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Sample records for human atll cases

  1. Evaluation of the role of TAX, HBZ, and HTLV-1 proviral load on the survival of ATLL patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirdel, Abbas; Bari, Alireza; Mohaddes, Seyedeh Tahereh; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Karimani, Ehsan Ghayour; Etminani, Kobra; Golabpour, Amin; Torshizi, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive malignancy with very poor prognosis and short survival, caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). The HTLV-1 biomarkers trans-activator x (TAX) and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) are main oncogenes and life-threatening elements. This study aimed to assess the role of the TAX and HBZ genes and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) in the survival of patients with ATLL. Forty-three HTLV-1-infected individuals, including 18 asymptomatic carriers (AC) and 25 ATLL patients (ATLL), were evaluated between 2011 and 2015. The mRNA expression of TAX and HBZ and the HTLV-1 PVL were measured by quantitative PCR. Significant differences in the mean expression levels of TAX and HBZ were observed between the two study groups (ATLL and AC, P =0.014 and P =0.000, respectively). In addition, the ATLL group showed a significantly higher PVL than AC ( P =0.000). There was a significant negative relationship between PVL and survival among all study groups ( P =0.047). The HTLV-1 PVL and expression of TAX and HBZ were higher in the ATLL group than in the AC group. Moreover, a higher PVL was associated with shorter survival time among all ATLL subjects. Therefore, measurement of PVL, TAX , and HBZ may be beneficial for monitoring and predicting HTLV-1-infection outcomes, and PVL may be useful for prognosis assessment of ATLL patients. This research demonstrates the possible correlation between these virological markers and survival in ATLL patients.

  2. Immunological aspects of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a possible neoplasm of regulatory T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yasuaki; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2008-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a distinct disease caused by the first discovered human oncogenic retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). The peculiarity of this disease is not only in its causative agent HTLV-1 but also in the character of leukemia cells. ATLL cells express the mature helper/inducer T-cell antigens, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD5 but usually lacking CD8. Despite CD4 expression, it has long been known that ATLL cells exhibit strong immunosuppressive activity ...

  3. [Cardiac invasion of ATLL cells and therapeutic effects of local along with systemic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, S; Nakagawa, T; Ito, M

    1989-07-01

    We report a rare case of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in which cardiac invasion was clinically demonstrated and treated effectively. A 45-year-old female was admitted because of exertional dyspnea and cervical tumors. The leukocyte count was 19,100/microliters with 20% of flower cells. HTLV-I antibody was positive. She was diagnosed as ATLL and treated with VEPA. She got remission for a short duration which was followed by relapse. OPEC was started as salvage therapy. In the course, extensive pericardial effusion was found in chest X-P. Pericardial puncture demonstrated ATLL cells and high titer of free IL-2 receptor (57,400U/ml) in the effusion. It was diagnosed as pericardial invasion of ATLL cells. Chemotherapy was started with new combination of drugs (cisplatin, mitoxantrone, ifosfamide, and prednisolone). Concomitantly pericardial drainage was performed and the drugs were administered directly into the pericardial cavity. The clinical improvement was obtained and pericardial effusion did not appear thereafter. She died 4 months after the diagnosis of cardiac invasion. On autopsy myocardial invasion was identified. The pericardium widely adhered and effusion measured 42 ml.

  4. The adhesive properties of the Staphylococcus lugdunensis multifunctional autolysin AtlL and its role in biofilm formation and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzaffar; Steinbacher, Tim; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine; Becker, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Although it belongs to the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been known to cause aggressive courses of native and prosthetic valve infective endocarditis with high mortality similar to Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to S. aureus, only little is known about the equipment of S. lugdunensis with virulence factors including adhesins and their role in mediating attachment to extracellular matrix and plasma proteins and host cells. In this study, we show that the multifunctional autolysin/adhesin AtlL of S. lugdunensis binds to the extracellular matrix and plasma proteins fibronectin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin as well as to human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AtlL also plays an important role in the internalization of S. lugdunensis by eukaryotic cells: The atlL-deficient mutant Mut17 adheres to and becomes internalized by eukaryotic cells to a lesser extent than the isogenic wild-type strain Sl253 and the complemented mutant Mut17 (pCUatlL) shows an increased internalization level in comparison to Mut17. Thus, surface localized AtlL that exhibits a broad binding spectrum also mediates the internalization of S. lugdunensis by eukaryotic cells. We therefore propose an internalization pathway for S. lugdunensis, in which AtlL plays a major role. Investigating the role of AtlL in biofilm formation of S. lugdunensis, Mut17 shows a significantly reduced ability for biofilm formation, which is restored in the complemented mutant. Thus, our data provide evidence for a significant role for AtlL in adherence and internalization processes as well as in biofilm formation of S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Human babesiosis - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marathe A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted, zoonotic disease caused by hematotropic parasites of the genus Babesia. Most cases of Babesial infections in humans have been acquired in temperate regions of the United States, Europe, France and England. A few cases of Babesiosis have been described in other parts of the world, including China, Taiwan, Egypt, South Africa, and Mexico.1,2 We report the first case of human Babesiosis, in a normosplenic, previously healthy individual from India.

  6. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  7. Impact of Growth Factor Independence 1 in Human T-Cell Lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Magdalena Julia; Dybkær, Karen; Johansen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in the Gfi1 3'UTR have been demonstrated to decouple microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of protein expression (Dabrowska et al, 2009) further supporting its role in lymphomagenesis. In human cancers, Gfi1 protein expression has been observed in HTLV-1 induced ATLL and SCLC but no knowledge...

  8. A case of human babesiosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Röser, Dennis; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2014-01-01

    We report the first human case of Babesia microti infection imported to Denmark from the United States by a 64 year old female traveller with fever of unknown origin. The case raises the possibility that Babesia-infections may be under-diagnosed, illustrates the importance of a thorough travel hi...

  9. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

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    Pesson Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  10. A Case of True Human Tail

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    Amogh R Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail are reported from various parts of the world. Although medically innocuous, these cause anxiety & social curiosity we report a case of 09 month old child with 8 cm stalked soft tissue lesion in the sacral region. MRI spine revealed a 2 mm intraspinal lipoma in lumbar region. The appendage was excised.

  11. Human Orf: Report of two cases

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    Ahmet Karakas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orf or ecthyma contagiosum is a viral zoonosis of domesticated sheep and goats. It was described clinically in man for the first time in 1934 by Newson and Cross. All physicians should remain aware that human orf may occur anywhere and consider it in the differential diagnosis of cases with relevant animal exposure. Orf lesions with delayed healing on the hands and arms can be cause to unnecessary interventions such as drainage and prolonged antibacterial therapy. We should only try to prevent or heal the eventual complications except extraordinary situations. In the case with delayed healing pyodermia like lesion on the fingers after slaughtering activity, orf must be kept in mind. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 551-552

  12. Work, Productivity, and Human Performance: Practical Case Studies in Ergonomics, Human Factors and Human Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, T. M.; Pityn, P. J.

    This book contains 12 case histories, each based on a real-life problem, that show how a manager can use common sense, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to solve problems in human performance at work. Each case study describes a worker's problem and provides background information and an assignment; solutions are suggested. The following cases…

  13. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  14. Clinicopathologic features of adult T-cell leukemias/lymphomas at a North American tertiary care medical center: infrequent involvement of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Andy C; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L; Nguyen, TuDung T

    2014-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Published series of ATLLs seen at a United States medical institution are rare. We present the features of 4 ATLLs diagnosed at our North American tertiary care medical center from 1990 to 2012. Despite the absence of a history of origin from an endemic region, all our ATLLs demonstrated evidence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by ATLL was uncommon in our series, and represented only 1.6% (1/64) of all CNS B-cell or T-cell lymphomas diagnosed over a 20+ year period at our institution. Review of the medical literature reveals that the majority of CNS-involved ATLLs present with the lymphoma or acute subtype, and complete remission is difficult to achieve in these cases. CNS involvement frequently occurs with a systemic disease, which carries an aggressive clinical course with poor prognosis. In addition, CNS involvement by ATLL can be the initial presentation or seen with relapsed disease, can be the only site or be associated with other tissue sites of involvement, and may manifest with variable clinical signs/symptoms. Our retrospective study reveals that ATLLs are rare mature T-cell lymphomas in a native North American population, but the clinical and histopathologic features of ATLLs from this nonendemic region are similar to those seen from other endemic regions. Early recognition of these rare ATLLs involving uncommon sites, such as the CNS, will help optimize treatment for these infrequent mature T-cell lymphomas.

  15. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-01-01

    After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind...

  17. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... The approach is historical and descriptive in nature. .... specifically human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice, sounds expressive of thought, .... Jobs in tourism, marketing, healthcare also await people with ...

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL FLIGHT - ROMANIA’S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, qualifications of workforce and human capital became key factors for progress. Human capital flight transfers not only people but work, knowledge, tangible and intangible capital and development potential. In this article, trying to answer whether Romania is a source country for emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals (ie human capital flight I flew over those two dimensions that have traditionally characterized human capital flight namely: shrinking work resource and lossing high educated peoples. Therefore, Romania was faced with decreasing the number of resident population due to the evolution of demographic phenomena with negative projections and declining number of working age population and young educated and highly skilled workers and professionals. This will generate complex problems for economy, labour market, difficulty in finding highly skilled workers, talent shortages etc so it’s critical to monitor the labour migration or brain drain phenomenon.

  19. Human papillomas virus infection in the case of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowska, W.; Rogozinski, T.; Zawadowski, J.; Waloryszak, B.

    1993-01-01

    The case of 59 year old man treated (with surgery and radiotherapy) for larynx carcinoma was presented. The potentially oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16/18 was detected in the tissue surrounding the tumor. (author)

  20. Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major ... dardized even after more than 20 years of research, making it difficult to draw .... (c) Part of a metaphase with a chromosome break in the centromeric region (arrows).

  1. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

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    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  2. Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: Case report

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    Duque Velásquez, Camilo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 64 year-old woman with motor and cognitive deterioration that progressed rapidly during eight months. She was unsuccessfully treated with quinacrine, and died in a terminal status, by septic shock secondary to bronchopneumonia by broncho-aspiration. The brain was donated for research and the histopathological analysis showed spongiform changes, astrogliosis and prion protein (PrPRes deposits, confirmed by Western blot (WB. These features are considered characteristic of prion diseases, which are uncommon in Colombia. We highlight that its diagnosis was made for the first time in this country by the simultaneous use of immunohistochemistry and Western blot.

  3. Family Aggregation of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1-Associated Diseases: a Systematic Review

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    Carolina Alvarez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus that produces a persistent infection. Two transmission routes (from mother to child and via sexual intercourse favor familial clustering of HTLV-1. It is yet unknown why most HTLV-1 carriers remain asymptomatic while about 10% of them develop complications. HTLV-1 associated diseases were originally described as sporadic entities, but familial presentations have been reported. To explore what is known about family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases we undertook a systematic review. We aimed at answering whether, when and where family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases was reported, which relatives were affected and which hypotheses were proposed to explain aggregation. We searched MEDLINE, abstract books of HTLV conferences and reference lists of selected papers. Search terms used referred to HTLV-1 infection, and HTLV-1-associated diseases, and family studies. HTLV-1-associated diseases considered are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, HTLV-1-associated uveitis, and infective dermatitis. Seventy-four records reported HTLV-1-associated diseases in more than one member of the same family and were included. Most reports came from HTLV-1-endemic countries, mainly Japan (n=30 and Brazil (n=10. These reports described a total of 270 families in which more than one relative had HTLV-1-associated diseases. In most families, different family members suffered from the same disease (n=221. The diseases most frequently reported were ATLL (114 families and HAM/TSP (101 families. Most families (n=142 included two to four affected individuals. The proportion of ATLL patients with family history of ATLL ranged from 2% to 26%. The proportion of HAM/TSP patients with family history of HAM/TSP ranged from 1% to 48%. The predominant cluster types for ATLL were clusters of siblings and parent-child pairs and for HAM/TSP, an

  4. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  5. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  6. Congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis: report of two brazilian human cases

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    Myrlena Regina Machado Mescouto-Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction.

  7. Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report

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    Ioana Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis.

  8. A Case of Human Infection by Rickettsia slovaca in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Vasiliki; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Kanta, Chrysoula; Katsanou, Andromachi; Rossiou, Konstantina; Rammos, Aidonis; Papadopoulos, Spyridon-Filippos; Katsarou, Theodora; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna; Boukas, Chrysostomos

    2016-07-22

    Although tick-borne rickettsiosis is endemic in Greece, until recently, human samples arriving at the National Reference Centre under suspicion of rickettsial infection were routinely tested only for Rickettsia typhi and R. conorii. However, identification of additional rickettsia species in ticks prompted revision of the protocol in 2010. Until that year, all human samples received by the laboratory were tested for antibodies against R. conorii and R. typhi only. Now, tests for R. slovaca, R. felis, and R. mongolotimonae are all included in routine analysis. The current description of a human R. slovaca case is possible as a result of these changes in routine testing.

  9. Human Cases of Tularemia in Armenia, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikjanyan, Syuzanna; Palayan, Karo; Vanyan, Artavazd; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bakunts, Nune; Kotanyan, Marine; Guerra, Marta

    2017-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted of human cases and outbreaks of tularemia in the Republic of Armenia from 1996 to 2012 utilizing geographic information system software. A total of 266 human cases of tularemia were recorded in Armenia from 1996 to 2012, with yearly incidence ranging from 0 to 5.5 cases per 100,000 people. Cases predominantly affected the male population (62.8%), 11-20 year age group (37.2%), agricultural workers (49.6%), and persons residing in rural areas (93.6%). In 2003, a waterborne outbreak involving 158 cases occurred in Kotayk Marz, and in 2007, a foodborne outbreak with 17 cases occurred in Gegharkunik Marz, attributed to exposure of food products to contaminated hay. Geospatial analysis of all cases showed that the majority were associated with the steppe vegetation zone, elevations between 1,400 and 2,300 m, and the climate zone associated with dry, warm summers, and cold winters. Characterization of these environmental factors were used to develop a predictive risk model to improve surveillance and outbreak response for tularemia in Armenia.

  10. A case of human thelaziasis from Himachal Pradesh

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    Sharma A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Small, chalky-white, threadlike, motile worms were isolated from the conjunctival sac of a 32 year-old woman residing in the Himalaya mountains. They were identified as both male and female worms of Thelazia callipaeda . To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case report of human thelaziasis from India.

  11. Human capital management in a knowledge economy: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aims to examine the existence of the human capital management through competencies and knowledge management approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based economy. The study was applied to the case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria, such as: (CREAD, CRSTRA, CDTA, ...

  12. Cases of human fascioliasis in India: tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, J; Ajjampur, S S R; Chandramohan, A; Varghese, G M

    2012-01-01

    This report presents two cases of human fascioliasis from different states in India. Although only few cases of human fascioliasis have been reported from India previously, both these cases were encountered within a span of three months at this tertiary care centre. Case 1 had significant symptoms with episodes of fever, abdominal pain and eosiniphilia and underwent multiple diagnostic procedures before the correct diagnosis was reached. Case 2, who had few symptoms, had fascioliasis diagnosed with minimal evaluation. These different presentations seen at two ends of the clinical spectrum of disease along with findings of peripheral eosinophilia, and radiological findings led to a presumptive diagnosis that was then confirmed by microscopic examination of bile. Morphometric analysis of ova from these cases was suggestive of infestation with F. gigantica or a F. gigantica-like hybrid. Both patients were treated with triclabendazole which was imported from Geneva. The need to be aware of the possibility of occurrence of this disease and the inclusion of drugs used for treating the disease, in the Indian drug list, should be emphasized.

  13. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind that the Convention is a living instrument, its interpretation being made in the light of the present-day conditions. Thus, taking into consideration the global threat of this phenomenon, it is more obvious than ever that the Convention could not neglect this issue.

  14. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, G R; Horton, D L; Dahal, M; Rai, J N; Ide, S; Leech, S; Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R

    2011-04-01

    Rabies is endemic throughout most of Asia, with the majority of human cases transmitted by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Here, we report a case of rabies in a 12-year-old girl in the Lalitpur district of Nepal that might have been prevented by better public awareness and timely post-exposure prophylaxis. Molecular characterization of the virus showed 100% identity over a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus sequence after passage in vitro but not after passage in vivo.

  15. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-03-21

    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO's Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance.

  16. Assessment of human decision reliability - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P

    1998-01-01

    In his discussion of this case study, the author indicates that human beings are not merely machines who use rules. Thus, more focus needs to be put on studying decision making situations and their contexts. Decision theory (both normative and descriptive) and contextual psychological approaches may offer tools to cope with operator decision making. Further an ideal decision space needs to be defined for operators. The case study specifically addressed a loss of feedwater scenario and the various operator decisions that were involved in that scenario. It was concluded from this particular study that there are significant differences in the crew decision behaviours that are not explained by process variables. Through use of evidence from simulator tests with expert judgement, an approach to estimate probabilities has been developed. The modelling approach presented in this discussion is an extension of current HRA paradigms, but a natural one since all human beings make decisions

  17. Human Parechovirus Meningitis with Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Mylene C; Bruning, Andrea Hl; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wolthers, Katja C; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-03-14

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections usually cause mild symptoms in children. Although their contribution to severe disease in young children - such as neonatal sepsis and meningo-encephalitis - is increasingly recognized, data on long-term consequences are scarce. Here we present the case of a five-year old boy with severe long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae following HPeV-3 meningitis.

  18. A Human Proximity Operations System test case validation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    A Human Proximity Operations System (HPOS) poses numerous risks in a real world environment. These risks range from mundane tasks such as avoiding walls and fixed obstacles to the critical need to keep people and processes safe in the context of the HPOS's situation-specific decision making. Validating the performance of an HPOS, which must operate in a real-world environment, is an ill posed problem due to the complexity that is introduced by erratic (non-computer) actors. In order to prove the HPOS's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate possible actions of these actors, so the HPOS can be shown to be able perform safely in environments where it will be operated. The HPOS must demonstrate its ability to be as safe as a human, across a wide range of foreseeable circumstances. This paper evaluates the use of test cases to validate HPOS performance and utility. It considers an HPOS's safe performance in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, and extrapolates (based on this) to the suitability of using test cases for AI validation in other areas of prospective application.

  19. Chronic adult T-cell Leukemia in a young male after blood transfusion as a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Colucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HTM/TSP. Areas of extremely high HTLV-1 prevalence are surrounded by areas of middle or very low prevalence. ATLL is an aggressive lymphoproliferative malignancy of peripheral T cells, with an incidence of less than 5% in HTLV-1-infected individuals. ATLL developed in the majority of cases in individuals who were infected with HTLV-1 by their mothers due to prolonged breastfeeding. In non-endemic areas, ATLL is usually limited to immigrants, their sexual partners and descendants from endemic regions. Very few cases of ATLL have been diagnosed in recipient patients few years after an organ transplantation or blood transfusion worldwide. Achieving an accurate and fast diagnosis of ATLL can be challenging due to the lack of professional experience, delayed consultation and difficulty in its sub-classification. We present a case of a delayed onset of a chronic ATLL in an 18-years-old male who was transfused with blood components as a premature newborn in Buenos Aires, a non-endemic city of South America.

  20. Human case of fasciolosis in Serbia treated with triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of humans infected by Fasciola hepatica is increasing worldwide. Humans can become accidental hosts by ingesting drinking water or plants contaminated with metacercariae. Case report. We reported a case of a 68-year-old Serbian woman, in which the diagnosis of acute fasciolosis had been established after serious diagnostic concerns. Based on clinical picture (episodic right upper quadrant abdominal pain, febrility and generalized body pain and biochemical analyses (high eosinophilia and high activity of alkaline phosphatase, she was appointed as suspected to the acute fasciolosis. Stool and duodenal aspirate exams were negative for Fasciola ova. In the absence of adequate serologic diagnostic for fasciolosis in Serbia, the diagnosis was confirmed using enzyme immunoassays and immunoblot at the Institute for Tropical Diseases in Hamburg, Germany. Soon after triclabendazole was administered, the symptoms disappeared and biochemical values returned to normal. Conclusion. The diagnosis of human fasciolosis may be problematic and delayed, especially in non endemic areas, because physicians rarely encounter this disease and a long list of other diseases must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The syndrome of eosinophilia, fever, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain suggest acute fasciolosis. Unclear source does not rule out fasciolosis.

  1. Understanding Complex Human Ecosystems: The Case of Ecotourism on Bonaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Abel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that ecotourism development on the island of Bonaire can be productively understood as a perturbation of a complex human ecosystem. Inputs associated with ecotourism have fueled transformations of the island ecology and sociocultural system. The results of this study indicate that Bonaire's social and economic hierarchy is approaching a new, stable systems state following a 50-yr transition begun by government and industry that stabilized with the appearance of ecotourism development and population growth. Ecotourism can be understood to have "filled in" the middle of the production hierarchy of Bonaire. Interpreted from this perspective, population growth has completed the transformation by expanding into production niches at smaller scales in the production hierarchy. Both a consequence and a cause, ecotourism has transformed the island's social structure and demography. The theory and methods applied in this case study of interdisciplinary research in the field of human ecosystems are also presented.

  2. Medieval Iceland, Greenland, and the New Human Condition: A case study in integrated environmental humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steven; Ogilvie, A. E. J.; Ingimundarson, Jón Haukur; Dugmore, A. J.; Hambrecht, George; McGovern, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper contributes to recent studies exploring the longue durée of human impacts on island landscapes, the impacts of climate and other environmental changes on human communities, and the interaction of human societies and their environments at different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the paper addresses Iceland during the medieval period (with a secondary, comparative focus on Norse Greenland) and discusses episodes where environmental and climatic changes have appeared to cross key thresholds for agricultural productivity. The paper draws upon international, interdisciplinary research in the North Atlantic region led by the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) and the Nordic Network for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies (NIES) in the Circumpolar Networks program of the Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE). By interlinking analyses of historically grounded literature with archaeological studies and environmental science, valuable new perspectives can emerge on how these past societies may have understood and coped with such impacts. As climate and other environmental changes do not operate in isolation, vulnerabilities created by socioeconomic factors also beg consideration. The paper illustrates the benefits of an integrated environmental-studies approach that draws on data, methodologies and analytical tools of environmental humanities, social sciences, and geosciences to better understand long-term human ecodynamics and changing human-landscape-environment interactions through time. One key goal is to apply previously unused data and concerted expertise to illuminate human responses to past changes; a secondary aim is to consider how lessons derived from these cases may be applicable to environmental threats and socioecological risks in the future, especially as understood in light of the New Human Condition, the concept transposed from Hannah Arendt's influential framing of the human condition that is

  3. Human born with a tail: A case report | Sarmast | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context. e dorsal cutaneous appendage, or so-called human tail, is often considered to be a cutaneous marker of underlying occult spinal dysraphism. Human tails have always elicited curiosity. A unique case of human dysraphism is described. Case report. An interesting case of a child with a tail-like caudal appendage ...

  4. A case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted by hematophagous arthropods - ticks. In humans, it occurs as monocytic, granulocytic, and ewingii ehrlichiosis. Pathological process is based on parasitic presence of Ehrlichia organisms within peripheral blood cells - monocytes and granulocytes. Case Outline. Fifty-two year old patient was admitted to hospital due to high fever of over 40°C that lasted two days, accompanied with chills, muscle aches, malaise, loss of appetite, headache, confusion, breathing difficulties, and mild dry cough. The history suggested tick bite that occurred seven days before the onset of disease. Doxycycline was introduced and administered for 14 days, causing the disease to subside. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to analyze three serum samples obtained from this patient for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies, and peripheral blood smear was evaluated for the presence of Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia aggregation into morulae. Conclusion. Ehrlichiosis should be considered in each case where there is a history of tick bite together with the clinical picture (high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, generalized weakness and malaise, and possible maculopapular rash. The presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies was confirmed in a patient with the history of tick bite, appropriate clinical picture and indirect immunofluorescence assay. This confirmed the presence of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, a disease that is uncommonly identified in our country.

  5. Human babesiosis in Southeast China: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female patient living in Southeast China presented with persistent fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and dizziness of 12-day duration. Blood tests showed neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and active hemolytic anemia, with elevated C-reactive protein. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for a possible diagnosis of sepsis, without any response. Malaria was initially diagnosed after visualizing intraerythrocytic ring-shaped parasites in bone marrow and blood smears. The patient resided in an area of unstable endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum. Blood samples were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a definitive diagnosis of human babesiosis was made using Babesia microti-specific PCR. Chloroquine phosphate and clindamycin were started and the patient became normothermic. However, due to the intolerable adverse effects of the antibiotics, intravenous azithromycin was given as an alternative. The patient recovered from fever and hemolysis, and repeated peripheral blood smears showed hemoparasite clearance. Cases of human babesiosis are rarely reported and probably under-diagnosed in China; therefore, improving our understanding of this disease as a newly emerging public health threat is imperative. Keywords: Human babesiosis, Southeast China, Plasmodium falciparum, Hemoparasites

  6. Human pluripotent stem cells in modeling human disorders: the case of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkov, Dan; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) generated from affected blastocysts or from patient-derived somatic cells are an emerging platform for disease modeling and drug discovery. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, was one of the first disorders modeled in both embryonic stem cells and induced PCSs and can serve as an exemplary case for the utilization of human PSCs in the study of human diseases. Over the past decade, FXS-PSCs have been used to address the fundamental questions regarding the pathophysiology of FXS. In this review we summarize the methodologies for generation of FXS-PSCs, discuss their advantages and disadvantages compared with existing modeling systems and describe their utilization in the study of FXS pathogenesis and in the development of targeted treatment.

  7. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  8. Human babesiosis in Southeast China: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Zhang, Lingling; Yao, Linong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hui; Ni, Qingxiang; Pan, Chenwei; Jin, Lingxiang

    2018-03-01

    A 60-year-old female patient living in Southeast China presented with persistent fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and dizziness of 12-day duration. Blood tests showed neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and active hemolytic anemia, with elevated C-reactive protein. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for a possible diagnosis of sepsis, without any response. Malaria was initially diagnosed after visualizing intraerythrocytic ring-shaped parasites in bone marrow and blood smears. The patient resided in an area of unstable endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum. Blood samples were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a definitive diagnosis of human babesiosis was made using Babesia microti-specific PCR. Chloroquine phosphate and clindamycin were started and the patient became normothermic. However, due to the intolerable adverse effects of the antibiotics, intravenous azithromycin was given as an alternative. The patient recovered from fever and hemolysis, and repeated peripheral blood smears showed hemoparasite clearance. Cases of human babesiosis are rarely reported and probably under-diagnosed in China; therefore, improving our understanding of this disease as a newly emerging public health threat is imperative. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel human polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus and human polyomavirus 9, in Japanese chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases

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    Imajoh Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the rarest adult leukemia in Japan, whereas it is the most common leukemia in the Western world. Recent studies from the United States and Germany suggest a possible etiological association between Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV and CLL, although no data have been reported from Eastern countries. To increase the volume of relevant data, this study investigated the prevalence and DNA loads of MCPyV and human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9, another lymphotropic polyomavirus, in Japanese CLL cases. Findings We found that 9/27 CLL cases (33.3 % were positive for MCPyV using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The viral DNA loads ranged from 0.000017 to 0.0012 copies per cell. All cases were negative for HPyV9. One MCPyV-positive CLL case was evaluated by mutational analysis of the large T (LT gene, which indicated the presence of wild-type MCPyV without a nucleotide deletion. DNA sequence analysis of the entire small T (ST gene and the partial LT gene revealed that a Japanese MCPyV isolate, designated CLL-JK, had two nucleotide gaps when compared with the reference sequence of the North American isolate MCC350. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that MCPyV is present in a subset of Japanese CLL cases with low viral DNA loads. MCPyV and HPyV9 are unlikely to contribute directly to the development of CLL in the majority of Japanese cases. MCPyV isolated from the Japanese CLL cases may constitute an Asian group and its pathogenicity needs to be clarified in future studies.

  10. Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, A; Durando, P; Del Favero, G; Ansaldi, F; Icardi, G; Deeds, J R; Sosa, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of case reports and anecdotal references describe the adverse effects on human health ascribed to the marine toxin palytoxin (PLTX) after different exposure routes. They include poisonings after oral intake of contaminated seafood, but also inhalation and cutaneous/systemic exposures after direct contact with aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing cnidarian zoanthids. The symptoms commonly recorded during PLTX intoxication are general malaise and weakness, associated with myalgia, respiratory effects, impairment of the neuromuscular apparatus and abnormalities in cardiac function. Systemic symptoms are often recorded together with local damages whose intensity varies according to the route and length of exposure. Gastrointestinal malaise or respiratory distress is common for oral and inhalational exposure, respectively. In addition, irritant properties of PLTX probably account for the inflammatory reactions typical of cutaneous and inhalational contact. Unfortunately, the toxin identification and/or quantification are often incomplete or missing and cases of poisoning are indirectly ascribed to PLTXs, according only to symptoms, anamnesis and environmental/epidemiological investigations (i.e. zoanthid handling or ingestion of particular seafood). Based on the available literature, we suggest a "case definition of PLTX poisonings" according to the main exposure routes, and, we propose the main symptoms to be checked, as well as, hemato-clinical analysis to be carried out. We also suggest the performance of specific analyses both on biological specimens of patients, as well as, on the contaminated materials responsible for the poisoning. A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human-centered modeling in human reliability analysis: some trends based on case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron-Dupin, F.; Reer, B.; Heslinga, G.; Straeter, O.; Gerdes, V.; Saliou, G.; Ullwer, W.

    1997-01-01

    As an informal working group of researchers from France, Germany and The Netherlands created in 1993, the EARTH association is investigating significant subjects in the field of human reliability analysis (HRA). Our initial review of cases from nuclear operating experience showed that decision-based unrequired actions (DUA) contribute to risk significantly on the one hand. On the other hand, our evaluation of current HRA methods showed that these methods do not cover such actions adequately. Especially, practice-oriented guidelines for their predictive identification are lacking. We assumed that a basic cause for such difficulties was that these methods actually use a limited representation of the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) paradigm. We proposed a human-centered model, which better highlights the active role of the operators and the importance of their culture, attitudes and goals. This orientation was encouraged by our review of current HRA research activities. We therefore decided to envisage progress by identifying cognitive tendencies in the context of operating and simulator experience. For this purpose, advanced approaches for retrospective event analysis were discussed. Some orientations for improvements were proposed. By analyzing cases, various cognitive tendencies were identified, together with useful information about their context. Some of them match psychological findings already published in the literature, some of them are not covered adequately by the literature that we reviewed. Finally, this exploratory study shows that contextual and case-illustrated findings about cognitive tendencies provide useful help for the predictive identification of DUA in HRA. More research should be carried out to complement our findings and elaborate more detailed and systematic guidelines for using them in HRA studies

  12. Abortion in the light of case-law of the European Court of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    Thesis: Abortion in the light of case law of European Court of Human Rights This thesis focuses on the legal regulation of abortion in selected European countries in order to find single European standard. It concentrates primarily on issues of assessing violations of particular articles of the Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms by the European Court of Human Rights or former European Commission of Human Rights in relation to specific cases associated with abortion. Abortion ...

  13. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Fox

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the “mitotic” spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of asymptomatic carriers (ACs and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL. 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset.

  14. Rebuilding human resources for health: a case study from Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Duza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Following twenty years of economic and social growth, Liberia's fourteen-year civil war destroyed its health system, with most of the health workforce leaving the country. Following the inauguration of the Sirleaf administration in 2006, the Ministry of Health & Social Welfare (MOHSW has focused on rebuilding, with an emphasis on increasing the size and capacity of its human resources for health (HRH. Given resource constraints and the high maternal and neonatal mortality rates, MOHSW concentrated on its largest cadre of health workers: nurses. Case description Based on results from a post-war rapid assessment of health workers, facilities and community access, MOHSW developed the Emergency Human Resources (HR Plan for 2007-2011. MOHSW established a central HR Unit and county-level HR officers and prioritized nursing cadres in order to quickly increase workforce numbers, improve equitable distribution of workers and enhance performance. Strategies included increasing and standardizing salaries to attract workers and prevent outflow to the private sector; mobilizing donor funds to improve management capacity and fund incentive packages in order to retain staff in hard to reach areas; reopening training institutions and providing scholarships to increase the pool of available workers. Discussion and evaluation MOHSW has increased the total number of clinical health workers from 1396 in 1998 to 4653 in 2010, 3394 of which are nurses and midwives. From 2006 to 2010, the number of nurses has more than doubled. Certified midwives and nurse aides also increased by 28% and 31% respectively. In 2010, the percentage of the clinical workforce made up by nurses and nurse aides increased to 73%. While the nursing cadre numbers are strong and demonstrate significant improvement since the creation of the Emergency HR Plan, equitable distribution, retention and performance management continue to be challenges. Conclusion This paper

  15. On Measuring Human Capital: A Case Study of Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Hyun Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Human capital refers to the ability and efficiency of people to transform raw materials and capital into goods and services, the consensus being that these skills can be learned through the educational system. The concept of human capital, necessarily, is related to the productivity of workers. Thus, this paper develops a productivity-based single measure of human capital, taking account of different levels of education and productivity differentials across workers. Using this new measure, th...

  16. Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

  17. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  18. Human T cell leukemia virus reactivation with progression of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ratner

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus-associated adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL has a very poor prognosis, despite trials of a variety of different treatment regimens. Virus expression has been reported to be limited or absent when ATLL is diagnosed, and this has suggested that secondary genetic or epigenetic changes are important in disease pathogenesis.We prospectively investigated combination chemotherapy followed by antiretroviral therapy for this disorder. Nineteen patients were prospectively enrolled between 2002 and 2006 at five medical centers in a phase II clinical trial of infusional chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin, and vincristine, daily prednisone, and bolus cyclophosphamide (EPOCH given for two to six cycles until maximal clinical response, and followed by antiviral therapy with daily zidovudine, lamivudine, and alpha interferon-2a for up to one year. Seven patients were on study for less than one month due to progressive disease or chemotherapy toxicity. Eleven patients achieved an objective response with median duration of response of thirteen months, and two complete remissions. During chemotherapy induction, viral RNA expression increased (median 190-fold, and virus replication occurred, coincident with development of disease progression.EPOCH chemotherapy followed by antiretroviral therapy is an active therapeutic regimen for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, but viral reactivation during induction chemotherapy may contribute to treatment failure. Alternative therapies are sorely needed in this disease that simultaneously prevent virus expression, and are cytocidal for malignant cells.

  19. Establishment of Valid Laboratory Case Definition for Human Leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga); M.M.G. Leeflang (Mariska); K.R. Boer (Kimberly); M. Goeijenbier (Marco); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); J.F.P. Wagenaar (Jiri); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLaboratory case definition of leptospirosis is scarcely de ned by a solid evaluation that determines cut-off values in the tests that are applied. This study describes the process of determining optimal cut-off titers of laboratory tests for leptospirosis for a valid case definition of

  20. Two atypical cases of Kingella kingae invasive infection with concomitant human rhinovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmaci, Romain; Ilharreborde, Brice; Doit, Catherine; Presedo, Ana; Lorrot, Mathie; Alison, Marianne; Mazda, Keyvan; Bidet, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2013-09-01

    We describe two atypical cases of Kingella kingae infection in children diagnosed by PCR, one case involving a soft tissue abscess and one case a femoral Brodie abscess. Both patients had concomitant human rhinovirus infection. K. kingae strains, isolated from an oropharyngeal swab, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and rtxA sequencing.

  1. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  2. The Prosecution of State-Level Human Trafficking Cases in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Farrell; Monica J DeLateur; Colleen Owens; Stephanie Fahy

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to combat human trafficking, the United States federal government and all fifty states passed new laws that criminalise human trafficking and support the identification and prosecution of human trafficking perpetrators. Despite the passage of these laws, only a small number of human trafficking cases have been prosecuted in the last fifteen years. Guided by the notion that prosecutors seek to avoid uncertainty when making decisions to pursue criminal prosecution, we explore how h...

  3. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Understanding Human Migration Patterns and their Utility in Forensic Human Identification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Holobinko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human migration patterns are of interest to scientists representing many fields. Theories have been posited to explain modern human evolutionary expansion, the diversity of human culture, and the motivational factors underlying an individual or group decision to migrate. Although the research question and subsequent approach may vary between disciplines, one thread is ubiquitous throughout most migration studies: why do humans migrate and what is the result of such an event? While the determination of individual attributes such as age, sex, and ancestry is often integral to migration studies, the positive identification of human remains is usually irrelevant. However, the positive identification of a deceased is paramount to a forensic investigation in which human remains have been recovered and must be identified. What role, if any, might the study of human movement patterns play in the interpretation of evidence associated with unidentified human remains? Due to increasing global mobility in the world's populations, it is not inconceivable that an individual might die far away from his or her home. If positive identification cannot immediately be made, investigators may consider various theories as to how or why a deceased ended up in a particular geographic location. While scientific evidence influences the direction of forensic investigations, qualitative evaluation can be an important component of evidence interpretation. This review explores several modern human migration theories and the methodologies utilized to identify evidence of human migratory movement before addressing the practical application of migration theory to forensic cases requiring the identification of human remains.

  4. 'Only connect': the case for public health humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2014-12-01

    Humanities in health has until now been primarily understood to mean humanities in medicine and has generally failed to include public health. I will argue in this paper that the common justifications for the former--including increased empathy among practitioners--are at least as applicable, if not more, to the latter. Growing emphasis on the social determinants of health and cultural competency in public health require public health students and professionals to develop a nuanced understanding of the influence of social context on health behaviour and to empathise with people in difficult circumstances. Literary fiction has been demonstrated to have an impact on skills related to empathy and social intelligence. Further, translating epidemiological evidence into public policy is a core task of public health and there is a growing body of research to indicate that statistical evidence is more persuasive when combined with narrative evidence. In this article I explore similarities and differences between proposed humanities in public health and programmes in humanities in medicine and highlight research gaps and possible implications of a more expansive view of humanities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Analysis of Human Trafficking Cases in Rhode Island, 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Skodmin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of law enforcement identified cases of human trafficking in Rhode Island from 2009 to 2013. Information was collected from police and court records, prosecutors’ press releases, and reports in the media. During this period, there was one case of forced labor of a domestic worker and six cases of domestic sex trafficking. Many of the characteristics of the Rhode Island cases were consistent with other human trafficking cases in the United States. Discussions of key findings include (a outcomes of a criminal case using a new human trafficking statute on fraud in foreign contracting and a civil suit, (b how online prostitution ads are used to market victims to sex buyers using ethnicity of the victims and age and social standing of the sex buyers, and (c how mothers of victims are involved in locating their daughters and making reports to the police that initiated investigations.

  6. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.E.; Walker, D.; Fomg, W.F. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  7. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Walker, D.; Fomg, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... original work is properly cited. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal ... of neurological symptoms by an infection (upper respiratory tract infection or diarrhea), in a smaller proportion of .... cerebrospinal fluid findings of albumino-cytology dissociation.[6]. However, albumino-cytology.

  9. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica. The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole. PMID:28285507

  10. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica . The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole.

  11. Dioctophymatosis renalis in humans: first case report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatrajaiah, N; Kalbande, Sanjay H; Rao, G Vamshi Nandan; Reddy, V Chenna; Reddy, S Hiran; Rao, P Ragini; Babu, Kartheek; Keerthi, A

    2014-10-01

    Dioctophymatosis is an infestation by Dioctophyma renalis (the giant kidney worm), a relatively uncommon parasitic roundworm that infects carnivorous mammals. Since the early 1900s, dioctophymatosis has been confirmed in dioctophyma renale.wet mount preparation of urine under microscopy showed eggs specific for the parasite. On review of literature we found that this was the first case reported in india.

  12. an unusual foreign body in human oesophagus – case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. We report a case of a 65year old. Nigerian male with an unusual foreign body, a fishing hook in the oesophagus. This was confirmed with a plain radiograph of the chest done on a routine medical check-up, although patient was asymptomatic. The foreign body was removed via a rigid oesphagoscopy without ...

  13. Human rights and human tissue : The case of sperm as property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, Morag; Brownsword, Roger; Yeung, Karen; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    In a 2012 case from Canada, the Supreme Court of British Columbia held that sperm acquired and stored for the purposes of IVF could be considered shared marital property in the event of a separation. This case followed on from similar cases that accepted sperm as capable of being property. This

  14. Does human bocavirus infection depend on helper viruses? A challenging case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmann Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of severe diarrhoea associated with synergistic human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV and human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6 is reported. The case supports the hypotheses that HBoV infection under clinical conditions may depend on helper viruses, or that HBoV replicates by a mechanism that is atypical for parvoviruses, or that HBoV infection can be specifically treated with cidofovir.

  15. [Monkeypox: second human case observed in Ivory Coast (rural health sector of Daloa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouze, F; Lesoin, J J

    1983-01-01

    A second case of human monkeypox (world fifty-forth case) has been observed in Ivory Coast (rural health sector of Daloa). A three years old girl presented a major pox-like eruption which evolved to recovery. The authors describe the eruption, the evolution of the sickness, and the scars observed at the fourth month after recovery. It has not been possible to prove neither animal-human nor interhuman contagion.

  16. Leptospirosis in Mexico: Epidemiology and Potential Distribution of Human Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Espinosa-Martínez, Deborah V.; Ríos-Muñoz, César A.; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is widespread in Mexico, yet the potential distribution and risk of the disease remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed morbidity and mortality according to age and gender based on three sources of data reported by the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Geography and Statics of Mexico, for the decade 2000–2010. A total of 1,547 cases were reported in 27 states, the majority of which were registered during the rainy season, and the most affected age group was 25–44 years old. Although leptospirosis has been reported as an occupational disease of males, analysis of morbidity in Mexico showed no male preference. A total number of 198 deaths were registered in 21 states, mainly in urban settings. Mortality was higher in males (61.1%) as compared to females (38.9%), and the case fatality ratio was also increased in males. The overall case fatality ratio in Mexico was elevated (12.8%), as compared to other countries. We additionally determined the potential disease distribution by examining the spatial epidemiology combined with spatial modeling using ecological niche modeling techniques. We identified regions where leptospirosis could be present and created a potential distribution map using bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation. Our data show that the distribution of the cases was more related to temperature (75%) than to precipitation variables. Ecological niche modeling showed predictive areas that were widely distributed in central and southern Mexico, excluding areas characterized by extreme climates. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, an epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis is recommended in Mexico, since 55.7% of the country has environmental conditions fulfilling the criteria that favor the presence of the disease. PMID:26207827

  17. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  18. A Case Study On Human Capital Mismanagement In The United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A Case Study on Human Capital Mismanagement in the United States Air Force By John P...Force does not effectively manage its human capital to develop and retain a technically literate acquisitions workforce. A detailed look at the...Several solutions are suggested to improve the human capital management and increase the quality and relevancy of the acquisitions community at

  19. Human Mobile Inverted Pendulum Transporter - a Mechatronic System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    procedure combined with the formulation and the solution of an optimization problem involving a number of constraints related to performance, costs, geometry, availability of components etc. In this paper, we present a case-study of a more traditional design procedure for a highly multi-disciplinary device......, which nevertheless illustrates the potentials of unifying classical engineering technologies (mechanics, electronics, control systems) with modern high-efficient inverter-fed permanent magnet AC motors and the latest MEMS sensor technology. A full-scale fully operational prototype of a two-wheel mobile...

  20. Anthraquinone laxatives and human cancer: an association in one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P. M.; Selby, P. J.; Deacon, J.; Chilvers, C.; McElwain, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    An 18 year old girl presented with a leiomyosarcoma of the small bowel with widespread dissemination. Despite short term remissions after chemotherapy and surgery she died of the disease 10 months later. A history of prolonged exposure to danthron (an anthraquinone laxative) in childhood was obtained. Anthraquinones are known to be mutagenic and may be carcinogenic in experimental systems but danthron is not a proven carcinogen in man. The association of danthron and a rare bowel cancer in one case cannot prove a causative link. However, collection of further data seems advisable. PMID:2594597

  1. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-10-05

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Use of Case Study Methods in Human Resource Management, Development, and Training Courses: Strategies and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James R.; Gilberti, Anthony F.; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will study some of the problems associated with case studies and make recommendations using standard and innovative methodologies effectively. Human resource management (HRM) and resource development cases provide context for analysis and decision-making designs in different industries. In most HRM development and training courses…

  3. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. PMID:27382078

  4. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described.

  5. [Duodenal Linphoma asociated to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Two types of HTLV-1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Miranda, Julissa; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Espinoza-Ríos, Jorge; Mejía Cordero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the Human T- Lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-1) causes Adult T cell Leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL), being the duodenal involvement rare. Commonly, patients co-infected with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis are seen due to the lack of TH2 response found on these patients. We describe a 48-year- old woman, from the jungle of Peru, with a family history of HTLV-1 infection, who presented with a History of chronic diarrhea and weight loss. HTLV-1 infection with ATLL and strongyloidiasis were diagnosed. Ivermectin treatment and chemotherapy were initiated, being stabilized, and discharged. We report this case because of the unusual coexistence in the duodenum of ATLL and strongyloidiasis.

  6. Two Cases of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Following Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Yasui, Naoko; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present two cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV). Case 1 experienced diplopia and developed an unstable gait 14 days after a second vaccination of Cervarix. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an isolated small, demyelinating lesion in the pontine tegmentum. Case 2 experienced a fever and limb dysesthesia 16 days after a second vaccination of Gardasil. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense lesion in the pons with slight edema on a T2-weighted image. Both cases resolved completely. It is important to accumulate further data on confirmed cases of ADEM temporally associated with HPV vaccination. PMID:27803416

  7. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using ethnomethod...... in studying how human work analysis and interaction design in concrete cases are related and connected.......This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...... ethnomethodology, work domain/task analysis, and the HWID approach, and comparing the results. Compared to the traditional approaches, the HWID focus on case-specific connections between human work and interaction design, gives different and supplementary answers. The conclusion is that there are benefits...

  8. Tax Protein-induced Expression of Antiapoptotic Bfl-1 Protein Contributes to Survival of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cells*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaire, Héloïse; Riquet, Aurélien; Moncollin, Vincent; Biémont-Trescol, Marie-Claude; Duc Dodon, Madeleine; Hermine, Olivier; Debaud, Anne-Laure; Mahieux, Renaud; Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Pierre, Marlène; Gazzolo, Louis; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Valentin, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL is a severe malignancy with no effective treatment. HTLV-1 regulatory proteins Tax and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) play a major role in ATLL development, by interfering with cellular functions such as CD4+ T-cell survival. In this study, we observed that the expression of Bfl-1, an antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, is restricted to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and to T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ proteins. We showed that Tax-induced bfl-1 transcription through the canonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that Tax cooperated with c-Jun or JunD, but not JunB, transcription factors of the AP-1 family to stimulate bfl-1 gene activation. By contrast, HBZ inhibited c-Jun-induced bfl-1 gene activation, whereas it increased JunD-induced bfl-1 gene activation. We identified one NF-κB, targeted by RelA, c-Rel, RelB, p105/p50, and p100/p52, and two AP-1, targeted by both c-Jun and JunD, binding sites in the bfl-1 promoter of T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ. Analyzing the potential role of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival, we demonstrated that these cells are differentially sensitive to silencing of Bfl-1, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2. Indeed, both Bfl-1 and Bcl-xL knockdowns decreased the survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, although no cell death was observed after Bcl-2 knockdown. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Bfl-1 knockdown sensitizes HTLV-1-infected T-cells to ABT-737 or etoposide treatment. Our results directly implicate Bfl-1 and Bcl-xL in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival and suggest that both Bfl-1 and Bcl-xL represent potential therapeutic targets for ATLL treatment. PMID:22553204

  9. First case of human bacteraemia by Catabacter hongkongensis in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kaden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabacter hongkongensis was isolated and cultured from human blood for the first time in Scandinavia. The patient, an 83-year-old man from Dalarna, Sweden, recovered without antibiotic treatment, although a high mortality rate associated with C. hongkongensis infection had been reported from China, Canada and France. The genome of the strain ABBA15k was sequenced, assembled and analysed. In contrast to the type strain of the species HKU16T, no antibiotic resistance was observed in Scandinavian strain ABBA15k. The strain was deposited as CCUG 68271, and the draft genome sequence is available from the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL, and GenBank under the accession number LLYX00000000.

  10. Brucella Melitensis Review of the Human Infection Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šukrija Zvizdić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. prosthetic joint infections are infrequently reported in the literature, particularly in returning travellers, and optimal treatment is unknown.METHOD:We describe a prosthetic joint infection (PJI caused by Brucella melitensis in a traveller returning to the UK from Thailand, which we believe to be the first detailed report of brucellosis in a traveller returning from this area. The 23 patients with Brucella-related PJI reported in the literature are summarised, together with our case.RESULTS:The diagnosis of Brucella-related PJI is difficult to make; only 30% of blood cultures and 75% of joint aspiration cultures were positive in the reported cases. Culture of intraoperative samples provides the best diagnostic yield. In the absence of radiological evidence of joint loosening, combination antimicrobial therapy alone may be appropriate treatment in the first instance; this was successful in 6/7 [86%] of patients, though small numbers of patients and the likelihood of reporting bias warrant caution in drawing any firm conclusions about optimal treatment. Aerosolisation of synovial fluid during joint aspiration procedures and nosocomial infection has been described.CONCLUSIONS:Brucella-related PJI should be considered in the differential of travellers returning from endemic areas with PJI, including Thailand. Personal protective equipment including fit tested filtering face piece-3 (FFP3 mask or equivalent is recommended for personnel carrying out joint aspiration when brucellosis is suspected. Travellers can reduce the risk of brucellosis by avoiding unpasteurised dairy products and animal contact (particularly on farms and abattoirs in endemic areas and should be counselled regarding these risks as part of their pre-travel assessment.

  11. Progressing the state of knowledge on the human influence on hydrological droughts through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Bosman, Marianne; Wanders, Niko; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Human activities can have a large influence on changes in the hydrological system and hydrological extremes, more than climate variability and climate change in some cases. However, there are currently only a limited number of studies which aim to quantify the human impact on hydrological droughts. Here we present a synthesis study of existing and new results that aims to summarize and quantify the anthropogenic impact on hydrological drought from case studies and observations. By combining a large number of case studies, we allow conclusions to be drawn about the effects of different human activities. This work suggests ways forward to increase our understanding on how human activities are influencing drought characteristics; invaluable information for water resource management and adaptation. During this project, the impact of different human activities (e.g. water abstraction, reservoir building, urbanisation, etc) on drought frequency, duration and deficit has been calculated in a consistent manner, allowing for an improved understanding to how they have impacted droughts. This consistent methodology is a necessary element for this comparative hydrology exercise, yet we use one which is flexible and applicable to different case study set ups and data availability. The methodology used here depends on available observation data, with three possible approaches: i) paired catchment approach; ii) upstream-downstream comparison; iii) observation modelling framework. The synthesised results of the existing and new case studies cover a number of human activities, hydro-climatic and socio-economic contexts. In particular, we remove the climate dependency in the results by using case studies from multiple climatic regions, including UK, Italy, US, Australia, Mexico and Chile. For groundwater abstraction, it is clear across all the relevant case studies that abstraction activities worsen drought events. This is especially prominent in the deficit volumes, with nearly all

  12. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that drive proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Chemical low-dose exposures can disrupt morphogenesis across space and time by interfering with key embryonic fusion events. The Morphogenetic Fusion Task uses computer and in vitro models to elucidate consequences of developmental exposures. The Morphogenetic Fusion Task integrates multiple approaches to model responses to chemicals that leaad to birth defects, including integrative mining on ToxCast DB, ToxRefDB, and chemical structures, advanced computer agent-based models, and human cell-based cultures that model disruption of cellular and molecular behaviors including mechanisms predicted from integrative data mining and agent-based models. The purpose of the poster is to indicate progress on the CSS 17.02 Virtual Tissue Models Morphogenesis Task 1 products for the Board of Scientific Counselors meeting on Nov 16-17.

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAND INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY (CASE OF MIDDLE EASTCOUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Behboudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable development has been accounted as one of the mostimportant policy goals at the global level. Many empirical studies have beencarried out to determine the relationship between economic growth andenvironmental quality. The model so-called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKCwas in most of empirical studies. The aim of this studyis to estimate a ModifiedEKC (MEKC in which development and sustain was usedinstead of economicgrowth and environment. In the present study, negative value of adjusted netsaving was used as non-sustainability indicator andhuman development indexwas used as development indicator. The statisticalpopulation is the Middle Eastcountries and the period of estimation is 1996-2010. The Panel Data method wasused in order to estimate the models in this groupof countries. Variables such asnatural resource abundant and institutional qualities such as Rule of Law, PoliticalStability, Regulatory Quality and Control of Corruption were used as controlvariable to specify the model. The results show aninverse N-shaped relationbetween human development and non-sustainability ofresources in the MiddleEast countries.

  14. THE CASE OF TRAUMATIC TRANSMISSION CHILD OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Ostankova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.  Analysis of phylogenetic relationships of HIV  isolates obtained from a child 8 years old and HIV-positive parents to search for a possible source of infection.Materials and  methods. The  blood  plasma  samples of 3 patients (father, mother and child HIV from Veliky Novgorod were used.  Presented in a group of patients were directed to conduct epidemiological investigation cases  of HIV-1 infection a child from a dysfunctional family.  In the present study we used  genotyping by direct  sequencing of the  site  of the polymerase gene  (pol length of 1285 nt., The gene  encoding the protease (PR length of 465 nt. and a portion of the reverse transcriptase (RT gene length of 820 nt.Results. The study allowed the  identification of the  HIV virus in clinical  samples. HIV-1 subtype A1 (IDU-A was detected in all cases.  Phylogenetic analysis of isolates, where the  control  samples using   HIV-1  isolates obtained  previously  from Veliky Novgorod, possible to identify grouped in a separate cluster  sample from the mother, father  and  child, which  makes it possible to conclude about  intrafamily HIV infected child  by  one  of his  parents. The  nucleotide identity  of the  samples obtained from the  mother  and  the  child, showed a higher percentage of similarity – 98.4%, compared with  the  identity of the  samples between the  father  and  the mother  and between father and child (96.2% and 94.2%, respectively. Differences natural  polymorphisms in  protease and reverse  transcriptase genes  of the parents and  the child are discussed. Conclusion. The analysis of phylogenetic relationships of HIV isolates showed that the source  of infection of the child 8 years old, born and  living  in socially  disadvantaged families with HIV-positive parents, is his mother. Way parenteral transmission of infection by random simultaneous trauma  in the mother  and child

  15. Lesões dermatológicas em pacientes infectados pelo vírus linfotrópico humano de células T do tipo 1 (HTLV-1 Dermatologic lesions in patients infected with the human T-cell lymphotropic vírus type 1 (HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O vírus linfotrópico humano de células T do tipo 1 (HTLV-1 é o primeiro retrovírus isolado do ser humano. Descreveu-se, em pouco tempo, o seu papel etiológico em algumas doenças, com destaque para a leucemia/linfoma de células T do adulto (ATLL, a mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1/paraparesia espástica tropical (HAM/TSP e a uveíte associada ao HTLV-1 (HAU. Na década de 90, o HTLV-1 foi associado a eczema grave da infância, conhecido como dermatite infecciosa (DI. Desde então, diversos outros tipos de lesões cutâneas têm sido observados em pacientes infectados pelo HTLV-1, em especial, nos doentes de HAM/TSP ou de ATLL. Porém, mesmo portadores assintomáticos do vírus apresentam doenças dermatológicas. Excetuando-se a dermatite infecciosa, não há lesão da pele específica da infecção pelo HTLV-1. Aqui, os autores apresentam as principais lesões dermatológicas descritas em pacientes infectados pelo HTLV-1, destacando o valor epidemiológico e clínico desses achados.Human T-cell Lymphotropic vírus type I (HTLV-1 was the first human retrovírus described. Some time after its discovery a group of diseases were related to this vírus, such as, adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL, HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and HTLV-1 associated uveitis (HAU. In the nineties, HTLV-1 was associated to a severe eczema of children, called infective dermatitis (ID. Since then, several other skin manifestations have been observed in HTLV-1-infected individuals, particularly in patients with ATLL or HAM/TSP. However, according to some reports, dermatologic lesions are also common in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. Besides ID, all other skin lesions reported are nonspecific. The aim of this review is to outline the dermatologic manifestations reported in HTLV-1 infected patients, emphasizing the clinical and epidemiological value of these findings.

  16. Cardiac complication after experimental human malaria infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druilhe Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.

  17. Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Osadebe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human monkeypox (MPX occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases.Data from a cohort of suspect MPX cases (identified by surveillance over the course of a 42 month period during 2009-2014 from DRC were used; real-time PCR diagnostic test results were used to establish MPX and VZV diagnoses. A total of 333 laboratory-confirmed MPX cases, 383 laboratory-confirmed VZV cases, and 36 cases that were determined to not be either MPX or VZV were included in the analyses. Significant (p<0.05 differences between laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases were noted for several signs/symptoms including key rash characteristics. Both surveillance case definitions had high sensitivity and low specificities for individuals that had suspected MPX virus infections. Using 12 signs/symptoms with high sensitivity and/or specificity values, a receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that models for MPX cases that had the presence of 'fever before rash' plus at least 7 or 8 of the 12 signs/symptoms demonstrated a more balanced performance between sensitivity and specificity.Laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases presented with many of the same signs and symptoms, and the analysis here emphasized the utility of including 12 specific signs/symptoms when investigating MPX cases. In order to document and detect endemic human MPX cases, a surveillance case definition with more specificity is needed for accurate case detection. In the absence of a more specific case definition, continued emphasis on confirmatory laboratory-based diagnostics is warranted.

  18. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

  19. First case of autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in the urban center of Rio de Janeiro: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

  20. The missing link between human ecology and public health: the case of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modonesi, Carlo; Oddone, Enrico; Panizza, Celestino; Imbriani, Marcello

    2017-11-01

    The primary role played by the 'ecological context' in clarifying the causes and dynamics of human health and disease is the topic of this article. It emphasizes that the challenging incidence of cancer and other diseases can be charged primarily to the effects of the worldwide dominant economic model. Human culture may act as a powerful force affecting the environment, biology and health of humans and other species. Human culture can be viewed as a special and extreme case of 'niche construction', where human-specific traits, technologies and beliefs act together. The feedback between human activities and the environment can promote different trends in public health. This should provide the opportunity to rethink the consequences that our economic model produces both on the environment and on physical, mental and social health of our species. Copyright© by Aracne Editrice, Roma, Italy.

  1. Methodological debates in human rights research: a case study of human trafficking in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    Debates over human trafficking are riddled with methodological dilemmas. Agencies with vested interests in the anti-trafficking agenda advance claims about numbers of victims, level of organized trafficking and scale of exploitation, but with limited data and using questionable techniques. Skeptics,

  2. Identifying Human Trafficking Victims on a Psychiatry Inpatient Service: a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong T; Lamkin, Joanna; Coverdale, John H; Scott, Samuel; Li, Karen; Gordon, Mollie R

    2018-06-01

    Human trafficking is a serious and prevalent human rights violation that closely intersects with mental health. Limited empirical attention has been paid to the presentations and identification of trafficking victims in psychiatric settings. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the varied presentations of trafficking victims on an urban inpatient psychiatric unit. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant empirical articles to inform our examination of cases. Adult inpatient cases meeting criteria for known or possible human trafficking were systematically identified and illustrative cases were described. Six cases were identified including one male and five females. Two had been labor trafficked and four were suspected or confirmed to have been sex trafficked. The cases demonstrated a tremendous diversity of demographic and psychiatric identifying factors. These cases indicate the importance of routinely screening for trafficking victims in inpatient psychiatry settings. Identification of cases is a requisite step in providing informed and evidence-based treatments and enabling the secondary prevention of re-exploitation. Additional research is warranted given the limited current empirical research on this topic area.

  3. Human chorionic gonadotropin, angiogenic factors, and preeclampsia risk: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvold, Bjørn O; Eskild, Anne; Vatten, Lars J

    2014-05-01

    To study whether human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations during pregnancy or combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin and other angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor (PlGF), are associated with preeclampsia risk. Nested case-control study. Population cohort of pregnant women. A total of 121 cases of preterm (cases of term preeclampsia (≥37 weeks of gestation) and 356 women without preeclampsia (controls). Women with preeclampsia were identified by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and PlGF were measured in maternal serum samples collected in each trimester of pregnancy. Odds ratios of preterm and term preeclampsia. High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (highest quartile) in the first trimester were associated with reduced risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), compared with low human chorionic gonadotropin (lowest quartile), whereas high human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the second trimester were associated with increased risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-8.9). High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the third trimester were associated with increased risk for term preeclampsia (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-13.3). Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin above the median value combined with PlGF below the median in the second trimester were associated with very high risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 36.9, 95% CI 8.2-165.8). The results suggest an important role of human chorionic gonadotropin in the pathophysiological processes that lead to preeclampsia. The combined association of human chorionic gonadotropin and PlGF indicates a possible synergism between underlying biological pathways. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Application of human error theory in case analysis of wrong procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to contribute to the emerging body of literature about the role of human behaviors and cognitive processes in the commission of wrong procedures. Case analysis of 5 wrong procedures in operative and nonoperative settings using James Reason's human error theory was performed. The case analysis showed that cognitive underspecification, cognitive flips, automode processing, and skill-based errors were contributory to wrong procedures. Wrong-site procedures accounted for the preponderance of the cases. Front-line supervisory staff used corrective actions that focused on the performance of the individual without taking into account cognitive factors. System fixes using human cognition concepts have a greater chance of achieving sustainable safety outcomes than those that are based on the traditional approach of counseling, education, and disciplinary action for staff.

  5. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonose Thandubuhle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16 presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.

  6. Seasonal patterns in human A (H5N1 virus infection: analysis of global cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya B Mathur

    Full Text Available Human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A (H5N1 have high mortality. Despite abundant data on seasonal patterns in influenza epidemics, it is unknown whether similar patterns exist for human HPAI H5N1 cases worldwide. Such knowledge could help decrease avian-to-human transmission through increased prevention and control activities during peak periods.We performed a systematic search of published human HPAI H5N1 cases to date, collecting month, year, country, season, hemisphere, and climate data. We used negative binomial regression to predict changes in case incidence as a function of season. To investigate hemisphere as a potential moderator, we used AIC and the likelihood-ratio test to compare the season-only model to nested models including a main effect or interaction with hemisphere. Finally, we visually assessed replication of seasonal patterns across climate groups based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.We identified 617 human cases (611 with complete seasonal data occurring in 15 countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Case occurrence was much higher in winter (n = 285, p = 0.03 than summer (n = 64, and the winter peak occurred across diverse climate groups. There was no significant interaction between hemisphere and season.Across diverse climates, HPAI H5N1 virus infection in humans increases significantly in winter. This is consistent with increased poultry outbreaks and HPAI H5N1 virus transmission during cold and dry conditions. Prioritizing prevention and control activities among poultry and focusing public health messaging to reduce poultry exposures during winter months may help to reduce zoonotic transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus in resource-limited settings.

  7. THE IMPACT OF THE INORMATION SOCIETY ON HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT (STUDY CASE: AIR TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana SHKODA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information society is a complex, interdisciplinary and actual concept with reference to the role of the technologies we use in all spheres of the life. The impact of the information society on human capital management is obvious as the technological tools are used daily for improvement the performance of the modern companies. In tis artice it is presented the analysis of international aviation enterprises' activity (case of Ukraine and Republic of Moldova in the sphere of human capital management.

  8. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  9. Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 cases (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Amy V; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Delaforcade, Armelle M; Chan, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs. Design-Retrospective case series. 73 client-owned hospitalized dogs. Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded. Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications. Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.

  10. A prototype case-based reasoning human assistant for space crew assessment and mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert B.; Holland, Albert W.; Wood, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    We present a prototype human assistant system for space crew assessment and mission management. Our system is based on case episodes from American and Russian space missions and analog environments such as polar stations and undersea habitats. The general domain of small groups in isolated and confined environments represents a near ideal application area for case-based reasoning (CBR) - there are few reliable rules to follow, and most domain knowledge is in the form of cases. We define the problem domain and outline a unique knowledge representation system driven by conflict and communication triggers. The prototype system is able to represent, index, and retrieve case studies of human performance. We index by social, behavioral, and environmental factors. We present the problem domain, our current implementation, our research approach for an operational system, and prototype performance and results.

  11. Using molecular tools to identify the geographical origin of a case of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchowski, J K; Koylass, M S; Dainty, A C; Stack, J A; Perrett, L; Whatmore, A M; Perrier, C; Chircop, S; Demicoli, N; Gatt, A B; Caruana, P A; Gopaul, K K

    2015-10-01

    Although Malta is historically linked with the zoonosis brucellosis, there had not been a case of the disease in either the human or livestock population for several years. However, in July 2013 a case of human brucellosis was identified on the island. To determine whether this recent case originated in Malta, four isolates from this case were subjected to molecular analysis. Molecular profiles generated using multilocus sequence analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat for the recent human case isolates and 11 Brucella melitensis strains of known Maltese origin were compared with others held on in-house and global databases. While the 11 isolates of Maltese origin formed a distinct cluster, the recent human isolation was not associated with these strains but instead clustered with isolates originating from the Horn of Africa. These data was congruent with epidemiological trace-back showed that the individual had travelled to Malta from Eritrea. This work highlights the potential of using molecular typing data to aid in epidemiological trace-back of Brucella isolations and assist in monitoring of the effectiveness of brucellosis control schemes.

  12. Legislative technique and human rights: the sad case of assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Richard H S

    2003-01-01

    Ths article reviews the issues raised by the case of Diane Pretty and argues that contrary to the views of the English Courts and the European Court of Human Rights, section 2 of the Suicide Act 1961 is incompatible with the Convention. Failing legislative reform, the DPP should formulate and publicise criteria for the exercise of its consent to prosecution in cases of assisted suicide.

  13. Trafficking in human beings, challenges in the identification process: the Stavanger case

    OpenAIRE

    Toffano, Damiano Maria

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Migration and intercultural relations Migration is a very diversified topic, where both positive and negative sides merge together providing aspects of complexity and a state of uncertainty that have repercussions on related arguments such as the case concerning Trafficking in Human Beings (THB). The huge amount of actors involved within the trafficking networks, the complex cases it generates and the particular characteristics of this crime, including ...

  14. Safety testing of monoclonal antibodies in non-human primates: Case studies highlighting their impact on human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Frank R; Cavagnaro, Joy; McKeever, Kathleen; Ryan, Patricia C; Schutten, Melissa M; Vahle, John; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Marrer-Berger, Estelle; Black, Lauren E

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are improving the quality of life for patients suffering from serious diseases due to their high specificity for their target and low potential for off-target toxicity. The toxicity of mAbs is primarily driven by their pharmacological activity, and therefore safety testing of these drugs prior to clinical testing is performed in species in which the mAb binds and engages the target to a similar extent to that anticipated in humans. For highly human-specific mAbs, this testing often requires the use of non-human primates (NHPs) as relevant species. It has been argued that the value of these NHP studies is limited because most of the adverse events can be predicted from the knowledge of the target, data from transgenic rodents or target-deficient humans, and other sources. However, many of the mAbs currently in development target novel pathways and may comprise novel scaffolds with multi-functional domains; hence, the pharmacological effects and potential safety risks are less predictable. Here, we present a total of 18 case studies, including some of these novel mAbs, with the aim of interrogating the value of NHP safety studies in human risk assessment. These studies have identified mAb candidate molecules and pharmacological pathways with severe safety risks, leading to candidate or target program termination, as well as highlighting that some pathways with theoretical safety concerns are amenable to safe modulation by mAbs. NHP studies have also informed the rational design of safer drug candidates suitable for human testing and informed human clinical trial design (route, dose and regimen, patient inclusion and exclusion criteria and safety monitoring), further protecting the safety of clinical trial participants.

  15. Development of Ultra-Super Sensitive Immunohistochemistry and Its Application to the Etiological Study of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Izumo, Shuji; Eizuru, Yoshito; Matsuyama, Takami

    2012-01-01

    Antigen retrieval (AR) and ultra-super sensitive immunohistochemistry (ultra-IHC) have been established for application to archival human pathology specimens. The original ultra-IHC was the ImmunoMax method or the catalyzed signal amplification system (ImmunoMax/CSA method), comprising the streptavidin-biotin complex (sABC) method and catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) reaction with visualization of its deposition. By introducing procedures to diminish non-specific staining in the original ultra-IHC method, we developed the modified ImmunoMax/CSA method with AR heating sections in an AR solution (heating-AR). The heating-AR and modified ImmunoMax/CSA method visualized expression of the predominantly simple present form of HTLV-1 proviral DNA pX region p40Tax protein (Tax) in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in archival pathology specimens in approximately 75% of cases. The simple present form of Tax detected exhibited a close relation with ATLL cell proliferation. We also established a new simplified CSA (nsCSA) system by replacing the sABC method with the secondary antibody- and horse radish peroxidase-labeled polymer reagent method, introducing the pretreatments blocking non-specific binding of secondary antibody reagent, and diminishing the diffusion of deposition in the CARD reaction. Combined with AR treating sections with proteinase K solution (enzymatic-AR), the nsCSA system visualized granular immunostaining of the complex present form of Tax in a small number of ATLL cells in most cases, presenting the possibility of etiological pathological diagnosis of ATLL and suggesting that the complex present form of Tax-positive ATLL cells were young cells derived from ATLL stem cells. The heating-AR and ultra-IHC detected physiological expression of the p53 protein and its probable phosphorylation by Tax in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of peripheral blood tissue specimens from HTLV-1 carriers, as well as physiological and pathological expression

  16. Human and animal invasive muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia--recent cases, review and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, D; Abdullah, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Latif, B

    2013-09-01

    Sarcocystosis, an unusual parasitic zoonotic disease, is caused by coccidian/ apicomplexan protozoa in humans and animals. The parasites usually develop in a heteroxenous predator-prey life-cycle involving final (carnivore) and intermediate (omnivore/herbivore) hosts. Besides the intestinal, non-invasive form of the disease in which humans and animals are the definitive hosts for certain Sarcocystis spp., the invasive form has come to recent attention. In the latter, humans and animals serve as intermediate host harbouring sarcocysts in their muscle tissue. Already in 1991 sarcocystosis was seen as a potential emerging food borne zoonosis in Malaysia, and in 2011 and 2012 the largest cluster of symptomatic human muscular sarcocystosis world-wide was reported from Tioman Island, Pahang state. In this review, we focus on invasive sarcocystosis in humans and animals in Malaysia, review the recorded cases and epidemiology, and present hypotheses.

  17. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction : Making the case for ecological validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those

  18. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  19. An unusual case of human rabies thought to be of chiropteran origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-17

    Jul 17, 1971 ... An Unusual Case of Human Rabies Thought to be of Chiropteran Origin*. C. D. MEREDITH ... referred to hospital with a diagnosis of rabies. The same afternoon the patient was admitted to the ... Histopathologic studies were carried out on the following portions of the central nervous system-ganglion of the.

  20. Human Trafficking and Education: A Qualitative Case Study of Two NGO Programs in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Robert Weber

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative, ethnographic case study, I examine two Thai NGO shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18. The two NGOs had a residential component, meaning that children live at the shelter, and an educational component, meaning that children are taught academic and vocational…

  1. The Contributions of Digital Communications Technology to Human Rights Education: A Case Study of Amnesty International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Rebecca Joy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the need for critical assessment and evaluation of human rights education (HRE) programs and activities, especially newer initiatives that incorporate the use of digital information and communications technology (ICT). It provides an in-depth case study of the use of digital ICT in Amnesty International's HRE efforts,…

  2. Estuarine morphodynamic adaptation to sediment supply and human activities : A case study of turbidity maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, C.; Guo, L; Tian, B.; He, Q; Wang, Zhengbing

    2017-01-01

    Estuarine morphodynamics undergo significant changes due to declined sediment supply from river, rising sea-level, and human interferences (Syvitski and Saito, 2007; Syvitski et al., 2009). The Yangtze Estuary is such a case whose decadal morphodynamic evolution was broadly examined. It was

  3. Devising and Interdisciplinary Teaching: A Case Study in Collaboration between Theatre and Humanities Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kristin; Brown, Rich

    2013-01-01

    We use an experimental course collaboration that occurred in the winter of 2012 as a case study for an approach to interdisciplinary collaboration between Theatre and Humanities courses, and we argue that the theatre methodology of "devising" can serve as a particularly rich locus for collaboration between Theatre students and other…

  4. Medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy: the case of the Israeli Open Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2012-03-01

    In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Basic design of multimedia system for the representation of human error cases in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Geun Ok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-01

    We have developed a multimedia system for the representation of human error cases with the education and training on human errors can be done effectively. The followings are major topics during the basic design; 1 Establishment of a basic concept for representing human error cases using multimedia, 2 Establishment of a design procedure for the multimedia system, 3 Establishment of a hardware and software environment for operating the multimedia system, 4 Design of multimedia input and output interfaces. In order to verify the results of this basic design, we implemented the basic design with an incident triggered by operator`s misaction which occurred at Uljin NPP Unit 1. (Author) 12 refs., 30 figs.,.

  6. Cases of human brucellosis in Sweden linked to Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Fasanella, Antonio; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Platone, Ilenia; Sacchini, Lorena; Persiani, Tiziana; Boskani, Talar; Rizzardi, Kristina; Wahab, Tara

    2016-05-17

    Human brucellosis cases are still reported each year in Sweden despite eradication of the disease in animals. Epidemiological investigation has never been conducted to trace back the source of human infection in the country. The purpose of the study was to identify the source of infection for 16 human brucellosis cases that occurred in Sweden, during the period 2008-2012. The isolates were identified as Brucella melitensis and MLVA-16 genotyping revealed 14 different genotypes of East Mediterranean and Africa lineages. We also reported one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) that was shown to be epidemiological linked to one of the cases in the current study. Brucella melitensis was the only species diagnosed, confirming its highest zoonotic potential in the genus Brucella, and MLVA-16 results demonstrated that the cases of brucellosis in Sweden herein investigated, are imported and linked to travel in the Middle East and Africa. Due to its zoonotic concerns, any acute febrile illness linked to recent travel within those regions should be investigated for brucellosis and samples should be processed according to biosafety level 3 regulations.

  7. Spatial cluster analysis of human cases of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever reported in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tariq; Younus, Muhammad; Muhammad, Sayyad Aun

    2015-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease that has been reported in almost all geographic regions in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to identify spatial clusters of human cases of CCHF reported in country. Kulldorff's spatial scan statisitc, Anselin's Local Moran's I and Getis Ord Gi* tests were applied on data (i.e. number of laboratory confirmed cases reported from each district during year 2013). The analyses revealed a large multi-district cluster of high CCHF incidence in the uplands of Balochistan province near it border with Afghanistan. The cluster comprised the following districts: Qilla Abdullah; Qilla Saifullah; Loralai, Quetta, Sibi, Chagai, and Mastung. Another cluster was detected in Punjab and included Rawalpindi district and a part of Islamabad. We provide empirical evidence of spatial clustering of human CCHF cases in the country. The districts in the clusters should be given priority in surveillance, control programs, and further research.

  8. PDZ domain-binding motif of Tax sustains T-cell proliferation in HTLV-1-infected humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Eléonore; Blin, Juliana; Ricci, Emiliano P; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Van den Broeke, Anne; Corbin, Antoine; Gazzolo, Louis; Ratner, Lee; Jalinot, Pierre; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2018-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignant proliferation of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. The viral Tax oncoprotein is critically involved in both HTLV-1-replication and T-cell proliferation, a prerequisite to the development of ATLL. In this study, we investigated the in vivo contribution of the Tax PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) to the lymphoproliferative process. To that aim, we examined T-cell proliferation in humanized mice (hu-mice) carrying a human hemato-lymphoid system infected with either a wild type (WT) or a Tax PBM-deleted (ΔPBM) provirus. We observed that the frequency of CD4+ activated T-cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen was significantly higher in WT than in ΔPBM hu-mice. Likewise, human T-cells collected from WT hu-mice and cultivated in vitro in presence of interleukin-2 were proliferating at a higher level than those from ΔPBM animals. We next examined the association of Tax with the Scribble PDZ protein, a prominent regulator of T-cell polarity, in human T-cells analyzed either after ex vivo isolation or after in vitro culture. We confirmed the interaction of Tax with Scribble only in T-cells from the WT hu-mice. This association correlated with the presence of both proteins in aggregates at the leading edge of the cells and with the formation of long actin filopods. Finally, data from a comparative genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggested that the PBM-PDZ association is implicated in the expression of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal organization. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Tax PBM is an auxiliary motif that contributes to the sustained growth of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in vivo and in vitro and is essential to T-cell immortalization.

  9. Human infections due to Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, an emerging zoonosis of canine origin: report of 24 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, R; Priyantha, M A R; Rubin, J E; Church, D

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has been recently identified as a novel species within the genus Staphylococcus, and is commonly associated with infections in dogs. Currently, there are few reports of human infections due to this bacterium. To use a population-based approach to describe the characteristics of human S. pseudintermedius infections in a large Canadian healthcare region. All adult cases aged ≥18 years identified at a large regional laboratory from April 1, 2013 to April 1, 2015 who had at least one positive culture for S. pseudintermedius were retrospectively reviewed. A combination of phenotypic methods, mass spectrometry (i.e., MALDI-TOF), and cpn60 sequencing were used to identify S. pseudintermedius. Chart review was conducted, and cases were analysed descriptively. Twenty-seven isolates of S. pseudintermedius from 24 human cases were included for analysis. 58.3% were male with median age of 61 years (IQR 55-70.5). Most patients [22 (92.1%)] had confirmed contact with dogs at time of infection. S. pseudintermedius was isolated in 18 cases (75.0%) of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and 2 invasive cases (8.3%) including a prosthetic joint and bloodstream infection. The other 4 patients were considered to be colonized (skin - 3; lung - 1). Methicillin resistance was identified in 3 cases with 6 total isolates (22.2%); multi-drug resistance was also demonstrated commonly. S. pseudintermedius is most commonly associated with SSTIs in humans. Transmission probably occurs from a pet dog. Species-level identification of S. pseudintermedius is important due to the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance, particularly to methicillin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891 Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriana Valadares LOPES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronatacould, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri,based on Stunkard's (1940 description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeriin Brazil.

  11. Remedies for moral damage before the European Court of Human Rights: Cyprus v. Turkey case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đajić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the overview of the Cyprus v. Turkey judgment, a recently decided case before the Grand Chamber of the European Court for Human Rights. This is the first inter-State case which ended with pecuniary judgment for moral damages. The article begins with the overview of factual and legal issues in the Cyprus v. Turkey case which is followed by contextualizing this judgment within the general legal framework regarding moral damages and remedies available. The second part provides the insight into the case law of the International Court of Justice, European Court for Human Rights and international investment arbitration in order to assess the status of moral damages under general international law. While all international courts and tribunals recognize moral damage as a cause of action, they seem to respond differently to the issue of remedies. International Court of Justice seems to favour declaratory over pecuniary judgments; European Court of Human Rights tend to award both non-pecuniary and pecuniary remedies for moral damages; international investment tribunals seem to favour pecuniary remedies for moral damages. A separate issue is whether international law permits or rather proscribes punitive damages. While the ILC finds that general international law does not allow for punitive damages there are different opinions, at least within the ECHR setting, that moral damages are inherently punitive for fault-based conduct of the responsible state.

  12. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  13. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010

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    Susilawathi Ni M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak. Methods We analysed the patient records of all rabies cases from the Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar, and district hospitals in Buleleng and Tabanan. A conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect the rabies virus genome in saliva, corneal swabs, and ante- and post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Results There were 104 human rabies cases in Bali during November 2008-November 2010. Patients' mean age was 36.6 years (range 3-84 years; SD 20.7, most were male (56.7%, and originated from rural districts. Almost all (92% cases had a history of dog bite. Only 5.8% had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV after the bite incident. No patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG. The estimated time from dog bite to the onset of signs and symptoms was 110.4 days (range 12-720 days; SD 118.2. The mean length of medical care until death was 21.8 hours (range 1-220 hours; SD 32.6. Less than 50% of patients had prodromal symptoms. The most frequent prodromal symptom was pain or paraesthesia at the bite site (37.6%. The two most common central nervous system infection signs were agitation (89.2% and confusion (83.3%. Signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction included hydrophobia (93.1%, hypersalivation (88.2%, and dyspnea (74.4%. On admission, 22 of 102 patients (21.6% showed paralytic manifestations, while the rest (78.4% showed furious rabies manifestations. The case-fatality rate was 100%. The rabies virus genome was detected in 50 of 101 patients (49.5% with the highest detection rate from post-mortem CSF samples. Conclusions Rabies is a major public health problem in Bali. Human fatalities occur because of a lack of knowledge

  14. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak. Methods We analysed the patient records of all rabies cases from the Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar, and district hospitals in Buleleng and Tabanan. A conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect the rabies virus genome in saliva, corneal swabs, and ante- and post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results There were 104 human rabies cases in Bali during November 2008-November 2010. Patients' mean age was 36.6 years (range 3-84 years; SD 20.7), most were male (56.7%), and originated from rural districts. Almost all (92%) cases had a history of dog bite. Only 5.8% had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) after the bite incident. No patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The estimated time from dog bite to the onset of signs and symptoms was 110.4 days (range 12-720 days; SD 118.2). The mean length of medical care until death was 21.8 hours (range 1-220 hours; SD 32.6). Less than 50% of patients had prodromal symptoms. The most frequent prodromal symptom was pain or paraesthesia at the bite site (37.6%). The two most common central nervous system infection signs were agitation (89.2%) and confusion (83.3%). Signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction included hydrophobia (93.1%), hypersalivation (88.2%), and dyspnea (74.4%). On admission, 22 of 102 patients (21.6%) showed paralytic manifestations, while the rest (78.4%) showed furious rabies manifestations. The case-fatality rate was 100%. The rabies virus genome was detected in 50 of 101 patients (49.5%) with the highest detection rate from post-mortem CSF samples. Conclusions Rabies is a major public health problem in Bali. Human fatalities occur because of a lack of knowledge regarding

  15. Designing human-robot collaborations in industry 4.0: explorative case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadir, Bzhwen A; Broberg, Ole; Souza da Conceição, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    We are experiencing an increase in human-robot interactions and the use of collaborative robots (cobots) in industrial work systems. To make full use of cobots, it is essential to understand emerging challenges and opportunities. In this paper, we analyse three successful industrial case studies...... of cobots’ implementation. We highlight the top three challenges and opportunities, from the empirical evidence, relate them to current available literature on the topic, and use them to identify key design factor to consider when designing industrial work system with human-robot collaborations....

  16. CHANGES IN THE SECURITY AGENDA: CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES AND HUMAN SECURITY. THE CASE OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen THI THUY HANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War the meaning of security has fundamentally changed. Issues which are labeled as non-traditional security namely human development, economic crises, environmental degradation, natural disaster, poverty, epidemics… have become a crucial part of the security agenda. These changes have been intensified with the development of the two approaches: Critical Security Studies and Human Security. This article explores how the meaning of security has changed and how the boundaries between traditional and non-traditional security have become blurred. The case of China is taken as empirical evidence to support the assertion that security has evolved beyond its traditional focus on the state.

  17. A case study of human immunodeficiency virus with positive seroconversion to negative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranthaman Vengadasalam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study demonstrates a 36-year-old ex-intravenous drug user (IVDU who had been initially tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV twice using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA method (Particle agglutination, PA done, but a year later he was tested HIV-negative. The patient was asymptomatic for HIV and T helper cells (CD4 count remained stable throughout this period. In light of this case, there may be a need to retest by molecular methods for high risk category patients who were initially diagnosed HIV-positive, but later showing an unexpected clinical course, such as a rising or stable CD4 titre over the years.

  18. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

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    Mercado Rubén

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  19. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  20. [A case of human dirofilariasis (D. repens) of the spermatic cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, M; Perrone, A; Vagliani, G; Andreini, C; Salvi, G; Misuriello, G; Di Silverio, A

    1992-01-01

    A 52 year old man, living in the province of Trapani (Sicily), presented with right hydrocele and slight orchialgia. The patient underwent epididymectomy and resection of T. vaginalis. The "tunica" was involved by a granulomatous process, containing a parasite of genus Dirofilaria (D. repens). Dirofilaria repens is a filarial nematode. Dogs, foxes and cats are the definitive hosts and principal reservoirs of the parasite. In humans the parasite dies before reaching sexual maturity and the result is an inconspicuous granulomatous reaction in the subcutaneous tissue. S. Pampiglione et al. (Cattedra di Parassitologia Veterinaria dell'Università di Bologna-Italy) reported from 1971 more than 30 cases of human Dirofilariasis in Italy, suggesting that the parasite is able to migrate from the inoculation site to other districts (lung, eye etc.). The case is exceptional for the localization of the parasite (never reported) and can contribute to a better knowledge of the disease.

  1. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.

  2. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy in Crohn’s Disease: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Crohn’s disease Symptoms: Intolerance to specific foods • abdominal pain and diarrhea Medication: Human embryonic stem cell therapy Clinical Procedure: Human embryonic stem cell transplantation Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, mainly the colon and ileum, related with ulcers and fistulae. It is estimated to affect 565 000 people in the United States. Currently available therapies, such as antibiotics, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents, are only observed to reduce the complications associated with Crohn’s disease and to improve quality of life, but cannot cure the disease. Stem cell therapy appears to have certain advantages over conventional therapies. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of human embryonic stem cell therapy in a patient with Crohn’s disease. Case Report: A 21-year-old male with chief complaints of intolerance to specific foods, abdominal pain, and diarrhea underwent human embryonic stem cell therapy for two months. After undergoing human embryonic stem cell therapy, the patient showed symptomatic relief. He had no complaints of back pain, abdominal pain, or diarrhea and had improved digestion. The patient had no signs and symptoms of skin infection, and had improved limb stamina, strength, and endurance. The condition of patient was stable after the therapy. Conclusions: Human embryonic stem cell therapy might serve as a new optimistic treatment approach for Crohn’s disease. PMID:26923312

  3. Investigation of an isolated case of human Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever in Central Uganda, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Balinandi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most geographically widespread tick-borne viral infection. Outbreaks of CCHF in sub-Saharan Africa are largely undetected and thus under-reported. On November 9, 2015, the National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory at the Uganda Virus Research Institute received an alert for a suspect VHF case in a 33-year-old male who presented with VHF compatible signs and symptoms at Mengo Hospital in Kampala. Methods: A blood sample from the suspect patient was tested by RT-PCR for CCHF and found positive. Serological testing on sequential blood specimens collected from this patient showed increasing anti-CCHFV IgM antibody titers, confirming recent infection. Repeat sampling of the confirmed case post recovery showed high titers for anti-CCHFV-specific IgG. An epidemiological outbreak investigation was initiated following the initial RT-PCR positive detection to identify any additional suspect cases. Results: Only a single acute case of CCHF was detected from this outbreak. No additional acute CCHF cases were identified following field investigations. Environmental investigations collected 53 tick samples, with only 1, a Boophilus decoloratus, having detectable CCHFV RNA by RT-PCR. Full-length genomic sequencing on a viral isolate from the index human case showed the virus to be related to the DRC (Africa 2 lineage. Conclusions: This is the fourth confirmed CCHF outbreak in Uganda within 2 years after more than 50 years of no reported human CCHF cases in this country. Our investigations reaffirm the endemicity of CCHFV in Uganda, and show that exposure to ticks poses a significant risk for human infection. These findings also reflect the importance of having an established national VHF surveillance system and diagnostic capacity in a developing country like Uganda, in order to identify the first cases of VHF outbreaks and rapidly respond to reduce secondary cases. Additional efforts should focus on

  4. Porphyromonas pogonae identification from a soft tissue infection: The first human case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongyoung; Pai, Hyunjoo; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Lee, Yangsoon

    2016-12-01

    We report a first human case of Porphyromonas pogonae causing soft tissue infection in a patient with open fracture. Strong β-hemolytic, aerotolerant, and non-pigmented gram-negative coccobacilli which matched Porphyromonas pogonae by PCR for 16S rRNA genes were identified from the pus specimen. The clinical course of the patient improved with repeated surgical drainage and tigecycline administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of 'human element related trip case book in Korean NPPs' using organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, C. S.; Jung, C. H.; Jung, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    There have been no studies appling organizational factors to data analysis in Korean NPPs. In this paper, data in 'human element related trip case book in Korean NPPs' are analyzed and categorized by the 20 organizational factors of NRC-BNL according to the cause of reactor trip. These inform us how organizational factors affected on the safety of Korean NPPs. Consequently important organizational factor are identified through which it is known that NPP organization would have a tendency

  6. Chronic periapical periodontitis containing mature human hair shaft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mohammad Owaise; Yar, Riaz; Oliver, Richard

    2011-04-01

    A case is reported of a 44-year-old male who was referred with persistent pus discharge associated with his UL2 which had been root treated on two occasions. Radiographic examination revealed a radiolucency of approximately 8 mm diameter. An apicectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of mature birefringent hair-shaft structures within a chronic periapical periodontitis. This article presents a rare occurrence, the presence of human hair in the periapical tissues.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Tick-Borne Disease Cases among Humans and Canines in Illinois (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Herrmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tick-borne diseases (TBDs, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease (LD, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF, are endemic in Illinois. The prevalence of human and canine cases of all four TBDs rose over the study period with significant differences in geographic distribution within the state. Among human cases, there were associations between cases of RMSF and LD and total forest cover, seasonal precipitation, average mean temperature, racial-ethnic groups, and gender. Estimated annual prevalence of three canine TBDs exceeded human TBD cases significantly in each region. There was concordance in the number of human and canine cases by county of residence, in annual prevalence trends, and in time of year at which they were diagnosed. To account for multiple environmental risk factors and to facilitate early diagnosis of cases, integrated surveillance systems must be developed and communication between veterinarians, physicians, and public health agencies must be improved.

  8. The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scott J

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

  9. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-06-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of poxvirus in cattle associated with human cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report

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    Hermann Gonçalves Schatzmayr

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary report describes human and cow cases of poxvirus that recently ocurred in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The electron microscopic findings were consistent with parapoxviral and orthopoxviral infection. Orthopoxvirus strains were isolated from human and cow cases. Detailed viral characterization by means of genetical techniques is under investigation. Based on these informations, poxviral diseases should be also considered an emerging viral zoonosis that can affect human beings.

  11. Human factors guidelines and methodology in the design of a user computer interface: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.E.; Gilmore, W.E.; Haney, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    In this case study, human factors personnel were requested to participate in a project team of programmers and operations specialists to design a cathode ray tube (CRT) display system for a complex process control application. This presentation describes the process and benefits obtained by incorporating human factors guidelines and methods in system design. Standard human engineering guidelines and techniques were utilized by the project team. In addition, previously published documents and research findings sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) were used. Preliminary tasks involved a review of the draft plant procedures. Then, interviews with operators were conducted to establish the initial information for the displays. These initial requirements were evaluated against existing guidelines and criteria to determine the optimal presentation formats. Detailed steps of the approaches used, design decisions made, and tradeoffs that resulted in the final user acceptable design are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  12. Time-specific ecological niche modeling predicts spatial dynamics of vector insects and human dengue cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A Townsend; Martínez-Campos, Carmen; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    Numerous human diseases-malaria, dengue, yellow fever and leishmaniasis, to name a few-are transmitted by insect vectors with brief life cycles and biting activity that varies in both space and time. Although the general geographic distributions of these epidemiologically important species are known, the spatiotemporal variation in their emergence and activity remains poorly understood. We used ecological niche modeling via a genetic algorithm to produce time-specific predictive models of monthly distributions of Aedes aegypti in Mexico in 1995. Significant predictions of monthly mosquito activity and distributions indicate that predicting spatiotemporal dynamics of disease vector species is feasible; significant coincidence with human cases of dengue indicate that these dynamics probably translate directly into transmission of dengue virus to humans. This approach provides new potential for optimizing use of resources for disease prevention and remediation via automated forecasting of disease transmission risk.

  13. A True Human Tail in a Neonate; Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K. Pillai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A true human tail is a benign vestigial caudal cutaneous structure composed of adipose, connective tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and mechanoreceptors. A true human tail can be distinguished from a pseudotail as the latter is commonly associated with underlying spinal dysraphism, which requires specialised management. True human tails are very rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported to date. We report a healthy one-day-old male newborn who was referred to the Bharath Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India, in 2014 with a cutaneous appendage arising from the lumbosacral region. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine ruled out spinal dysraphism. The appendage was removed by simple surgical excision. Clinicians should emphasise use of ‘true tail’ and ‘pseudotail’ as specific disparate terms as the clinical, radiological and histological findings of these conditions differ significantly, along with management strategies and outcomes.

  14. First human case report of sepsis due to infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 31 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatrongjit, Rujirat; Kerdsin, Anusak; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Takeuchi, Dan; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Oishi, Kazunori; Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-09-30

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes invasive infections in humans and pigs. It has been reported that S. suis infection in humans is mostly caused by serotype 2. However, human cases caused by other serotypes have rarely been reported. This is the first report of a human case of infection with S. suis serotype 31 in Thailand. A 55-year-old male alcohol misuser with liver cirrhosis was admitted with sepsis to a hospital in the Central Region of Thailand. He had consumed a homemade, raw pork product prior to the onset of illness. He was alive after treatment with ceftriaxone and no complication occurred. An isolate from blood culture at the hospital was suspected as viridans group Streptococcus. It was confirmed at a reference laboratory as S. suis serotype 31 by biochemical tests, 16S rDNA sequencing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction for serotyping, but it was untypable by the co-agglutination test with antisera against recognized S. suis serotypes, suggesting loss of capsular material. The absence of a capsule was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The isolate was confirmed to be sequence type 221, with 13 putative virulence genes that are usually found in serotype 2 strains. We should be aware of the emergence of S. suis infections caused by uncommon serotypes in patients with predisposing conditions. Laboratory capacity to identify S. suis in the hospital is needed in developing countries, which can contribute to enhanced surveillance, epidemiological control, and prevention strategies in the prevalent area.

  15. Judge rejects appeal by oilsands giant, human rights case to proceed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-10-15

    Syncrude Canada has lost its bid to be dropped from a human rights case filed by a Sikh man who claims to have been fired for having a beard. Syncrude has argued that it was not responsible for firing the man in 2003, maintaining that the electrician was employed by another contractor to work at an expansion project in Fort McMurray. The Sikh man has argued that his religion forbids him from shaving his beard. Syncrude believes that beards are a safety hazard, and workers are required to wear a tight-fitting mask that protects them against gas leaks. The man claims that supervisors took him to one side on his first day at Syncrude to explain the company's policy, and that he offered to buy himself a different type of mask made especially for people with beards and/or eyeglasses. A union steward presented his request to management, but it was rejected. Under Alberta's human rights act, Syncrude must prove that accommodating a worker's needs would cause undue hardship for the company. Human rights advocates have suggested that Syncrude is not honouring human rights legislation in the province. As one of Alberta's largest employers, the question of Syncrude's responsibility in the case is crucial.

  16. High risk human papillomavirus in the periodontium : A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilova, Anna; Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Gupta, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. It is thought that the periodontium could be a reservoir for HPV. 1. Detection of Human Papilloma virus (HPV) in periodontal pocket as well as gingival of patients having localized chronic periodontitis and gingival sulcus of periodontally healthy subjects. 2. Quantitative estimation of E6 and E7 mRNA in subjects showing presence of HPV3. To assess whether periodontal pocket is a reservoir for HPV. This case-control study included 30 subjects with localized chronic Periodontitis (cases) and 30 periodontally healthy subjects (controls). Two samples were taken from cases, one from periodontal pocket and one from gingival sulcus and one sample was taken from controls. Samples were collected in the form of pocket scrapings and gingival sulcus scrapings from cases and controls respectively. These samples were sent in storage media for identification and estimation of E6/E7 mRNA of HPV using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was done by using, mean, percentage and Chi Square test. A statistical package SPSS version 13.0 was used to analyze the data. P value oral cancer, periodontitis and HPV. However prospective studies are required to further explore this link.

  17. Sex differences in quadrupedal walking gaits of Uner Tan syndrome cases, healthy humans and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2017-03-01

    Uner Tan syndrome (UTS) cases with habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL), impaired intelligence, and dysarthric or no speech predominantly use lateral sequence (LS) gait like nonprimates rather than the predominantly diagonal sequence (DS) gait of nonhuman primates. However, these studies neglected possible sex-related differences in these gait types. (1) To assess the possible sex-related gait types in UTS cases, healthy infants and adults with requested QL, and the nonhuman primates. (2) To test the hypothesis that sex differences may exist in quadrupedal walking gaits in UTS cases, healthy humans, and nonhuman primates. The UTS cases were filmed, the other study groups were taken from public open 'youtube' videos, which were used to assess the walking gait types as DS and LS. The right and left hind-limb phase values were calculated separately for males and females to allow a possible sex difference in walking gaits to be determined. Females predominantly used DS gait, contrary to males with predominantly LS gait. Consistent with the working hypothesis, the results suggested a biological sex-related trend in preferred walking gaits exists in all of the human and nonhuman primates using QL.

  18. [Epidemiologic aspects of 42 cases of human brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G; Prigent, D; Baudet, J M; Banoita, S; Daoud, W

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis is an ubiquitous anthropozoonoses in the Republic of Djibouti, but it has only been studied in the City of Djibouti. This retrospective study of 42 cases of human brucellosis diagnosed between April 1993 and April 1995 was carried out at the Peltier Hospital in Djibouti to obtain epidemiological data concerning brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and positive immunologic tests (Rose Bengal test > 100 UI and Wright serology > 1/80). The following information was obtained for each patient: nationality, ethnic origin, place of residence, age, sex, and risk factors for exposure to infected animals or products. There were 30 men and 12 women including 38 Djiboutis, 3 Somalis, and 1 Ethiopian. Ethnic origin was Afar in 32 cases, Somali in 6 cases, and undetermined in 4 cases. Mean age was 31.6 years. Of the 38 Djiboutis, 15 lived in the district of Djibouti, 17 in the district of Tadjourah, 3 in the district of Obock, and none in districts located in the Southern part of the country. In 18 cases brucellosis involved cattle raisers from the Northern part of the country. In five cases no risk factor could be identified. The incidence of brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti appears to be comparable to that observed in other highly endemic countries. Further study is needed to determine the exact incidence in man and animals and ascertain the need and feasibility of preventive measures.

  19. Case Report: Human Bocavirus Associated Pneumonia as Cause of Acute Injury, Cologne, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakau, Michael; Gerbershagen, Kathrin; Frost, Ulrich; Hinzke, Markus; Brockmann, Michael; Schildgen, Verena; Gomann, Axel; Limmroth, Volker; Dormann, Arno; Schildgen, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Although the human bocavirus (HBoV) is known since a decade, limited information about its pathogenesis is available due to the lack of an animal model. Thus, clinical cases and studies are the major source of novel information about the course of infection and the related pathophysiology.In this context, a clinical case of an adult patient suffering from severe HBoV-pneumonia is described that was associated with loss of consciousness followed by acute rib fracture and subsequent neurological disorder.Following initial global respiratory dysfunction the clinical respiratory symptoms recovered but the neurological symptoms maintained after weaning and intensive care in the stroke unit. During the initial phase, an acute active HBoV infection was confirmed by positive polymerase chain reactions from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum.The case further demonstrates that HBoV can cause severe pneumonia, induce secondary disease also in adults, and may be associated with neurological symptoms as previously assumed.

  20. Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Patric; Stoklosa, Hanni

    2016-05-01

    Human trafficking victims experience extreme exploitation and have unique health needs, yet too often go undetected by physicians and providers in the Emergency Department (ED). We report a clinical case of human trafficking of a white, English-speaking United States citizen and discuss the features of presentation and treatment options for human trafficking victims upon presentation to the ED. A 29-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for intravenous drug abuse and recent relapse presented to the ED after a reported sexual assault. The patient was discharged that evening and returned to the ED the following day acutely suicidal. The patient divulged that she had been kidnapped and raped at gunpoint by numerous individuals as a result of a debt owed to her drug dealers. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Many human trafficking victims present to an ED during the course of their exploitation. To that end, EDs provide one of a limited set of opportunities to intervene in the human trafficking cycle of exploitation, and physicians as well as other ED staff should be equipped to respond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Swedish gulls-A case of environmental pollution from humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Atterby

    Full Text Available ESBL-producing bacteria are present in wildlife and the environment might serve as a resistance reservoir. Wild gulls have been described as frequent carriers of ESBL-producing E. coli strains with genotypic characteristics similar to strains found in humans. Therefore, potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria between the human population and wildlife need to be further investigated. Occurrence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish wild gulls were assessed and compared to isolates from humans, livestock and surface water collected in the same country and similar time-period. Occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is about three times higher in gulls compared to Swedish community carriers (17% versus 5% and the genetic characteristics of the ESBL-producing E. coli population in Swedish wild gulls and Swedish human are similar. ESBL-plasmids IncF- and IncI1-type carrying ESBL-genes blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-14 were most common in isolates from both gulls and humans, but there was limited evidence of clonal transmission. Isolates from Swedish surface water harbored similar genetic characteristics, which highlights surface waters as potential dissemination routes between wildlife and the human population. Even in a low-prevalence country such as Sweden, the occurrence of ESBL producing E. coli in wild gulls and the human population appears to be connected and the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is likely a case of environmental pollution.

  2. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Swedish gulls-A case of environmental pollution from humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Börjesson, Stefan; Ny, Sofia; Järhult, Josef D; Byfors, Sara; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    ESBL-producing bacteria are present in wildlife and the environment might serve as a resistance reservoir. Wild gulls have been described as frequent carriers of ESBL-producing E. coli strains with genotypic characteristics similar to strains found in humans. Therefore, potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria between the human population and wildlife need to be further investigated. Occurrence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish wild gulls were assessed and compared to isolates from humans, livestock and surface water collected in the same country and similar time-period. Occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is about three times higher in gulls compared to Swedish community carriers (17% versus 5%) and the genetic characteristics of the ESBL-producing E. coli population in Swedish wild gulls and Swedish human are similar. ESBL-plasmids IncF- and IncI1-type carrying ESBL-genes blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-14 were most common in isolates from both gulls and humans, but there was limited evidence of clonal transmission. Isolates from Swedish surface water harbored similar genetic characteristics, which highlights surface waters as potential dissemination routes between wildlife and the human population. Even in a low-prevalence country such as Sweden, the occurrence of ESBL producing E. coli in wild gulls and the human population appears to be connected and the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is likely a case of environmental pollution.

  3. Review of human error analysis methodologies and case study for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dae; Kim, Jae Whan; Lee, Yong Hee; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-03-01

    In this research, we tried to establish the requirements for the development of a new human error analysis method. To achieve this goal, we performed a case study as following steps; 1. review of the existing HEA methods 2. selection of those methods which are considered to be appropriate for the analysis of operator's tasks in NPPs 3. choice of tasks for the application, selected for the case study: HRMS (Human reliability management system), PHECA (Potential Human Error Cause Analysis), CREAM (Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method). And, as the tasks for the application, 'bleed and feed operation' and 'decision-making for the reactor cavity flooding' tasks are chosen. We measured the applicability of the selected methods to the NPP tasks, and evaluated the advantages and disadvantages between each method. The three methods are turned out to be applicable for the prediction of human error. We concluded that both of CREAM and HRMS are equipped with enough applicability for the NPP tasks, however, compared two methods. CREAM is thought to be more appropriate than HRMS from the viewpoint of overall requirements. The requirements for the new HEA method obtained from the study can be summarized as follows; firstly, it should deal with cognitive error analysis, secondly, it should have adequate classification system for the NPP tasks, thirdly, the description on the error causes and error mechanisms should be explicit, fourthly, it should maintain the consistency of the result by minimizing the ambiguity in each step of analysis procedure, fifty, it should be done with acceptable human resources. (author). 25 refs., 30 tabs., 4 figs

  4. PROCEDURE OF THE INSTITUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS OMBUDSMAN OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA IN CASES OF DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinko Mitrović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Rights Ombudspersons or national institutions for the protection of human rights in most of modern countries today are independent institutions established with the aim of promoting good governance and the rule of law, as well as protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Their jurisdiction includes, as a rule, protection and promotion of human rights and freedoms, as well as the functioning of the national preventive mechanisms for the prevention and the prevention of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In addition, the powers of these institutions also cover procedures to be applied in cases involving freedom of access to information, and ministerial, governmental and other appointments. An important segment in functioning of the Ombudsman is the prevention or elimination of discrimination. Discrimination (originating from the Latin word discriminare: separate, distinguish, unwarranted discrimination or unequal treatment, or illegal distinction is a negative and socially dangerous phenomenon which in a nutshell means any unequal or different treatment including every exclusion, restriction or preference based on real or assumed grounds against any person or group of persons, and their blood relatives or otherwise related to them, on the basis of their race, color, language, religion, ethnicity, disability, age, national or social origin, political or other opinion, property, membership in a trade union or any other association, education, social status and sex, sexual expression or sexual orientation, and any other circumstance with a purpose or a consequence to disable or endanger recognition, enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis, rights and freedoms in all spheres of life. The methods applied in operation of the national bodies for the protection of equality, primarily the Institution of Human Rights Ombudsman of Bosnia and Herzegovina in discrimination cases are subject of this paper.

  5. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-11-01

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. High risk human papillomavirus in the periodontium : A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Shipilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. It is thought that the periodontium could be a reservoir for HPV. Aims: 1. Detection of Human Papilloma virus (HPV in periodontal pocket as well as gingival of patients having localized chronic periodontitis and gingival sulcus of periodontally healthy subjects. 2. Quantitative estimation of E6 and E7 mRNA in subjects showing presence of HPV3. To assess whether periodontal pocket is a reservoir for HPV. Settings and Design: This case-control study included 30 subjects with localized chronic Periodontitis (cases and 30 periodontally healthy subjects (controls. Two samples were taken from cases, one from periodontal pocket and one from gingival sulcus and one sample was taken from controls. Methods and Materials: Samples were collected in the form of pocket scrapings and gingival sulcus scrapings from cases and controls respectively. These samples were sent in storage media for identification and estimation of E6/E7 mRNA of HPV using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using, mean, percentage and Chi Square test. A statistical package SPSS version 13.0 was used to analyze the data. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: pocket samples as well as sulcus samples for both cases and controls were found to contain HPV E6/E7 mRNAInterpretation and Conclusion: Presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in periodontium supports the hypothesis that periodontal tissues serve as a reservoir for latent HPV and there may be a synergy between oral cancer, periodontitis and HPV. However prospective studies are required to further explore this link.

  7. Epidemiology of human toxocariasis in Poland – A review of cases 1978–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borecka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis due to the infection of humans with larvae belonging to the [i]Toxocara[/i] genus. Humans become infected as a result of accidental consumption of infected eggs containing third stage larvae (L3 nematodes from [i]Toxocara[/i] canis or [i]Toxocara[/i] cati species. Toxocariasis was recognized for the first time in the early 1950s, and the first cases of toxocariasis in Poland were described a few years later. Toxocariasis is clinically classified into several types: classic and incomplete visceral larva migrans (VLM syndrome, ocular larva migrans (OLM syndrome, neurological toxocariasis (NLM, covert toxocariasis and asymptomatic toxocariasis. In 1994–2005, 18,367 sera of people suspected of being infected with [i]Toxocara[/i] were analysed, 1.8–76% had anti- [i]Toxocara[/i] antibodies. In the period 1978–2009, 1,022 clinical cases of toxocariasis were recognized in Poland. In the opinion of the authors, in order to reduce the frequency of toxocariasis in human populations, some prophylaxis should undertaken, e.g. public education of zoonotic diseases, systematic control of animal, deworming of pets, cleaning pets’ faeces by the owners.

  8. Epidemiology of human toxocariasis in Poland – A review of cases 1978–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borecka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis due to the infection of humans with larvae belonging to the Toxocara genus. Humans become infected as a result of accidental consumption of infected eggs containing third stage larvae (L3 nematodes from Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati species. Toxocariasis was recognized for the first time in the early 1950s, and the first cases of toxocariasis in Poland were described a few years later. Toxocariasis is clinically classified into several types: classic and incomplete visceral larva migrans (VLM syndrome, ocular larva migrans (OLM syndrome, neurological toxocariasis (NLM, covert toxocariasis and asymptomatic toxocariasis. In 1994–2005, 18,367 sera of people suspected of being infected with Toxocara were analysed, 1.8–76% had anti- Toxocara antibodies. In the period 1978–2009, 1,022 clinical cases of toxocariasis were recognized in Poland. In the opinion of the authors, in order to reduce the frequency of toxocariasis in human populations, some prophylaxis should undertaken, e.g. public education of zoonotic diseases, systematic control of animal, deworming of pets, cleaning pets’ faeces by the owners.

  9. Lack of association between human herpesvirus and vestibular schwannoma: analysis of 121 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimrao, Sanjiv K; Maguire, John; Garnis, Cathie; Tang, Patrick; Lea, Jane; Akagami, Ryojo; Westerberg, Brian D

    2015-03-01

    To assess for the presence of human herpesvirus (HHV) using immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in surgically excised vestibular schwannoma (VS) samples. Cross-sectional study. A retrospective laboratory-based study of tumors from patients with vestibular schwannoma. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) representing sporadic and NF2-associated VS from 121 patients, as well as appropriate positive and negative controls, were studied. TMA sections were immunostained using antibodies directed against HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3, HHV-4, HHV-5, and HHV-8. PCR was used for the detection of all 8 known human herpesviruses. There was no detectable HHV (HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3, HHV-4, HHV-5, HHV-8) by immunohistochemistry in any of the 121 cases of sporadic and NF2 cases analyzed. These data were further validated by DNA sequence analyses using PCR in a subset of the VS samples, all of which were found to be negative for all HHV. The data offer no support for an association between HHV and the development of sporadic or NF2-associated VS in humans. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  11. Detection of Human Bocavirus DNA by Multiplex PCR Analysis: Postmortem Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Ziyade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family, which has been newly discovered to be associated with respiratory tract infections in children. There are many reports worldwide on the endemicity of this virus. Since it is relatively new, it is not routinely detected in clinical laboratory investigations. Case Report: We demonstrated that HBoV infection caused the death of a 5-month-old girl with a history of high fever and wheezing. Human bocavirus (HBoV 1/2/3/4 was found in a nasopharyngeal swab, paraffin-embedded lung tissue and stool samples by multiplex PCR methods using postmortem microbiological analysis. Conclusion: This case suggests that lower respiratory tract infections due to HBoV may cause severe and life-threatening diseases. Postmortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. To our knowledge, this report is the first document of a HBoV postmortem case in Turkey.

  12. Application of case mix index in the allocation of nursing human resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binru; Chen, Xi; Li, Qiuping

    2018-02-23

    To investigate the feasibility of the case mix index and compare the allocation of nursing human resources between two departments of a hospital with different case mix indexes in China. The case mix index is used to assess the resource allocation of all cases in two departments of a hospital. Its values can determine the resource allocation required to diagnose and treat the patients. Clinical data were obtained from 23 different departments in 2015 and analysed retrospectively from October to November, 2016. Factors influencing the allocation of registered nurses were identified, and balanced quantities of patients with different case mix indexes were chosen from two departments. Spearman correlation analysis was performed. The per capita nursing workload was significant (r = .669, p = .000). The length of hospital stay, quantity of nurses, and department case mix index were correlated with the nursing workload (t = 4.211, p = .000; t = 2.962, p = .008; t = 2.266, p = .035). Education levels (Z = -1.391, p = .164) and the professional titles (Z = -1.832, p = .067) of the nurses were not statistically significant, whereas the registered nurse level differed between two departments (Z = -2.125, p = .034). The case management index provides references for the efficient allocation of registered nurses in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in cervical cancer cases in Spain. Implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Laia; Pérez, Cristina; Tous, Sara; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Lloveras, Belen; Lerma, Enrique; Guarch, Rosa; Andújar, Miguel; Pelayo, Adela; Alejo, Maria; Ordi, Jaume; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Velasco, Julio; Guimerà, Nuria; Clavero, Omar; Castellsagué, Xavier; Quint, Wim; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is critical to guide the introduction and to assess the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. This study aims to provide specific information for Spain. 1043 histological confirmed ICC cases diagnosed from 1940 to 2007 from six Spanish regions were assembled. HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF(10) broad-spectrum PCR followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA(25)) (version 1). Of 1043 ICC cases, 904 were HPV DNA positive (adjusted prevalence: 89.1%). The eight most common types, in decreasing order, were HPV 16, 18, 33, 31, 45, 35, 52 and 56, accounting for more than 90% of cases. HPV 16 and 18 contributed to 72.4% of all HPV positive ICC cases. In cervical adenocarcinomas, this contribution increased up to 94%. HPV 16 and 18 relative contributions showed a stable pattern over the 60 year study period. HPV 45, 18 and 16-positive ICC cases presented at younger ages than cases with other HPV types (adjusted mean age: 43.8, 45.2, 52.6 and 57.7 years, respectively). HPV 16 and 18 accounted together for a 72.4% of positive cases, with no statistically significant changes in their relative contributions over the last decades. In 94% of cervical adenocarcinomas we identified at least one of the two HPV types included in the current vaccines (HPV 16/18). Results suggest a major impact of HPV vaccines on reduction of ICC burden in Spain in the HPV vaccinated cohorts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  15. Contribution of Avian Salmonella enterica Isolates to Human Salmonellosis Cases in Constantine (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Elgroud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological investigation was carried out on one hundred Salmonella isolates from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and human patients in the Constantine region of Algeria, in order to explore the contribution of avian strains to human salmonellosis cases in this region over the same period of time. The isolates were characterized by phenotypic as well as genotypic methods. A large variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles was found among human isolates, while only seven profiles were found among avian isolates. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR, Insertion Sequence 200-PCR (IS200-PCR, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE resulted in the allocation of the isolates to 16, 20, and 34 different profiles, respectively. The 3 genotyping methods led to complementary results by underlining the clonality of some serovars with the diffusion and persistence of a single clone in the Constantine area as well as stressing the polymorphism present in isolates belonging to other serovars, indicating the diversity of potential reservoirs of nontyphoidal Salmonella. Altogether, our results seem to indicate that nontyphoidal avian Salmonella may play an important role in human salmonellosis in the Constantine region.

  16. The Characteristics of Finding Employment abroad in Case of the Szeged Tourism Human Resources (Szeged, Hungary

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    Peter Mihaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human work provided for tourists is an indispensible element and, in a sense, the very soul of tourism services, and its quality highly influences what image is formed of the travel. By today, the significance of qualified human resources in tourism has been more and more appreciated in Hungary, as one of the conditions of realising internationally competitive tourism is the presence and development of quality human resources. Language knowledge and professional knowledge can make employees more qualified and more in demand both abroad and in the Hungarian labour market. Based on international statistics, it can be stated that the main target countries of Hungarian employees are Germany, Great Britain and Austria. The majority of Hungarian employees in these countries find jobs in the catering sector. The present study was conducted in 2012 with the aim of surveying the target countries of finding employment in case of the Szeged human resources of tourism. 874 people working in the Szeged tourism sector were involved in the survey. The data of the participants were examined according to local touristic structure, age group and highest school qualifications. The survey included those as well who had qualifications in tourism and catering.

  17. Human Dipylidiasis: A Case Report of Dipylidium caninum Infection from Karimnagar

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    KV Ramana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipylidium caninum also refered to as the double-pored tapeworm is a cyclophyllidean cestode that commonly infects dogs and cats. Mammals act as definite hosts with intermediate hosts being dog and cat flea, the Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides catis respectively. The dog lice, Trichodectes canis and human flea (Pulex irritans also transmit Dipylidium caninum infection. Infants and young children are at high risk of acquiring infection. Majority of the infections are due to close association with pet dog and cats. Humans are accidental hosts who acquire infection by ingestion of infected dog and cat fleas. We report a rare case of Dipylidium caninum infection in a 9 year old girl who could have acquired infection by consuming food contaminated with infected fleas.

  18. Simulation Modelling Approach to Human Resources Management: Burnout Effect Case Study

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    Marjana Merkac Skok

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human resources management has become one of the most important leverages in organizations for gaining competitive advantage. However, human resources management is in many occasions prone to nonlinear feedbacks with delayed effect. Burnout effect is one of the problems that are especially often faced by the experts in learning society. Burnout effect occurs because modern society is a fast-moving, achievement-oriented, very competitive and lead to many stressful situations, which individuals cannot handle always. We propose usage of system dynamics methodology in exploration of burnout effect, and its usage in learning of consequences of burnout effect. Several experiments have been conducted and presented which indicate increase and collapse behaviour in case of burnout experience by the individual. Experiments with the model explore the presence of burnout effect in several different situations, with different pace of its manifestations.

  19. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Scott M.; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O?Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of ?Common Criteria? (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of th...

  20. Bedford v. Canada: a paradigmatic case toward ensuring the human and health rights of sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galldin, Karin; Robertson, Leslie; Wiseman, Charlene

    2011-10-01

    The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits certain aspects of sex work: the keeping of a common bawdy-house, living off the avails of prostitution and communicating for the purposes of prostitution in a public place. These legal constraints impede sex workers' ability to practise their profession safely and without risk to their bodily integrity; they also impair their personal autonomy and can lead to their stigmatization. Bedford v. Canada is a groundbreaking case, since the applicants and intervening organizations seek to overturn aspects of Canadian law that specifically put the health and human rights of sex workers at risk.

  1. Human factors and ergonomics assessment of food pantry work: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nicholas A; Talone, Andrew B; Fraulini, Nicholas W; Smither, Janan A

    2017-01-01

    Research assessing work processes in food pantries has been limited to the client's experience and aspects of food donations [3-5]. Research on food pantries has yet to focus on understanding and evaluating worker-environment interaction. The present case study examined the interaction between workers and their work environment while performing common tasks in a food pantry. Data were collected through naturalistic observations and structured interviews. A task analysis was performed on the data. Several potential issues in the pantry were identified including with the workspace layout, environmental conditions, and signage. Human factors and ergonomics principles were then utilized to provide insights and recommendations (e.g., use of numbered rather than color-coded signage). Recommendations were provided to the case study food pantry for enhancing safety and productivity. Further research is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to other food pantries.

  2. Imaging Appearance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis on the Diffusion Weighted Images: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hun Cheol; Yu, In Kyu; Oh, Keon Se

    2011-01-01

    Imaging finding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis contain bilateral, symmetric, patchy, or diffuse increased T2WI signal intensities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and centrum semiovale. In particular, the centrum semiovale is most commonly involved. Most of the HIV encephalitis cases are accompanied by brain atrophy. No previous study has reported symmetric increased signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale without brain atrophy on diffusion weighted images in HIV encephalitis patients. Here, we report a case of this. We suggest that radiologists should consider the possibility of HIV encephalitis if there are symmetric increases in signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale on diffusion weighted images of patients with a history of HIV infection.

  3. Human case of visceral larva migrans syndrome: pulmonary and hepatic involvement

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    Almatary A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM syndrome is commonly caused by larvae of roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. Human toxocarosis is a soil-transmitted zoonosis, which may result in partial or general pathological changes in host tissues. We reported a case of 14-year-old boy presented with severe dry cough without dyspnea, mild chest and abdominal pain with general fatigue. Examination of peripheral blood showed marked increase in eosinophils. The chest radiography showed an infiltrative shadow in the lung fields. Chest CT demonstrated multiple opacities in both lungs. Abdominal CT showed multiple low attenuation areas in the liver. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy revealed granulomas with severe eosinophilic infiltration. The boy was treated with albendazole and responded radically. It is worth mentioning that this is the first case of hepato-pulmonary VLM syndrome in Egypt.

  4. Sexual violence as a crime against humanity: the cases of Guatemala and Peru

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    Jerónimo Ríos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the significance of the legal treatment of sexual violence in contexts of armed conflict. What are the physical and emotional effects of the widespread use of rape as a weapon of war? In what way are women objectified and how are the implications of this projected into the social reference group? In order to answer these questions, first, a review is made of the international standards of legal protection against sexual violence. Then two case studies are analysed: Sepur Zarco in Guatemala and Manta and Vilca in Peru. In these cases,for the first time, national legal systems, based on international humanitarian law, have established a legal basis to punish sexual violence crimes within armed conflict contexts as crimes against humanity.

  5. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (serpentes: Colubridae

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    Maria Elisabeth de Araújo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports two cases of human envenoming by colubrid snakes of Philodryas, considered as not poisonous, showing evidence of the clinical aspects and the evolution of the symptoms of envenoming. The similarity of these cases with those caused by Bothrops suggests a more careful evaluation on the victims considering the medical treatment to be adopted.O presente trabalho é um relato de dois casos de acidentes com colubrídeos (Philodryas olfersii e P. patagoniensis considerados não peçonhentos, que destaca as manifestações clínicas e as suas evoluções. A semelhança de tais acidentes com aqueles causados por serpentes Bothrops indica a necessidade de uma melhor avaliação dos pacientes quanto à terapêutica a ser adotada.

  6. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

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    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  7. Inverted papilloma of the cervix and vagina: report of 2 cases of a rare lesion associated with human papillomavirus 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennell, Claire; Jamison, Jackie; Wells, Michael; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of a lesion that we term inverted papilloma of the lower female genital tract, occurring in the cervix and upper vagina of 60- and 50-year-old women, respectively. Microscopically, the features were similar to those of inverted transitional papilloma of the urinary bladder with interconnecting islands, trabeculae, and solid sheets of bland transitional epithelium with an inverted growth pattern. There were small foci of squamous and glandular differentiation in the cervical case. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping revealed human papillomavirus type 42 in both cases. Inverted papilloma in the lower female genital tract is extremely rare with, as far as we are aware, only 3 previously reported similar cases in the cervix and none in the vagina. Our results suggest that these neoplasms when occurring in the lower female genital tract may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus, perhaps specifically human papillomavirus 42. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells are distinct from leukemia cells in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulza, Frederic; Nosaka, Kisato; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Pagliuca, Tony; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2009-11-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). It has been postulated that ATLL cells might act as regulatory T cells (T(regs)) which, in common with ATLL cells, express both CD25 and FoxP3, and so contribute to the severe immune suppression typical of ATLL. We report here that the frequency of CD25(+) cells varied independently of the frequency of FoxP3(+) cells in both a cross-sectional study and in a longitudinal study of 2 patients with chronic ATLL. Furthermore, the capacity of ATLL cells to suppress proliferation of heterologous CD4(+)CD25(-) cells correlated with the frequency of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) cells but was independent of CD25 expression. Finally, the frequency of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells was inversely correlated with the lytic activity of HTLV-1-specific CTLs in patients with ATLL. We conclude that ATLL is not a tumor of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, and that a population of FoxP3(+) cells distinct from ATLL cells has regulatory functions and may impair the cell-mediated immune response to HTLV-1 in patients with ATLL.

  9. Spatial Agglomeration, Human and Social Capital: The Case of Turkey Manufacturing Industry

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    Özer Karakayacı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, new economic theories explode the factors depending on space and spatial characteristics. In this process, it is developed the theories on social-cultural aspects and spatial characteristics of regions instead of traditional economic theories. These theories have been main strategy for economic development and growth. Economic development has not been considered independently from space by these theories and economic performance of a region was emphasized importance of economic actors, institutional and economic infrastructure as well as geographic features. Geography or spatial features contribute to increase not only skilled workforce, knowledge spillover and distribution but also social relations and interaction. In other words, the social-cultural and humanity factors relating with spatial and geography are major factors affecting on the development and also growing of economic activities. Especially, while industrialization as engine of regional development has been benefiting from the advantages offered by spatial features, clustering of economic activities and relationships among actors are shaped according to socio-cultural and human factors revealed spatial features. In this context, clustering of economic activities has been one of the new areas of interest in the theory of economic geography. Therefore, clustering of economic activities and human-social-spatial resources has been emphasized to play a major role in growth and development of regions by essays of the new economic geography. In that context, the aim of this paper is to determine the effects of human and social capital in the spatial agglomeration of economic activities in case of Konya-Turkey. In this study, the agglomeration tendencies for manufacturing industry in Konya, which have major potentials in terms of human and social capital and manufacturing industry potential, is analysed comparatively depending on secondary resources and using

  10. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

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    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  11. Evaluation of palatal rugoscopy in dentulous and edentulous cases for human identification in forensic dentistry

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    Rogério José Scandiuzzi

    2014-03-01

    The search for identity is based on a set of characteristics, which defines the uniqueness of a person. Principles such as classificability, immutability, persistence, practicability and uniqueness must be considered when applying an identification technique. This study aimed to evaluate the use of palatal rugoscopy in dentulous and edentulous volunteers, with or without upper removable denture, for purposes of human identification. In this study 60 subjects were asked to give dental casts and photography of the upper dental arch, defined in the following groups: Group A (n = 30, edentulous patients with full upper removable dentures and Group B (n = 30, dentulous without upper removable partial denture. The rugoscopy analysis method used was Martins-dos-Santos classification, for checking the applicability and success in human identification. It was found that it is possible to use this technique and it has an application of 40% in the group A and 86.66% in the group B. In conclusion, the identification method by palatal rugoscopy is satisfactory for dentulous patients, however in cases of tooth loss and friction cases generated by prosthetic devices, the region of the palate lose its characteristics, but even then it is still possible to be applied.

  12. [A case of human highly pathogenic avian influenza in Shenzhen, China: application of field epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xiang; Cheng, Jin-Quan; Ma, Han-Wu; He, Jian-Fan; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Jiang, Li-Juan; Mou, Jin; Wu, Chun-Li; Lv, Xing; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Ya-De; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Xin

    2008-03-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of a case with human avian influenza and the effects of field epidemiological study. An emergency-response-system was started up to follow the probable human Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza case initially detected by the "Undefined Pneumonia Surveillance System of Shenzhen". Public health professionals administered several epidemiologic investigations and giving all the contacts of the patient with a 7-day-long medical observation for temporally related influenza-like illness. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers for H5 and N1 was applied to test respiratory tract samples and/or throat swabs of the patient and all his contacts specific for the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A H5N1. Activities and strategies such as media response,notification in the public, communications with multiple related sectors, social participation and information exchange with Hong Kong were involved in field control and management. The patient was a male, 31 years old,with an occupation as a truck driver in a factory,and had been residing in Shenzhen for 7 years. Started with an influenza-like syndrome, the patient received treatment on the 4th day of the onset, from a clinic and on the 6th day from a regular hospital. On the 8th day of the disease course, he was confirmed by Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention as human avian flu case and was then transferred to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). On the 83rd day of commence, the patients was healed and released from the hospital. The patient had no significant exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from the illness before the onset of the disease. The patient and five family members lived together, but no family member was affected and no contact showed positive results for H5N1. A small food market with live poultry, which was under formal supervision and before illness the patient once visited, located near his apartment. Totally, 35 swabs from live

  13. Influences of Antagonistic Views of Nature on Understanding of Humanity : In the Case of Rousseau and Nietzsche

    OpenAIRE

    宮島, 光志

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study lies in considering, in the case of Rousseau and Nietzsche, how strongly the antagonistic views of nature influenced the understanding of humanity (human nature). Both Rousseau and Nietzsche criticized the modern European civilization and sought to recover the "nature" in human beings. However, at least, Nietzsche didn't assume that Rousseau was his forerunner. On the contrary, he criticized Rousseau as the greatest enemy. The reason for it can be explained from the diff...

  14. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm (A), erm (B), or mef (A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  15. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  16. [Microbiological characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases in Andalusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe, José A; Torres, María José; Liró, Julia; Luque, Rafael; Aznar, Javier

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective study by genotyping 154 isolates from human listeriosis cases occurred in the region of Andalusia (southern Spain) in the period 2005-2009. Serotyping was performed for 1 and 4 somatic antigens using commercial Listeria antisera, and by multiplex-PCR serogrouping according to the method described by Doumith et al. (2004). The antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Epsilon test and interpreted by CLSI criteria. PFGE was performed according to the PulseNet protocol with the ApaI enzyme. The similarity of PFGE profiles was evaluated using the Bionumerics software. The multiplex PCR protocol described by Chen and Knabel (2007) was used for the identification of isolates belonging to L. monocytogenes ECI, ECII, and ECIII epidemic clones. The 154 isolates were grouped into four serotypes: 4b [94 (61%)] strains, 1/2b [30 (19%)] strains, 1/2a [27 (18%)] strains, and 1/2c [3 (2%)] strains, with 100% of susceptibility to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. A further sixty-two ApaI distinct pulsotypes were recognized. Thirty-seven isolates (24%) showed unique ApaI pulsotypes, and the remaining 117 strains (76%) were assigned to 25 ApaI clusters (60% in clusters of more than two isolates). The EC markers were found in 62 (40.3%) of the L. monocytogenes isolates tested. The ECI marker was present in 43 (46.2%) 4b serotype isolates, ECII in 10 (10.7%) 4b serotype isolates, and ECIII in 9 (33,3%) 1/2a serotype isolates. A large proportion of the human listeriosis cases under investigation could be grouped into molecular subtype clusters, and our cases could be related to international food-borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Congenital Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome) in a Woman with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Amanda; Stowell, Justin; Jamoulis, Socrates

    2017-04-04

    Congenital tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome, MKS) is a rare idiopathic disorder characterized by dilation of the central airways, including the trachea and first through fourth order bronchi. MKS disproportionately affects men and results in chronic respiratory tract infections. The diagnosis is made through the synthesis of clinical and radiological data. Here we report a unique case of MKS in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 45-year-old African American woman with a past medical history of HIV, tobacco and recreational drug abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and a 15-year history of recurrent respiratory infections presented with dyspnea, wheezing, a productive cough, increased yellow-green sputum production, and subjective fevers. Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest revealed striking dilation of the trachea and central bronchi. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a dilated trachea and bronchial tree with complete collapse of the trachea and bilateral mainstem bronchi during expiration. Serial imaging over 14 years allowed the radiologist to confidently diagnose her underlying disorder and recommend appropriate clinical management, which included mucolytics, chest physiotherapy, prophylactic vaccinations, and antibiotics during infectious exacerbations. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one reported case of MKS in the setting of HIV in the English literature. We report the second such case and outline the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and management of MKS with the hope that increased awareness will prevent delayed or misdiagnosis for patients with MKS. This case highlights the common diagnostic delay for MKS and the need to include MKS in the differential diagnosis of recurrent respiratory tract infections.

  18. Intravenous human immunoglobulins for refractory recurrent pericarditis: a systematic review of all published cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Lazaros, George; Picardi, Elisa; Vasileiou, Panagiotis; Carraro, Mara; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Belli, Riccardo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Refractory recurrent pericarditis is a major clinical challenge after colchicine failure, especially in corticosteroid-dependent patients. Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) have been proposed as possible therapeutic options for these cases. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of IVIGs in this context. Studies reporting the use of IVIG for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis and published up to October 2014 were searched in several databases. All references found, upon initial assessment at title and abstract level for suitability, were consequently retrieved as full reports for further appraisal. Among the 18 citations retrieved, 17 reports (4 case series and 13 single case reports, with an overall population of 30 patients) were included. The mean disease duration was 14 months and the mean number of recurrences before IVIG was 3. Approximately 47% of patients had idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, 10% had an infective cause, and the remainder a systemic inflammatory disease. Nineteen out of the 30 patients (63.3%) were on corticosteroids at IVIG commencement. IVIGs were generally administered at a dose of 400-500 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days with repeated cycles according to the clinical response. Complications were uncommon (headache in ~3%) and not life-threatening. After a mean follow-up of approximately 33th months, recurrences occurred in 26.6% of cases after the first IVIG cycle, and 22 of the 30 patients (73.3%) were recurrence-free. Five patients (16.6%) were on corticosteroids at the end of the follow-up. IVIGs are rapidly acting, well tolerated, and efficacious steroid-sparing agents in refractory pericarditis.

  19. Detection of Botulinum Toxin Muscle Effect in Humans Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Qualitative Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Michael W; Villanueva, Mark; Creelman, Carly; Telhan, Gaurav; Nestor, Jaclyn; Hentel, Keith D; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P

    2017-12-01

    Although important for dosing and dilution, there are few data describing botulinum toxin (BT) movement in human muscle. To better understand BT movement within human muscle. Proof-of-concept study with descriptive case series. Outpatient academic practice. Five subjects with stroke who were BT naive with a mean age of 60.4 ± 14 years and time poststroke of 4.6 ± 3.7 years. Three standardized injections were given to the lateral gastrocnemius muscle (LGM): 2 contained 25 units (U) of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) in 0.25 mL of saline solution and the third 0.25 mL of saline solution only. The tibialis anterior muscle (TAM) was not injected in any subject. A leg magnetic resonance image was obtained at baseline, 2 months, and 3 months later with a 3.0 Tesla Siemens scanner. Three muscles, the LGM, lateral soleus muscle (LSM), and TAM, were manually outlined on the T2 mapping sequence at each time point. A histogram of T2 relaxation times (T2-RT) for all voxels at baseline was used to calculate a mean and standard deviation (SD) T2-RT for each muscle. Botulinum toxin muscle effect (BTME) at 2 months and 3 months was defined as a subject- and muscle-specific T2-RT voxel threshold ≥3 SD above the baseline mean at or near BT injection sites. BTME volume for each leg magnetic resonance imaging slice at 3 time points and 3 muscles for all subjects. One subject missed the 3-month scan, leaving 18 potential observations of BTME. Little to no BTME effect was seen in the noninjected TAM. A BTME was detected in the LGM in 13 of 18 possible observations, and no effect was detected in 5 observations. Possible BTME effect was seen in the LSM in 3 subjects due to either diffusion through fascia or needle misplacement. Volume of BTME, as defined here, appeared to be substantially greater than the 0.25-mL injection volume. This descriptive case series is among the first attempts to quantify BTME within human muscle. Our findings are preliminary and are limited by a few

  20. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in augmentation procedures: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Jaques; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Claudino, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients.

  1. The importance of decolonizing International Human Rights Law: The prior consultation in Colombia case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Sierra-Camargo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior consultation has been recognized as one of the most emancipatory instruments within the framework of international human rights law, which currently allows indigenous peoples and ethnic communities defend their territories. Nevertheless, in some cases the prior consultation has had an ambivalent use by other agents who have used this instrument for different purposes than those stated in ILO Convention 169 and that have caused serious damages on these groups. In this sense, the main purpose of this article is to question the ambivalent use of prior consultation in Colombia from the perspective of ‘decolonial thinking’, and in particular, from the notion of ‘coloniality’. I argue that the problem of the restrictions and limitations of the prior consultation described in this article is due to the colonial bias of this instrument, which in turn is embedded in a liberal rationality.

  2. Low Grade Peritoneal Mucinous Carcinomatosis Associated with Human Papilloma Virus Infection: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatalica, Zoran; Foster, Jason M.; Loggie, Brian W.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a clinical syndrome characterized by peritoneal dissemination of a mucinous tumor with mucinous ascites. The vast majority of the pseudomyxoma peritoneis are associated with mucinous neoplasms of the appendix. We describe a case of pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix in a 60-year-old woman. The patient developed low grade mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis 8 years after hysterectomy for cervical adenocarcinoma. No other primary mucinous tumor was identified and peritoneal carcinomatosis tested positive for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), showing both integrated and episomal pattern. HPV has been previously associated with development of cervical carcinomas (both squamous and mucinous) but neither has cervical adenocarcinoma nor HPV been implicated in development of pseudomyxoma peritonei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of HPV-associated malignancy presenting as pseudomyxoma peritonei. PMID:18925701

  3. A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-01

    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son's feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Microscopically, each proglottid had 2 genital pores, 1 on each lateral edge, and numerous egg capsules in the uterus. The patient was successfully treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel. Adult worms were recovered in the diarrheic stool after praziquantel treatment and purgation. His family had household pet dogs for several years, and he might have acquired the infection by ingestion of infected fleas of his pet dogs. A history of dog or cat pets and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis of D. caninum infection. The infected pets should also be treated.

  4. Using virtual humans and computer animations to learn complex motor skills: a case study in karate

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    Spanlang Bernhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning motor skills is a complex task involving a lot of cognitive issues. One of the main issues consists in retrieving the relevant information from the learning environment. In a traditional learning situation, a teacher gives oral explanations and performs actions to provide the learner with visual examples. Using virtual reality (VR as a tool for learning motor tasks is promising. However, it raises questions about the type of information this kind of environments can offer. In this paper, we propose to analyze the impact of virtual humans on the perception of the learners. As a case study, we propose to apply this research problem to karate gestures. The results of this study show no significant difference on the after training performance of learners confronted to three different learning environments (traditional group, video and VR.

  5. Trends in occcurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases ind Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food...

  6. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma presenting multiple lymphomatous polyposis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Hokama; Nobuyuki Takasu; Jiro Fujita; Takeaki Tomoyose; Yu-ichi Yamamoto; Takako Watanabe; Tetsuo Hirata; Fukunori Kinjo; Seiya Kato; Koichi Ohshima; Hiroshi Uezato

    2008-01-01

    Multiple lymphomatous polyposis (HLP) is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It has been reported that most MLP are observed in cases with mantle cell lymphoma of B-cell type. We herein present a case of a 66-year-old man with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Colonoscopy revealed MLP throughout the colon and histopathological findings of ATLL cell infiltration. The patient died despite combination of chemotherapy. The literature of manifestations of colonic involvement of ATLL is reviewed and the importance of endoscopic evaluation to differentiate ATLL intestinal lesions from opportunistic infectious enterocolitis is discussed.

  7. Human Listeriosis Presenting as Breast Abscess: Report of a Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Venkataramana

    2017-02-01

    An abscess is defined as a collection of pus in various tissues of the body including skin and other organs. Abscesses most commonly are formed on the skin under the armpits, groin areas, and rectal areas. Most abscesses involve microbial infections with few remaining sterile. The treatment of abscesses includes both medical and surgical intervention. In the era of multidrug resistance, isolation and identification of the causative microbe and testing for antimicrobial susceptible patterns assume greater significance for the better management of patients, thereby reducing the resultant morbidity and mortality. Listeria spp. are a group of aerobic and non-spore forming gram-positive bacilli. They are present in the environment, soil, and water. Listeria spp. have also been noted to be present as a normal intestinal flora of animals. They are known for their ability to thrive under both cold and hot environmental conditions. Human infections with Listeria spp. have not been frequently reported, mostly because of the difficulty in laboratory identification and complex clinical presentations. In humans, Listeria spp. have been frequently responsible for food poisoning and neonatal meningitis. Although not considered as a classic pathogen, Listeria spp. are associated with infections in elderly people, pregnant women, newborns, and persons with weakened immune systems. This report presents a case of breast abscess caused by Listeria spp. in a young lactating female belonging to rural India.

  8. The effects of injection of bovine vaccine into a human digit: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of needlestick injuries in farmers and veterinary surgeons is significant and the consequences of such an injection can be serious. Case presentation We report accidental injection of bovine vaccine into the base of the little finger. This resulted in increased pressure in the flexor sheath causing signs and symptoms of ischemia. Amputation of the digit was required despite repeated surgical debridement and decompression. Conclusion There have been previous reports of injection of oil-based vaccines into the human hand resulting in granulomatous inflammation or sterile abscess and causing morbidity and tissue loss. Self-injection with veterinary vaccines is an occupational hazard for farmers and veterinary surgeons. Injection of vaccine into a closed compartment such as the human finger can have serious sequelae including loss of the injected digit. These injuries are not to be underestimated. Early debridement and irrigation of the injected area with decompression is likely to give the best outcome. Frequent review is necessary after the first procedure because repeat operations may be required.

  9. A Human Resources Perspective on Responsible Corporate Behavior. Case Study: The Multinational Companies in Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Obrad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the extent to which socially responsible Human Resource Management practices are implemented in multinational companies. As more recent studies highlight, the manner in which companies in Romania presently comprehend the social responsibility of their actions is mostly aimed towards the social component of the outer environment in which they function and less towards their own employees. In Romania, at the moment, there are only a few studies that catalogue the efforts made by companies in order to become more responsible towards their employees, or in other words, studies that present Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR within its relationship with Human Resources Management (HRM. The research method we used for our case study was the semi-structured interview, applied on 32 respondents from the multinational companies carrying out their activities in the automotive sector in western Romania. Our study shows that multinational companies from the automotive sector are aware that CSR effects a series of long-term advantages, either externally—enhancing the company’s reputation and consolidating its brand as employer, its competitive advantage on the market, its media visibility—or internally—fostering an organizational culture that may generate greater engagement from its own employees, and financial advantages.

  10. The first case of human infestation with Linguatula serrata in Kermanshah province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Janbakhsh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Linguatula serrata is a cosmopolitan organism belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate (Halzoun syndrome or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form. Linguatulosis occurs accidentally in human by ingestion of raw or undercooked visceral tissues of sheep, goat, camel, and other herbivores. This is the first report of Halzoun syndrome in Kermanshah province. In this case report, a 34-year-old man, from Salas-o-babajani district infested with this parasite was presented. Clinical signs and symptoms included pricking sensation in throat, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge, which started 2-3 hours after eating undercooked goat liver. An organism in about 8 mm length was isolated from his pharyngeal discharge. The sample was examined in the pparasitology llaboratory of Kermanshah school of medicine. The results of analysis showed that this organism was the nymph of L. The serrata had a mouth surrounded by four hooks and a segmented body with small hooks. The patient was treated using oral anti histamines and gargling and nasal washing with saline solution. So, it is recommended that physicians consider L. Serrata infestation in patients with complaints such as pharyngitis accompanied by pharyngeal pain, coughing, sneezing and vomiting.

  11. Pharmaceutical companies' role in state vaccination policymaking: the case of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Abiola, Sara; Colgrove, James

    2012-05-01

    We sought to investigate roles that Merck & Co Inc played in state human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization policymaking, to elicit key stakeholders' perceptions of the appropriateness of these activities, and to explore implications for relationships between health policymakers and industry. We used a series of state case studies combining data from key informant interviews with analysis of media reports and archival materials. We interviewed 73 key informants in 6 states that were actively engaged in HPV vaccine policy deliberations. Merck promoted school-entry mandate legislation by serving as an information resource, lobbying legislators, drafting legislation, mobilizing female legislators and physician organizations, conducting consumer marketing campaigns, and filling gaps in access to the vaccine. Legislators relied heavily on Merck for scientific information. Most stakeholders found lobbying by vaccine manufacturers acceptable in principle, but perceived that Merck had acted too aggressively and nontransparently in this case. Although policymakers acknowledge the utility of manufacturers' involvement in vaccination policymaking, industry lobbying that is overly aggressive, not fully transparent, or not divorced from financial contributions to lawmakers risks undermining the prospects for legislation to foster uptake of new vaccines.

  12. [Esophageal papilloma: case report, molecular identification of human papillomavirus and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Yanina; Jiménez, Félix; Tedeschi, Fabián; Zalazar, Fabián

    2013-09-01

    sophageal squamous papilloma is an uncommon, usually asymptomatic, benign tumor of the squamous epithelium consisting of a raised, sessile, small and round (smooth or rough) lesion. The prevalence is between 0.01 and 0.45% of cases, with a male/female ratio of 3:1. The etiology and pathogenesis appear to be a mechanical or chemical irritation of the mucosa in addition to the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), important agent in the evolution to a squamous carcinoma, especially HPV types 16 and 18. In this paper, we describe a case of esophageal papilloma whose diagnosis involved endoscopic images, pathological studies and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction. By using molecular techniques (PCR-RFLP) a profile consistent with HPV type 16 has been obtained. The patient underwent polypectomy and currently, after 3 years of diagnosis, he remains asymptomatic. This work is one of the first national reports of a patient with esophageal papilloma in which one of the most frequently HPV genotypes associated with esophageal carcinoma (HPV 16) has been detected.

  13. Unsuspected human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related lymphadenopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Tse; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Huang, Shun-Chen; Yu, Shan-Fu

    2018-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated condition characterized by infiltration of the involved organs by IgG4-bearing plasma cells. The prevalence of autoimmune diseases, associated with or occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been increasing. We describe a 58-year-old man with an undiagnosed HIV infection, which presented as chronic cervical lymphadenopathy with an elevated serum IgG4 and a very high IgE. Histologically, lymph nodes showed expanded sinusoids and burnt-out germinal centers with increased plasmacytic infiltration and collagen fiber deposition. The absolute number of IgG4+ plasma cells and the IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio was increased. The lymph nodes were enlarged and clinically the patient improved after steroid treatment. Nine months later, he was diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, following presentation with a cavitary left lung lesion. Immunohistochemical studies on the previously resected lymph node revealed complete absence of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and increased CD8+ T-lymphocytes. The pathologic findings met the criteria of both HIV infection and IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Our case demonstrates that further investigations for underlying HIV infection in a case of IgG4-RD are critical, especially when extremely elevated IgE is concomitantly present.

  14. Case Report of a Satin Guinea Pig with Fibrous Osteodystrophy That Resembles Human Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 2-year-old female satin guinea pig with a history of dental overgrowth and lameness and radiological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy is presented. The most relevant clinical findings were bone demineralization, high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH, normophosphatemia, normal ionized calcium, and low total thyroxine (tT4 with a normal renal function. Long-term treatment was based on teeth coronal reduction and maintaining a balanced diet. PTH measurement was performed with a kit suitable for rats to test 4 different paired samples of guinea pigs and resulted in similar results for each pair of measurements. Two kits routinely employed in dogs and cats failed in measuring PTH in guinea pig serum samples. The ionized calcium, PTH, and tT4 values, not previously reported in similar cases, were obtained. The determination of tT4 could be useful in the diagnosis of fibrous osteodystrophy in guinea pigs. The observed findings show similarity with human pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, a disease caused by an inactivating heterozygous mutation of the stimulatory G protein α subunit from the maternal genome that induces multiple hormone resistance and that courses with a syndrome called Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Naturally occurring pseudohypoparathyroidism in animals has been reported previously only in a ferret.

  15. A case of human infection with a novel Babesia species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Su-Qin; Qiao, Ke; Cui, Jie; Feng, Meng; Fu, Yong-Feng; Cheng, Xun-Jia

    2016-03-29

    Babesiosis is an uncommon but emerging tick-borne disease caused by the genus Babesia. In this case study, we report a case of human infection with a novel Babesia sp. in China. The patient in question had been suffering from repetitive occurrences of mild fever of unknown origin and fatigue for 10 years. Ring forms, tetrads, and one or two dots of chromatin or trophozoite-like organisms were observed in the patient's thin blood smears and bone marrow smears. Using a confocal laser-scanning microscope, it was observed that the patient's serum had reactivity with the surface proteins of the B. microti strain. Electron microscopy revealed oval red blood cells with 1 ~ 2 μm of knob protrusions in the cellular membrane. The results of the Babesia-specific nested PCR assay for 18S rRNA confirmed the presence of Babesia infection. The construction of a phylogenetic relationship showed clustering with B. microti and B. duncani, which was identified as a novel Babesia species and named as Babesia sp. XXB/HangZhou. Azithromycin, doxycycline, and moxifloxacin hydrochloride were shown to relieve symptoms but were not as effective after continuous usage. After atovaquone (Mepron®) administration, the patient recovered from fever and tested negative for detection of Babesia-specific genes. Babesia sp. XXB/HangZhou is a novel Babesia species, which causes mild babesiosis in an immunocompetent patient.

  16. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

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    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  17. Kosovo – UNMIK accountability: Human Rights Advisory Panel Finds Discrimination in Privatization Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Benedek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: The Human Rights Advisory Panel (HRAP established in 2006 to strengthen the accountability of UNMIK in Kosovo so far has dealt mainly with cases regarding property and missing persons. In two recent cases of members of the Egyptian and the Serbian minority (Fillim Guga and Nevenka Ristić it also dealt with privatization of socially - owned enterprises and found discrimination on ethnic grounds by the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court, established by UNMIK for such cases, which raises the accountability of UNMIK. In doing so the panel applied Article 14 of the ECHR on prohibition of discrimination in conjunction with Article 6 ECHR on fair trial in the light of relevant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. It also pointed out that in these cases the Special Chamber did not recognize a prima facie case of indirect discrimination and did not apply the principle of reversal of proof as required by the Anti - Discrimination Law of Kosovo. On behalf of UNMIK, the Special Representative of the Secretary - General defended the findings of the Special Chamber. The conclusions and recommendations in the Opinion of the Panel hold UNMIK accountable for the violations found and require it to take immediate and effective measures including an apology and adequate compensation for non-pecuniary damage as well as urging EULEX and other competent authorities in Kosovo to reopen the case by the Special Chamber. The work of the HRAP raises wider issues of accountability of international missions like UNMIK, to which it makes an important contribution. DEUTSCH: Das menschenrechtliche Beratungspanel, welches 2006 ins Leben gerufen wurde, um die Verantwortlichkeit von UNMIK im Kosovo zu stärken, hat sich bisher hauptsächlich mit Fällen zum Eigentumsrecht und hinsichtlich verschwundener Personen beschäftigt. In zwei aktuellen Fällen, die Mitglieder der ägyptischen bzw. serbischen Minderheit betrafen (Fillim Guga und Nevenka Risti

  18. Mathematical modeling of human glioma growth based on brain topological structures: study of two clinical cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Suarez

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and yet almost incurable due mainly to their great invasion capability. This represents a challenge to present clinical oncology. Here, we introduce a mathematical model aiming to improve tumor spreading capability definition. The model consists in a time dependent reaction-diffusion equation in a three-dimensional spatial domain that distinguishes between different brain topological structures. The model uses a series of digitized images from brain slices covering the whole human brain. The Talairach atlas included in the model describes brain structures at different levels. Also, the inclusion of the Brodmann areas allows prediction of the brain functions affected during tumor evolution and the estimation of correlated symptoms. The model is solved numerically using patient-specific parametrization and finite differences. Simulations consider an initial state with cellular proliferation alone (benign tumor, and an advanced state when infiltration starts (malign tumor. Survival time is estimated on the basis of tumor size and location. The model is used to predict tumor evolution in two clinical cases. In the first case, predictions show that real infiltrative areas are underestimated by current diagnostic imaging. In the second case, tumor spreading predictions were shown to be more accurate than those derived from previous models in the literature. Our results suggest that the inclusion of differential migration in glioma growth models constitutes another step towards a better prediction of tumor infiltration at the moment of surgical or radiosurgical target definition. Also, the addition of physiological/psychological considerations to classical anatomical models will provide a better and integral understanding of the patient disease at the moment of deciding therapeutic options, taking into account not only survival but also life quality.

  19. Rabies Virus Exposure of Brazilian Free-ranging Wildlife from Municipalities without Clinical Cases in Humans or in Terrestrial Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes, João; de Castro Demoner, Larissa; Morosini de Andrade Cruvinel, Tatiana; Paula Kataoka, Ana; Fátima Alves Martorelli, Luzia; Puglia Machado, Gustavo; Megid, Jane

    2017-07-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis that causes thousands of animal and human deaths worldwide. Serological studies provide information concerning rabies virus circulation among animals and humans. We evaluated the circulation of the rabies virus in wildlife in nine municipalities of São Paulo State, Brazil. We took blood samples from 27 terrestrial animals of nine different mammalian species in locations without cases of rabies in human and wild terrestrial mammals. Sera were tested with the use of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for the detection of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA). The RFFIT was positive in 100% of the samples, with many (81.48%) showing protective titer levels (>0.5 IU/mL) with other samples (18.52%) showing titers representing exposure (rabies virus in municipalities without a history of human rabies cases, which demonstrated a need for research to understand the role of these animals in the circulation and transmission of the disease.

  20. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Development of psychosocial case studies by students to improve their ability to understand and analyze human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña, Omar; Rodríguez Carballeira, Álvaro; Espelt, Esteve; Jiménez, Yirsa; Porrúa, Clara; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Castrechini Trotta, Ángela; Codina, Núria (Codina Mata); Pestana, José Vicente; Vidal i Moranta, Tomeu

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an active learning methodology based on the development and analysis of case studies by college students and explores its effects on academic performance and on students' capacity of understanding and analysing human behaviour. A group of 54 students who were taking the course Social Psychology at the University of Barcelona developed written stories where psychosocial concepts were represented. Results showed that participants, after developing their own case studies, imp...

  2. An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.

  3. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Lindner

    Full Text Available The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22 and pathological (n = 2 human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs' at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC and oxygen saturation (StO2. DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI. Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25-44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s, while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%, yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening.

  4. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, B.F.; Bronson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  5. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution in 175 invasive cervical cancer cases from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristina Mendes de; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Carvalho, Jesus Paula; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Levi, José Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor affecting Brazilian women. Knowledge on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer cases is crucial to guide the introduction and further evaluate the impact of new preventive strategies based on HPV. We aimed to provide updated comprehensive data about the HPV types’ distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Fresh tumor tissue samples of histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer were collected from 175 women attending two cancer reference hospitals from São Paulo State: ICESP and Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton,USA). 170 out of 172 valid samples (99%) were HPV DNA positive. The most frequent types were HPV16 (77.6%), HPV18 (12.3%), HPV31 (8.8%), HPV33 (7.1%) and HPV35 (5.9%). Most infections (75%) were caused by individual HPV types. Women with adenocarcinoma were not younger than those with squamous cell carcinoma, as well, as women infected with HPV33 were older than those infected by other HPV types. Some differences between results obtained in the two hospitals were observed: higher overall prevalence of HPV16, absence of single infection by HPV31 and HPV45 was verified in HC-Barretos in comparison to ICESP patients. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest studies made with fresh tumor tissues of invasive cervical cancer cases in Brazil. This study depicted a distinct HPV genotype distribution between two centers that may reflect the local epidemiology of HPV transmission among these populations. Due to the impact of these findings on cervical cancer preventive strategies, extension of this investigation to routine screening populations is warranted

  6. Neoliberalism, Human Capital and the Skills Agenda in Higher Education--The Irish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holborow, Marnie

    2012-01-01

    The making of human capital is increasingly seen as a principal function of higher education. A keyword in neoliberal ideology, human capital represents a subtle masking of social conflict and expresses metaphorically the commodification of human abilities and an alienating notion of human potential, both of which sit ill with the goals of…

  7. Towards a strategic human resource management? case study at a public organization in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ricardo Souza Freitas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the use of human resource practices in a public organization in Sao Paulo. In this paper we try to answer the question: is the human resource management in the organization Y compatible with the new strategic issues this area? We adopted a qualitative approach, through case study. The primary data were obtained through interviews and secondary data were obtained through analysis of information and documents provided by the studied organization as well as direct observation of organizational routine. The results indicate that, despite the organization uses the term strategic human resources management, it is focused on legal and operational issues. The human resource practices are not integrated and some practices do not exist (career plan and training. Thus, it is believed that if the organization adopts some of the improvements suggested in this article, it will be walking toward a more strategic human resource management entering in the new public management.

  8. Associations and propositions: the case for a dual-process account of learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, I P L; Forrest, C L D; McLaren, R P; Jones, F W; Aitken, M R F; Mackintosh, N J

    2014-02-01

    We review evidence that supports the conclusion that people can and do learn in two distinct ways - one associative, the other propositional. No one disputes that we solve problems by testing hypotheses and inducing underlying rules, so the issue amounts to deciding whether there is evidence that we (and other animals) also rely on a simpler, associative system, that detects the frequency of occurrence of different events in our environment and the contingencies between them. There is neuroscientific evidence that associative learning occurs in at least some animals (e.g., Aplysia californica), so it must be the case that associative learning has evolved. Since both associative and propositional theories can in principle account for many instances of successful learning, the problem is then to show that there are at least some cases where the two classes of theory predict different outcomes. We offer a demonstration of cue competition effects in humans under incidental conditions as evidence against the argument that all such effects are based on cognitive inference. The latter supposition would imply that if the necessary information is unavailable to inference then no cue competition should occur. We then discuss the case of unblocking by reinforcer omission, where associative theory predicts an irrational solution to the problem, and consider the phenomenon of the Perruchet effect, in which conscious expectancy and conditioned response dissociate. Further discussion makes use of evidence that people will sometimes provide one solution to a problem when it is presented to them in summary form, and another when they are presented in rapid succession with trial-by trial information. We also demonstrate that people trained on a discrimination may show a peak shift (predicted by associative theory), but given the time and opportunity to detect the relationships between S+ and S-, show rule-based behavior instead. Finally, we conclude by presenting evidence that

  9. Quantifying human vulnerability in rural areas: case study of Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stângă, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to assess the vulnerability at regional level, the model and the proposed indicators being explicitly intended for an essentially rural region, in this case-Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania). Five categories of variables were taken into account to define the vulnerability components: rural habitat, demographic features, agriculture, environmental quality and emergency situations. For each one, five variables were analyzed and ranked based on the level of determination or subordination. In order to ensure the flexibility of the model and to avoid the criteria duplication in assessing vulnerability, only a single indicator of each category was retained and included in analysis: total number of inhabitants, dependency ratio, weight of arable land on slope categories, weight of land under forestry and road accessibility of villages. The selected indicators were mathematically processed in order to maximize their relevance and to unitary express the results in the spread 0-1. Also, values of each indicator were grouped into four classes, corresponding to the level of vulnerability: low, medium, high and very high. A general index was obtained through the integration of vulnerability factors in an equation based on the geometric mean. Spatial analysis was based on features of the MicroImages TNTmips 7.3. software, which allow the vulnerability mapping. This approach argues and states that vulnerability assessment through indicator-based methods can be made only according to the level and scale of analysis and related to natural or human conditions of a region.

  10. Case report: human papilloma virus type 120-related papillomatosis mimicking laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvisi, Valeria; Martellucci, Salvatore; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Martellucci, Stanislao; Baiocchini, Andrea; Manicone, Anna Maria; Bagni, Oreste; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Gallo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and upper respiratory tract pathology was better understood in recent years and represents now an issue of particular interest in carcinogenesis and in immunocompromised host. We describe a case in which a rare genotype HPV-related papillomatosis mimics laryngeal carcinoma in an immunocompromised host. A 54-year-old woman with a history of HIV-HCV coinfection and anal and laryngeal cancer successfully treated some years before was hospitalized for severe dyspnea, cough and dysphagia. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation raised the suspicion of tumor relapse showing the presence of a large glottic-supraglottic ulcerated mass. Several laryngeal biopsies demonstrated koilocytosis and p16 expression, according to a possible HPV infection, and focal figures of mild dysplasia of epithelium. 18 F-FDG PET/CT did not show high glycolytic activity at laryngeal level. An invasive upper respiratory tract papillomatosis in an immunocompromised host was suspected because of the patient's clinical improvement after antiretroviral therapy. Pharyngeal swab and oral rinse harboured the same HPV120 genotype sequence, a betapapillomavirus of recent description and not yet related to any similar clinical presentations.

  11. Gut microbes in correlation with mood: case study in a closed experimental human life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Su, Q; Xie, B; Duan, L; Zhao, W; Hu, D; Wu, R; Liu, H

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbial community, which may influence our mood, can be shaped by modulating the gut ecosystem through dietary strategies. Understanding the gut-brain correlationship in healthy people is important for maintenance of mental health and prevention of mental illnesses. A case study on the correlation between gut microbial alternation and mood swing of healthy adults was conducted in a closed human life support system during a 105-day experiment. Gut microbial community structures were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing every 2 weeks. A profile of mood states questionnaire was used to record the mood swings. Correlation between gut microbes and mood were identified with partial least squares discrimination analysis. Microbial community structures in the three healthy adults were strongly correlated with mood states. Bacterial genera Roseburia, Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnospira, and Prevotella had potential positive correlation with positive mood, while genera Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Anaerostipes were correlated with negative mood. Among which, Faecalibacterium spp. had the highest abundance, and showed a significant negative correlation with mood. Our results indicated that the composition of microbial community could play a role in emotional change in mentally physically healthy adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gender Reassignment Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that surgery on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients is dangerous and should be avoided due to the possibility of postoperative infection of the patients or HIV occupational transmission to the medical staff. We discuss here the preparations and measures needed to conduct surgery safely on HIV-positive patients, based on our experience. We performed sex reassignment surgery on two HIV-positive patients from January 2013 to January 2015. Both of them were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and were asymptomatic, with a normal CD4 count (>500 cells/µL. The HIV-RNA was undetectable within the bloodstream. All the staff wore protective clothing, glasses, and three pairs of protective gloves in the operating room because of the possibility of transmission. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to the patients, and antiviral therapy was performed during their perioperative course. Neither of the patients had postoperative complications, and none of the medical staff experienced accidental exposure. Both patients had satisfactory surgery outcomes without complications. HIV-positive patients can undergo surgery safely without increased risk of postoperative complications or HIV transmission to the staff through the proper use of antibiotics, active antiretroviral therapy, and supplemental protective measures with post-exposure prophylaxis for the staff in case of HIV exposure.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  14. Donor human milk versus mother's own milk in preterm VLBWIs: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, F; Prandi, G; Coscia, A; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Raia, M; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    As for term infants, over the past decades there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of human milk in the feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBWI), influencing not only short-term health outcomes but also long-term neurodevelopmental, metabolic outcomes, and growth. Mother's own milk is the first choice for all neonates including preterm infants, when it is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk offers a safe alternative and is considered the next best choice. The main aim of this case-control retrospective analysis was to evaluate short term advantages of mother's own milk as a sole diet compared to donor milk as a sole diet, in terms of growth, antiinfectious properties, feeding tolerance, NEC and ROP prevention in a population of VLBWI born in a tertiary center. We did not find significant differences in clinical outcome from mother's own milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Only a slight and statistically not significant difference in growth could be observed, in favour of maternal milk. We conclude that the maximum effort should always be put in supporting and promoting breastfeeding and donor milk used not only as an alternative to mother's milk but also as a breastfeeding promotion and support strategy.

  15. First human rabies case in French Guiana, 2008: epidemiological investigation and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Meynard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species, closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.

  16. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: study of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Valverde, Diana

    2016-04-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease that can be inherited as autosomal dominant form. The BMPR2, ACVRL1 and ENG genes are main genes involved in the pathology. PAH associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is another rare disease with a low incidence, prevalence and survival. The main objective of this analysis was to study the clinical and molecular characteristics of PAH associated to HIV patients. We present 4 cases of HIV patients who developed PAH and have been treated with ambrisentan. Pathogenic mutations have been identify in analyzed genes in 3 of the four analyzed patients. In addition, these patients present other changes classified as benign after a thorough in silico analysis. We identified some changes in genetic modifiers that predispose to these patients to more severe phenotype. The clinical analysis can help to define monitoring for these patients and the administration of appropriate treatment. These patients also have shown several pathogenic mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Human fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica: the first case report in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Ranjit; Khadka, Shusila; Khadka, Mohan; Gurubacharya, Dipesh; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Parajuli, Keshab; Shah, Niranjan Prasad; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Pokharel, Bharat Mani; Rijal, Basista

    2017-09-05

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola species. Patient may be asymptomatic or presents with jaundice and biliary colic or right hypochondriac pain due to bile duct obstruction with gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a case of human fascioliasis in a 45 years old female presented to Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal on August, 2015 with fever, right hypochondriac pain, jaundice and occasional vomiting with anorexia for 4 months whose alkaline phosphatase was elevated and peripheral blood smear revealed eosinophilia. The patient also gives the history of consumption of water-cress. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholagiopancretography (ERCP) showed the presence of a flat worm resembling Fasciola hepatica and stool routine examination revealed ova of F. hepatica. The patient was treated with nitazoxanide by which she got improved. Repeat stool examination 2 weeks after treatment revealed no ova of F. hepatica. Patient with fascioliasis can be simply diagnosed with stool routine microscopy and treated with nitazoxanide. So patient with right hypochondriac pain, sign and symptoms of obstructive jaundice, eosinophilia and history of water-cress consumption should be suspected for fascioliasis and investigated and treated accordingly.

  18. Study of environmental factors' influence on the human health in the case of the Moscow population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.; Pronina, I.

    1999-01-01

    Although ambient air pollution is known to affect human, quantitative measure of the impact is quite uncertain. One of the most successful approaches to evaluate adverse health consequences caused by actual concentrations of pollutants in ambient air, is risk assessment. The quantitative values of lifetime risk units recommended by international and some national organizations are often used in assessing the health risk from different sources (chemical pollutants, radioactive exposure, electromagnetic fields etc.). Recommendations of the World Health Organisation and United States Environmental Protection Agency in the Integrated Risk Data Base were taken for a basis in calculating health risks caused by chemically polluted ambient air in Russian cities. We also used well established approaches for assessing health risks from the substances not clearly defined in terms of risk units in the mentioned recommendations. In all cases, expert values of risks have been averaged, and the uncertainty range reflects the differences in the risk recommendations and the inaccuracies in methods used for measuring air pollutants

  19. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 in human choroidal melanoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Ishii, Yoko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), exerts anti-apoptotic effects in various malignant tumors. However, relationships between choroidal melanoma and BAG3 are poorly studied. This study investigated the expression of BAG3 in a case of human choroidal melanoma. Funduscopy, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography with the intravenous injection of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine strongly indicated choroidal melanoma in a 68-year-old woman. Accordingly, we carried out an enucleation and pathological diagnosis. Proteins and total RNA were extracted from normal retinochoroidal and tumor tissues. Proteins were also extracted from ocular nevus tissues of other patients. We examined the expression of BAG3 protein and mRNA using Western blotting and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for melan-A, HMB-45, and S-100. Histopathology confirmed a choroidal melanoma. The expression of BAG3 protein and mRNA in the choroidal melanoma tissue was upregulated with respect to both normal retinochoroidal tissue and ocular nevus tissues from other patients. Because BAG3 may inhibit apoptosis of choroidal melanoma and facilitate its survival, overexpression of this gene product may be a prognostic marker and therapeutic target.

  20. An unusual case of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis. Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection.

  1. Instructional Design, Facilitation, and Perceived Learning Outcomes: An Exploratory Case Study of a Human Trafficking MOOC for Attitudinal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Loizzo, Jamie; Watson, William R.; Mueller, Chad; Lim, Jieun; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory case study describes the design and facilitation of a massive open online course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. It examines the course from the learners', instructor's, and instructional designer's perspectives. Two interviews with the instructor and instructional designer were conducted, and data from…

  2. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic salmone...

  3. Establishing trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and

  4. First reported cases of human adenovirus serotype 14p1 infection, Ireland, October 2009 to July 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flanagan, D

    2011-02-01

    We report the first nine confirmed cases of human adenovirus 14p1 infection (HAdV-14p1), identified at different locations in Ireland between October 2009 and July 2010. These were the first notifications in Ireland and all were sporadic cases. Following these notifications, the Health Protection Surveillance Centre set up an enhanced surveillance system for HAdV-14p1 infection. Seven cases were male and five were aged less than one year. Three patients died, giving a case fatality rate of 33%. It should be noted that cases presented here were diagnosed on presentation to hospital and may represent the severe end of the spectrum of HAdV 14 disease in Ireland.

  5. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, ma...

  6. Human Dignity in Law – A Case Study of the Polish Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Butrymowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity is one of the most fundamental ideas in the entire international human rights system. As from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948, the concept of the human dignity become used as a tool to protect the basic needs of humans. The other formal instruments of international human rights also make reference to dignity. Whereas international law widely accepted the inherence of dignity, controversies still arise around the source of the dignity. Polish lawmakers, on the other hand, have no doubt about the fact the concept of dignity comes from natural law. Poland, in her Constitution, refers to the teaching of John Paul II about the source, value and meaning of human dignity. There is no doubt that concept of human dignity, even when it is controversial, is the most widely accepted by all religions and political society in the world.

  7. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Assessment of labour market returns in the case of gender unique human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Paas, Tiiu; Tverdostup, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Maryna Tverdostup, Tiiu Paas, ERSA 2016: The paper focuses on the identification of the unique, non-reached by the opposite gender human capital and the analysis of its effect on the earning profiles of unique human capital holders. The overwhelming research aim is to better understand the possible reasons behind gender wage disparities, focusing on the unique features of male and female human capital and their returns. When assessing the gender pay disparities, variation of human capital cha...

  9. Fundamental Rights and Humaneness in European Private Law : The Case of Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia; McCann, Adam; Ferreira, Nuno; Kostakopoulou, Dora

    2016-01-01

    An institution has a ‘human face’ if it takes the interests core to ‘human flourishing’ seriously. The question arises whether and how these interests find proper consideration in EU private law. The interests core to ‘human flourishing’ relevant for substantive private law include the following

  10. The Eviction of the Human from Human Interest: The Case of Mechanically Generated Text and Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Nathan West

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, automation has encroached upon “soft knowledge” fields long considered the exclusive preserve of human agents, particularly in the production and analysis of texts framed in natural language. Like most technological innovations, automation has been embraced with minimal skepticism: mainstream voices have assumed that new technologies, while changing the type of work available, will continue creating new jobs to replace those it renders obsolete, and harsh criticism has been confined mainly to the ideological fringes. There is reason to believe that this optimism is unjustified with respect to the automation of intellectual labor, which may prove to have pernicious consequences both for the market economy and for human values that yield only poorly to abstract calculation.

  11. Case Study on Human Walking during Wearing a Powered Prosthetic Device: Effectiveness of the System “Human-Robot”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Grosu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that force exchanges between a robotic assistive device and the end-user have a direct impact on the quality and performance of a particular movement task. This knowledge finds a special reflective importance in prosthetic industry due to the close human-robot collaboration. Although lower-extremity prostheses are currently better able to provide assistance as their upper-extremity counterparts, specific locomotion problems still remain. In a framework of this contribution the authors introduce the multibody dynamic modelling approach of the transtibial prosthesis wearing on a human body model. The obtained results are based on multibody dynamic simulations against the real experimental data using AMP-Foot 2.0, an energy efficient powered transtibial prosthesis for actively assisted walking of amputees.

  12. New classification of operators' human errors at overseas nuclear power plants and preparation of easy-to-use case sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    At nuclear power plants, plant operators examine other human error cases, including those that occurred at other plants, so that they can learn from such experiences and avoid making similar errors again. Although there is little data available on errors made at domestic plants, nuclear operators in foreign countries are reporting even minor irregularities and signs of faults, and a large amount of data on human errors at overseas plants could be collected and examined. However, these overseas data have not been used effectively because most of them are poorly organized or not properly classified and are often hard to understand. Accordingly, we carried out a study on the cases of human errors at overseas power plants in order to help plant personnel clearly understand overseas experiences and avoid repeating similar errors, The study produced the following results, which were put to use at nuclear power plants and other facilities. (1) ''One-Point-Advice'' refers to a practice where a leader gives pieces of advice to his team of operators in order to prevent human errors before starting work. Based on this practice and those used in the aviation industry, we have developed a new method of classifying human errors that consists of four basic actions and three applied actions. (2) We used this new classification method to classify human errors made by operators at overseas nuclear power plants. The results show that the most frequent errors caused not by operators themselves but due to insufficient team monitoring, for which superiors and/or their colleagues were responsible. We therefore analyzed and classified possible factors contributing to insufficient team monitoring, and demonstrated that the frequent errors have also occurred at domestic power plants. (3) Using the new classification formula, we prepared a human error case sheets that is easy for plant personnel to understand. The sheets are designed to make data more understandable and easier to remember

  13. Natural and human land-sea interactions: Burgas Case Study, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Krastev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    The Directive 2014/89/ of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning sets the land-sea interactions as one of the minimum requirements for Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP). Coastal areas are interconnected with the sea in both human use and natural values and many human activities on marine areas are functionally linked to the coast and vice versa. This research was elaborated in the frame of MARSPLAN-BS Project (DG MARE EU Commission) focused on a case study of land-sea interactions in Burgas Bay, south Bulgarian coast. The main goal of the project is to support the implementation of MSP for Black Sea. Burgas is one of the most important ports at the Black Sea with significant infrastructure for supporting the economic activities and it is the largest Bulgarian Black Sea harbour. Burgas has a modern international airport, which handles most of the tourist flow during the peak summer season. The city is a center of culture, science and art of national importance and is distinguished with rapid developments over the recent years. In the surroundings of the study area there are valuable natural protected areas (Natura 2000) and wetlands, important Ramsar sites, such as: lakes of Atanasovsko, Burgas and Mandra. These lakes, together with the Pomorie Lake (adjacent in north direction) form the largest wetland in the country with exceptional conservation value of international and national importance. The intensity of both coastal and maritime activities in the study area have been constantly increased and new activities have been initiated or planned over the recent years, that area is often in conflict with other activities or the objectives of environmental protection. In this context, the necessity of performing such an investigation at the area of Burgas comes up as a current challenge for sustainable economic development and protection of all wetlands and effective use of natural resources

  14. Operationalising factors that explain the emergence of infectious diseases: a case study of the human campylobacteriosis epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norval J C Strachan

    Full Text Available A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990-2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990-2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future.

  15. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of the Namibian health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awases Magda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses an important practical challenge to staff management. In 2000 the United Nations committed themselves to the ambitious targets embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Only five years later, it was clear that poor countries were not on track to achieve them. It was also clear that achieving the three out of the eight MDGs that concern health would only be possible if the appropriate human resources (HR were in place. Methods We use a case study based on semi-structured interview data to explore the steps that Namibia, a country facing severe health problems that include an alarmingly high AIDS infection rate, has taken to manage its health workers. Results In the fifteen years since independence, Namibia has patiently built up a relatively good strategic framework for health policy in the context of government policy as a whole, including strong training arrangements at every level of health staffing, and it has brought HIV/AIDS under the strategic umbrella through its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS. Its major weakness is that it has not kept pace with the rise in HIV/AIDS and TB infection: the community counselling service, still at the pilot stage at the time of this study, was the only specific response. That has created a tension between building long-term capacity in a strategic context and responding to the short-term demands of the AIDS and TB crisis, which in turn affects the ability of HR to contribute to improving health outcomes. Conclusion It is suggested that countries like Namibia need a new paradigm for staffing their health services. Building on the existing strategic framework, it should target the training of 'mid-level cadres'. Higher-level cadres should take on the role of supporting and monitoring the mid-level cadres. To do that, they will need management training and a performance management framework for staff support and monitoring.

  16. Per rectal endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of adult Hirschsprung's disease: First human case (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapaye, Amol; Wagholikar, Gajanan; Jog, Sameer; Kothurkar, Aditi; Purandare, Shefali; Dubale, Nachiket; Pujari, Rajendra; Mahadik, Mahesh; Vyas, Viral; Bapaye, Jay

    2016-09-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the hindgut; and presents with constipation, intestinal obstruction and/or megacolon. HD commonly involves the rectosigmoid region (short segment HD), although shorter and longer variants of the disease are described. Standard treatment involves pull-through surgery for short segment HD or posterior anorectal myotomy in selected ultrashort segment candidates. Third space endoscopy has evolved during the past few years. Per oral endoscopic myotomy and per oral pyloromyotomy are described for treatment of achalasia cardia and refractory gastroparesis, respectively. Using the same philosophy of muscle/sphincter disruption for spastic bowel segments, per rectal endoscopic myotomy could be considered as a treatment option for short segment HD. A 24-year-old male patient presented with refractory constipation since childhood, and habituated to high-dose laxative combinations. Diagnosis was confirmed as adult short segment HD by barium enema, colonoscopic deep suction mucosal biopsies and anorectal manometry. Histopathology confirmed aganglionosis in the distal 15 cm. By implementing principles of third space endoscopy, per rectal endoscopic myotomy 20 cm in length was successfully carried out. At 24-week follow up, the patient reported significant relief of constipation and associated symptoms. Sigmoidoscopy, anorectal manometry and barium enema confirm improved rectal distensibility and reduced rectal pressures. The present case report describes the first human experience of per rectal endoscopic myotomy for successful treatment of adult short segment HD. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Alves Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR, type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%, five with HPV 18 (5.5%, 21 with HPV 45 (23.1% and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%. Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%, while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%. Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%. More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  19. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  20. Human vulnerability in volcanic environments: the case of Furnas, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Christopher; Chester, David K.

    1999-09-01

    The need to examine the vulnerability of people to natural hazards, in addition to the long-established requirement to study extreme events of nature, is being increasingly recognised within disaster research. Following a discussion of the nature of human vulnerability, we propose a framework for its analysis within the context of volcanic activity and we exemplify our approach by a detailed study of Furnas, a village located at the centre of a volcano with the same name on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. The methods used included in-depth interviews with permanent residents ( n=50), analysis of census records and an examination of the socio-economic history of the town. The vulnerability of an individual to volcanic hazards involves a complex interaction of elements which, in addition to the usual factors taken into account in programmes of hazard reduction (e.g., the nature of the physical threat, location and economic situation), also comprises his or her social context and a number of physiological and psychological considerations. It is argued, further, that both generally and in the case of Furnas, the root causes of vulnerability lie in the history and development of society. Individual decision making is fundamental but takes place within and cannot be separated from this social context. Vulnerability analysis allows the identification of points where intervention may be successful in reducing the likelihood of suffering in a society. It avoids the problem of people's unexpected reactions to invention leading to a changing or even increasing level of vulnerability, by studying society rather than just one aspect of volcanic hazard in isolation.

  1. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  2. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  3. A re-analysis of Price's "Islam and human rights: a case of deceptive first appearances".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-12-01

    Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of human rights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (pSharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for human rights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of human rights. At the same time, support for human rights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law.

  4. Effect of cognitive biases on human-robot interaction: a case study of robot's misattribution

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Mriganka; Murray, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for developing long-term human-robot interactions and social relationships based on the principle of 'human' cognitive biases applied to a robot. The aim of this work is to study how a robot influenced with human ‘misattribution’ helps to build better human-robot interactions than unbiased robots. The results presented in this paper suggest that it is important to know the effect of cognitive biases in human characteristics and interactions in order to better u...

  5. An Extended Case Study Methoology for Investigating Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Factors on Human-Automation Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina Sun; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Johnson, Walter; Cacanindin, Artemio

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Forces newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the cases politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerabilityhigh risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  6. Fluorescent and radiolabelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane with a newly developed hydroxy-coumarin derivative (CASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand-Weaver, M.; Abuknesha, R.A.; Price, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane (pHGBM) with a newly developed fluorescent iodine acceptor 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-acetic acid N-hydroxysucciniimydyl ester (CASE) is described. The binding of a monoclonal antibody to pHGBM was assessed by radiobinding assays, and when directly iodinated pHGBM was used there was no apparent binding. When CASE was conjugated to pHGBM prior to iodination 11% binding was achieved. CASE acting as an iodine acceptor may be useful for proteins containing few or inaccessible tyrosine residues or which are destroyed by introduction of 125 I. Since CASE is fluorescent, small amounts of material can be detected during isolation prior to iodination. (orig.)

  7. A case of hypopituitarism accompanying Kearns-Sayre syndrome treated with human chorionic gonadotropin: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y-X; Wang, Y-J; Zhang, Q; Pang, X-H; Gu, W

    2017-10-01

    Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Here, we report an unusual case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome accompanied by hypopituitarism (deficiencies in reproductive and growth hormones). A 20-year-old male presented with growth retardation for the last 8 years, as well as the following findings: short stature, delayed puberty, myasthenia, an extraocular movement deficit, drooping eyelids, pectus carinatum and scoliosis. Cerebral enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed dysplasias of the pituitary, white matter and cerebellum. Laboratory work-up showed subnormal testosterone and growth hormone levels, a subnormal testicular volume, sensorineural deafness, pigmentary retinopathy, complete right bundle branch block and left anterior bundle branch block. Pathological examination revealed ragged red muscle fibres. Thus, this rare case involved the coexistence of Kearns-Sayre syndrome and hypopituitarism in a patient. Administration of coenzyme Q10 for the KSS and hormone replacement therapy for the endocrinopathies were performed for treatment of this patient. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese (Acari: Macronyssidae: a case report in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bohrer Mentz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein report human dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese. The cases occurred in an apartment in a residential district of Porto Alegre City, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where three members of the same family presented with pruritic lesions on the arms and legs. On inspecting the bathroom, several mites measuring approximately 1.0mm in length were observed coming from a nest of Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin. This is the first report of O. bursa in the urban area of Porto Alegre City, from a nest of F. rufus that bites humans.

  9. Sources of Human Insecurity in Post-War Situations: The Case of Gaza

    OpenAIRE

    Ziadni, Maisa; Hammoudeh, Weeam; Rmeileh, Niveen M.E. Abu; Hogan, Dennis; Shannon, Harry; Giacaman, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores classical and war-related factors associated with human insecurity reports in the Gaza Strip following the winter 2008–09 Israeli attack. A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months after the Israeli attack with adults from 3017 households. Results demonstrate that persons with greater human capital and socioeconomic resources were somewhat protected from human insecurity associated with the attack and siege. Results also underscore the significance of including both...

  10. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs : Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the a...

  11. PDZ domain-binding motif of Tax sustains T-cell proliferation in HTLV-1-infected humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesi, Maria; Jalinot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignant proliferation of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. The viral Tax oncoprotein is critically involved in both HTLV-1-replication and T-cell proliferation, a prerequisite to the development of ATLL. In this study, we investigated the in vivo contribution of the Tax PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) to the lymphoproliferative process. To that aim, we examined T-cell proliferation in humanized mice (hu-mice) carrying a human hemato-lymphoid system infected with either a wild type (WT) or a Tax PBM-deleted (ΔPBM) provirus. We observed that the frequency of CD4+ activated T-cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen was significantly higher in WT than in ΔPBM hu-mice. Likewise, human T-cells collected from WT hu-mice and cultivated in vitro in presence of interleukin-2 were proliferating at a higher level than those from ΔPBM animals. We next examined the association of Tax with the Scribble PDZ protein, a prominent regulator of T-cell polarity, in human T-cells analyzed either after ex vivo isolation or after in vitro culture. We confirmed the interaction of Tax with Scribble only in T-cells from the WT hu-mice. This association correlated with the presence of both proteins in aggregates at the leading edge of the cells and with the formation of long actin filopods. Finally, data from a comparative genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggested that the PBM-PDZ association is implicated in the expression of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal organization. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Tax PBM is an auxiliary motif that contributes to the sustained growth of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in vivo and in vitro and is essential to T-cell immortalization. PMID:29566098

  12. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  13. Testing the Human Capital Development Model: The Case of Apprenticeships in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…

  14. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Dickinson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind

  15. The impact of human capital on company performance case of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital is getting wider attention with increasing globalization and also the saturation of the job market due to the recent downturn in the various economies of the world. Developed and developing countries put emphases on a more human capital development towards accelerating the economic growth by devoting ...

  16. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  17. Mask Making in Human Services Education: A Case for Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie; McGrath, Jenny; Smyth, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article is an examination of strategies for engaging students in programs of human services education. We describe an in class mask-making activity, used by three human services instructors at an undergraduate university in western Canada, as a means of engaging students to grow in individual and collaborative awareness and skills. We present…

  18. COMPARING THE UTILITY OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE ANALYSIS: TWO CASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of models are available for exposure assessment; however, few are used as tools for both human and ecosystem risks. This discussion will consider two modeling frameworks that have recently been used to support human and ecological decision making. The study will compare ...

  19. Does Human Capital Theory Explain the Value of Higher Education? A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2010-01-01

    A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…

  20. Are Accounting Metrics Applicable to Human Resources? The Case of Return on Valuing Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Steen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of accounting for human resources has long been recognised by the Accounting profession. Until recently, Human Resource Accounting (HRA literature has been dominated by discussion as to whether humans fit the traditional definition of assets, and how to measure and report them. We investigate the concept of human capital and its measurement through a review of the HRA literature, as well as the literature in Human Resources (HR. This paper then draws on the findings of a small exploratory study into the measurement of Return on Investment (ROI for international assignments. Interview data reveals that intangible costs and benefits are problematic when applying such a metric; that much of the outcome from the assignment is intellectual capital, in its broad sense, and therefore difficult to isolate and effectively measure.

  1. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  2. Can "extreme poverty" protect against refoulement? : Economic refugees in the light of recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    “Economic refugees” largely remain outside the international protection regimes of refugee and human rights law. Nevertheless, recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) opens up limited possibilities for economic refugees to rely on Article 3 of the European Convention on Human

  3. Sherlock Holmes and the Curious Case of the Human Locomotor Central Pattern Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Zehr, E Paul

    2018-03-14

    Evidence first described in reduced animal models over 100 years ago led to deductions about the control of locomotion through spinal locomotor central pattern generating (CPG) networks. These discoveries in nature were contemporaneous with another form of deductive reasoning found in popular culture-that of Arthur Conan Doyle's detective "Sherlock Holmes". Since the invasive methods used in reduced non-human animal preparations are not amenable to study in humans, we are left instead with deducing from other measures and observations. Using the deductive reasoning approach of Sherlock Holmes as a metaphor for framing research into human CPGs, we speculate and weigh the evidence that should be observable in humans based on knowledge from other species. This review summarizes indirect inference to assess "observable evidence" of pattern generating activity which leads to the logical deduction of CPG contributions to arm and leg activity during locomotion in humans. The question of where a CPG may be housed in the human nervous system remains incompletely resolved at this time. Ongoing understanding, elaboration and application of functioning locomotor CPGs in humans is important for gait rehabilitation strategies in those with neurological injuries.

  4. Measuring the Effects of Human Capital on Growth in the Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia NEAGU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that human capital is critical for economic growth. The exploration of the impact of human capital on growth could bring valuable information for policy makers to substantiate their development strategies and to stimulate factors leading to economic growth. The paper aims to investigate the relationships between human capital and economic growth in the romanian economy by analyzing the correlations between statistical variables measuring human capital and economic growth. Using a regression model, it is analyzed the impact of the educational and health capital on the economic output. In the paper, a linear regression model of the relation of human capital to economic growth is subjet of an empirical analysis, firstly, taking into consideration only education as human capital and secondly, incorporating in the model the both components: health and education. A strong correlation between educational variables and GDP, for 1990-2010, was found. The quality of the educational capital has a determinant role in the economic growth, the highly educated people are influencing more the economic output than the secondary educated ones. GDP per capita is negatively correlated with the number of worked hours and positively influenced by the life expectancy. The most important contribution contained by this article refers to the incorporation of the two components of human capital in the same econometric model explaining the economic growth. The added value of paper consists in offering suggestions and orientation for national educational policies.

  5. The Paradigm Shift in Strategic Human Resources. Research in the case of Romanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen NOVAC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the conditions and factors influencing the development of a strategic human capital plan, offering a framework for obtaining competitive advantage and for developing a business plan in which the Human Resources function can actually make a contribution. The authors also present the key elements of a Human Resources paradigm which will change the DNA of its function. The research was first implemented in 2009 with the purpose of identifying specific processes within Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM. Aiming to obtain further information on HR processes currently applied within Romanian organizations, the authors applied a semi-structured interview on Human Resources specialists working in domains such as supporting services, human resources outsourcing services, telecommunications, automotive and taxi services, call center services and trade marketing. The results indicated that within organizations following the development of human resources processes, the gain of new knowledge in the business area of the company can be observed. The effects are also evident within organizations` development plans.

  6. Toxicology of microcystins with reference to cases of human intoxications and epidemiological investigations of exposures to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Mijović, Biljana; Codd, Geoffrey A; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2017-02-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have been documented throughout history, all over the world. Mass populations of these organisms typically present hazards to human health and are known for the production of a wide range of highly toxic metabolites-cyanotoxins, of which among the most common and most investigated are the microcystins. The toxicity of the family of microcystin congeners to animal and cell models has received much attention; however, less is known about their negative effects on human health, whether via acute or chronic exposure. Useful information may be acquired through epidemiological studies since they can contribute to knowledge of the relationships between cyanotoxins and human health in environmental settings. The aim of this review is to compile and evaluate the available published reports and epidemiological investigations of human health incidents associated with exposure to mass populations of cyanobacteria from throughout the world and to identify the occurrence and likely role of microcystins in these events. After an initial screening of 134 publications, 42 publications (25 on the chronic and 17 on the acute effects of cyanotoxins) describing 33 cases of poisonings by cyanobacterial toxins in 11 countries were reviewed. The countries were Australia, China, Sri Lanka, Namibia, Serbia, Sweden, UK, Portugal, Brazil, USA, and Canada. At least 36 publications link cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins including microcystins to adverse human health effects. The studies were published between 1960 and 2016. Although the scattered epidemiological evidence does not provide a definitive conclusion, it can serve as additional information for the medical assessment of the role of microcystins in cancer development and other human health problems. This paper discusses the major cases of cyanotoxin poisonings as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and importance of the performed epidemiological research. This study also proposes some recommendations for future

  7. H5N1 avian influenza virus: human cases reported in southern China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crofts, J.; Paget, J.; Karcher, F.

    2003-01-01

    Two cases of confirmed influenza due to the avian influenza A H5N1 virus were reported last week in Hong Kong (1). The cases occurred in a Hong Kong family who had recently visited Fujian province in southern China. The daughter, aged 8 years, died following a respiratory illness. The cause of her

  8. Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y; Coffey, Lark L; Murkey, Jamie; Symmes, Kelly; Sample, Hannah A; Wilson, Michael R; Naccache, Samia N; Arevalo, Shaun; Somasekar, Sneha; Federman, Scot; Stryke, Doug; Vespa, Paul; Schiller, Gary; Messenger, Sharon; Humphries, Romney; Miller, Steve; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States.

  9. Case-control study of genus-beta human papillomaviruses in plucked eyebrow hairs and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Gheit, Tarik; Pfister, Herbert; Giuliano, Anna R; Messina, Jane L; Fenske, Neil A; Cherpelis, Basil S; Sondak, Vernon K; Roetzheim, Richard G; Silling, Steffi; Pawlita, Michael; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been reported in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We conducted a clinic-based case-control study to investigate the association between genus-beta HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EBH) and SCC. EBH from 168 SCC cases and 290 controls were genotyped for genus-beta HPV DNA. SCC tumors from a subset of cases (n = 142) were also genotyped. Viral load was determined in a subset of specimens positive for a single HPV type. Associations with SCC were estimated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age and sex using logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. EBH DNA prevalence was greater in cases (87%) than controls (73%) (p genus-beta types tested, when accounting for DNA for the same HPV type in the tumor (ORs = 3.44-76.50). Compared to controls, the mean viral DNA load in EBH among the selected cases was greater for HPV5, HPV8 and HPV24, but lower for HPV38. SCC cases were more likely than controls to have HPV DNA+ EBH for single and multiple HPV types, providing additional support for the potential role of genus-beta HPV infections in SCC development. © 2013 UICC.

  10. Effect of filgrastim (recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor) on IgE responses in human asthma: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Joks, Rauno; Norowitz, Kevin B; Chice, Seto; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    The role of peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization on Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses has not been studied. Distributions of blood lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, CD8+CD60+, CD19+, CD23+, CD16/56+, CD25, CD45RA+, CD45RO+, CD34+), and levels of serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE) were studied in an allergic asthmatic serum IgE+ (181IU/mL) adult (m/45 y/o) donor undergoing routine stem cell mobilization protocol (American Society of Hematology) before (day-30), during (day 4), and after (1 wk post last dose) filgrastim (subcutaneous, 480 mcg, 2qd) treatment (flow cytometry, nephelometry, UniCAP Total IgE Fluoro enzyme immunoassay). On day 4 of filgrastim treatment, numbers of CD8+CD60+T cells and CD23+ blood cells dramatically increased (98% and 240% respectively) compared with pre treatment. In contrast on day 4 of treatment, serum IgE levels decreased (>50%) compared with pre treatment. CD8+CD60+T cells and CD23+ blood cells and serum IgE levels approached pre-treatment levels at 1 week post treatment. Filgrastim treatment transiently increases numbers of CD8+CD60+T and CD23+ expressing cells, which are known to regulate human IgE responses, while also transiently suppressing ongoing IgE responses. These results suggest that filgrastim affects IgE related responses, and may be useful in modulating allergic responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Human Case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a Child from Eastern Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

  12. Relationship between Human Papilloma Virus and Subungual Keratoacanthoma: Two Case Reports and the Outcomes of Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktay, Fatih; Kaynak, Emre; Güneş, Pembegül; Yaşar, Şirin; Küçükodacı, Zafer; Aytekin, Sema

    2017-01-01

    Subungual keratoacanthoma (SUKA) is a rare form of keratoacanthoma, with the majority of the lesions appearing as rapidly growing, painful hyperkeratotic masses located under the distal nail plate of the thumb. In some cases, SUKA causes damage to the underlying bone. The first case presented here was treated by surgical excision alone, and human papilloma virus (HPV) type 6 was detected in the tissue samples. The second case was treated by surgical excision plus curettage; however, HPV was not detected, and tumor cells were not found in the curettage material. There was near complete improvement in both the clinical appearance and the distal phalanx destruction, with no recurrence at the final follow-up in either patient (30 and 14 months, respectively). Overall, simple excision alone or in combination with curettage seemed to be sufficient in the treatment of SUKA; however, the etiopathogenetic role of HPV in SUKA remains controversial, as in its classical form.

  13. Cerebral gumma mimicking a brain tumor in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Woo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, and the cerebral gumma is a kind of neurosyphilis which is rare and can be cured by appropriate antibiotic treatments. However, in clinical practices, diagnosis of cerebral syphilitic gumma is often difficult because imaging and laboratory findings revealed elusive results. Herein, we present a rare case of neurosyphilis presenting as cerebral gumma confirmed by histopathological examination, and positive serologic and cerebrospinal fluid analyses. This case report suggests that cerebral gumma should be considered as possible diagnosis for human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with space-occupying lesion of the brain. And this case also provides importance of clinical suspicions in diagnosing neurosyphilis because syphilis serology is not routinely tested on patients with neurologic symptoms.

  14. Cerebral gumma mimicking a brain tumor in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Woo Jin [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Syphilis has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, and the cerebral gumma is a kind of neurosyphilis which is rare and can be cured by appropriate antibiotic treatments. However, in clinical practices, diagnosis of cerebral syphilitic gumma is often difficult because imaging and laboratory findings revealed elusive results. Herein, we present a rare case of neurosyphilis presenting as cerebral gumma confirmed by histopathological examination, and positive serologic and cerebrospinal fluid analyses. This case report suggests that cerebral gumma should be considered as possible diagnosis for human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with space-occupying lesion of the brain. And this case also provides importance of clinical suspicions in diagnosing neurosyphilis because syphilis serology is not routinely tested on patients with neurologic symptoms.

  15. Discussing Poverty as a Student Issue: Making a Case for Student Human Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Student poverty is an issue with which far too many students are confronted. Student affairs professionals must increase their awareness of this human dynamic and develop programs, services, and personal knowledge to support students faced with this challenge.

  16. The Role of Human Resources in Performance Management of SMEs: The Case of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Selajdin Abduli

    2013-01-01

    In enterprises, humans are identified as the main source which provides competitive advantage, whereas human resource management (HRM) should play the leading role as "locomotive" for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in order to reduce the challenges and problems they face. HRM functions, practices and procedures nowadays are very important and their role is continuously increasing if we consider an economy which relies ever more on knowledge. In this way, necessarily arises the need ...

  17. Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcázar, Javier

    2017-09-01

    A faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call "political minimalism," in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies.

  18. Human Capital as a Binding Constraint to Economic Growth: The Case of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to explore the assumption if the lack of skilled and well-educated workforces (human capital holds a potential of a binding constraint to economic growth of the Macedonian economy. Not neglecting growth econometrics’ insights for the investigation of the relationship between human capital and economic growth, the work is primarily based on a growth diagnostic approach. The empirical techniques used in this paper are: growth accounting decomposition production method; macro and micro assessment of the return rate on investment in human capital; and, comparative benchmark analysis concerns with regard to unemployment distribution according to education and age structure and companies’ perceptions about the quality of workforce. The estimated results indicate an important contribution of human capital to economic growth (its relative contribution in terms of growth rate composition is approximately 22 percent. The macro and micro assessment of the rate of return on investment in human capital shows that the rate of return to higher education is significantly superior to corresponding returns to secondary education. Finally, the international benchmark analysis helps in comparative human capital impact analysis (educational structure of labor force in the wider region. Predominantly, it is based on educational structure, unemployment distribution and the companies’ perception about the quality of the workforce.

  19. A framework for the integration of ecosystem and human health in public policy: two case studies with infectious agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, H.S.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Despite that a significant body of published literature exists in the complex area of interconnection among the environment, ecosystems, and human activity, relatively little attention has been paid to the integration and analysis of ecological and human health data in the form of a conceptual model. Human and ecological health protection generally have been treated as separate domains of policy, with significant differences in both the analytic methods used to characterize risks and the policies developed for risk reduction. Understanding the relationships among population growth, development, natural resource use, the environment, human health, and ecosystems is an important area of both scientific inquiry and environmental policy. The present paper focuses on the development of a conceptual model for understanding disease causation, particularly infectious disease, and the implications of such a model for public policy. The conceptual model incorporates ecological and human health risk assessment information applied to case studies of two infectious diseases. This article takes an initial step toward formalizing the conceptual model so that research and assessment procedures can be developed

  20. Relationship between Security and Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: A Case of Introducing Body Scanners in Civil Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prezelj Iztok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners. The paper’s results show that the concept of human security usefully integrates the care for human rights and security of individuals. The debate on the potential introduction of body scanners on the European airports was actually a debate on the ways of providing individual human security on the airports with simultaneous concern for other human rights. The output of this debate was a compromise: body scanners can be used at the discretion of individual airports and member states, but are not an obligatory measure on all European airports.

  1. Culturally Relevant Human Subjects Protection Training: A Case Study in Community-Engaged Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha

    2018-02-01

    Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.

  2. Perpetuated Human-Wildlife Wars: A Case Study of the Marauding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... cases of damage by elephants reported in media and frequent public demonstrations by small scale farmers adjacent ... The conflicts have a great negative impact on the community's welfare.

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  4. [Review of 1,172 clinical cases with human communication disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Díaz, M R; de Pustilnik, N F; Tortolero, Y

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised 1,172 clinical cases that were classified according to sex, age and speech disorders. A review is made on the most common alterations that they present, the selective treatment in each type and their rehabilitation.

  5. Sustainable Human Resource Management in Religiously Diverse Regions: The Podlasie Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mazur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability seems fundamental for companies operating worldwide. Human resources are acknowledged to be among the most valuable assets for them. Even though literature shows that Sustainable Human Resource Management is an upcoming topic there is still limited research on the concept due to its initial state. Prior literature reveals a lack in the consideration of systematic links between sustainability and HRM. The purpose of the study is to present the sociological approach to Sustainable Human Resource Management. The paper contributes to the literature linking sustainability to the issues researched in HRM literature. In the introduction it discusses how the notion of sustainability has emerged and developed. Then the sociological approach to Sustainable Human Resource Management is briefly depicted. Next, Diversity Management is presented as the manifestation of the social approach to Sustainable Human Resource Management. To illustrate this approach, the empirical research is presented. It has been conducted among 32 companies operating in Podlasie region (northeastern part of Poland. The research tried to uncover the companies’ knowledge and consciousness of cultural (religious diversity. It also aimed at finding out whether this diversity was seen as an advantage and taken opportunity of or rather neglected in the companies. The results show the reception of diversity among larger and smaller enterprises in the Podlasie region. In general, smaller companies tend to know the religion of the worker more often, and therefore are able to take advantage of it. The larger companies tend to treat faith as a personal matter.

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH- CASE STUDY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi Oluwabunmi Adejumo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the direction of causality between human capital and productivity growth in Nigeria, the study first investigated the pattern of productivity growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2010. Following the endogenous growth model, which argued that technical progress, through an effective labor force, could lead to long-run growth which can be determined from within an economy; but it actually depends on the efficiency with which resources available to such an economy are utilized. This is against the exogenous growth model which emphasized that long-run growth can be attained by some unexplained technological progress, which is exogenous to any economy. Based on this controversy in literature, this study empirically determined the productivity growth in Nigeria, as well as the causal relation between human capital development and productivity growth in Nigeria using the Engle-Granger causality test. The results revealed that productivity growth has been very low and unstable in Nigeria as it oscillated between -1.5% and 0.6%. In addition, the nexus between human capital and productivity growth was examined. The findings revealed that while productivity growth caused human capital development, human capital development did not cause productivity growth.

  7. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  8. Employee Self Service-based Human Resources Information System Development and Implementation. Case Study: BCP Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Margatama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources Information System is a Decision Support System that provides necessary information regarding human resources in an organization. Web-based e-HR is one of the best practical solution in human resources management that allows employees to focus more on their job instead of HR administration procedures. By implementing Employee Self Service (ESS it is expected that worker satisfaction can be improved and in turn will also improve employees’ performance. The web-based ESS is characterized by personalized information approach which offers personal and management services on information access and structured workflow process. The object covered in this research is HR administration of PT. BCP to create and implement ESS with system prototype development and UML modeling tool. The resulting system is designed to quickly access the information and company procedures to shorten the time for BCP’s employee administration and documentation

  9. Investigating important factors on empowering human resources: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Molaee Ghara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most precious assets for any organization and it is important to empower them as much as possible to create competitive advantage and to cope with rapid changes in organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study on one of food industries in province of Qom, Iran to determine important factors influencing empowering human resources. The proposed study uses factor analysis by choosing a sample of 380 people. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 and validates the overall questionnaire. Based on the results of this survey, there are three important factors including job related, personal related and organizational related issues. The study also uses Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests to rank the factors and the results demonstrate that organizational factor plays the most important role in empowering human resources followed by job related factors and personal factors.

  10. Dynamics Of Human Motion The Case Study of an Examination Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjo, Samuel; Ajayi, Oluwaseyi; Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Dansu, Emmanuel

    Human behaviour is difficult to characterize and generalize due to ITS complex nature. Advances in mathematical models have enabled human systems such as love interaction, alcohol abuse, admission problem to be described using models. This study investigates one of such problems, the dynamics of human motion in an examination hall with limited computer systems such that students write their examination in batches. The examination is characterized by time (t) allocated to each students and difficulty level (dl) associated with the examination. A stochastic model based on the difficulty level of the examination was developed for the prediction of student's motion around the examination hall. A good agreement was obtained between theoretical predictions and numerical simulation. The result obtained will help in better planning of examination session to maximize available resources. Furthermore, results obtained in the research can be extended to other areas such as banking hall, customer service points where available resources will be shared amongst many users.

  11. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The overall objective of treating human reliability in a probabilistic safety analysis is to ensure that the key human interactions of typical crews are accurately and systematically incorporated into the study in a traceable manner. An additional objective is to make the human reliability analysis (HRA) as realistic as possible, taking into account the emergency procedures, the man-machine interface, the focus of training process, and the knowledge and experience of the crews. Section 3 of the paper describes an overview of this analytical process which leads to three more detailed example problems described in Section 4. Section 5 discusses a peer review process. References are presented that are useful in performing HRAs. In addition appendices are provided for definitions, selected data and a generic list of performance shaping factors. 35 refs, figs and tabs

  12. Clinical and epidemiological features of human rabies cases in the Philippines: a review from 1987 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaano, Efren M; Scholand, Stephen J; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Belandres, Domingo B

    2011-07-01

    Rabies viral infection causes a fatal encephalomyelitis. In humans, classic features include hydrophobia, aerophobia, hypersalivation, agitation, and neurological symptoms. In the Philippines, canine rabies contributes to a significant burden of human disease. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1839 patients admitted to San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Philippines between 1987 and 2006, with a clinical diagnosis of rabies. We used the World Health Organization case definition for clinical rabies, which is defined by the presence of hydrophobia. Male patients outnumbered females by 2.2 to 1 and twice the number of adults were affected compared with children. Most patients were indigent. Dog bites occurred more than cat bites (97.1% vs. 2.9%) and most cases were caused by a single bite (86.2%), compared to multiple bites (8.7%). Bites to the face, head, and neck led to shorter incubation times, yet the incubation period varied, with most cases (42.7%) occurring in the bracket of 91-365 days post-exposure. Clinical symptoms included hydrophobia in all cases, as per our case definition, and aerophobia in 95.5%; only 9.4% had fever, 9.2% exhibited restlessness, and 6.7% exhibited hypersalivation. Localized neurological symptoms included pain (4.1%), numbness (2.6%), and itching (2.3%). None of the patients received appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). This study examines the largest cohort of rabies patients reported to-date. Better understanding of clinical disease manifestations may help in salvage efforts to save patients with rabies. Knowledge of epidemiological factors will improve preventative efforts to reduce suffering from rabies. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, Thomas P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  14. Bioethical ambition, political opportunity and the European governance of patenting: the case of human embryonic stem cell science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in chemical analysis--a case study of ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca; Epstein, Malka; Fajgelj, Ales; Ellison, Stephen L R

    2014-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in a chemical analysis was used for determination of distributions of the error quantification scores (scores of likelihood and severity, and scores of effectiveness of a laboratory quality system in prevention of the errors). The simulation was based on modeling of an expert behavior: confident, reasonably doubting and irresolute expert judgments were taken into account by means of different probability mass functions (pmfs). As a case study, 36 scenarios of human errors which may occur in elemental analysis of geological samples by ICP-MS were examined. Characteristics of the score distributions for three pmfs of an expert behavior were compared. Variability of the scores, as standard deviation of the simulated score values from the distribution mean, was used for assessment of the score robustness. A range of the score values, calculated directly from elicited data and simulated by a Monte Carlo method for different pmfs, was also discussed from the robustness point of view. It was shown that robustness of the scores, obtained in the case study, can be assessed as satisfactory for the quality risk management and improvement of a laboratory quality system against human errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence...... sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which...

  17. Measuring human betterment through avoidable mortality: a case for universal health care in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisnanick, J J; Coddington, D A

    1995-10-01

    The USA system of health care has begun a monumental change that will affect everyone, irrespective of their socioeconomic status, professional status or pre-existing health insurance status. Whatever type of plan is finally implemented through the legislative process, there will need to be a way to evaluate its success (or failure). One way to evaluate the plan's effectiveness is through its impact on human betterment as viewed by a reduction in 'avoidable mortality' for those most in need of health care; the poor and uninsured. For one USA minority population, universal health care has improved human betterment by reducing avoidable mortality, even in the face of a severe burden of poverty.

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  19. Insights into horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo from a human case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Margaret; Bance, Manohar

    2013-12-01

    For horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, determination of the pathologic side is difficult and based on many physiological assumptions. This article reports findings on a patient who had one dysfunctional inner ear and who presented with horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, giving us a relatively pure model for observing nystagmus arising in a subject in whom the affected side is known a priori. It is an interesting human model corroborating theories of nystagmus generation in this pathology and also serves to validate Ewald's second law in a living human subject. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A COMPETITIVE STRATEGY: THE CASE OF HUMAN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castro Murillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human Company, a 100% Costa Rican business, through its brand Eco Sunrise has achieved to produce biodegradable goods under a socially responsible approach. This paper is aimed at evaluating how these practices influence the Company’s competitiveness levels using the PRISMA method and the CINBAGE matrix. Therefore, the general objective is to determine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a competitive strategy for Human Company, for which the Company must identify advantages and obstacles faced by SMEs in regards to CSR, evaluate each of the areas comprising the Company’s CSR, quantify the Company´s competitiveness, and determine how CSR influences competitiveness.

  1. The case for applying tissue engineering methodologies to instruct human organoid morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Figueroa, Carlos R; Ashton, Randolph S

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i.e. 100's of microns to millimeters), the organoids' morphology, cytoarchitecture, and cellular composition are non-biomimetic and variable. The current lack of control over in vitro organoid morphogenesis at the microscale induces aberrations at the macroscale, which impedes realization of the technology's potential to reproducibly form anatomically correct human tissue units that could serve as optimal human in vitro models and even transplants. Here, we review tissue engineering methodologies that could be used to develop powerful approaches for instructing multiscale, 3-D human organoid morphogenesis. Such technological mergers are critically needed to harness organoid morphogenesis as a tool for engineering functional human tissues with biomimetic anatomy and physiology. Human PSC-derived 3-D organoids are revolutionizing the biomedical sciences. They enable the study of development and disease within patient-specific genetic backgrounds and unprecedented biomimetic tissue microenvironments. However, their uncontrolled, spontaneous morphogenesis at the microscale yields inconsistences in macroscale organoid morphology, cytoarchitecture, and cellular composition that limits their standardization and application. Integration of tissue engineering methods with organoid derivation protocols could allow us to harness their potential by instructing standardized in vitro morphogenesis

  2. Coverage of Megaprosthesis with Human Acellular Dermal Matrix after Ewing's Sarcoma Resection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Whitfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female with Ewing's Sarcoma underwent tibial resection and skeletal reconstruction using proximal tibial allograft prosthetic reconstruction with distal femur endoprosthetic reconstruction and rotating hinge. Human acellular dermal matrix, (Alloderm, LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ, USA, was used to wrap the skeletal reconstruction. Soft tissue reconstruction was completed with a rotational gastrocnemius muscle flap and skin graft. Despite prolonged immobilization, the patient quickly regained full range of motion of her skeletal reconstruction. Synthetic mesh, tapes and tubes are used to perform capsule reconstruction of megaprosthesis. This paper describes the role of human acellular dermal matrix in capsule reconstruction around a megaprosthesis.

  3. Ecosystem and human health assessment to define environmental management strategies: The case of long-term human impacts on an Arctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, T I; Voinov, A A; Megorsky, V V; Gashkina, N A; Kudriavtseva, L P; Vandish, O I; Sharov, A N; Sharova, Yu; Koroleva, I N

    2006-10-01

    There are rich deposits of mineral and fossil natural resources in the Arctic, which make this region very attractive for extracting industries. Their operations have immediate and vast consequences for ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable in this region. We are developing a management strategy for Arctic watersheds impacted by industrial production. The case study is Lake Imandra watershed (Murmansk oblast, Russia) that has exceptionally high levels of economic development and large numbers of people living there. We track the impacts of toxic pollution on ecosystem health and then--human health. Three periods are identified: (a) natural, pre-industrial state; (b) disturbed, under rapid economic development; and (c) partial recovery, during recent economic meltdown. The ecosystem is shown to transform into a qualitatively new state, which is still different from the original natural state, even after toxic loadings have substantially decreased. Fish disease where analyzed to produce and integral evaluation of ecosystem health. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish is correlated with etiology of many diseases. Dose-effect relationships are between integral water quality indices and ecosystem health indicators clearly demonstrates that existing water quality standards adopted in Russia are inadequate for Arctic regions. Health was also poor for people drinking water from the Lake. Transport of heavy metals from drinking water, into human organs, and their effect on liver and kidney diseases shows the close connection between ecosystem and human health. A management system is outlined that is based on feedback from indices of ecosystem and human health and control over economic production and/or the amount of toxic loading produced. We argue that prospects for implementation of such a system are quite bleak at this time, and that more likely we will see a continued depopulation of these Northern regions.

  4. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Vered

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU. Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470. Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410. HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391. Before diagnosis (baseline, the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05, however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001. Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001. Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001, 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001, 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001 and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001. We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  5. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  6. Human Rights Education in Social Studies in the Netherlands: A Case Study Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    Citizenship education is one of the main aims of the mandated subject of social studies in secondary schools in the Netherlands. Moreover, the learning outcomes of social studies refer to constitutional rights. Internationally, citizenship education and human rights education are considered to be mutually reinforcing. One may, thus, expect that…

  7. Human resource management and performance in a developing country : the case of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Luchien; Ghebregiorgis, F.

    This study investigates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance. Results based on a sample of 82 organizations from private and public sectors in Eritrea indicate that some of the practices have a significant impact on employee turnover,

  8. Analyzing risks to protected areas using the human modification framework: a Colorado case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Theobald; Alisa Wade; Grant Wilcox; Nate. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    A framework that organizes natural and protected areas is often used to help understand the potential risks to natural areas and aspects of their ecological and human dimensions. The spatial (or landscape) context of these dynamics is also a critical, but, rarely considered, factor. Common classification systems include the U.S. Geological (USGS) Gap Analysis Program...

  9. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species:the case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu Li; Quan Dong; Thomas Albright; Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and...

  10. Human Error Analysis in a Permit to Work System: A Case Study in a Chemical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The SPAR-H method applied in this study could analyze and quantify the potential human errors and extract the required measures for reducing the error probabilities in PTW system. Some suggestions to reduce the likelihood of errors, especially in the field of modifying the performance shaping factors and dependencies among tasks are provided.

  11. Provincial human development index, a guide for efficiency level analysis: the case of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabermahani, Asma; Barouni, Mohsen; Seyedin, Hesam; Aryankhesal, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite indicator that can show the impact of economic strategies on human life standards. The index is calculated by three main factors of income, education and health. This research studies the status of HDI across the Iranian provinces, its changes over time and the efficiency of provinces in using resources. The data for 2001 and 2009 was obtained from the Iranian Center of Statistics. Data envelopment analysis technique was used to analyze the data. To calculate the efficiency, Banker, Charnes and Cooper's model was used. The national mean for the HDI in 2001 was 0.717 while it grew to 0.747 in 2009. Except for one province, all others had an improved human development index. Low ranked provinces such as Sistan & Baluchistan and Kurdistan stayed at the bottom in 2009 as well. Some provinces such as Bushehr with developing oil industries, or those purposively benefited from national oil income showed good growth. In some provinces, such as Hormozgan, out-migration of manpower to its neighboring province, Bushehr, was associated with decrease of the provincial income level. The number of efficient provinces increased from 5 to 13 in 2009. Iran falls among countries with high human development index based on the 2009 data. However, the distribution of HDI status across provinces was highly varied and the difference between high- and low-developed provinces increased in 2009. The government needs to revise policies concerning distribution of resources among the provinces.

  12. Dirofilaria repens: emergence of autochthonous human infections in the Czech Republic (case reports)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Chanová, M.; Modrý, David; Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Žampachová, V.; Kolářová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 19 (2016), č. článku 171. ISSN 1471-2334 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dirofilaria repens * Human dirofilariasis * Emerging disease * Autochthonous diseases in Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.768, year: 2016

  13. ERP Human Enhancement Progress Report : Use case and computational model for adaptive maritime automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Broek, J. van den; Brake, G.M. te; Rypkema, J.A.; Schilder, C.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Automation is often applied in order to increase the cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of maritime ship and offshore operations. Automation of operator tasks, has not, however, eliminated human error so much as created opportunities for new kinds of error. The ambition of the Adaptive

  14. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy in Crohn's Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-02-29

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, mainly the colon and ileum, related with ulcers and fistulae. It is estimated to affect 565,000 people in the United States. Currently available therapies, such as antibiotics, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents, are only observed to reduce the complications associated with Crohn's disease and to improve quality of life, but cannot cure the disease. Stem cell therapy appears to have certain advantages over conventional therapies. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of human embryonic stem cell therapy in a patient with Crohn's disease. A 21-year-old male with chief complaints of intolerance to specific foods, abdominal pain, and diarrhea underwent human embryonic stem cell therapy for two months. After undergoing human embryonic stem cell therapy, the patient showed symptomatic relief. He had no complaints of back pain, abdominal pain, or diarrhea and had improved digestion. The patient had no signs and symptoms of skin infection, and had improved limb stamina, strength, and endurance. The condition of patient was stable after the therapy. Human embryonic stem cell therapy might serve as a new optimistic treatment approach for Crohn's disease.

  15. Uncovering stable and occasional human mobility patterns: A case study of the Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Nuo; Ni, Shunjiang; Shen, Shifei; Chen, Peng; Ji, Xuewei

    2018-02-01

    There have generally been two kinds of approaches to the empirical study of human mobility. At the group level, some valuable information might be submerged in statistical noise, while due to the diversity of individual purpose and preference, there is still no general statistical regularity of human mobility at the individual level. In this paper, we considered group-level human mobility as the combination of several basic patterns and analyzed the collective mobility by category. Utilizing matrix factorization and correlation analysis, we extracted some of the stable/occasional components from the collective human mobility in the Beijing subway and found that the departure and arrival mobility patterns have different characteristics, both in time and space, under various conditions. We classified individual records into different patterns and analyzed the most likely trip distance by category. The proposed method can decompose stable/occasional mobility patterns from the collective mobility and identify passengers belonging to different patterns, helping us to better understand the origin of different mobility patterns and provide guidance for emergency management of large crowds.

  16. Human Resource Management Practice and Organizational Performance: Case Study from Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu-Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Mohamud Dahie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of recruitment and selection on organizational performance, to examine the role of compensation and reward on organizational performance as well as the effect of performance appraisal management on organizational performance at Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu-Somalia. The researcher utilized convenient sampling to collect 100 questionnaires from Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu, Somalia. These respondents were provided a questionnaire with four main construct which measuring recruitment and selection, compensation and reward, performance appraisal management and organizational performance. However, using correlation coefficient, the study found that organizational performance (Dependent variable had significant positive influence with three dimensions of independent variable. The result of regression analysis found that three constructs had statistically significant, positive, and straight effects with organizational performance.

  17. Human Resource Development in the Irish Hotel Industry: The Case of the Small Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Clara

    2002-01-01

    A profile of small businesses in the Irish hotel industry shows that all claim to believe in human resource development but few practice it. Small hotels favor informal, specific job training focused on solution of immediate problems rather than long-term development. (Contains 119 references.) (SK)

  18. Building Human Resources Management Capacity for University Research: The Case at Four Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    At research-intensive universities, building human resources management (HRM) capacity has become a key approach to enhancing a university's research performance. However, despite aspiring to become a research-intensive university, many teaching-intensive universities in developing countries may not have created effective research-promoted HRM…

  19. Leishmaniasis in northern Cyprus: Human cases and their association with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruh, Emrah; Bostanci, Aysegul; Kunter, Vasfiye; Tosun, Ozgur; Imir, Turgut; Schallig, Henk; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cyprus is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Region where leishmaniasis is endemic. The primary objective of this study was to investigate human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the northern region of Cyprus where presence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and

  20. ePortfolios in the Workplace for Human Capital Management: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This study researches whether the ePortfolio is a suitable instrument for human capital management in the business environment. The implementation of ePortfolio systems in five different organizations is analyzed. It considers whether ePortfolio implementations were successful, and relevant critical success factors were identified. For the latter…

  1. Human Security in the Context of Sudan's State Crisis: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lost more than 5 million citizens in civil wars. A violent confl ict erupted in 2003, with more than 250 000 civilians killed and more than 2 million people displaced. This article traces and examines the genesis and magnitude of human security challenges in the Darfur region of the Sudan. Africa Insight Vol. 37 (4) 2008 pp.

  2. Teaching Human Values in Pharmacy Education: Case Studies from the Classroom and the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    It is proposed that literature can contribute to the teaching of human values in pharmaceutical education. Two texts illustrating pertinent issues are examined, and the process and relevance of literature instruction in humanistic education are discussed. Where, when, and why to integrate literature into the pharmacy curriculum are also addressed.…

  3. Human Resource Development to Facilitate Experiential Learning: The Case of Yahoo Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Although work experiences are recognized as important mechanisms for developing leaders in organizations, existing research has focused primarily on work assignments rather than on human resource development (HRD) systems that promote experiential learning of managers. The primary goal of this study was to develop an HRD model for facilitating…

  4. Current trend of annotating single nucleotide variation in humans--A case study on SNVrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen

    2015-06-01

    As high throughput methods, such as whole genome genotyping arrays, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), have detected huge amounts of genetic variants associated with human diseases, function annotation of these variants is an indispensable step in understanding disease etiology. Large-scale functional genomics projects, such as The ENCODE Project and Roadmap Epigenomics Project, provide genome-wide profiling of functional elements across different human cell types and tissues. With the urgent demands for identification of disease-causal variants, comprehensive and easy-to-use annotation tool is highly in demand. Here we review and discuss current progress and trend of the variant annotation field. Furthermore, we introduce a comprehensive web portal for annotating human genetic variants. We use gene-based features and the latest functional genomics datasets to annotate single nucleotide variation (SNVs) in human, at whole genome scale. We further apply several function prediction algorithms to annotate SNVs that might affect different biological processes, including transcriptional gene regulation, alternative splicing, post-transcriptional regulation, translation and post-translational modifications. The SNVrap web portal is freely available at http://jjwanglab.org/snvrap. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The dynamics of big data and human rights: the case of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayena, Effy; Tasioulas, John

    2016-12-28

    In this paper, we address the complex relationship between big data and human rights. Because this is a vast terrain, we restrict our focus in two main ways. First, we concentrate on big data applications in scientific research, mostly health-related research. And, second, we concentrate on two human rights: the familiar right to privacy and the less well-known right to science. Our contention is that human rights interact in potentially complex ways with big data, not only constraining it, but also enabling it in various ways; and that such rights are dynamic in character, rather than fixed once and for all, changing in their implications over time in line with changes in the context we inhabit, and also as they interact among themselves in jointly responding to the opportunities and risks thrown up by a changing world. Understanding this dynamic interaction of human rights is crucial for formulating an ethic tailored to the realities-the new capabilities and risks-of the rapidly evolving digital environment.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Attentional Bias in Human Category Learning: The Case of Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Catherine; Caglar, Leyla Roskan; Hanson, Stephen José

    2018-01-01

    Category learning performance is influenced by both the nature of the category's structure and the way category features are processed during learning. Shepard (1964, 1987) showed that stimuli can have structures with features that are statistically uncorrelated (separable) or statistically correlated (integral) within categories. Humans find it much easier to learn categories having separable features, especially when attention to only a subset of relevant features is required, and harder to learn categories having integral features, which require consideration of all of the available features and integration of all the relevant category features satisfying the category rule (Garner, 1974). In contrast to humans, a single hidden layer backpropagation (BP) neural network has been shown to learn both separable and integral categories equally easily, independent of the category rule (Kruschke, 1993). This "failure" to replicate human category performance appeared to be strong evidence that connectionist networks were incapable of modeling human attentional bias. We tested the presumed limitations of attentional bias in networks in two ways: (1) by having networks learn categories with exemplars that have high feature complexity in contrast to the low dimensional stimuli previously used, and (2) by investigating whether a Deep Learning (DL) network, which has demonstrated humanlike performance in many different kinds of tasks (language translation, autonomous driving, etc.), would display human-like attentional bias during category learning. We were able to show a number of interesting results. First, we replicated the failure of BP to differentially process integral and separable category structures when low dimensional stimuli are used (Garner, 1974; Kruschke, 1993). Second, we show that using the same low dimensional stimuli, Deep Learning (DL), unlike BP but similar to humans, learns separable category structures more quickly than integral category structures

  7. Attentional Bias in Human Category Learning: The Case of Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hanson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Category learning performance is influenced by both the nature of the category's structure and the way category features are processed during learning. Shepard (1964, 1987 showed that stimuli can have structures with features that are statistically uncorrelated (separable or statistically correlated (integral within categories. Humans find it much easier to learn categories having separable features, especially when attention to only a subset of relevant features is required, and harder to learn categories having integral features, which require consideration of all of the available features and integration of all the relevant category features satisfying the category rule (Garner, 1974. In contrast to humans, a single hidden layer backpropagation (BP neural network has been shown to learn both separable and integral categories equally easily, independent of the category rule (Kruschke, 1993. This “failure” to replicate human category performance appeared to be strong evidence that connectionist networks were incapable of modeling human attentional bias. We tested the presumed limitations of attentional bias in networks in two ways: (1 by having networks learn categories with exemplars that have high feature complexity in contrast to the low dimensional stimuli previously used, and (2 by investigating whether a Deep Learning (DL network, which has demonstrated humanlike performance in many different kinds of tasks (language translation, autonomous driving, etc., would display human-like attentional bias during category learning. We were able to show a number of interesting results. First, we replicated the failure of BP to differentially process integral and separable category structures when low dimensional stimuli are used (Garner, 1974; Kruschke, 1993. Second, we show that using the same low dimensional stimuli, Deep Learning (DL, unlike BP but similar to humans, learns separable category structures more quickly than integral category

  8. Congenital papillomas and papillomatoses associated with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV: report on 5 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra Dias

    Full Text Available The authors present a study of five cases of vulvar congenital papillomas and papillomatoses in stillborns and neonates dead upon birth. The studied material was collected from five necropsies. The histopathological evaluation showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis, perinuclear haloes, and nuclear abnormalities. In three of the cases, the electron microscopy identified nuclear and cytoplasmatic viral particles ranging from 40 to 60 nm in size, compatible with HPV. The immunohistochemical study of those lesions showed nuclear and cytoplasmatic positivity. The authors concluded that the presence of viral particles suggestive of HPV added to the immunopositivity indicated the possibility of viral infection.

  9. Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) with Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Human Papillomavirus 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Mary A; Gordon, Katie; Firan, Miahil; Rady, Peter; Agim, Nnenna

    2016-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is an uncommon benign proliferation of oral mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly subtypes 13 and 32. The disease typically presents in young Native American patients and is characterized by multiple asymptomatic papules and nodules on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, and gingiva. The factors that determine susceptibility to FEH are unknown, but the ethnic and geographic distribution of FEH suggests that genetic predisposition, particularly having the human lymphocytic antigen DR4 type, may be involved in pathogenesis. We report a case of FEH with polymerase chain reaction detection of HPV13 in a healthy 11-year-old Hispanic girl and discuss the current understanding of disease pathogenesis, susceptibility, and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  11. The analysis of human error as causes in the maintenance of machines: a case study in mining companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacevic, Srdja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the two-step method used to analyse the factors and aspects influencing human error during the maintenance of mining machines. The first step is the cause-effect analysis, supported by brainstorming, where five factors and 21 aspects are identified. During the second step, the group fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to rank the identified factors and aspects. A case study is done on mining companies in Serbia. The key aspects are ranked according to an analysis that included experts who assess risks in mining companies (a maintenance engineer, a technologist, an ergonomist, a psychologist, and an organisational scientist. Failure to follow technical maintenance instructions, poor organisation of the training process, inadequate diagnostic equipment, and a lack of understanding of the work process are identified as the most important causes of human error.

  12. Integrating toxicogenomics into human health risk assessment: lessons learned from the benzo[a]pyrene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Moffat, Ivy D; Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K; Lemieux, France; Malik, Amal I; Halappanavar, Sabina; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper ( Moffat et al. 2014 ), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA.

  13. [Report of cases of human fascioliosis in the Specialized Children's Health Institute, Lima, Peru (1988'-2003)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis A; Maco, Vicente; Castillo, Maria; Terashima, Angélica; Zerpa, Rito; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Human fascioliosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in Peru, due to the high prevalence rates reported in the last few years, mainly in the Andean Trapeze. The most affected group is that of children and the clinical manifestations of the disease can be very varied. In this study we reported seven cases of human fascioliosis diagnosed in the Specialized Children's Health Institute (IESN) Lima, Peru, between 1988 and 2003. From 168 medical histories checked with the final diagnosis of parasitosis, 7 children (2 boys and 5 girls), between 2 and 14 years (average +/- DS: 8.52 +/- 1.43) were diagnosed with fascioliosis by a parasitic and/or serological examinations. Six of the seven cases came from cattle raising areas such as: Cajamarca, Ancash, Huancavelica and Junín. The most frequent clinical signs were prolonged fever (up to 42 days), hepatomegaly, moderate abdominal pain (right hypochondriac region and epigastrium), eosinophils count (between 132 and 8321/mm > or =), anemia (hematocrit up to 15%), jaundice and hypergammaglobulinemia. In some cases the diagnosis was difficult to reach with a delay between 1 and 24 weeks. It should be pointed out that one of these patients had hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed by anatomopathological investigations. Finally, we propose that in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas of animal fasciolosis who have prolonged fever, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly, should be considered suspicious and the infection of eliminated, to avoid hepatic damage caused by this parasite. We conclude that human fascioliosis must not be under-estimated as a secondary parasitic disease in patients coming from endemic areas in Peru.

  14. First case of Chlorella wound infection in a human in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old man developed an infected knee wound 2 days after jumping his bicycle into a freshwater dam. He required repeated debridement and tissue grew bright green colonies typical of the alga Chlorella plus Aeromonas hydrophila. This, and one previously reported case, responded to surgical debridement and careful wound management.

  15. Bioethics Cases and Issues: Enrichment for Social Science, Humanities, and Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Ruth Levy; Dillon, Mary Lou; Anderson, Linda; Szobota, Lola

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of bioethics and bioethical dilemmas in different subject areas at the high school level by focusing on the case of Baby K. Includes the story of Baby K, classroom activities for U.S. history, 10th and 11th grade ethics, and anatomy and physiology. (CMK)

  16. DNA fingerprinting: a quality control case study for human biospecimen authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofanova, Olga A; Mathieson, William; Thomas, Gerry A; Betsou, Fotini

    2014-04-01

    This case study illustrates the usefulness of the DNA fingerprinting method in biobank quality control (QC) procedures and emphasizes the need for detailed and accurate record keeping during processing of biological samples. It also underlines the value of independent third-party assessment to identify points at which errors are most likely to have occurred when unexpected results are obtained from biospecimens.

  17. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argy, Nicolas; Sabou, Marcela; Billing, Alain; Hermsdorff, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region), in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens. PMID:21461355

  18. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Argy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region, in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens.

  19. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  20. Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Associated with Human Papilloma Virus Type 14 in a Small Bowel Transplanted Child--A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Derek; Tacastacas, Joselin; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen K; Cooper, Kevin; Honda, Kord

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old African American girl taking sirolimus and tacrolimus for a small bowel transplantation presented with hypopigmented macules and papules throughout her trunk. A biopsy diagnosed epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) that was found to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 14 according to polymerase chain reaction analysis. There are few cases of acquired EV in the setting of organ transplantation. Although there is no standardized treatment for acquired EV, prevention and surveillance for transformation to squamous cell carcinoma are primary concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  2. First report of a human case of polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from neotropical area of Peru, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somocurcio, José R; Sánchez, Elizabeth L; Náquira, César; Schilder, José; Rojas, Francisco; Chacón, Pedro; Yabar, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    We report a human case of polycystic hidatidosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from Contamana (Department of Loreto) village located in the central jungle of Peru. The patient is a 44 year-old lady, teacher, who carried a painless liver mass since a year ago. She was submitted to abdominal surgery and the liver mass was removed and showed multiple cysts containing colorless liquid as is showed in the polycystic hidatidosis. The morphology and measure of the hooks obtained from the liquid contained in the cysts are from Echinococcus vogeli. It is the first report of this parasitism in Perú.

  3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING BUSINESS PERFORMANCE WITH LEAN MANUFACTURING AND SUCCESSFUL HUMAN FACTORS INTERVENTIONS-A CASE STUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sharm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations compete between themselves in various categories such as faster delivery, price tags, state of art - technology and higher quality dimensio ns. A Conceptual framework with lean manufacturing and hum an factors interventions for improving business performance in terms of improved quality, reduced cost and faster de livery is presented and example s from literature are given to illustrate the desir ed situation in which ergonomics is considered as an integrated part of performance strategy . A case from an industry engaged in manufacturing shafts using lean manufacturing practices with successful ergonomic or human factors interventions is also inves tigated.

  4. Time since death and decomposition of the human body: variables and observations in case and experimental field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R W; Bass, W M; Meadows, L

    1990-01-01

    Much of the difficulty in determining the time since death stems from the lack of systematic observation and research on the decomposition rate of the human body. Continuing studies conducted at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, provide useful information on the impact of carrion insect activity, ambient temperature, rainfall, clothing, burial and depth, carnivores, bodily trauma, body weight, and the surface with which the body is in contact. This paper reports findings and observations accumulated during eight years of research and case studies that may clarify some of the questions concerning bodily decay.

  5. Inclusive human machine interaction for India a case study of developing inclusive applications for the Indian population

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancement of interactive technologies during the past two decades has made access to information easier though at the expense of a clear digital divide. There is a generation who grew up with these technologies and another generation who find many modern electronic systems counter intuitive and have no use for them in their daily life. This digital divide becomes more prominent in developing countries as state-of-the-art interactive systems were not and are still not affordable to a large number of users.Inclusive Human Machine Interaction for India presents an end-to-end case study of

  6. Clinical Significance of Human Metapneumovirus in Refractory Status Epilepticus and Encephalitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Vehapoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis is a complex neurological disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and the etiology of the disease is often not identified. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. Few reports are available showing possible involvement of hMPV in development of neurologic complications. Here, we describe an infant, the youngest case in literature, with refractory status epilepticus and severe encephalitis in whom hMPV was detected in respiratory samples and review diagnostic workup of patient with encephalitis.

  7. Epidemiological investigation of the first human brucellosis case in Spain due to Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao Bescós, Joaquín; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Muñoz Álvaro, Pilar María; Blasco Martínez, José María; Villuendas Usón, María Cruz

    2017-03-01

    No cases of human brucellosis caused by Brucella suis has been reported in Spain. This study involved interviews with the case and his co-workers, inspection of their workplace, checking infection control measures, and typing the Brucella strain isolated in the blood culture. Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330 was isolated from a patient who worked in a waste treatment plant. Food borne transmission, contact with animals, and risk jobs were ruled out. An accidental inoculation with a contaminated needle from a research laboratory waste container was identified as the most probable mode of transmission. There should be controls to ensure that waste containers are sealed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Kant's 'formula of humanity' and assisted reproductive technology: a case for duties to future children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The paper asks the question whether Kant's ethical theory can be applied to issues in assisted reproductive technology (ART). It argues against three objections to applying Kant's ethics to ART: (i) the non-identity objection, (ii) the gen-ethics objection, and (iii) the care-ethics objection. After showing that neither of the three objections is sufficiently persuasive the paper proposes a reading of Kant's 'formula of humanity,' and especially its negative clause (i.e., the 'merely as means' clause), that can be of some guidance in ART. The paper conclude that although Kant's 'formula of humanity' cannot be used as a simple litmus test for determining whether an ART practice is morally permissible or not, it nonetheless can supply us with some guidance in our moral deliberation.

  9. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Equality in Distribution of Human Resources: the Case of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, H; Hassani, A; Kashkalani, T; Khalilnejad, R; Chimeh, E Ehsani

    2013-01-01

    Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The fair allocation of human resources is one of the dimensions of equity, which was evaluated in this study. We evaluated the equity of human resources' distribution among Iran's medical science universities between 2005 and 2009 by inequality measures including Lorenze curve, Gini coefficient and Rabin hood indexes. In the distribution 60403 recruitment licenses among medical universities with 72456140 covered populations, Gini coefficient was 0.167 and Robin Hood Index 0.11. Calculations indicated Recruitment licenses are equitably distributed in MOH&ME of Iran. However a portion of recruitment licenses should redistributed for achieving perfect equal distribution among all public medical universities of Iran.

  11. Evaluation of Human Resource Needs for a New Nuclear Power Plant: Armenian Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    Rising expectations of an increased role for nuclear power in providing energy for future national and global sustainable development have become a reality in many Member States of the IAEA. Over the last several years, dozens of Member States have announced plans to embark on or expand nuclear power programmes. Reflecting on these developments, the IAEA has adjusted its priorities to focus more on the nuclear power programmes of newcomers. Specifically, the IAEA has produced publications providing guidance on the development of a national infrastructure for nuclear power (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1) and on managing human resources in the field of nuclear energy (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-2.1). Additionally, assistance to eligible Member States through new technical cooperation (TC) projects has been increased, including direct support through on-site assist visits. In 2007-2008, the IAEA carried out a TC project titled 'Feasibility study of nuclear energy development in Armenia: Evaluation of human resource needs in conjunction with new NPP build' (ARM-005). The project analysed the human resource demands required to support work at all stages of the life cycle of a new power unit planned for Armenia. This included drafting proposals for the means, conditions and requirements for development of human resource capabilities needed to carry out the work. This report is intended to complement the previous IAEA publications by providing an in-depth technical consideration into this critical area of human resource development. The report summarizes major findings of the TC project and details the tasks linked to management of the human resources that will be required by a country planning to build a new NPP. Additional guidance on the development of a national nuclear infrastructure can be found in the IAEA publication 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power', IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1. The

  12. First case of human infection by Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii in Brazil Primeiro caso de infecção humana por Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Lopes

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first case of human infection caused by Ttrichophyton vanbreuseghemii in Brazil.É relatado o primeiro caso de infecção humana por Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii no Brasil.

  13. Coordination activities of human planners during rescheduling: Case analysis and event handling procedure

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses the process of event handling and rescheduling in manufacturing practice. Firms are confronted with many diverse events, like new or changed orders, machine breakdowns, and material shortages. These events influence the feasibility and optimality of schedules, and thus induce rescheduling. In many manufacturing firms, schedules are created by several human planners. Coordination between them is needed to respond to events adequately. In this paper,...

  14. Human Dipylidiasis: A Case Report of Dipylidium caninum Infection from Karimnagar

    OpenAIRE

    KV Ramana; Sanjeev D Rao; Ratna Rao; SK Mohanty; CG Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum also refered to as the double-pored tapeworm is a cyclophyllidean cestode that commonly infects dogs and cats. Mammals act as definite hosts with intermediate hosts being dog and cat flea, the Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides catis respectively. The dog lice, Trichodectes canis and human flea (Pulex irritans) also transmit Dipylidium caninum infection. Infants and young children are at high risk of acquiring infection. Majority of the infections are due to close as...

  15. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from ‘popular’ forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in ‘medical gothic’ fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's ‘Good Lady Ducayne’ (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. PMID:28495908

  16. EMBRACING GREEN TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION THROUGH STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A CASE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Reihaneh Montazeri Shatouri; Rosmini Omar; Kunio Igusa; de São Pedro Filho Flávio

    2013-01-01

    What makes a technological innovation successful for an industry? This study examines how green technology innovation is impacted by strategic management of the human resource in firms. The value of this study lies in its intention to explain the needs to effectively blend people matters first before endeavouring technologies. We focus on Malaysiaâs leading automobile manufacturer, Proton which currently embarks on smart green initiatives in its product development. The quantitative survey id...

  17. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    The Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity (Columbia County Habitat) affiliate has been experimenting with high-performance building since 2012, starting with ENERGY STAR® Certified Homes. In 2013, they constructed their first homes aimed at the Passive House standards. Building off of this effort, in 2014 they began work on a second set of Passive Townhomes in Hudson, New York, in partnership with the Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Building America team and BarlisWedlick Architects.

  18. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from 'popular' forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in 'medical gothic' fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's 'Good Lady Ducayne' (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Human Resource Antecedents and Generation Y’s Job Motivation: A Case Study on Malaysian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Pui, Chien Ying

    2014-01-01

    With the on-going war for talent and the retirement of the Baby Boomers, there is an increasing interest shown towards the newest entrant to the workplace; the Generation Ys (Gen Ys). Gen Ys are said to differ significantly from previous generations and have distinct characteristics, expectations and motivational needs. It has been reported that Gen Ys have high expectations and favour working for large organisations over Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Existing Human Resource (HR) pract...

  20. Give Design a Chance: A Case for a Human Centered Approach to Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    shortcoming, organizational theorist Jamshid Gharajedaghi suggested, “design is a vehicle for enhancement of choice and holistic thinking ” that goes beyond...To address this question and confront assumptions and current methods of thinking , there is a need for a holistic and human centered approach in...MDMP). This monograph proposes a way of thinking and planning that goes beyond current Army doctrinal methodologies to address the changing

  1. Designing a Model for Knowledge Socialization Using Sociability Processes of Human Resource Management: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, K.; Babaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a model for knowledge socialization using sociability processes of human resources through an applied research approach. Two types of participants participated in this study. The first type included academic and industrial experts; the second type included employees and managers of Ansar Bank. Ten experts were asked to identify criteria and weigh the identified criteria. Using simple random sampling, the sample size was estimated at 207. Field and archival studies were use...

  2. Networking and cultural differences in Human Resource Management: The Case of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Altynbekov, Mardan

    2014-01-01

    The new emerging markets are becoming significant players in global market in recent decade. This study follows current pace in employing institutional theory to explore the specific pressures and factors makes networking essential in Human Resource Management in different countries. The study is a detailed qualitative analysis of networking and cultural differences in Kazakhstan, a country with very different value and government structure. Contrary to simplistic expectations, Kazakhstan sho...

  3. Nursing Errors in Intensive Care Unit by Human Error Identification in Systems Tool: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamodini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Although health services are designed and implemented to improve human health, the errors in health services are a very common phenomenon and even sometimes fatal in this field. Medical errors and their cost are global issues with serious consequences for the patients’ community that are preventable and require serious attention. Objectives The current study aimed to identify possible nursing errors applying human error identification in systems tool (HEIST in the intensive care units (ICUs of hospitals. Patients and Methods This descriptive research was conducted in the intensive care unit of a hospital in Khuzestan province in 2013. Data were collected through observation and interview by nine nurses in this section in a period of four months. Human error classification was based on Rose and Rose and Swain and Guttmann models. According to HEIST work sheets the guide questions were answered and error causes were identified after the determination of the type of errors. Results In total 527 errors were detected. The performing operation on the wrong path had the highest frequency which was 150, and the second rate with a frequency of 136 was doing the tasks later than the deadline. Management causes with a frequency of 451 were the first rank among identified errors. Errors mostly occurred in the system observation stage and among the performance shaping factors (PSFs, time was the most influencing factor in occurrence of human errors. Conclusions Finally, in order to prevent the occurrence and reduce the consequences of identified errors the following suggestions were proposed : appropriate training courses, applying work guidelines and monitoring their implementation, increasing the number of work shifts, hiring professional workforce, equipping work space with appropriate facilities and equipment.

  4. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs: Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-09-05

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the amount of dumped waste and temperature exerted the most significant effects on bimonthly fluctuations of ARG levels in landfill sites. As a middle-sized cosmopolitan city in China, millions of college students and workers migrate during holidays, contributing to the dramatic increases in waste production and fluctuation in ARG abundances. In line with this, mass migration explained most of the variation in waste dumping. The waste dumping also affected the bioaccessibility of mixed-compound pollutants that further positively impacted the level of ARGs. The influence of various bioaccessible compounds on ARG abundance followed the order: antibiotics>nutrients>metals>organic pollutants. Concentrations of bioaccessible compounds were more strongly correlated with ARG levels compared to total compound concentrations. Improved waste classification and management strategies could thus help to decrease the amount of bioaccessible pollutants leading to more effective control for urban ARG dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Histologic Outcomes of Uninfected Human Immature Teeth Treated with Regenerative Endodontics: 2 Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Kolahdouzan, Alireza; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mehrizi, Ehsan A; Verma, Prashant; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    A growing body of evidence exists showing the possibility of growing vital tissues in the root canal spaces of teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. However, there is very limited histologic information regarding characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space of human teeth after regenerative endodontics. The aim of this study was to examine clinically and histologically the outcomes of human immature teeth treated with regenerative endodontics. Two healthy birooted human maxillary first premolar teeth scheduled for extraction were included. Preoperative radiographs confirmed that these teeth had immature apices. Vitality tests showed the presence of vital pulps in these teeth. After receiving consent forms, the teeth were isolated with a rubber dam, and the pulps were completely removed. After the formation of blood clots in the canals, the teeth were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate. Four months later, the teeth were clinically and radiographically evaluated, extracted, and examined histologically. Both patients remained asymptomatic after treatment. Radiographic examination of the teeth showed signs of root development after treatment. Histologic examination of tissues growing into the root canal space of these teeth shows the presence of connective tissue, bone and cementum formation, and thickening of roots. Based on our findings, it appears that when canals of teeth with open apices are treated with regenerative endodontics, tissues of the periodontium grow into the root canals of these teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of human resources in science and technology in ICT companies–case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Horvat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the level of tertiary educated workforce, the human resources in science and technology and skills that are desirable in employees from in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector. It is important to examine the real situation on the labor market in the ICT sector, which is often referred to as the key to overcoming the crisis and the future of national economy. Basic statistical elements, upon which to predict future demand for human resources in science and technology (HRST, are people who enter tertiary level of education (inputs or are already in the system (throughputs, but until graduation are not considered HRST’s (outputs. Analysis is based on a sample of 56 small companies in ICT sector in Croatia. This paper presents the overview of the situations of human resources in small companies ICT sector in Croatia. Existing literature on HRST, employee’s skills and ICT sector is reviewed in the light of this analysis, in order to better understand current employment structure and desirable competencies of future employees of small companies in the ICT sector in Croatia.

  7. Human capital of the child population and its selected determinants: Case study of Lviv city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantyley Viktoriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of modern economic and political destabilisation in Ukraine, human capital of the child population is considered as the most reliable indicator of socioeconomic development of the country and its regions. The primary goal of the study is the analysis of health status as the main element of human capital among the child population aged 0-14, and external and family environmental factors influencing this population group in the city of Lviv (in the light of available statistics and materials of the author’s own sociological research. Research results show a potential crisis of human capital among the child population in Lviv city. Results of own field research show a statistically important correlation between the willingness of parents to have more children and the following independent variables: number of members in the household, and the household’s income. The state of health among the child population showed a significant correlation between the following variables: household’s income, life satisfaction among parents, availability of healthcare in the place of residence, financial affordability of healthcare, physical activity among children, influence of noise and unpleasant scents.

  8. Human capital accumulation and its effect on agribusiness performance: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udimal, Thomas Bilaliib; Jincai, Zhuang; Ayamba, Emmanuel Caesar; Sarpong, Patrick Boateng

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of accumulated human capital on the performance of agribusinesses in China. Four hundred fifty agribusiness owners were interviewed for the study. Growth in sales over the last 5 years was used as a measure of performance. The following variables were reviewed and captured as those constituting human capital: education, raised in the area, parents being entrepreneurs, attending business seminars/trade fairs, managerial experience, similar work experience, cooperative membership, and training. Logit regression model and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The logit regression model was used to analyze the effect of accumulated human capital on growth in sales. The inferential statistics on the other hand was used to measure the association between age, education, sex, provinces, and the categories of growth. Our study found that parents who are entrepreneurs and attend business seminars/trade fairs, as well as have managerial experience, similar work experience, education, and training, display a statistically significant positive effect on the growth in sales.

  9. Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, M C; Linden, O [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology; Rajasuriya, A [NARA, Crow Island, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of coral reefs in Sri Lanka has increased substantially over the last decades. Human activities causing this degradation include: mining for lime production, sewage discharges, discharges of oil and other pollutants in connection with shipping and port activities, destructive fishing practices, land and mangrove destruction, tourism and the collecting of fauna such as fish, shells and corals. In this study, three adjacent coral reefs; Bar Reef, Talawila Reef, and Kandakuliya Reef, which are widely scattered patch reefs off Kalpitiya Peninsula, northwestern Sri Lanka, were surveyed and compared in terms of their fish and coral diversity and abundance as well as human and natural disturbances. Information was gathered by snorkeling in visual overview surveys and by scuba diving in detailed transect surveys. When each reef was ranked according to the extent of live coral cover, and chaetodontid diversity, the results indicated that Bar Reef was in excellent condition, Talawila Reef was intermediate, and Kandakuliya Reef was in poor condition. The diversity of coral genera, the topographic relief and the proportion of coral rubble, did not follow the same pattern. The number of coral genera found was 49, while 283 fish species belonging to 51 families were recorded. Human disturbance factors on the reefs were found to be net fishing, boat anchoring and ornamental fish collection for the aquarium trade. Bottom.set nylon nets in particular were found to have a very destructive impact on the bottom fauna. 33 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. First-in-human study and clinical case reports of the alveolar bone regeneration with the secretome from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu

    2016-01-15

    Secreted growth factors and cytokines in the conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) have several effects on cell behavior. Our previous studies revealed that MSC-CM enhances bone regeneration by increasing cell mobilization, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. This clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and use of MSC-CM for alveolar bone regeneration in eight patients who were diagnosed as needing bone augmentation prior to dental implant placement. The protocol of this clinical study was approved by the ethics committee of Nagoya University Hospital. MSC-CM was prepared from conditioned medium from commercially available human bone marrow-derived MSCs. Patients were treated with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or an atelocollagen sponge soaked with MSC-CM. Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed during the follow-up period. Histological assessments were also performed in some cases. Clinical and histological data from patients who underwent the SFE procedure without MSC-CM were also used retrospectively as reference controls. MSC-CM contained several cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and hepatocyte growth factor in relatively low amounts. No systemic or local complications were reported throughout the study. Radiographic evaluation revealed early bone formation in all cases. Histological evaluation also supported the radiographic findings. Furthermore, infiltration of inflammatory cells was scarce throughout the specimens. MSC-CM was used safely and with less inflammatory signs and appears to have great osteogenic potential for regenerative medicine of bone. This is the first in-human clinical study of alveolar bone regeneration using MSC-CM.

  11. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbonnier Amandine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA, connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language. The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries.

  12. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following human growth hormone therapy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Huang, Nancy; Lepski, Guilherme Alves; Livramento, José Antônio; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Porto, Cláudia Sellitto; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old man with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) acquired after the use of growth hormone (GH) obtained from a number of pituitary glands sourced from autopsy material. The incubation period of the disease (from the midpoint of treatment to the onset of clinical symptoms) was rather long (28 years). Besides the remarkable cerebellar and mental signs, the patient exhibited sleep disturbance (excessive somnolence) from the onset of the symptoms, with striking alteration of the sleep architecture documented by polysomnography. 14-3-3 protein was detected in the CSF, and MRI revealed increased signal intensity bilaterally in the striatum, being most evident in diffusion-weighted (DW-MRI) sequences. This is the second case of iatrogenic CJD associated with the use of GH reported in Brazil.

  13. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis Cases, Denmark, 2002-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Björkman, Jonas T; Ethelberg, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002......-2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types......, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005-2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting...

  14. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following human growth hormone therapy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caboclo Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 41-year-old man with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD acquired after the use of growth hormone (GH obtained from a number of pituitary glands sourced from autopsy material. The incubation period of the disease (from the midpoint of treatment to the onset of clinical symptoms was rather long (28 years. Besides the remarkable cerebellar and mental signs, the patient exhibited sleep disturbance (excessive somnolence from the onset of the symptoms, with striking alteration of the sleep architecture documented by polysomnography. 14-3-3 protein was detected in the CSF, and MRI revealed increased signal intensity bilaterally in the striatum, being most evident in diffusion-weighted (DW-MRI sequences. This is the second case of iatrogenic CJD associated with the use of GH reported in Brazil.

  15. Multicultural Human Resources Management in Hilton Helsinki Hotels – case Food & Beverage departments

    OpenAIRE

    Jarva, Arla; Mäkinen, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a research on the managing multicultural workforce in the restaurant field. The research has been conducted in a case company Hilton Hotels & Resorts with highly multicultural staff in the Helsinki metropolitan area on three different properties: Airport, Kalastajatorppa and Strand. The managers interviewed were from all three Hilton properties and the employee interviewees were from Hilton Helsinki Airport. The research focuses on determining the problems the managers and staf...

  16. Emotional intelligence and its importance in human life – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Kupcewicz; Adam Kupcewicz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities used for processing emotional informations that underpins the development of social and emotional competence. Knowing one’s own emotional intelligence is a valuable element of the individual's self-knowledge which allows to develop further and improve weaknesses through social training. Aim of the study. To study the profile of emotional intelligence and to identify the developmental needs of the researched man. Case report. T...

  17. DOE ZERH Case Study: Habitat for Humanity South Sarasota, Laurel Gardens #794, Nakomis, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the hot-humid climate that got a HERS 51 without PV, with foam-filled masonry block walls with .75” rigid foam, furring strips, and foil-faced paper on interior walls; R-20 ocsf in roof of sealed attic, uninsulated slab, 15 SEER 8.0 HSPF heat pump walls for heating and cooling, heat pump water heater.

  18. Quantitative Cross-Species Extrapolation between Humans and Fish: The Case of the Anti-Depressant Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Owen, Stewart F.; Cumming, Rob I.; de Polo, Anna; Winter, Matthew J.; Panter, Grace H.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; Sumpter, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE) based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis). To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L) to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (HTPCs). Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the HTPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the HTPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool to guide the

  19. Characterization of Hospital-Associated Lineages of Ampicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Clinical Cases in Dogs and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy-Love eTremblay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE has rapidly emerged worldwide and is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. However, very few reports are available on ARE isolates from canine clinical cases. The objective of this study was to characterize ARE strains of canine clinical origin from a veterinary teaching hospital in Canada and to compare them with human strains. Ten ARE strains from dogs and humans were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm activities, presence of rep-families, CRISPR-cas and putative virulence genes. All ARE strains (n = 10 were resistant to ciprofloxacin and lincomycin. Resistances to tetracycline (n = 6, macrolides (n = 6, and to high concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (n = 5 were also observed. Canine ARE isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin whereas resistance to this antibiotic was observed in human strains. Ampicillin resistance was linked to PBP5 showing mutations at 25 amino acid positions. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to ParC, GyrA, and GyrB mutations. Data demonstrated that all canine ARE were acm (collagen binding protein-positive and that most harbored the efaAfm gene, encoding for a cell wall adhesin. Biofilm formation was observed in two human strains but not in canine strains. Two to five rep-families were observed per strain but no CRISPR sequences were found. A total of six STs (1, 18, 65, 202, 205, and 803 were found with one belonging to a new ST (ST803. These STs were identical or closely related to human hospital-associated lineages. This report describes for the first time the characterization of canine ARE hospital-associated strains in Canada and also supports the importance of prudent antibiotic use in veterinary medicine to avoid zoonotic spread of canine ARE.

  20. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  1. Establishment of cell lines from adult T-cell leukemia cells dependent on negatively charged polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Harumi; Okada, Yasutaka; Seto, Masao; Kinoshita, Tomohiro

    2017-07-05

    Growing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in vitro is difficult. Here, we examined the effects of static electricity in the culture medium on the proliferation of ATLL cells. Six out of 10 ATLL cells did not proliferate in vitro and thus had to be cultured in a medium containing negatively charged polymers. In the presence of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) or chondroitin sulfate (CDR), cell lines (HKOX3-PGA, HKOX3-CDR) were established from the same single ATLL case using interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and feeder cells expressing OX40L (OX40L + HK). Dextran sulfate inhibited growth in both HKOX3 cell lines. Both PGA and OX40L + HK were indispensable for HKOX3-PGA growth, but HKOX3-CDR could proliferate in the presence of CDR or OX40L + HK alone. Thus, the specific action of each negatively charged polymer promoted the growth of specific ATLL cells in vitro.

  2. Impact of Drinking Water Fluoride on Human Thyroid Hormones: A Case- Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Zohreh; Mirzaei, Masoud; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Azizi, Reyhane; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan

    2018-02-08

    The elevated fluoride from drinking water impacts on T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones. The aim was study impacts of drinking water fluoride on T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones inYGA (Yazd Greater Area). In this case- control study 198 cases and 213 controls were selected. Fluoride was determined by the SPADNS Colorimetric Method. T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones tested in the Yazd central laboratory by RIA (Radio Immuno Assay) method. The average amount of TSH and T 3 hormones based on the levels of fluoride in two concentration levels 0-0.29 and 0.3-0.5 (mg/L) was statistically significant (P = 0.001 for controls and P = 0.001 for cases). In multivariate regression logistic analysis, independent variable associated with Hypothyroidism were: gender (odds ratio: 2.5, CI 95%: 1.6-3.9), family history of thyroid disease (odds ratio: 2.7, CI 95%: 1.6-4.6), exercise (odds ratio: 5.34, CI 95%: 3.2-9), Diabetes (odds ratio: 3.7, CI 95%: 1.7-8), Hypertension (odds ratio: 3.2, CI 95%: 1.3-8.2), water consumption (odds ratio: 4, CI 95%: 1.2-14). It was found that fluoride has impacts on TSH, T 3 hormones even in the standard concentration of less than 0.5 mg/L. Application of standard household water purification devices was recommended for hypothyroidism.

  3. Immune influence of pregnancy on human H7N9 infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: H7N9 infection has raised serious concerns worldwide. Pregnant women were considered to be at a high risk of influenza infection. Normal pregnancy was dependent on T helper (Th 2 deviation. However, whether pregnancy influences the immune status of influenza H7N9 patients has not been reported. Case report: Here, we reported a case of pregnant woman in the first trimester with H7N9 infection compared with the two non-pregnant female H7N9 patients for clinical features and relevant immunological changes. We found that there were no differences in plasma levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines between the pregnant and non-pregnant patients, and there was no Th2 deviation in the acute phase. However, the Th2 deviation was recurrent along with the clearance of infection in the H7N9 pregnant patient. Conclusion: These cases highlighted that the pregnant patient infected with H7N9 could induce an effective Th1 immune response equal to that of non-pregnant patients with H7N9 virus infection, although the pregnancy itself could lead to a Th2 deviation. These data suggested that pregnant patients could acquire a similar antiviral response for H7N9 infection versus non-pregnant patients. Keywords: Influenza, H7N9, Pregnancy, Immunologic characteristics, Cytokines

  4. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty.

  6. Failure Impact Assessment for Large-Scale Landslides Located Near Human Settlement: Case Study in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused over 680 deaths and more than 20,000 landslides in Taiwan. From 2010 to 2015, the Central Geological Survey of the Ministry of Economic Affairs identified 1047 potential large-scale landslides in Taiwan, of which 103 may have affected human settlements. This paper presents an analytical procedure that can be applied to assess the possible impact of a landslide collapse on nearby settlements. In this paper, existing technologies, including interpretation of remote sensing images, hydrogeological investigation, and numerical analysis, are integrated to evaluate potential failure scenarios and the landslide scale of a specific case: the Xinzhuang landslide. GeoStudio and RAMMS analysis modes and hazard classification produced the following results: (1 evaluation of the failure mechanisms and the influence zones of large-scale landslides; (2 assessment of the migration and accumulation of the landslide mass after failure; and (3 a landslide hazard and evacuation map. The results of the case study show that this analytical procedure can quantitatively estimate potential threats to human settlements. Furthermore, it can be applied to other villages and used as a reference in disaster prevention and evacuation planning.

  7. Human impacts on fluvial systems - A small-catchment case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Ronald E.; Glade, Thomas; Keiler, Margreth

    2010-05-01

    Regulations of nearly two-thirds of the rivers worldwide have considerable influences on fluvial systems. In Austria, nearly any river (or) catchment is affected by humans, e.g. due to changing land-use conditions and river engineering structures. Recent studies of human impacts on rivers show that morphologic channel changes play a major role regarding channelization and leveeing, land-use conversions, dams, mining, urbanization and alterations of natural habitats (ecomorphology). Thus 'natural (fluvial) systems' are scarce and humans are almost always inseparably interwoven with them playing a major role in altering them coincidentally. The main objective of this study is to identify human effects (i.e. different land use conditions and river engineering structures) on river bed sediment composition and to delineate its possible implications for limnic habitats. The study area watersheds of the 'Fugnitz' River (~ 140km²) and the 'Kaja' River (~ 20km²) are located in the Eastern part of the Bohemian Massif in Austria (Europe) and drain into the 'Thaya' River which is the border river to the Czech Republic in the north of Lower Austria. Furthermore the 'Thaya' River is eponymous for the local National Park 'Nationalpark Thayatal'. In order to survey river bed sediment composition and river engineering structures facies mapping techniques, i.e. river bed surface mapping and ecomorphological mapping have been applied. Additionally aerial photograph and airborne laserscan interpretation has been used to create land use maps. These maps have been integrated to a numerical DEM-based spatial model in order to get an impression of the variability of sediment input rates to the river system. It is hypothesized that this variability is primarily caused by different land use conditions. Finally river bed sites affected by river engineering structures have been probed and grain size distributions have been analyzed. With these data sedimentological and ecological

  8. A Case Report of Human Infection with Dioctophyma Renale from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Roghayeh; Manochehri, Arman; Hanifi, Mustafa

    2017-03-16

    A 75-year-old man from Kurdistan province, western part of Iran was diagnosed with a mass in the right kidney by ultrasound and computed tomography. In operation, a parasitic helminth, 30 cm long and 1.2 cm in diameter consistent with D. renale was found in the right kidney. Microscopic examination revealed that the male Dioctophyma renale. Following removal of worm, the symptoms completely resolved within a few hours. Generally, parasitism by D. renale in human is a necropsy finding, nevertheless imaging techniques as ultrasound and computed tomography have been proven to be important tool to achieve diagnosis.

  9. Ethics and research in Human and Social Sciences: a case to be thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto dos Santos Amaral Filho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, fundamentally through the analysis and interpretation of Resolutions that have historically been regulating ethical issues that involve scientific research (CNS Resolutions N. 196/96, N. 466/2012, N. 510/2016, seeks to show the inadequacy of such Resolutions for Human and Social Sciences research. In addition, this text wants to point to the political dispute imposed by the area of biomedical sciences that apparently seems to be little concerned with ethical issues per se and seeks, first and foremost, to maintain its power.

  10. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash

    2013-08-20

    Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country's decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key challenges that need immediate attention. This article

  11. 1H-NMR of human blood lipids in cases of malignant and benign tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushmanov, V.E.; Kotrikadze, N.G.; Pershin, A.D.; Dzhishkariani, O.S.; Tsartsidze, M.A.; Lomsadze, B.A.; Sibel'dina, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    High resolution 1 H-NMR (360MH z ) combined with thin-layer chromatography was used to study profile and molecular structure changes of inverted micelles of human blood developing in patients with malignant and benign tumors of the breast and uterus. Alterations were demonstrated in relative intensities of some lipid NMR peaks in tumor, as compared to normal blood. Changes in blood - lipid levels, e.g. cholesterol, in tumor affect lipid structural and dynamical status thus elucidating NMR-regularities obtained

  12. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, R.A.M.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Rozendaal, F.W.; Broekman, J.M.; Kemink, S.A.G.; Munnster, V.; Kuiken, T.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Schutten, M.; Doornum, van G.J.J.; Koch, G.; Bosman, A.; Koopmans, M.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human

  13. Human Campylobacteriosis in Luxembourg, 2010?2013: A Case-Control Study Combined with Multilocus Sequence Typing for Source Attribution and Risk Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mossong, Jo?l; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Devaux, Anthony; Olinger, Christophe; Losch, Serge; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Ragimbeau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis has increased markedly in Luxembourg during recent years. We sought to determine which Campylobacter genotypes infect humans, where they may originate from, and how they may infect humans. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 1153 Campylobacter jejuni and 136 C. coli human strains to be attributed to three putative animal reservoirs (poultry, ruminants, pigs) and to environmental water using the asymmetric island model. A nationwide case-control study (2010?2013) for...

  14. Rate of positive autoimmune markers in Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers: a case-control study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Meysam; Mollahosseini, Farzad; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Miri, Rahele; Hatef Fard, MohammadReza; Sahebari, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection with high prevalence in the north-east of Iran, particularly in Mashhad, can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and a variety of autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the presence of autoimmune markers in HTLV carries. Serum samples were obtained from blood donors in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. One hundred and five HTLV-1 positive (cases) and 104 age- and sex-matched HTLV-1 negative donors (controls) were assessed for presence of serum autoimmune markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ages of cases and controls were 40.8 ± 9.4 and 41.5 ± 9.3 years, respectively (P = 0.5). In the case group, 81.9% and in the control group 83.7% were male (P = 0.74). The frequency of positive antinuclear antibodies and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in the serum of the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.68 and P = 0.62, respectively). Only one antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive case (1%) was observed in the group and no anti-phospholipid immunoglobulin G positivity was observed. The frequency of rheumatoid factor (RF) was greater in case group than in the control group, although the difference was not significant (P = 0.08). The amount of RF in all 12 RF positive sera were higher than normal levels (33-37 IU/mL). Because we failed to detect any significant relation between serum autoimmune markers and HTLV-1 infection, and because of the relatively low prevalence of autoimmune diseases, it could be concluded that healthy HTLV-1 carriers do not produce rheumatologic-related auto-antibodies more than the healthy population. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. On the Use of Geographic Information in Humanities Research Infrastructure: A Case Study on Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mościcka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an invaluable source of knowledge about the past, cultural heritage may be an important element of the humanities research infrastructure, along with other elements, such as spatial references. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an answer to the questions concerning the ways in which spatial information can contribute to the development of this infrastructure and the aspects of storytelling based on cultural resources that can be supported by such infrastructure. The objective of the methodology that was used was to combine the aspects that refer to spatial information and cultural items into a single, common issue, and to describe them in a formalized way with use of Unified Modeling Language (UML. As a result, the study presents a proposal of the Humanities Infrastructure Architecture based on spatially-oriented movable cultural items, taking into account their use in the context of interoperability, along with the concept of creating spatial databases that would include movable monuments. The authors also demonstrate that the ISO 19100 series of geographical information standards may be a source of interesting conceptual solutions that may be used in the process of the standardization of geographical information that was recorded in the descriptions of cultural heritage items in form of metadata and data structure descriptions.

  16. Human pulmonary dirofilariasis coexisting with intercostal neurilemmoma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human pulmonary dirofilariasis (HPD is a rare zoonotic infection caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Dogs are the definite hosts and humans are infected occasionally via a vector, generally a mosquito. Most thoracic neurilemmoma arise in the mediastinum and fewer tumors originate peripherally from the intercostal nerves. Most patients with HPD or thoracic neurilemmoma are asymptomatic and these diseases are often discovered incidentally. We present a 53-year-old female who was found to have a pulmonary nodule and a chest wall nodule during a routine health examination. She underwent a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS with partial lung resection and local excision of the chest wall. The pathological examination revealed a coiled, degenerating Dirofilariasis immitis worm surrounded by granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis and a neurilemmoma composed of S-100 protein immunoreactive but smooth muscle actin negative spindle cells. Because these diseases are self-limiting and make further treatment unnecessary, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS is considered preferable and less invasive for definitive diagnosis and management.

  17. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  18. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  19. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  20. STUDENTS’ EVALUATION OF EDUCATION QUALITY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AREA: CASE OF PRIVATE CZECH UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of education, lessons, subjects and teachers perceived by students is currently often discussed topic regarding strategic management of universities. Assessment of higher education learning outcomes represents internalization of a higher education competition. The aim of the article is to evaluate perception of education quality of lectures, subjects and teachers by university students in the area of human resource management in private Czech university and to identify main approaches to academic staff. The data were collected by quantitative survey by questionnaire data collection (n=218. Students state that subjects, lessons and teachers in the area of human resource management lessons mostly satisfied their expectations (average value between 1.09 and 1.97. The students emphasised that the staff creates positive atmosphere and gives the opportunity to express an opinion which is very important for students at the university. Research outcomes show there is a dependency between the effort of teacher, student understanding and teachers’s willingness to give students an opportunity to express an opinion. The paper is extension of conference paper presented on ERIE conference 2016.

  1. Human Capital and Export Decisions: The Case of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrit Gashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the propositions of firm internationalization theories including the Melit’z dynamic model of export participation, this paper investigates the effects of human capital on the export decisions of Kosovo’s firms. Using a unique dataset of around 500 Small and Medium Enterprises, econometric estimates show mixed indications regarding the relationship between the propensity to export and longevity in export markets and human capital variables, measured by the education of the workforce, and investment in training. While education generally has a negative effect on exporting decisions, the latter shows a consistent positive effect. In the context of Kosovo, this dichotomy may reflect in part the effect of the underperforming education system in Kosovo, which does not produce the right level and/or mix of skills required by the private sector; this, in turn, forces SMEs to invest in increasing workforce capacities. Another explanation may indicate the lack of demand for a better skilled workforce, either because of associated high costs, or because a significant number of firms in Kosovo operate in low-value activities that do not require advanced skills and knowledge. Other factors that affect the decisions of firms to enter and serve export markets are found to be firm size, experience, growth, and adoption of quality standards.

  2. Potential for effects of land contamination on human health. 2. The case of waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Levy, Len; Brown, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This review of the epidemiological literature shows that evidence for negative impacts of land contaminated by waste disposal on human health is limited. However, the potential for health impacts cannot be dismissed. The link between residence close to hazardous waste disposal sites and heightened levels of stress and anxiety is relatively well established. However, studies on self-reported outcomes generally suffer from interpretational problems, as subjective symptoms may be due to increased perception and recall. Several recent multiple-site studies support a plausible linkage between residence near waste disposal sites and reproductive effects (including congenital anomalies and low birth weight). There is some conflict in the literature investigating links between land contamination and cancers; the evidence for and against a link is equally balanced and is insufficient to make causal inferences. These are difficult to establish because of lack of data on individual exposures, and other socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that may confound a relationship with area of residence. There is no consistently occurring risk for any specific tumor across multiple studies on sites expected to contain similar contaminants. Further insights on health effects of land contamination are likely to be gained from studies that consider exposure pathways and biomarkers of exposure and effect, similar to those deployed with some success in investigating impacts of cadmium on human health.

  3. Motivation of human resources for health: a case study at rural district level in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnen, Véronique; Paul, Elisabeth; Mwisongo, Aziza; Nyato, Daniel; Robert, Annie

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies explore the association between financial and non-financial incentives and the retention of health workers in developing countries. This study aims to contribute to empirical evidence on human resource for health motivation factors to assist policy makers in promoting effective and realistic interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Tanzanian districts to explore staff stability and health workers' motivation. Data were collected using qualitative and quantitative techniques, covering all levels and types of health facilities. Stability of staff was found to be quite high. Public institutions remained very attractive with better job security, salary and retirement benefits. Satisfaction over working conditions was very low owing to inadequate working equipment, work overload, lack of services, difficult environment, favouritism and 'empty promotions'. Positive incentives mentioned were support for career development and supportive supervision. Attracting new staff in rural areas appeared to be more difficult than retaining staff in place. The study concluded that strategies to better motivate health personnel should focus on adequate remuneration, positive working and living environment and supportive management. However, by multiplying health facilities, the latest Tanzanian human resource for health plan could jeopardize current positive results. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Narrating Palaeolithic Human Settlement History : the case of the Imjin-Hantan River Area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwook Yoo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to furnish a narrative story-telling with the broad perspective on the human past rather than simply depending on the analytical examination of archaeological data. For the purpose of this task, Ferdinand Braudel’s concept of “la longue durée” is applied to parallel the environmental background and hominid’s life/land-use patterns based on the geological data and archaeological remains. The Imjin-Hantan River Area (IHRA, known for the discovery of Acheulian-like handaxe, was occupied from ca 0.23 mya to the final Pleistocene; the hominids continuously changed their residing patterns in the landscape with actively modifying the lithic technological organization as a response to the environmental change. Integrating the geological features, absolute dates and characteristics of lithic assemblages from individual sites, we can recognize six phases of environmental changes based on the development of river channel system. These six phases witness different patterns of hominid’s adaptation in this area and correspondingly yield different mode of raw material utilization and lithic procurement. While more accurate geological dates are yet to be published and the description of lithic assemblages may be changed by new data, it is prospecting that Braudel’s la longue durée is a useful concept for meaningfully narrating a long-term human occupation history in the discipline of prehistoric archaeology.

  5. Adaptation and niche construction in human prehistory: a case study from the southern Scandinavian Late Glacial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-03-27

    The niche construction model postulates that human bio-social evolution is composed of three inheritance domains, genetic, cultural and ecological, linked by feedback selection. This paper argues that many kinds of archaeological data can serve as proxies for human niche construction processes, and presents a method for investigating specific niche construction hypotheses. To illustrate this method, the repeated emergence of specialized reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) hunting/herding economies during the Late Palaeolithic (ca 14.7-11.5 kyr BP) in southern Scandinavia is analysed from a niche construction/triple-inheritance perspective. This economic relationship resulted in the eventual domestication of Rangifer. The hypothesis of whether domestication was achieved as early as the Late Palaeolithic, and whether this required the use of domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) as hunting, herding or transport aids, is tested via a comparative analysis using material culture-based phylogenies and ecological datasets in relation to demographic/genetic proxies. Only weak evidence for sustained niche construction behaviours by prehistoric hunter-gatherer in southern Scandinavia is found, but this study nonetheless provides interesting insights into the likely processes of dog and reindeer domestication, and into processes of adaptation in Late Glacial foragers.

  6. Strategic Workforce Planning for Health Human Resources: A Nursing Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Andrea; Crea-Arsenio, Mary; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Fleming-Carroll, Bonnie; Hunsberger, Mabel; Keatings, Margaret; Elfassy, Michael David; Kratina, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-care organizations provide services in a challenging environment, making the introduction of health human resources initiatives especially critical for safe patient care. Purpose To demonstrate how one specialty hospital in Ontario, Canada, leveraged an employment policy to stabilize its nursing workforce over a six-year period (2007 to 2012). Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in which administrative data were analyzed to compare full-time status and retention of new nurses prepolicy and during the policy. The Professionalism and Environmental Factors in the Workplace Questionnaire® was used to compare new nurses hired into the study hospital with new nurses hired in other health-care settings. Results There was a significant increase in full-time employment and a decrease in part-time employment in the study hospital nursing workforce. On average, 26% of prepolicy new hires left the study hospital within one year of employment compared to 5% of new hires during policy implementation. The hospital nurses scored significantly higher than nurses employed in other health-care settings on 5 out of 13 subscales of professionalism. Conclusions Decision makers can use these findings to develop comprehensive health human resources guidelines and mechanisms that support strategic workforce planning to sustain and strengthen the health-care system.

  7. A Case Study Optimizing Human Resources in Rwanda's First Dental School: Three Innovative Management Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Donna M; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Cancedda, Corrado; Barrow, Jane R

    2018-06-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, and the University of Rwanda (UR) are collaborating to create Rwanda's first School of Dentistry as part of the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Rwanda initiative that aims to strengthen the health care system of Rwanda. The HRH oral health team developed three management tools to measure progress in systems-strengthening efforts: 1) the road map is an operations plan for the entire dental school and facilitates delivery of the curriculum and management of human and material resources; 2) each HRH U.S. faculty member develops a work plan with targeted deliverables for his or her rotation, which is facilitated with biweekly flash reports that measure progress and keep the faculty member focused on his or her specific deliverables; and 3) the redesigned HRH twinning model, changed from twinning of an HRH faculty member with a single Rwandan faculty member to twinning with multiple Rwandan faculty members based on shared academic interests and goals, has improved efficiency, heightened engagement of the UR dental faculty, and increased the impact of HRH U.S. faculty members. These new tools enable the team to measure its progress toward the collaborative's goals and understand the successes and challenges in moving toward the planned targets. The tools have been valuable instruments in fostering discussion around priorities and deployment of resources as well as in developing strong relationships, enabling two-way exchange of knowledge, and promoting sustainability.

  8. HUMAN PERCEPTION IN THE LIBYAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT: AL- KHUMS AND BANI WALID CITIES AS CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Mohamed Agael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of different influences on the built environment, and those which have a physical and psychological impact on people. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the built environment on the lives of people. The interrelationship between people and built environment is based on human perception. This research will explore this relationship further in order to develop a clear understanding of the ways in which architecture may influence peoples’ perceptions and experiences. Additionally, the research entails a comparison between two important theories: the first is an Image of the city derived using the Mental Map Theory; the second is related to Space Syntax Theory. The two theories will be applied in two different cities in Libya with the aim of assessing the importance of their interrelationship and how it may be understood more clearly. This paper will also provide guidelines for improving urban design and planning standards with the end goal of producing a high quality perception by those who actually use the space. Moreover, it concludes with a number of research avenues that should be pursued to answer how the properties of built environment affect human perception.

  9. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Future perspectives of human resources in nuclear technology - The Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Synopsis. The prospects for growth for the nuclear power industry in the Republic of Korea, have improved notably in last few years, as the need for generating capacity grows to meet burgeoning energy demand and developmental needs, and as environment, climate change and energy supply security continue become matters of rising concern. Nuclear technology itself has also changed, with evolutionary and innovative changes in reactor design and safety measures. Nuclear technology development both requires and fosters human resource development (HRD). A continuous, consistent and well-managed programme of HRD is crucial to assure continuity over time in the needed capacities, skills and knowledge, and to establish and maintain a cadre of manpower variously trained in different nuclear-related skills and educated in nuclear relevant fields. It also fosters the development of spin-off industries and synergies. Productive and goal-oriented HRD and M is a dynamic long-term process that balances the dynamics of supply and demand of human resources with respect to the education, recruitment, maintenance and proper training of the human resources needed for industry operations as well as innovation. Such a programme in fact was the foundation for the birth of the Korean nuclear industry, with the government sponsoring nuclear-related- training and education for hundreds of persons under the tutelage of companies and countries overseas having experience with nuclear and related sciences and technology. This cadre, once repatriated, formed the nucleus for domestic training and education programmes as an integral part of nuclear energy development and consistent with national policies. HRD and M in Korea today comprises an educational network among academic and research institutes, government and industry. Forming such a cadre is not the result of a one-off training process, but must be planned and sustained consistently over time and its talents regularly applied

  11. Uptake of Elements From Aerosols by Humans ~ A Case Study From Delhi & Bangalore Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Yadav, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    Aerosol research has gained tremendous importance globally due to the cumulative effects of increasing industrialization and urbanization on aerosol production which can have an alarming impact on the climate of the planet as well as the health of its inhabitants. Therefore, there is an increasing need to study aerosols for all of their physicochemical and biological aspects on both local and global scales. World over extensive research has gone into studying the physical and the chemical aspects of aerosols. However, little information is yet available on the health impacts of aerosols particularly in the Asian context. Here we report uptake of various elements that are concentrated in aerosols by the human body in Delhi and Bangalore cities and their possible health effects. In many urban areas, for example in Delhi, inhalable fractions of aerosols are known to have high concentrations of elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Ni and Cr (Yadav and Rajamani 2004). Also aerosols in the North West part of India seem to be particularly enriched in these elements. If so, there is a high possibility of these elements getting into the human system either directly or indirectly through water and food. To determine the concentrations of these elements that are present in significant concentrations in the inhalable fractions of aerosols, human hair and blood samples are used as proxies. Both these regions have contrasting geographic and climatic conditions. Delhi (altitude : 213-305m above MSL) located on the fringes of the Thar desert which supplies considerable amount of dust, is semi-arid with annual rainfall of 60-80 cms & temperatures varying between 1° - 45°. Bangalore (altitude of 900m above MSL) receives a high annual rainfall of 80-100 cms and being located on the fringes of tropical forests of the Sahyadri Mountains (Western Ghats) receives little crustal contribution to the aerosols. Samples from least polluted mountainous areas of Himalayas (Gangothri) and Sahyadri

  12. Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia in a prepubertal girl with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition and most frequently classified as idiopathic. In HIV-infected adults gynecomastia is a recognised but infrequent side-effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and mostly attributed to efavirenz use. Gynecomastia should be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia as part of the lipodystrophy syndrome caused by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) to avoid incorrect substitution of drugs. In the medical literature only five cases of prepubertal gynecomastia in children taking ART are described and underlying pathogenesis was unknown. The occurrence of adverse effects of ART may interfere with therapy adherence and long-term prognosis and for that reason requires attention. We report the first case of prepubertal gynecomastia in a young girl attributed to efavirenz use. Case presentation A seven-year-old African girl presented with true gynecomastia four months after initiation on ART (abacavir, lamivudine, efavirenz). History, physical examination and laboratory tests excluded known causes of gynecomastia and efavirenz was considered as the most likely cause. Six weeks after withdrawal of efavirenz the breast enlargement had completely resolved. Conclusions Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia may occur in children as well as in adults. With the increasing access to ART, the possibility of efavirenz-exposure and the potential occurrence of its associated side-effects may be high. In resource-poor settings, empirical change from efavirenz to nevirapine may be considered, providing no other known or alarming cause is identified, as efavirenz-induced gynecomastia can resolve quickly after withdrawal of the drug. Timely recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important in order to intervene while the condition may still be reversible, to sustain adherence to ART and to maintain the sociopsychological health of the child. PMID:23941256

  13. Impact of HIV/AIDS to the tourism sector human resources: Case of selected hotels in Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengeni, D.M.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impacts of HIV/AIDS on human resources in the tourism sector in Zimbabwe’s capital city, Harare. Harare Hotels were used as a case study establishing how HIV/AIDS affects the workforce in the tourism sector and the consequent effects on service delivery. Visitors’ inflows into Zimbabwe have declined since the year 2000. To understand the reasons and related aspects, data was collected by way of questionnaires which were administered to 9 human resources managers and 9 marketing managers from hotels in Harare during the period of 2008 and 2009. These questionnaires were individually distributed and collected which resulted in 100% return rate. Human resources managers were used because they are involved directly with the social welfare of employees and marketing managers were used because they work in customer care and analyse service delivery. The findings of the study were that HIV/AIDS impact negatively to the hotel sector through deaths of skilled members. This was said to consequently leading to the reduction in service delivery and inconsistence in service delivery. Besides losing skilled members through death it was also discovered that the hotels were now moving HIV/AIDS effected victims to the back of the house to minimise their contact with guests. It was also discovered that hotels were using lot of funds to implement mitigation measures.

  14. Human Geography and the hinterland: The case of Torsten Hägerstrand’s ‘belated’ recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer René

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeing Human Geography as a nexus of temporally oscillating concepts, this paper investigates the dissemination of scientific ideas with a focus on extra-scientific factors. While scientific progress is usually evaluated in terms of intellectual achievement of the individual researcher, geographers tend to forget about the external factors that tacitly yet critically contribute to knowledge production. While these externalities are well-documented in the natural sciences, social sciences have not yet seen comparable scrutiny. Using Torsten Hägerstrand’s rise to prominence as a concrete example, we explore this perspective in a social-science caseHuman Geography. Applying an STS (Science and Technology Studies approach, we depart from a model of science as socially-materially contingent, with special focus on three extra-scientific factors: community norms, materiality and the political climate. These factors are all important in order for knowledge to be disseminated into the hinterland of Human Geography. We conclude it is these types of conditions that in practice escape the relativism of representation.

  15. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethical issues in human genome epidemiology: a case study based on the Japanese American Family Study in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A

    2002-04-01

    Recent completion of the draft sequence of the human genome has been greeted with both excitement and skepticism, and the potential of this accomplishment for advancing public health has been tempered by ethical concerns about the protection of human subjects. This commentary explores ethical issues arising in human genome epidemiology by using a case study approach based on the ongoing Japanese American Family Study at the University of Washington in Seattle (1994-2003). Ethical issues encountered in designing the study, collecting the data, and reporting the study results are considered. When developing studies, investigators must consider whether to restrict the study to specific racial or ethnic groups and whether community involvement is appropriate. Once the study design is in place, further ethical issues emerge, including obtaining informed consent for DNA banking and protecting the privacy and confidentiality of family members. Finally, investigators must carefully consider whether to report genotype results to study participants and whether pedigrees illustrating the results of the study will be published. Overall, the promise of genomics for improving public health must be pursued based on the fundamental ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

  17. [Radiographic and histological study of a case of apexification in a human molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, C C

    1989-01-01

    A case of apexification in a lower right second molar is described. Radiographs demonstrate apical closure with a different morphological pattern from that of the lower left second molar. Following extraction, after 15 months, serial histologic sections show calcified tissue obturating the apical foramen, well adapted to the initial dentin and cementum walls. Inside some small areas containing connective tissue with capillaries can be observed. The histologic and radiographic observations indicate that apical closure occurs as a result of differentiation of periodontal apical cells.

  18. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study. This report outlines an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to ...

  19. Human parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yujin; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Ishiwatari, Yusaku; Kanno, Hitoshi; Takei, Masami

    2014-03-11

    Although there are several case reports of human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis, no systematic reviews of adult patients with hereditary spherocytosis with human parvovirus B19 infection have been published as clinical case reports. In this study, we report a case of aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 infection in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis. A 33-year-old woman with hereditary spherocytosis and gallstones was admitted because of rapid progress in marked anemia and fever. Although empiric antibiotic therapy was prescribed, her clinical symptoms and liver function test worsened. Because the anti-human parvovirus B19 antibody and deoxyribonucleic acid levels assessed by polymerase chain reaction were positive, the patient was diagnosed with aplastic crisis due to the human parvovirus B19 infection. We collected and reviewed several case reports of patients with hereditary spherocytosis aged > 18 years with human parvovirus B19 infection between 1984 and 2010. A total of 19 reports with 22 cases [median age, 28 years (range, 18-43 range); male: female ratio, 6:16], including the present case were identified. The male-to-female ratio of 6:16 implied that younger females were predominantly affected. Although fever and abdominal symptoms were common initial symptoms, liver dysfunction or skin eruptions were less commonly documented. Anti-human parvovirus B19 antibody or deoxyribonucleic acid levels assessed by polymerase chain reaction was commonly used to diagnose human parvovirus B19 infection and may be useful to distinguish human parvovirus B19 infection from other abdominal infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis.

  20. The Number of Interviews Needed to Yield New Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cases Among Partners of People Diagnosed With Syphilis, North Carolina, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoff, Erika; Cope, Anna B; Maxwell, Jason; Thomas, Francina; Mobley, Victoria L

    2017-08-01

    Compare syphilis investigation yield among patient groups using number needed to interview. To increase investigation efficiency. Retrospective review of North Carolina 2015 syphilis investigations, using the number of cases needed to interview (NNTI) and the total number of cases and contacts needed to interview (TNTI) to compare yield of new syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses between patient groups. We reviewed 1646 early syphilis cases and 2181 contacts; these yielded 241 new syphilis cases (NNTI, 6.9; TNTI, 16.4) and 38 new human immunodeficiency virus cases (NNTI, 43). Interviews of women (prevalence difference [PD] = 6%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 12-16), patients 1:16 (PD = 5%, 95% CI, 1-9) yielded more new syphilis cases in our adjusted model; no other patient factors increased investigation yield. The NNTI and TNTI are useful measures of efficiency. Prioritizing early syphilis investigation by gender, rapid plasmin reagin titer, and age provides small increases in efficiency; no other factors increased efficiency.

  1. Autoantibodies and human immunodeficiency viruses infection: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, P; Monier, J C; Oksman, F; San Marco, M; Escande, A; Goetz, J; Cohen, J; Baquey, A; Humbel, R L; Sibilia, J

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of organ-specific and non-specific autoantibodies in HIV-infected patients. A multicentric collaborative case-control study including 105 HIV patients and 100 sex- and age-matched HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Antinuclear, anti-ds DNA, anti-histone, anti-Sm, rheumatoid factor(IgM), anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1, antineutrophil cytoplasmic, anti-LKM1, anti-LCA1, anti-gastric parietal cell, antiplatelet, anti-intermediate filament, anti-mitotic spindle apparatus, anti-Golgi, anti-ribosome and anti-thyroid autoantibodies were screened in six European laboratories. Only IgG and IgM anticardiolipin, IgG antiplatelet, anti-smooth muscle and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were statistically more frequent in HIV patients. There was no correlation with the numbers of CD4+ cells except in the case of anti-smooth muscle antibodies. We were unable to find specific autoantibodies such as anti-ds DNA, anti-Sm, AMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LCA1 or anti-beta 2 GP1 antibodies in these patients. Our results indicate that the autoantibody profile of HIV infections is comparable to those of other chronic viral infections. HIV does not seem to be more autoimmunogenic than other viruses.

  2. Problems and Challenges in Human Resource Management: Case of a Large Organization in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Irshad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically analyzes the work culture for a mainstream financial organization operating within Pakistan, while drawing a specific example to elucidate certain dilemmas that impede the potential growth for the financial sector and its constituent workforce, besides hampering the performance of the organizations. The case study is related to an organization in financial sector which conducts a Management Trainee Program with the purpose to select, train and develop a high-potential pool of talent into future leaders and fore-runners of the organization. This paper critically analyzes several inherent problems that face the successful implementation of the trainee program under the frameworks of various theories of organizational management. To solve these problems, this article presents a detailed diagnosis of the management shortcomings to improve the firm‟s corporate culture, work ethics and employee handling strategy and mechanism. Recommendations are also made to minimize the problems and maximize the success of the Management Trainee Program in the case study organization.

  3. Tetrodotoxin – Distribution and Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms, and Cases of Human Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Arakawa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX. In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  4. Papillary urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in association with human papilloma virus: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guma, Sergei; Maglantay, Remegio; Lau, Ryan; Wieczorek, Rosemary; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Makarov, Danil; Lee, Peng; Pincus, Matthew R; Pei, Zhi-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is a carcinogen known for its strong association with cervical cancers and cervical lesions. It is also known to be associated with a variety of squamous cell carcinomas in other areas, such as the penis, vulva, anus and head and neck. However, the association with urothelial carcinoma remains controversial. Here, we report a case of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation associated with HPV-6/HPV-11. This is a case of a 70 year old man who presented with nocturia and pressure during urination. During the TURP procedure for what was clinically thought to be benign prostate hyperplasia with pathologic diagnosis as prostate carcinoma, a 2 cm papillary mass was found in the distal penile urethra. The papillary mass was found to be a high grade urothelial carcinoma positive for GATA 3 expression, with focal areas of squamous differentiation. The areas with squamous differentiation demonstrated koilocytic differentiation, which were positive for strong p16 expression. The tumor was found to harbor low risk HPV 6/11 by in situ hybridization. This study case demonstrates HPV infection with a low risk subtype (HPV 6/11) associated with an urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation and condylomatous features.

  5. Genotypic characterisation of human papillomavirus infections among persons living with HIV infection; a case-control study in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Validation of case-finding algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying adults living with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Antoniou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to validate a case-finding algorithm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We constructed 48 case-finding algorithms using combinations of physician billing claims, hospital and emergency room separations and prescription drug claims. We determined the test characteristics of each algorithm over various time frames for identifying HIV infection, using data abstracted from the charts of 2,040 randomly selected patients receiving care at two medical practices in Toronto, Ontario as the reference standard. RESULTS: With the exception of algorithms using only a single physician claim, the specificity of all algorithms exceeded 99%. An algorithm consisting of three physician claims over a three year period had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% (95% CI 95.2%-97.9% and 99.6% (95% CI 99.1%-99.8%, respectively. Application of the algorithm to the province of Ontario identified 12,179 HIV-infected patients in care for the period spanning April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Case-finding algorithms generated from administrative data can accurately identify adults living with HIV. A relatively simple "3 claims in 3 years" definition can be used for assembling a population-based cohort and facilitating future research examining trends in health service use and outcomes among HIV-infected adults in Ontario.

  7. Comparing independent microarray studies: the case of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmati-Brivanlou Ali

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies of the same phenomenon in different labs often appear at variance because the published lists of regulated transcripts have disproportionately small intersections. We demonstrate that comparing studies by intersecting lists in this manner is methodologically flawed by reanalyzing three studies of the molecular signature of "stemness" in human embryonic stem cells. There are only 7 genes common to all three published lists, suggesting disagreement. Results Carefully reanalyzing all three together from the raw data we detect 111 genes upregulated and 95 downregulated in all three studies. The upregulated list was subject to rtRTPCR analysis and 75% of the genes were confirmed. Conclusion Our findings show that the three studies have a substantial core of common genes, which is missed if only the published lists are examined. Combined analysis of multiple experiments can be a powerful way to distil coherent conclusions.

  8. Human infants' learning of social structures: the case of dominance hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    We tested 15-month-olds' capacity to represent social-dominance hierarchies with more than two agents. Our results showed that infants found it harder to memorize dominance relations that were presented in an order that hindered the incremental formation of a single structure (Study 1). These results suggest that infants attempt to build structures incrementally, relation by relation, thereby simplifying the complex problem of recognizing a social structure. Infants also found circular dominance structures harder to process than linear dominance structures (Study 2). These expectations about the shape of structures may facilitate learning. Our results suggest that infants attempt to represent social structures composed of social relations. They indicate that human infants go beyond learning about individual social partners and their respective relations and form hypotheses about how social groups are organized.

  9. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF CHURCHES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SETTLEMETS. STUDY CASE: IASI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Georgiana PARASCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is not wrong said that monasteries and churches were one of the elements that led to the development of human settlements in Iasi, especially the city of Iasi. Most churches/monasteries from the feudal period, received from princes / noblemen vast areas of land in order to develop economically, so buildings can survive in time, but also the administrators. Gradually, this lands got to be populated by those who worked and eventually they built houses to live closer to the land they worked on. Subsequently, these small settlements led to the formation of rural settlements and with time they gained an urban character. Today, we have reached the stage where these religious buildings have grown importance in the development of tourism, attracting tourists from around the country and abroad.

  10. Human food chain contamination. The case of meat in the EEC in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmelen, E.

    1984-04-01

    Cesium 137 levels in meat distributed for human consumption have been determined as a function of the contamination levels at production. The model considers product transformations and exchanges between EEC countries or areas. On the basis of the statistics available and with a number of economic assumptions the flows are estimated, thus allowing to calculate contamination transfers. Cattle, pork, fowl have been considered especially, the other meat more briefly. The initial levels are exogenous variates; various assumptions can thus be tested: real measures or arbitrary values. The model confirms that the final values for the ingested activities are low, but the difference between the levels before and after exchanges may be very large. Transfers occur usually within a country from rural to urban areas and sometimes from one country to another. In some little productive areas, the situation depends mostly on contaminations from external and even remote origin [fr

  11. Cell-mediated immunity as an early diagnostic test for osteosarcoma in human radium cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Menon, M.; Mitchen, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Lymphocytes from patients carrying a body burden greater than 0.3 μCi of 226 Ra have been tested for specific cytotoxicity to four different osteosarcoma cell lines as well as to normal human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity indexes (defined as the ratio of the number of target cells remaining, after treatment with the patients' lymphocytes, relative to the values obtained with normal control subjects) have been calculated. With one exception no cytotoxicity was observed. This is in agreement with the fact that no fresh osteosarcomas were diagnosed. The patient in whom cytotoxicity was found was suffering from an inflammatory lesion involving bone as the result of a foreign-body reaction at the time of the first test. When the test was repeated 10 months later, no cytotoxicity was observed. No significant nonspecific cytotoxicity was observed when lymphocytes from normal control subjects were interacted with any of the target cell lines

  12. ¿Publish or perish? The case of Social Sciences and Humanities in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguado-López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the scientific collaborative behavior in the Social Sciences and Humanities in Latin America. To achieve this, Scopus trends (2003-2013, through the analysis done by Plume and Van Weijen, were contrasted with redalyc.org trends (2005-2014, covering a total of 220.200 papers. It revealed that the forms of author grew at a faster pace than the number of published papers; this rise was prompted by collaborative work strategies, with a tendency toward foreign collaboration. Therefore, the study of the characteristics of current scientific output leads inevitably to a discussion of collaboration. This has become one of the properties defining scientific work and is one of the ways that Latin American scientists address the “publish or perish” principle, which is now key to how research performance evaluations operate.

  13. Human insulin polymorphism upon ligand binding and pH variation: the case of 4-ethylresorcinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fili, S; Valmas, A; Norrman, M; Schluckebier, G; Beckers, D; Degen, T; Wright, J; Fitch, A; Gozzo, F; Giannopoulou, A E; Karavassili, F; Margiolaki, I

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of the organic ligand 4-ethylresorcinol on the crystal structure of human insulin using powder X-ray crystallography. For this purpose, systematic crystallization experiments have been conducted in the presence of the organic ligand and zinc ions within the pH range 4.50-8.20, while observing crystallization behaviour around the isoelectric point of insulin. High-throughput crystal screening was performed using a laboratory X-ray diffraction system. The most representative samples were selected for synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, which took place at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Four different crystalline polymorphs have been identified. Among these, two new phases with monoclinic symmetry have been found, which are targets for the future development of microcrystalline insulin drugs.

  14. Interpretive schemata of human resource management during economic crisis: Case of producers for automotive industry

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    Ana Arzenšek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research investigates interpretive schemata by producers for automotive industry during the economic crisis in Slovenia. Specifically, the interest was in their Human resource management (HRM schemata in current crisis. We explained the dynamics of schema change on the basis of Piaget's theory of adaptation. In-depth interviews with CEOs, directors of HRM and leaders of trade unions served as a primary data source. In addition, comparative analysis of social responsibility as reported in companies' annual reports in 2007 and 2008 was made. Firstly, results demonstrate strategic role of HRM in chosen companies. Secondly, present economic crisis does not serve as a factor of schema change. In conclusion, participants mostly assimilate new information from environment to fit their HRM schemata. Results show the major factor for both assimilation and lack of schema change is occurrence of crisis in Slovenian companies that produce for automotive industry in the nineties.

  15. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Sima; Dehghani, Rouhullah; Khaledi, Hassan Naeimi; Takhtfiroozeh, Sayed Mahdi; Chimehi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies' larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  16. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima RASTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  17. Human-scale interaction for virtual model displays: a clear case for real tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George C.; McDowall, Ian E.; Bolas, Mark T.

    1998-04-01

    We describe a hand-held user interface for interacting with virtual environments displayed on a Virtual Model Display. The tool, constructed entirely of transparent materials, is see-through. We render a graphical counterpart of the tool on the display and map it one-to-one with the real tool. This feature, combined with a capability for touch- sensitive, discrete input, results in a useful spatial input device that is visually versatile. We discuss the tool's design and interaction techniques it supports. Briefly, we look at the human factors issues and engineering challenges presented by this tool and, in general, by the class of hand-held user interfaces that are see-through.

  18. Human Resources Performance in Service Encounters – A Customer Service Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia GRIGORE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is generally defined as the extent to which resources or effort is employed in order to achieve a certain purpose or objective. As per an economic perspective, this term may also mean a minimum quantity of supplies which can generate a maximum result. But can we talk about efficiency in terms of human resources and their allocation to a specific task? And how one asses the activity of the employees when considering service encounters? This study aims to provide an answer to these two questions from an emotional labor perspective: individuals employ their emotional abilities in order to perform a certain job. This is a process under a commercial perspective: the wage represents the exchange value for these competencies.

  19. [Sepsis, cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus infection: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llagunes, J; Arastey, S; Cobo Del Prado, I; Carmona, P; Peña, J J; Mínguez, C

    2014-04-01

    Sepsis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with the appearance of cardiac dysfunction. This is a challenge, both when making the differential diagnosis and determining the proper treatment, as there are numerous risk factors: Myocarditis due to the HIV itself, the presence or absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, toxic substances, and cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to an HIV positive patient with septic shock and cardiac dysfunction is described, as well as a brief review of the different causes of cardiomyopathy which may affect this group of patients is also presented. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. HUMAN CYCLOSPORIASIS DIAGNOSIS: REPORT OF A CASE IN SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL

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    Andréia Otaviani Di Pietro Fernandes

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of the human cyclosporiasis is reported in São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis has been identified in the feces of a patient by a modified Kinyoun staining method, with later sporulation in a solution of 2.5% potassium dichromate. The probability that this parasite is the eventual cause of gastrointestinal disturbances in the country was stimulated by this finding, which was arrived at by a simple technique. It had been kept in mind that the disease was expressing itself mainly among immunocompromised patients, whose number is increasing; especially in those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV.É relatado o diagnóstico de ciclosporíase humana em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis foi encontrada nas fezes de um indivíduo através de exame pelo método de coloração de Kinyoun modificado, com posterior esporulação em dicromato de potássio a 2,5%. Esta verificação deve estimular a necessidade de considerar a ciclosporíase como eventual causa de distúrbios gastrointestinais no país, podendo ela ser reconhecida até mesmo por meio de técnica razoavelmente simples. Foi ainda lembrado que esta parasitose vem adquirindo expressividade sobretudo pelo fato de não raramente acometer imunodeprimidos, agora cada vez mais numerosos em especial como decorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, que causa a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS.

  1. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  2. Reflections: Neurology and The Humanities. The case of the locked house. The finished mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Robert J; Kempster, Peter A; Lee, Andrew J

    2014-08-12

    After the death in 2012 of Dr. Robert Joynt, who served Neurology® as CPC Section Editor, an unfinished manuscript was found on his computer. It would have been his sixth Sherlock Holmes pastiche. Intrigued by the story but deflated at the lack of an ending, the editors published the case in the September 10, 2013, issue of Neurology and requested that readers finish it. A panel of editors reviewed over 30 submissions and the top 4 were posted online and on the iPad. Readers voted online, on the iPad, and during the 2014 American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting in Philadelphia. The winning coauthors are Peter A. Kempster, from Melbourne, and Andrew J. Lees, from London. The runners-up are Anonymous (ending 1), Gerald Honch (ending 2), and Clifton Gooch (ending 4). The editors thank all participants and voters. The rule on page 662 indicates where the winning ending begins.

  3. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  4. HUMAN RESOURCES IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE OVERALL QUALITY: THE CASE OF CPII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Legčević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shall present the results of the research that was aimed at measuring employee satisfaction with the existing state of affairs as well as their expectations in the future in the case of the Economic and Financial Affairs Department of the Croatian Pension Insurance Institute (CPII, Regional Office (RO Osijek. The study was conducted by using the KVALIMETAR measuring instrument. The results of the study allowed the identification of critical areas in the management system through the dimensions of the KVALIMETAR measuring instrument, based on which recommendations for improvement were made. A negative gap was recorded in all dimensions, which leads to the conclusion that the existing state of affairs should not be maintained. It is also necessary to continue to work and invest further efforts to improve quality since it is precisely continuous improvement and upgrading that quality management mandates.

  5. Maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, P; Tzouma, C; Creatsa, M; Boutas, I; Hassiakos, D

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of hCG. A 36-year-old woman after successful intrauterine insemination and triplet pregnancy, developed hyperthyroidism with resistance to medical treatment. All signs of hyperthyroidism resolved and the results of thyroid function tests returned to normal without any medication after embryo meiosis. De novo maternal hyperthyroidism may develop during pregnancy as a result of pathological stimulation of the thyroid gland from the high levels of hCG hormone that can be seen in multiple pregnancies. The risk of hyperthyroidism is related to the number of fetuses. Reversibility of symptomatology can be seen after fetal reduction of multiple pregnancies.

  6. Limitation Period In Case-Law Of European Court Of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Петрович Карнаух

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions of the research. Limitation period constitute a restriction of a right to access to court. Such a restriction is justified if (a it does not restrict a right to access to court in such a way that the very essence of that right is nullified; (b it has a legitimate purpose; (c the proper balance between the purpose aimed and the restriction is struck. In order for the limitation period to be proportionate with the aim of providing legal certainty, the following requirements should be met: (i the limitation period is not unduly short; (ii the application of limitation period is foreseeable; (iii the application of limitation period is flexible (i.e. it is capable of taking into account different individual characteristics of each case.

  7. [Infestation of the human digestive system with beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Cantharidae): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Ekici, Pınar

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to report the digestive system infestation caused by the larvae of Coleoptera in a female pediatric patient. She was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of emergence of insect larvae from her vomit and feces, abdominal pain, inguinal pain, lack of appetite, hair loss, excessive cleaning behavior, extreme irritability, and distractibility. The larvae observed typically had the morphology of the larvae of insects related to the Cantharidae family in the Coleoptera order. For treatment, a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) was used. Consequently, in the present case, it was seen that the larvae of Coleoptera incidentally taken orally could continue to live for a period in the digestive tract of people, without losing vitality, and the larvae caused a variety of symptoms due to both their toxic agents and the possible irritation they caused.

  8. When Human Claims Become Rights. The Case of the Right to Truth over “Desaparecidos”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Jacqmin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the birth of the Right to Truth for the families of missing persons. It refers to socio-legal theories about the origins of human rights that deconstruct their moral and philosophical dimension, and place them in the social milieu in which they arise and develop. This theoretical framework helps analyzing the transitional context of Argentina after the dictatorship, where lawyers promoted the Right to Truth, as the best alternative to a missing criminal justice. Through the analysis of legal memories, the article shows how lawyers and activists, by using the seductive human rights rhetoric, were able to attribute legal qualification to a moral aspiration, as they transformed the desire of the victims to know the destiny of all desaparecidos into a new and autonomous right. Este artículo se centra en el nacimiento del Derecho a la Verdad para las familias de personas desaparecidas. Se refiere a las teorías sociojurídicas sobre los orígenes de los derechos humanos las cuales desconstruyen su dimensión moral y filosófica y los ubican en el contexto social en el cual surgen y se desarrollan. Este marco teórico ayuda a analizar el contexto transicional de la Argentina posterior a la dictadura, en el cual los juristas promovieron el Derecho a la Verdad como alternativa óptima a una justicia penal ausente. A través del análisis de la memoria legal, el artículo muestra cómo los juristas y activistas, utilizando la seductora retórica de derechos humanos, fueron capaces de atribuir calidad jurídica a una aspiración moral, a medida que transformaron el deseo de las víctimas de conocer el destino de todos los desaparecidos en un nuevo derecho autónomo. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3051031

  9. Contribution of Human papillomavirus in neuroendocrine tumors from a series of 10,575 invasive cervical cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Clavero, Omar; Quiros, Beatriz; Vighi, Susana; Seoud, Muhieddine; Cheng-Yang, Chou; Garland, Suzanne M; Juanpere, Nuria; Lloreta, Josep; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Quint, Wim; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lloveras, Belen

    2018-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the cervix are rare tumors with a very aggressive course. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to its etiology. The objective of this study is to describe HPV prevalence and genotype distribution of NET. Forty-nine tumors with histological neuroendocrine features were identified among 10,575 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases from an international study. HPV DNA detection was done using SPF10/DEIA /LiPA 25 system. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD56) and for p16 INK4a as a surrogate for HPV transforming infection was performed. In 13 samples with negative IHC for all 3 neuroendocrine markers studied, it was possible to conduct electron microscopy (EM). NET represented 0.5% of the total ICC series and HPV was detected in 42 out of 49 samples (85.7%, 95%CI:72.8%,94.1%). HPV16 was the predominant type (54.8%), followed by HPV18 (40.5%). p16 INK4a overexpression was observed in 38/44 cases (86.4%). Neuroendocrine IHC markers could be demonstrated in 24/37 (64.9%) cases. EM identified neuroendocrine granules in 8 samples with negative IHC markers. Our data confirms the association of cervical NET with HPV and p16 INK4a overexpression. Specifically, HPV16 and 18 accounted together for over 95% of the HPV positive cases. Current HPV vaccines could largely prevent these aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of high-risk human papillomavirus in the etiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancers in Thailand: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotipanich, Adit; Siriarechakul, Surattaya; Mungkung, On-Ong

    2018-01-01

    Among developing countries, Thailand shows no increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus-driven oropharyngeal cancer. The causal role of human papillomavirus infection in this pathology has not been researched thoroughly. A hospital-based, case-control study was performed which included 104 patients with newly diagnosed oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and 104 individuals without cancer. The Cervista high-risk human papillomavirus and 16/18 assays were used to detect human papillomavirus. Odds ratios were used to assess the association between high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the cancers. High-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 4 of 52 (7.7%) oral cancer cases, 6 of 52 (11.5%) oropharyngeal cancer cases, and 1 of 104 (0.96%) control subjects. Of 104 cancer patients in the study, 83 were smokers. High-risk human papillomavirus was significantly associated with oropharyngeal cancer (odds ratio = 13.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-114.8) but was nonsignificantly associated with oral cancer (odds ratio = 8.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-78.9). However, after adjustment for smoking, high-risk human papillomavirus was determined to be nonsignificantly associated with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 5.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.8-43.5). Although low human papillomavirus prevalence was observed, the rate of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in the cancer group was still higher than that in the control group. Smoking may have an influence on the etiology of human papillomavirus-related cancers. However, the study is underpowered to clarify the role of human papillomavirus as the independent risk factor for oral and oropharyngeal cancers in the Thai population.

  11. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller's albatross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Waugh

    Full Text Available Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere, New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori, which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.

  12. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. - Highlights: • Indoor and outdoor environments were classified by exposure to health concern. • Measurements taken by people provide better knowledge than fixed stations. • Social stress and noise are more stressing factors than Thermal load and CO. • The most stressful places are crowded ones like markets etc. • Short visit in green spaces are effective in reducing levels of stress.

  13. Human food preferences and cultural identity: the case of Aragón (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Luis; Espeitx, Elena; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Martín, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between sociocultural values and human food preferences. The latter, as shown in this paper, are greatly influenced by cultural identity. This work stems from a theoretical context that originated in Europe and the United States towards the mid-twentieth century, within the field of the anthropology of food. A qualitative and quantitative analysis has been performed in the Comunidad Autónoma de Aragón (Spain). Research methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and a questionnaire that was handed out to a representative sample of the Aragonese population (816 people over 21 years of age; confidence level of 95.5% and error margin of ±3.5). Regarding the research outcome, a highly significant qualitative and quantitative connection has been found between food selection and cultural identity. In other words, people prefer to consume foods that are symbolically associated with their own culture, in order to reinforce their sense of belonging. Although this study has been carried out in Aragón, it is our belief that the results can be generalized to other areas. The originality and interest of our findings are notable considering that, to date, few works have analyzed the sociocultural factors motivating food behavior. Moreover, these results could be used by public and private organizations to meet objectives such as health promotion and product marketing.

  14. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  15. From preferred to actual mate characteristics: the case of human body shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Courtiol

    Full Text Available The way individuals pair to produce reproductive units is a major factor determining evolution. This process is complex because it is determined not only by individual mating preferences, but also by numerous other factors such as competition between mates. Consequently, preferred and actual characteristics of mates obtained should differ, but this has rarely been addressed. We simultaneously measured mating preferences for stature, body mass, and body mass index, and recorded corresponding actual partner's characteristics for 116 human couples from France. Results show that preferred and actual partner's characteristics differ for male judges, but not for females. In addition, while the correlation between all preferred and actual partner's characteristics appeared to be weak for female judges, it was strong for males: while men prefer women slimmer than their actual partner, those who prefer the slimmest women also have partners who are slimmer than average. This study therefore suggests that the influences of preferences on pair formation can be sex-specific. It also illustrates that this process can lead to unexpected results on the real influences of mating preferences: traits considered as highly influencing attractiveness do not necessarily have a strong influence on the actual pairing, the reverse being also possible.

  16. Building America Case Study: Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes, Hudson, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18 percent of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  17. Z-2 Space Suit: A Case Study in Human Spaceflight Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's Z-series of planetary space suit prototypes is an iterative development platform with a Mars-forward design philosophy, targeting a Mars surface mission in the mid-2030s. The first space suit assembly, called the Z-1, was delivered in 2012. While meeting the project's stated requirements and objectives, the general public's reception primarily focused on the color scheme, which vaguely invoked similarity to a certain animated cartoon character. The public at large has and continues to be exposed to varying space suit design aesthetics from popular culture and low TRL technology maturation efforts such as mechanical counterpressure. The lesson learned was that while the design aesthetic is not important from an engineering perspective, the perception of the public is important for NASA and human spaceflight in general. For the Z-2 space suit, an integrated public outreach strategy was employed to engage, excite and educate the public on the current technology of space suits and NASA's plans moving forward. The keystone of this strategy was a public vote on three different suit cover layer aesthetics, the winner of which would be used as inspiration in fabrication. Other components included social media, university collaboration, and select media appearances, the cumulative result of which, while intangible in its benefit, was ultimately a positive effect in terms of the image of NASA as well as the dissemination of information vital to dispelling public misconceptions.

  18. Designing a Model for Knowledge Socialization Using Sociability Processes of Human Resource Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rezaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for knowledge socialization using sociability processes of human resources through an applied research approach. Two types of participants participated in this study. The first type included academic and industrial experts; the second type included employees and managers of Ansar Bank. Ten experts were asked to identify criteria and weigh the identified criteria. Using simple random sampling, the sample size was estimated at 207. Field and archival studies were used to collect data. Validity and reliability of the distributed questionnaire were confirmed by organizational experts. Using theoretical literature and surveying experts, 18 criteria were identified of which 12 criteria (desirable and joyful workplace, management and leadership support in sociability process, training courses, transparency in working relations, team work, organizational trustful climate, job description and job knowledge, tangible incentives, participatory system, informal technique, defined career path, individual values aligned with organizational value were selected by screening for prioritization and analysis. Fuzzy AHP and structural equation modelling based on partial least squares were used for prioritization and weighting. Fuzzy AHP model showed that desirable workplace (0.163, participatory systems and brainstorming (0.149, transparency in working relations (0.114, and informal techniques (0.111 gained the highest weights; finally, PLS model showed that all 12 identified criteria were effective on socialization of knowledge management.

  19. Depth profilometric case studies in caries diagnostics of human teeth using modulated laser radiometry and luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Raymond J.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements from human teeth of photothermal radiometric (PTR) and luminescence (LM) signals induced by an intensity modulated laser have been performed to assess the feasibility of detecting deep lesions and near-surface cracks, to examine the effects of varying enamel thicknesses, the presence of fillings, and stains on the surface of teeth. A commercial dc luminescence monitoring instrument (DIAGNOdent by KaVo) was also used to examine a set of teeth for comparison purposes with PTR and LM. PTR amplitude signals from carious regions and from thin enamel were higher than those from healthy regions and thicker enamel. A crack produces a peak in the PTR amplitude scan, as well as a sudden change in the luminescence amplitude at the corresponding point. At low frequencies (5 Hz), the PTR amplitude showed high sensitivity to a deep (about 2 mm) lesion, while at high frequencies (700 Hz) it was more sensitive to surface cracks. It was concluded that by selecting proper modulation frequencies of the laser, measurements of PTR and LM signals could be used as a dental diagnostic technique with a small, inexpensive, low-power (<30 mW) semiconductor laser as a light source emitting in the optical window range of hard tissue (650-1000 nm).

  20. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran; Bez, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  1. Strengthening human resources for health through information, coordination and accountability mechanisms: the case of the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Elsheikh; Mohamed, Nazar A; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Bile, Khalif Mohamud

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. A "country coordination and facilitation" process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders' coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage.

  2. Worldwide human papillomavirus genotype attribution in over 2000 cases of intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Alemany, Laia; Ordi, Jaume; Tous, Sara; Alejo, Maria; Bigby, Susan M; Joura, Elmar Armin; Maldonado, Paula; Laco, Jan; Bravo, Ignacio G; Vidal, August; Guimerà, Núria; Cross, Paul; Wain, Gerard V; Petry, Karl Ulrich; Mariani, Luciano; Bergeron, Christine; Mandys, Václav; Sica, Adela Rosa; Félix, Ana; Usubutun, Alp; Seoud, Muhieddine; Hernández-Suárez, Gustavo; Nowakowski, Andrzej Marcin; Wilson, Godfrey; Dalstein, Veronique; Hampl, Monika; Kasamatsu, Elena Sachiko; Lombardi, Luis Estuardo; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Perrotta, Myriam; Bhatla, Neerja; Agorastos, Theodoros; Lynch, Charles F; Goodman, Marc T; Shin, Hai-Rim; Viarheichyk, Halina; Jach, Robert; Cruz, M O L Eugenia; Velasco, Julio; Molina, Carla; Bornstein, Jacob; Ferrera, Annabelle; Domingo, Efren Javier; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Banjo, Adekunbiola F; Castellsagué, Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Lloveras, Belén; Quint, Wim G V; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) contribution in vulvar intraepithelial lesions (VIN) and invasive vulvar cancer (IVC) is not clearly established. This study provides novel data on HPV markers in a large series of VIN and IVC lesions. Histologically confirmed VIN and IVC from 39 countries were assembled at the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). HPV-DNA detection was done by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers and genotyping by reverse hybridisation line probe assay (LiPA25) (version 1). IVC cases were tested for p16(INK4a) by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). An IVC was considered HPV driven if both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) overexpression were observed simultaneously. Data analyses included algorithms allocating multiple infections to calculate type-specific contribution and logistic regression models to estimate adjusted prevalence (AP) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of 2296 cases, 587 were VIN and 1709 IVC. HPV-DNA was detected in 86.7% and 28.6% of the cases respectively. Amongst IVC cases, 25.1% were both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) positive. IVC cases were largely keratinising squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC) (N=1234). Overall prevalence of HPV related IVC cases was highest in younger women for any histological subtype. SCC with warty or basaloid features (SCC_WB) (N=326) were more likely to be HPV and p16(INK4a) positive (AP=69.5%, CI=63.6-74.8) versus KSCC (AP=11.5%, CI=9.7-13.5). HPV 16 was the commonest type (72.5%) followed by HPV 33 (6.5%) and HPV 18 (4.6%). Enrichment from VIN to IVC was significantly high for HPV 45 (8.5-fold). Combined data from HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) testing are likely to represent a closer estimate of the real fraction of IVC induced by HPV. Our results indicate that HPV contribution in invasive vulvar cancer has probably been overestimated. HPV 16 remains the major player worldwide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ophthalmic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Description of a case].

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    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernandez, Á; Sobenes Gutierrez, R

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection of worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and infects a large proportion of the world population. Only under certain circumstances of severe immunosuppression can the parasite reactivate and cause disease. The most common form of presentation of this pathology in patients with positive HIV is the brain abscess. One of the extra-cerebral forms is toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, which could lead to a chronic active form of a slowly progressive retinitis. Diagnosis is made by observing the eye fundus and confirmed by the scarring obtained after specific treatment. We report a case of a patient with diabetes and positive HIV, in whom a toxoplasmic scar injury was detected in the annual retinography follow-up. A conservative therapeutic approach was decided, with regular check-ups for possible detection of disease activation. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECT OF AIBENDAZOLE ON HUMAN HYDATID CYST: REPORT OF 10 CASES

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    A GHAFOURI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Operation is the most common treatment for hydatid cysts. However, operation would be useless in some patients with diffuse organ involvement, special anatomic spaces or poor general conditions. So, drug therapy is considered in some studies. Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivation can gain high plasma level. It absorbed quickly after oral intake and most of it metabolized to Sulfoxide. Methods: Ten randomly selected patients with 39 hydatid cysts in different organs were treated by albendazole. Patients received 10-15 mg/kg/day of albendazole in two different divided doses for 1-4 periods of 30 days duration. Periodic clinical and paraclinical examinations were done. The cysts were in the liver, lung, spleen, peritoneum, pelvis, pericardium and chest wall. Results: Except for one cyst in lung and two in abdomen which therapeutic results have not clarified, all of the cysts died. Drug systemic side effects were negligible. Patients had good tolerance to it. Local complication such as inflamation, tenderness and rupture of cyst were the main side effects. Discussion: It is recommende to pay more attention to drug therapy in management of hydatid cyst. It is helpful for complicated cases that we cant operate them.

  5. Frameworks matter: ecosocial and health and human rights perspectives on disparities in women's health--the case of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Gruskin, S

    2001-01-01

    Frameworks matter. To understand, intervene in, and improve the health of girls and women requires more than just good intentions and an eclectic list of "risk factors" or policy prescriptions, even if dressed up in notions of "gender." In this article, we present two frameworks-ecosocial and health and human rights-that, if considered singly and in combination, we believe could prove useful to furthering work on understanding and addressing societal patterns of health, disease, and well-being. After explicitly summarizing our theoretical stances, we sketch the kinds of questions these frameworks invite us to consider, with reference to a particular case example: women and tuberculosis. By taking on the challenge of articulating and applying our frameworks, separately and in relation to each other, we hope to deepen understanding and generate new ideas that can make a difference for the health of girls and women.

  6. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

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    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and A. phagocytophilum should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  7. The ethics of withdrawal: the case of follow-up from first-in-human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Kristina; Johansson, Mats

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze whether patients should be allowed to veto research-related use of medical data collected during routine follow-ups after their withdrawal from first-in-human clinical trials. Forms of withdrawal are identified and it is argued that the right to withdraw might be limited to some of these. The paper concludes that if veto right is denied, then: the research participant should be informed about the potential use of his/her follow-up data in case of his/her withdrawal and consent to it; follow-up should not be initiated for research purposes; compulsory use of follow-up data should imply the use of data anyway collected, requiring no additional effort from the patient; and before deciding about the veto right, investigation of concerned patients' value preferences is needed.

  8. Human resources department in crisis: A case of a university in South Africa

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    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources (HR departments in previously disadvantaged higher education institutions (HEI in South Africa have contributed to the crisis that has led them to be governed by appointed Administrators assigned by the Ministry of Higher Education and Training. The malfunctioning of HR departments persists even in the post-Administrator’s era, with a prevalence of personal, interpersonal and operational challenges. This study aimed at interrogating challenges faced by the HR Department of the university concerned post the appointed Administrator era and its negative effects. This study adopted a qualitative research approach whereby in-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 10 HR Department staff members. Focus group discussions were also carried out with 20 academic and non-academic university leaders. Further data was also collected through ethnographic observation and secondary data was also used. The non-probability purposive sampling was used for qualitative analysis and NVivo was used for organizing and analyzing data gleaned from the in-depth interviews. The study findings consistently revealed unclear roles and responsibilities, outmoded recruitment and selection processes and poor interpersonal relations amongst the HR department staff members as some of the challenges that still persist post the Administrator’s era, all of which have contributed to the paralysis of organizational culture. University leaders can use the study findings as a tool to devise and implement radical change management interventions aiming at re-engineering HR departments that are operating abnormally, as well as for designing a responsive HR Strategic Architect. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the HR fraternity as there is a dearth of published studies on the internal challenges faces by HR Departments (both interpersonal and operational, which have the potential to hamper smooth operations of higher education institutions.

  9. Landscape and regional environmental analysis of the spatial distribution of hantavirus human cases in Europe

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    Caroline Brigitte Zeimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although Southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast and the Netherlands should be kept under watch.Conclusions: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area; the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently.

  10. Isolation and clinical sample typing of human leptospirosis cases in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiani, Yosena; Jacob, Paulina; Varni, Vanina; Landolt, Noelia; Schmeling, María Fernanda; Pujato, Nazarena; Caimi, Karina; Vanasco, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira typing is carried out using isolated strains. Because of difficulties in obtaining them, direct identification of infective Leptospira in clinical samples is a high priority. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) proved highly discriminatory for seven pathogenic species of Leptospira, allowing isolate characterization and robust assignment to species, in addition to phylogenetic evidence for the relatedness between species. In this study we characterized Leptospira strains circulating in Argentina, using typing methods applied to human clinical samples and isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences enabled typing of 8 isolates (6 Leptospira interrogans, one Leptospira wolffii and one Leptospira broomii) and 58 out of 85 (68.2%) clinical samples (55 L. interrogans, 2 Leptospira meyeri, and one Leptospira kirschneri). MLST results for the L. interrogans isolates indicated that five were probably Canicola serogroup (ST37) and one was probably Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup (ST17). Eleven clinical samples (21.6%), provided MLST interpretable data: five were probably Pyrogenes serogroup (ST13), four Sejroe (ST20), one Autumnalis (ST22) and one Canicola (ST37). To the best of our knowledge this study is the first report of the use of an MLST typing scheme with seven loci to identify Leptospira directly from clinical samples in Argentina. The use of clinical samples presents the advantage of the possibility of knowing the infecting strain without resorting to isolates. This study also allowed, for the first time, the characterization of isolates of intermediate pathogenicity species (L. wolffii and L. broomii) from symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative cross-species extrapolation between humans and fish: the case of the anti-depressant fluoxetine.

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    Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci

    Full Text Available Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis. To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (H(TPCs. Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the H(TPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the H(TPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool

  12. Human fetal malformations associated with the use of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist: Case Report

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    Henri Augusto Korkes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potential risks related to drug exposure during pregnancy represent a vast chapter in modern obstetrics and data regarding the safety of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy are relatively scarce. Case report: A 37-year-old patient discovered her fifth pregnancy at our hospital after 26 weeks and 4 days of gestation. She reported a history of hypertension and was currently being treated with Losartan. Hospitalization was recommended for the patient and further evaluation of fetal vitality was performed. On the fourth day an ultrasound was performed, resulting in a severe oligohydramnios, fetal centralization and abnormal ductus venosus. After 36 hours, the newborn died. Pathologic evaluation: At autopsy, the skullcap had large fontanels and deficient ossification. The kidneys were slightly enlarged. A microscopic examination detected underdevelopment of the tubules and the presence of some dilated lumens. Immunohistochemical detection of epithelial membrane antigen was positive. Immunoreactivity of CD 15 was also assayed to characterize the proximal tubules, and lumen collapse was observed in some regions. Discussion: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs are among the most widely prescribed drugs for hypertension. They are often used by hypertensive women who are considering become pregnant. While their fetal toxicity in the second or third trimesters has been documented, their teratogenic effect during the first trimester has only recently been demonstrated. Conclusion: Constant awareness by physicians and patients should be encouraged, particularly in regard to the prescription of antihypertensive drugs in women of childbearing age who are or intend to become pregnant.

  13. Relevance of East African Drill Cores to Human Evolution: the Case of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, R.

    2016-12-01

    Drill cores reaching the local basement of the East African Rift were obtained in 2012 south of the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya, 20 km from excavations that document key benchmarks in the origin of Homo sapiens. Sediments totaling 216 m were obtained from two drilling locations representing the past 1 million years. The cores were acquired to build a detailed environmental record spatially associated with the transition from Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology and extensive turnover in mammalian species. The project seeks precise tests of how climate dynamics and tectonic events were linked with these transitions. Core lithology (A.K. Behrensmeyer), geochronology (A. Deino), diatoms (R.B. Owen), phytoliths (R. Kinyanjui), geochemistry (N. Rabideaux, D. Deocampo), among other indicators, show evidence of strong environmental variability in agreement with predicted high-eccentricity modulation of climate during the evolutionary transitions. Increase in hominin mobility, elaboration of symbolic behavior, and concurrent turnover in mammalian species indicating heightened adaptability to unpredictable ecosystems, point to a direct link between the evolutionary transitions and the landscape dynamics reflected in the Olorgesailie drill cores. For paleoanthropologists and Earth scientists, any link between evolutionary transitions and environmental dynamics requires robust evolutionary datasets pertinent to how selection, extinction, population divergence, and other evolutionary processes were impacted by the dynamics uncovered in drill core studies. Fossil and archeological data offer a rich source of data and of robust environment-evolution explanations that must be integrated into efforts by Earth scientists who seek to examine high-resolution climate records of human evolution. Paleoanthropological examples will illustrate the opportunities that exist for connecting evolutionary benchmarks to the data obtained from drilled African muds. Project members: R. Potts, A

  14. Review of pollutant lead decline in urban air and human blood: A case study from northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Daniel; Véron, Alain; Flament, Pascal; Deboudt, Karine; Poirier, André

    2015-09-01

    A review of the transient decline of pollutant lead in the air (PbA) and the blood (PbB) has been conducted in order to assess the relationship between these environmental reservoirs. We have demonstrated that PbA decreased 20 to 100 times more than PbB for the past 30 years, suggesting another significant intake besides airborne lead to explain lead accumulated in humans. This trend has also been observed in two blood surveys we have completed in 1976-1978 and 2008-2009 in northern France and Belgium. Nowadays, the mean PbB (1.5-3.5 μg/dL) remains at least 100 times higher than the estimated non-contaminated PbB. Lead isotope imprints in blood could help decipher specific contamination cases, and were coherent with the decline of PbA, but could not help discriminate the source of blood lead owing to the lack of source imprints, especially from dietary intakes. Correlations between recent PbB, isotopic imprints and the age of the subjects suggested that lead released from bones has become a significant source of lead in blood. The significant cause for human exposure to lead may have shifted from direct pollutant lead input accumulated in exogenous reservoirs (air and diet) to endogenous lead release from bone tissues consequential to metabolic calcium homeostasis and bone turnover.

  15. Rabies in Iraq: trends in human cases 2001-2010 and characterisation of animal rabies strains from Baghdad.

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    Daniel L Horton

    Full Text Available Control of rabies requires a consistent supply of dependable resources, constructive cooperation between veterinary and public health authorities, and systematic surveillance. These are challenging in any circumstances, but particularly during conflict. Here we describe available human rabies surveillance data from Iraq, results of renewed sampling for rabies in animals, and the first genetic characterisation of circulating rabies strains from Iraq. Human rabies is notifiable, with reported cases increasing since 2003, and a marked increase in Baghdad between 2009 and 2010. These changes coincide with increasing numbers of reported dog bites. There is no laboratory confirmation of disease or virus characterisation and no systematic surveillance for rabies in animals. To address these issues, brain samples were collected from domestic animals in the greater Baghdad region and tested for rabies. Three of 40 brain samples were positive using the fluorescent antibody test and hemi-nested RT-PCR for rabies virus (RABV. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences derived from the samples demonstrated the viruses belong to a single virus variant and share a common ancestor with viruses from neighbouring countries, 22 (95% HPD 14-32 years ago. These include countries lying to the west, north and east of Iraq, some of which also have other virus variants circulating concurrently. These results suggest possible multiple introductions of rabies into the Middle East, and regular trans-boundary movement of disease. Although 4000 years have passed since the original description of disease consistent with rabies, animals and humans are still dying of this preventable and neglected zoonosis.

  16. Complications Associated With the Use of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 in Ridge Augmentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonas, Panagiotis; Palin, Charles; Khan, Saba; Gajendrareddy, Praveen K; Weiner, Whitney D

    2017-10-01

    This case report aims to describe in detail a complication associated with resorption of regenerated bone following implant placement and ridge augmentation using recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in combination with allograft and xenograft. Bilateral maxillary sinus and ridge augmentation procedures were completed using rhBMP-2 combined with allograft and xenograft. Five months later, significant bone augmentation was achieved, which allowed for the placement of 4 implants. Upon stage 2 surgery, significant dehiscence was noted in all implants. Treatment steps to address this complication included implant removal, guided bone regeneration with xenograft only, and placement of new implants followed by soft-tissue grafting. At the time of publication, this patient is status 1½ years post case completion with maintenance of therapy outcomes. Off-label use of rhBMP-2 has gained significant acceptance in implant dentistry. However, there is limited evidence regarding the bone maturation process when rhBMP-2 is combined with other biomaterials. More research may be needed regarding the timing and process of bone healing in the presence of rhBMP-2, in an effort to avoid surgical complications.

  17. Proper knowledge on toxicokinetics improves human hazard testing and subsequent health risk characterisation. A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessems, Jos G M; Geraets, Liesbeth

    2013-12-01

    In the current EU legislative frameworks on chemicals safety, the requirements with respect to information on general kinetic parameters (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion or ADME) or integrated toxicokinetic parameters (TK, i.e. plasma concentration-time curve, area under the curve etcetera) in humans and experimental animals vary widely. For agrochemicals and cosmetics, there are regulatory requirements whereas for other frameworks, such as food ingredients, biocides, consumer products and high production volume chemicals (REACH) there are very little or no requirements. This paper presents case studies that illustrate the importance of ADME and TK data in regulatory risk characterisations. The examples were collected by interviewing regulatory risk assessors from various chemicals (non-pharmaceutical) frameworks. The case studies illustrate how (1) applying ADME/TK in an early phase of toxicity testing can be used to improve study design and support the 3R-goals and how (2) increased use of ADME/TK data can improve the final risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attribution of the French human Salmonellosis cases to the main food-sources according to the type of surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J M; Sanders, P; Bemrah, N; Granier, S A; Denis, M; Weill, F-X; Guillemot, D; Watier, L

    2013-05-15

    Salmonella are the most common bacterial cause of foodborne infections in France and ubiquitous pathogens present in many animal productions. Assessing the relative contribution of the different food-animal sources to the burden of human cases is a key step towards the conception, prioritization and assessment of efficient control policy measures. For this purpose, we considered a Bayesian microbial subtyping attribution approach based on a previous published model (Hald et al., 2004). It requires quality integrated data on human cases and on the contamination of their food sources, per serotype and microbial subtype, which were retrieved from the French integrated surveillance system for Salmonella. The quality of the data available for such an approach is an issue for many countries in which the surveillance system has not been designed for this purpose. In France, the sources are monitored simultaneously by an active, regulation-based surveillance system that produces representative prevalence data (as ideally required for the approach) and a passive system relying on voluntary laboratories that produces data not meeting the standards set by Hald et al. (2004) but covering a broader range of sources. These data allowed us to study the impact of data quality on the attribution results, globally and focusing on specific features of the data (number of sources and contamination indicator). The microbial subtyping attribution model was run using an adapted parameterization previously proposed (David et al., 2012). A total of 9076 domestic sporadic cases were included in the analyses as well as 9 sources among which 5 were common to the active and the passive datasets. The greatest impact on the attribution results was observed for the number of sources. Thus, especially in the absence of data on imported products, the attribution estimates presented here should be considered with caution. The results were comparable for both types of surveillance, leading to the

  19. Antibodies against six human herpesviruses in relation to seven cancers in black South Africans: A case control study

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    Ruff P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with certain human herpesviruses have been established as risk factors for some cancer types. For example, Epstein-Barr Virus is considered a cause of Burkitt's lymphoma and other immunosuppression related lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Several other human herpesviruses have been linked to cancers but the totality of evidence is inconclusive. Methods We conducted a systematic sub-study from within an ongoing case control study of adult black South Africans to investigate the relationship between antibodies to six human herpesviruses and seven cancer groups that may be caused by infectious agents. Subjects had incident cancers of the oral cavity(n = 88, the cervix(n = 53, the prostate(n = 66, Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 83, non-Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 80, multiple myeloma(n = 94 or leukaemia(n = 203. For comparison, patients with other cancers(n = 95 or cardiovascular disease(n = 101 were randomly selected from within the study. Patients were interviewed and their blood was tested for IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV-EBNA, CMV and HHV-6 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Because these viruses are highly prevalent in this population, optical density results from the assays were used as an indirect, quantitative measure of antibody level. Results There was significant variation in the mean log antibody measures for HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HHV-6 between the disease groups. However, none of the specific cancer groups had significantly higher mean log antibody measures for any of the viruses compared to either control group. In a more detailed examination of seven associations between cancers and herpesviruses for which there had been prior reports, two statistically significant associations were found: a decreasing risk of myeloid leukaemia and an increasing risk of oral cancer with increasing tertiles of antibodies against HHV-6 compared to all other patients (p-trend = 0.03 and 0

  20. Challenges Facing the Use of Human Rights to Address Negative Impacts of Development: the Case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istiningsih-Hadiprayitno, I.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of human rights in development is gaining prominence. In concrete settings and contexts, however, contesting development practices with human rights normative standards is controversial. The article outlines this controversy and complexity in Indonesia. It highlights tensions in human