suspended sediment loads and Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) counts, are associated with higher numbers of reported diarrhea cases during the rainy season, or because water shortage leads to the use of less safe water sources during the dry season. For this mixed methods approach, we conducted a retrospective time series analysis of meteorological variables (rainfall, air temperature), hydrological variables (discharge, suspended sediments, FIB counts, water temperature) at the outlet of 2 catchments in Northern Lao PDR, and the number of diarrheal disease cases reported in 6 health centers located in the Luang Prabang Province. We also examined the socio-behavioral factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors, such as drinking water sources and hygiene habits. We found the FIB Escherichia coli to be present all year long (100-1,000 MPN 100 mL-1) indicating that fecal contamination is ubiquitous and constant. We found that populations switch their water supply from wells to surface water during drought periods, the latter of which appear to be at higher risk of bacterial contamination than municipal water fountains. We thus found that water shortage in the Luang Prabang area triggers diarrhea peaks during the dry and hot season and that rainfall and aquifer refill ends the epidemic during the wet season. We thus found that anthropogenic drivers, such as hygiene practices, were at least as important as environmental drivers in determining the seasonal pattern of a

  13. How contemporary human reproductive behaviors influence the role of fertility-related genes: the example of the p53 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Corbo

    Full Text Available Studies on human fertility genes have identified numerous risk/protective alleles involved in the occurrence of reproductive system diseases causing infertility or subfertility. Investigations we carried out in populations at natural fertility seem to suggest that the clinical relevance that some fertility genes are now acquiring depends on their interaction with contemporary reproductive behaviors (birth control, delayed childbearing, and spacing birth order, among others. In recent years, a new physiological role in human fertility regulation has emerged for the tumor- suppressor p53 gene (P53, and the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphism has been associated with recurrent implantation failure in humans. To lend support to our previous observations, we examined the impact of Arg72Pro polymorphism on fertility in two samples of Italian women not selected for impaired fertility but collected from populations with different (premodern and modern reproductive behaviors. Among the women at near-natural fertility (n = 98, the P53 genotypes were not associated with different reproductive efficiency, whereas among those with modern reproductive behaviors (n = 68, the P53 genotypes were associated with different mean numbers of children [Pro/Pro = 0.75studies reporting an association between the P53 Pro allele and recurrent implantation failure. By combining these findings with previous ones, we suggest here that some common variants of fertility genes may have become "detrimental" following exposure to modern reproductive patterns and might therefore be associated with reduced reproductive success. Set within an evolutionary framework, this change could lead to the selection of a set of gene variants fitter to current reproductive behaviors as the

  14. Study of neurometabolic and behavioral alterations in rodent model of mild traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

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    Singh, Kavita; Trivedi, Richa; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash; Khushu, Subash

    2016-12-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats. After mTBI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) and neurobehavioral analysis were performed in these groups. At day 5, reduced taurine (Tau)/total creatine (tCr, creatine and phosphocreatine) levels in cortex were observed in the IA and IO groups relative to the control. These groups showed mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior with normal cognition at day 5 post-injury. An anxiogenic effect of repeated dosage of anesthesia in OA rats was observed with normal Tau/tCr levels in rat cortex, which requires further examination. In conclusion, this mTBI model closely mimics human concussion injury with anxiety-like behavior and normal cognition. Reduced cortical Tau levels may provide a putative neurometabolic basis of anxiety-like behavior following mTBI.

  15. Scale-free fluctuations in behavioral performance: delineating changes in spontaneous behavior of humans with induced sleep deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi K Ochab

    Full Text Available The timing and dynamics of many diverse behaviors of mammals, e.g., patterns of animal foraging or human communication in social networks exhibit complex self-similar properties reproducible over multiple time scales. In this paper, we analyze spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded in two different conditions: during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. After separating activity from rest with a pre-defined activity threshold, we have detected distinct statistical features of duration times of these two states. The cumulative distributions of activity periods follow a stretched exponential shape, and remain similar for both control and sleep deprived individuals. In contrast, rest periods, which follow power-law statistics over two orders of magnitude, have significantly distinct distributions for these two groups and the difference emerges already after the first night of shortened sleep. We have found steeper distributions for sleep deprived individuals, which indicates fewer long rest periods and more turbulent behavior. This separation of power-law exponents is the main result of our investigations, and might constitute an objective measure demonstrating the severity of sleep deprivation and the effects of sleep disorders.

  16. The Effects of Step-by-Step Self-regulation on Controlling Study Behavior, Attitude to Study and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifiniya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using personal potential is one of the key elements in behavior modification and the purpose of this research was to study the effects of a new method in changing human attitude and behavior in school context. Following this goal, in current research the authors have tried to examine the role of Step-by-Step Self-Regulation on studying behavior control, attitude to study and students' academic achievement. The total sample size was 120 high school male students in Hamedan. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group and control group. Then step-by-step self-regulation method were taught and carried out for eight sessions over the experimental group. Researcher made questionnaires were used for gathering data on study behavior control and students’ attitude to study and for evaluating students’ academic achievement their scholastic scores were used. In testing research hypotheses, a multivariate three-way ANOVA and independent and paired t tests were used. Comparing experimental and control groups data show that applying step-by-step self-regulation improves the personal ability to control study behavior while it does not have any meaningful effect on attitudes to study and students' academic achievement.

  17. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

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    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  18. A Review of Domestic Dogs' ("Canis Familiaris") Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

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    Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…

  19. STUDY CONCERNING THE SPECTATOR BEHAVIOR ON HANDBALL GAMES

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    Tudor BOGDAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available specialists in recent years. Modern approaches to study the reasons and frequency aspects of the show audienceparticipation sport, the level of affiliation to the team, the aggressive behavior of spectators, most fitting that conductconsumer behavior.Aims - highlighting the structure and behavior of the general features of the audience to play handballSubjects and methods - I applied to a game of handball viewers a non-standardized questionnaire of 15 items, with themajor content themes developed by the literatureResults and discussion - the raw data were processed with Excel and SPSS statistical packages, calculating descriptiveand inferential statistical indices, which were the basis for interpretation of results.Conclusions - The study highlighted a number of features of spectators at games of handball, information analyzedaccording to socio-demographic parameters studied: gender, age, education completed.

  20. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

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    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.