WorldWideScience

Sample records for human athletic performance

  1. The limits of human athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    2005-01-01

    For each individual, there is a limit to the capacity to perform exercise. The limitation, however, depends on the nature of the task and is also influenced by a number of other factors. Muscle strength is determined largely by muscle mass, specifically muscle cross-sectional area, but is also influenced by neural drive and biomechanical factors. Endurance performance depends on both cardiovascular capacity and the metabolic characteristics of the skeletal muscles. These factors are determined in part by genetic endowment: the elite sprinter has a high proportion of Type 2 muscle fibres while the leg muscles of the successful marathon runner are composes mainly of Type 1 fibres. Whatever the genetic potential, expression of this depends on the intensity, duration and frequency of the applied training stimulus, diet and other factors. The limitation may also depend on environmental factors, such as altitude and temperature.

  2. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  3. Athlete atypicity on the edge of human achievement: performances stagnate after the last peak, in 1988.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Berthelot

    Full Text Available The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress.We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988 followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints.

  4. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Silvia; McNamee, Michael J

    2014-02-05

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency's 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research' by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List.

  5. Maximizing performance and the prevention of injuries in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Warren A

    2002-06-01

    Training athletes to achieve their personal best is an arduous task. The art of coaching athletes toward world-class performances is a blend of science and psychologic motivation. Competitive athletes train 20 to 40 hours per week and push the physiologic limits of the human body. In the past, applying training loads was a best-guess estimate made by the coach and/or athlete. Every athlete is different, and his or her day-to-day exercise and nonexercise stressors vary greatly. Psychophysiologic disturbances precipitated by overtraining can lead to exponential changes in an athlete's ability to tolerate training loads. Musculoskeletal injuries, neuroendocrine irregularities, immune system suppression, and psychologic problems plague athletes and coaches as they attempt to set world records. This paper provides a framework for physicians, athletes, and coaches to better understand the complexities of training, with hopes of preventing overuse problems.

  6. Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Teen Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Tween and teen health Performance-enhancing drugs can be tempting for teen athletes. Understand the warning signs and what you can do to keep your teen from using shortcuts to improve athletic performance. By Mayo ...

  7. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the warrior. We have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Ft. Campbell, KY. This is Part I of two papers that presents the research conducted during the first three steps of the program and includes Injury Surveillance, Task and Demand Analysis, and Predictors of Injury and Optimal Performance. Injury surveillance based on a self-report of injuries was collected on all Soldiers participating in the study. Field-based analyses of the tasks and demands of Soldiers performing typical tasks of 101st Soldiers were performed to develop 101st-specific laboratory testing and to assist with the design of the intervention (Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP)). Laboratory testing of musculoskeletal, biomechanical, physiological, and nutritional characteristics was performed on Soldiers and benchmarked to triathletes to determine predictors of injury and optimal performance and to assist with the design of ETAP. Injury surveillance demonstrated that Soldiers of the 101st are at risk for a wide range of preventable unintentional musculoskeletal injuries during physical training, tactical training, and recreational/sports activities. The field-based analyses provided quantitative data and qualitative information essential to guiding 101st specific laboratory testing and intervention design. Overall the laboratory testing revealed that Soldiers of the 101st would benefit from targeted physical training to meet the specific demands of

  8. The use of Angiotensin-I converting enzyme i/d genetic polymorphism as a biomarker of athletic performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello Costa, Maria Fernanda; Slocombe, Ron

    2012-10-09

    Angiotensin II is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mammals. The conversion of angiotensin into its active form is carried out by Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). The measurement of ACE concentration in plasma or serum, its enzymatic activity, and the correlation between an insertion/deletion (I/D) genetic polymorphism of the ACE gene have been investigated as possible indicators of superior athletic performance in humans. In this context, other indicators of superior adaptation to exercise resulting in better athletic performance (such as ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, and competition results) were mostly used to study the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and improved performance. Despite the fact that the existing literature presents little consensus, there is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant further investigation on the usage of ACE activity and the I/D ACE gene polymorphism as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in humans of specific ethnicities or in athletes involved in certain sports. In this sense, a biomarker would be a substance or genetic component that could be measured to provide a degree of certainty, or an indication, of the presence of a certain trait or characteristic that would be beneficial to the athlete's performance. Difficulties in interpreting and comparing the results of scientific research on the topic arise from dissimilar protocols and variation in study design. This review aims to investigate the current literature on the use of ACE I/D polymorphism as a biomarker of performance in humans through the comparison of scientific publications.

  9. The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda De Mello Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mammals. The conversion of angiotensin into its active form is carried out by Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE. The measurement of ACE concentration in plasma or serum, its enzymatic activity, and the correlation between an insertion/deletion (I/D genetic polymorphism of the ACE gene have been investigated as possible indicators of superior athletic performance in humans. In this context, other indicators of superior adaptation to exercise resulting in better athletic performance (such as ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, and competition results were mostly used to study the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and improved performance. Despite the fact that the existing literature presents little consensus, there is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant further investigation on the usage of ACE activity and the I/D ACE gene polymorphism as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in humans of specific ethnicities or in athletes involved in certain sports. In this sense, a biomarker would be a substance or genetic component that could be measured to provide a degree of certainty, or an indication, of the presence of a certain trait or characteristic that would be beneficial to the athlete’s performance. Difficulties in interpreting and comparing the results of scientific research on the topic arise from dissimilar protocols and variation in study design. This review aims to investigate the current literature on the use of ACE I/D polymorphism as a biomarker of performance in humans through the comparison of scientific publications.

  10. Athletic training. Personal performance development and training.

    OpenAIRE

    Broda, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training. Personal performance development and training. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze performance development and training of Michal Broda during his existing athletic career with focus on training after year 2004. We investigated the use of heart rate monitoring for training optimization. We also discussed training adequacy in terms of annual training cycle. Methods: In our work we used empirical methods of pedagogical research. We obtained different qualitative ...

  11. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. psomatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.

  12. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  13. The zone diet and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, S N

    1999-04-01

    The Zone diet is the latest eating regimen marketed to improve athletic performance by opposing traditional high carbohydrate sports diets. The 40/30/30 diet is centred primarily on protein intake (1.8 to 2.2 g/kg fat free mass; i.e. total bodyweight-fat weight) and promises a change in the body's insulin to glucagon ratio through its macronutrient alterations. Changes in the existing hormonal milieu are said to result in the production of more vasoactive eicosanoids, thus allowing greater oxygen delivery to exercising muscle. This favourable condition, known as the Zone, is anecdotally reported to benefit even the most elite endurance athletes. Applying the Zone's suggested protein needs and macronutrient distributions in practice, it is clear that it is a low carbohydrate diet by both relative and absolute standards, as well as calorie deficient by any standard. Reliable and abundant peer reviewed literature is in opposition to the suggestion that such a diet can support competitive athletic endeavours, much less improve them. The notion that a 40/30/30 diet can alter the pancreatic hormone response in favour of glucagon is also unfounded. The Zone is a mixed diet and not likely to affect pancreatic hormone release in the same way individual nutrients can. Although the postprandial insulin response is reduced when comparing a 40% with a 60% carbohydrate diet, it is still a sufficient stimulus to offset the lipolytic effects of glucagon. Many of the promised benefits of the Zone are based on selective information regarding hormonal influences on eicosanoid biology. Contradictory information is conveniently left out. The principle of vasodilating muscle arterioles by altering eicosanoid production is notably correct in theory. However, what little human evidence is available does not support any significant contribution of eicosanoids to active muscle vasodilation. In fact, the key eicosanoid reportedly produced in the Zone and responsible for improved muscle

  14. Visualization of Multivariate Athlete Performance Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.; Hillerin, P. de; Valeanu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We present a set of visualization methods for the analysis of multivariate data recorded from the measurement of the performance of athletes during training. We use a modified training device to measure the force, acceleration, displacement, and speed of the athlete’s feet and arms while performing

  15. [Iron and performance in elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisa; Cristani, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    The negative relationship between performance and iron deficiency anemia is well known. There is still debate in the literature on the exercise-induced iron loss and if low iron store, even in the absence of frank anemia, can adversely affected performance of elite athletes. We analyse the physiologic changes induced by strong exercise, the diagnostic problems and therapeutic supplementation.

  16. Dehydration and endurance performance in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Eric D B

    2012-11-01

    The field of research examining the link between dehydration and endurance performance is at the dawn of a new era. This article reviews the latest findings describing the relationship between exercise-induced dehydration and endurance performance and provides the knowledge necessary for competitive, endurance-trained athletes to develop a winning hydration strategy. Acute, pre-exercise body weight loss at or above 3% may decrease subsequent endurance performance. Therefore, endurance athletes should strive to start exercise well hydrated, which can be achieved by keeping thirst sensation low and urine color pale and drinking approximately 5-10 mL/kg body weight of water 2 h before exercise. During exercise lasting 1 h or less, dehydration does not decrease endurance performance, but athletes are encouraged to mouth-rinse with sports drinks. During exercise lasting longer than 1 h, in which fluid is readily available, drinking according to the dictates of thirst maximizes endurance performance. In athletes whose thirst sensation is untrustworthy or when external factors such as psychological stress or repeated food intake may blunt thirst sensation, it is recommended to program fluid intake to maintain exercise-induced body weight loss around 2% to 3%.

  17. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...... clear with regard to the psychological skills that are needed. Therefore, the main questions to be addressed in this chapter are: (1) which psychological skills are needed to reach top performance? And (2) (how) can these skills be developed in young talents?...

  18. Academic and Athletic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance of Division I College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…

  19. Exploring relations of wellness and athletic coping skills of collegiate athletes: implications for sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Guenthner, Shannon; Hammermeister, Jon

    2007-12-01

    In exploring the relationship between wellness and athletic performance, this study assessed the link between wellness, as defined by a high score on five wellness dimensions of emotional, social, spiritual, intellectual, and physical well-being, with psychological variables thought to be related to athletic performance as measured by athletes' self-report of specific athletic coping skills. 142 collegiate athletes completed a survey composed of the Optimal Living Profile to measure wellness dimensions and the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory to measure specific psychological variables. Analysis indicated that athletes scoring higher on the dimensions of wellness also scored significantly higher on athletic coping skills. Specifically, male athletes who scored higher on wellness also reported higher scores on coachability, concentration, goal setting/mental preparation, and peaking under pressure, and female athletes who scored higher on wellness also reported higher scores in coping with adversity, coachability, concentration, goal setting/mental preparation, and freedom from worry. Various dimensions of wellness seem related to better performance by involving the athletic coping skills of intercollegiate athletes. Implications for coaches and sport psychologists are also discussed.

  20. Weight management in the performance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M

    2013-01-01

    Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone, including athletes that expend high amounts of energy in their sport. This brief review addresses the concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating. Emphasis is placed on teaching athletes the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets. As the general population becomes heavier, more young athletes will come to their sport needing to alter bodyweight or composition to perform at their peak. Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the athletes achieve their bodyweight goals.

  1. NFL Combine Athletic Performance after ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathan E.; Keller, Robert A.; Mehran, Nima; Austin, William; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the functional performance of NFL combine participants after ACL reconstruction compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group. The hypothesis was that there would be no difference between players after ACL reconstruction as compared with controls in functional athletic performance. Methods: A total of 98 NFL-caliber athletes who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction and participated in the NFL scouting combine between 2010 and 2014 were reviewed and compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group. Data recorded for each player included a 40-yard dash, vertical leap, broad jump, shuttle drill, and 3-cone drill. Results: With regard to speed and acceleration, the mean 40-yard dash time for ACL-reconstructed players was 4.74 seconds (range, 4.33-5.55 seconds) compared with controls at 4.74 seconds (range, 4.34-5.38 seconds; P = .96). Jumping performance was also similar, with a mean vertical leap for ACL-reconstructed players of 33.35 inches (range, 23-43 inches) and broad jump of 113.9 inches (range, 96-136 inches) compared with respective values for the controls of 33.22 inches (range, 23.5-43.5 inches; P = .84) and 113.9 inches (range, 92-134 inches; P = .99). Agility and quickness testing measures also did not show a statistically significantly difference, with ACL-reconstructed players performing the shuttle drill in 4.37 seconds (range, 4.02-4.84 seconds) and the 3-cone drill in 7.16 seconds (range, 6.45-8.14 seconds), respectively, compared with respective times for the controls of 4.37 seconds (range, 3.96-5.00 seconds; P = .91) and 7.18 seconds (range, 6.64-8.24 seconds; P = .75). Conclusion: This study suggests that after ACL reconstruction, high-caliber athletes can achieve equivalent levels of perfor- mance with no statistically significant differences compared with matched controls. This information is unique when advising high-level athletes on athletic

  2. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (SFHA) is common among female athletes, especially in weight-sensitive sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between SFHA and neuromuscular performance in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Sixteen eumenorrheic (EUM...

  3. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Key words: Athlete, cardiac performance, correlation, training intensity ... Therefore, these two substances are important indicators to monitor intensity of .... conditions, athletes' energy can be enhanced, glycogen in the body ...

  4. Athletic performance and urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, R.J.

    1984-07-15

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, ''reducing smog'' of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

  5. A Comparison of Academic and Athletic Performance in the NCAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi

    2017-01-01

    The Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 34 sports was investigated to determine whether the top athletic teams performed significantly better "academically" compared to their bottom counterparts. A "p" value of 0.0029 revealed that top athletic teams academically outperformed bottom athletic teams. Further analysis showed the…

  6. Review: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E.; Covert, David S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Namekata, Tsukasa; Kim, Yoon Shin

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, SO 2 which is a highly water soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO 2 or O 3) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared with pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where ms and mm often determine success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  7. How does sport psychology actually improve athletic performance? A framework to facilitate athletes' and coaches' understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Chris J

    2010-09-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a competitive contest. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that many athletes, coaches, and sporting administrators are still quite reluctant to seek out the services of a qualified sport psychologist, even if they believe it could help. One of the primary reasons for this hesitation appears to be a lack of understanding about the process and the mechanisms by which these mental skills affect performance. Unlike the "harder sciences" of sport physiology and biochemistry where athletes can see the tangible results in themselves or other athletes (e.g., he or she lifted weights, developed larger muscles, and is now stronger/faster as a result), the unfamiliar and often esoteric nature of sport psychology appears to be impeding a large number of athletes from soliciting these important services. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a simple framework depicting how mental skills training translates into improved within-competition performance. This framework is intended to help bridge the general "understanding gap" that is currently being reported by a large number of athletes and coaches, while also helping sport psychology practitioners sell their valuable services to individual athletes and teams.

  8. Examining multidimensional sport-confidence in athletes and non-athlete sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Moe; Otten, Mark; Magyar, T Michelle; Vealey, Robin S; Ward, Rose Marie

    2017-03-01

    Sport-confidence is considered a critical success factor for sport performers at all levels. Researchers have suggested that sport-confidence is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct, and the sport-confidence model identified three types of sport-confidence (i.e., physical skills and training, cognitive efficiency, and resilience) that are important for success in sport. However, such multidimensionality of sport-confidence and its measurement have not been fully examined. On a large sample of sport performers with varied skill levels and characteristics, the purpose of the present study was to examine the three-factor model of sport-confidence. We tested the measurement invariance of the Sport-Confidence Inventory across 512 athletes and 1170 non-athlete sport performers. Results from the multiple group model analysis showed that the three-factor model of sport-confidence fit better for the athlete sample than for the non-athlete sample. The results implicate that the three-factor model of sport-confidence model is suitable to athletes, though sport-confidence may appear more unidimensional for non-athletes. The use of the Sport-Confidence Inventory for non-athlete sport performers demands further consideration; however, the findings implicate that it could be a useful tool to assess sport-confidence of sport performers at any levels.

  9. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  10. Reconstruction and EMG-informed control, simulation and analysis of human movement for athletics: Performance improvement and injury prevention

    KAUST Repository

    Demircan, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present methods to track and characterize human dynamic skills using motion capture and electromographic sensing. These methods are based on task-space control to obtain the joint kinematics and extract the key physiological parameters and on computed muscle control to solve the muscle force distribution problem. We also present a dynamic control and analysis framework that integrates these metrics for the purpose of reconstructing and analyzing sports motions in real-time.

  11. The impact of circadian phenotype and time since awakening on diurnal performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-02-16

    Circadian rhythms, among other factors, have been shown to regulate key physiological processes involved in athletic performance. Personal best performance of athletes in the evening was confirmed across different sports. Contrary to this view, we identified peak performance times in athletes to be different between human "larks" and "owls" (also called "morningness/eveningness types" or "chronotypes" and referred to as circadian phenotypes in this paper), i.e., individuals with well-documented genetic and physiological differences that result in disparities between their biological clocks and how they entrain to exogenous cues, such as the environmental light/dark cycle and social factors. We found time since entrained awakening to be the major predictor of peak performance times, rather than time of day, as well as significant individual performance variations as large as 26% in the course of a day. Our novel approach combining the use of an athlete-specific chronometric test, longitudinal circadian analysis, and physical performance tests to characterize relevant sleep/wake and performance parameters in athletes allows a comprehensive analysis of the link between the circadian system and diurnal performance variation. We establish that the evaluation of an athlete's personal best performance requires consideration of circadian phenotype, performance evaluation at different times of day, and analysis of performance as a function of time since entrained awakening.

  12. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  13. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeas, Thomas; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that athletes' domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception (BMP) tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students' non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted) and distance (2 m, 4 m, 16 m). Accuracy and reaction time were measured to assess observers' performance. The results highlighted athletes' superior ability compared to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (accuracy) of distance. More interestingly, experts also displayed greater performance compared to non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (reaction time) of distance. In addition, athletes showed a better performance throughout inverted conditions in the walker (reaction time) and soccer kick (accuracy and reaction time) tasks. This implies that during human BMP, athletes demonstrate an advantage for recognizing body kinematics that goes beyond sport specific actions.

  14. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes.

  15. Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Dieter, Brad P; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine vitamin D in the context of sport nutrition and its potential role in optimizing athletic performance. Vitamin D receptors (VDR) and vitamin D response elements (VDREs) are located in almost every tissue within the human body including skeletal muscle. The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance. Despite this situation, large portions of athletic populations are vitamin D deficient. Currently, the research is inconclusive with regards to the optimal intake of vitamin D, the specific forms of vitamin D one should ingest, and the distinct nutrient-nutrient interactions of vitamin D with vitamin K that affect arterial calcification and hypervitaminosis. Furthermore, it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance. This review will investigate these topics, and specifically their relevance to athletic performance.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERAMENT AND ANXIETY ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug H. Han

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the 'winner' group were lower than those of the 'no winner' group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes' environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance

  17. On the Field and Outside the Lines: Relationships between Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Their Intercollegiate Coaches' Leadership Practices and Student-Athletes' Self Reported Satisfaction, Athletic and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispo, Elaine J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between intercollegiate student-athletes' perceptions of their coaches' exemplary leadership practices and those student-athletes' self-reported athlete satisfaction, athletic and academic performances, while controlling for the demographics of coach and student-athlete gender, student-athlete playing…

  18. Prediction and Quantification of Individual Athletic Performance of Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Duncan A J; Király, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0.3 seconds on 100 metres performances, and a lower error than the state-of-the-art in performance prediction (30% improvement, RMSE) over a range of distances. We are also the first to report on a systematic comparison of predictors for running performance. Our model has three parameters per runner, and three components which are the same for all runners. The first component of the model corresponds to a power law with exponent dependent on the runner which achieves a better goodness-of-fit than known power laws in the study of running. Many documented phenomena in quantitative sports science, such as the form of scoring tables, the success of existing prediction methods including Riegel's formula, the Purdy points scheme, the power law for world records performances and the broken power law for world record speeds may be explained on the basis of our findings in a unified way. We provide strong evidence that the three parameters per runner are related to physiological and behavioural parameters, such as training state, event specialization and age, which allows us to derive novel physiological hypotheses relating to athletic performance. We conjecture on this basis that our findings will be vital in exercise physiology, race planning, the study of aging and training regime design.

  19. Master athletes are extending the limits of human endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Lepers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased participation of master athletes (i.e. > 40 years old in endurance and ultra-endurance events (> 6h duration over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Ageing does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e. lactate threshold, seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age.

  20. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  1. Voluntary dehydration and cognitive performance in trained college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'anci, Kristen E; Vibhakar, Arjun; Kanter, Jordan H; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive and mood decrements resulting from mild dehydration and glucose consumption were studied. Men and women (total N = 54; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.2) were recruited from college athletic teams. Euhydration or dehydration was achieved by athletes completing team practices with or without water replacement. Dehydration was associated with higher thirst and negative mood ratings as well as better Digit Span performance. Participants showed better Vigilance Attention with euhydration. Hydration status and athlete's sex interacted with performance on Choice Reaction Time and Vigilance Attention. In a second study, half of the athletes received glucose prior to cognitive testing. Results for negative mood and thirst ratings were similar, but for cognitive performance the results were mixed. Effects of glucose on cognition were independent of dehydration.

  2. The Effects of Caffeine on Athletic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle; Streitz, Carmyn; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who use caffeine before exercising or competition may be upgrading themselves more than they realize. Caffeine is classified as a stimulant and is the most commonly used drug in the world. Caffeine has the same affects that amphetamines and cocaine have, just to a lesser degree. Caffeine crosses the membranes of all the body's tissues. It…

  3. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PTaekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  4. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  5. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  6. [Athletic performance, self-esteem and temperamental profile : Which relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Jawaher; Trigui, Dorsa; Feki, Ines; Bâati, Imen; Jaoua, Abdelaziz

    2015-03-01

    Several authors emphasize the close relationship between self-esteem and athletic performance; such a relationship may raise the following question: by saying "strong" or "without any physical condition", is it a fair presentation of the individual's abilities or he reveals the most fundamental aspects of his personality, such as emotional temperament? To evaluate self-esteem, physical self and temperamental profile in a group of sportsmen, and to look for a relationship between these variables and athletic performance. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study in 80 young handball players of the "senior" category. We assessed self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, physical self-using the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI), and temperamental profile using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Athletic performance was evaluated by the team coach by means of a score ranging from 1 to 10. High self-esteem was correlated to female gender (p=0.03), to an early start of physical activity (pself-esteem (pself-esteem (p=0.001). Good athletic performance was associated with hyperthymic (pself-esteem might help to achieve better athletic performance. In this intervention, the individual temperamental profile should be taken into account.

  7. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public performances, athletic and... Public performances, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional... amateur or semi-professional athletes or athletic teams wishing to travel to participate in...

  8. β-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Phillip M

    2014-06-01

    β-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic β-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that β-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. β-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with β-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from β-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using β-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. β-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic

  9. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRomeas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that athletes’ domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students’ non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted and distance (2m, 4m, 16m. Accuracy and reaction time were measured to assess observers’ performance. The results highlighted athletes’ superior ability compared to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball presented at 2m (reaction time, 4m (accuracy and reaction time and 16m (accuracy of distance. More interestingly, experts also displayed greater performance compared to non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task presented at 2m (reaction time, 4m (accuracy and reaction time and 16m (reaction time of distance. In addition, athletes showed a better performance throughout inverted conditions in the walker (reaction time and soccer kick (accuracy and reaction time tasks. This implies that during human biological motion perception, athletes demonstrate an advantage for recognizing body kinematics that goes beyond sport specific actions.

  10. Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zemková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on agility skills in different populations using pre-planned, change of direction speed tests have previously been reported. However, there are no available data on the agility times of athletes specializing in different sports obtained from Reactive agility tests. Objective: The study compares agility time in groups of athletes of different sports where agility is one of the limiting factors of performance. Methods: Altogether 282 athletes of 14 sport specializations performed the Agility test. Their task was to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats located outside each of the four corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and a time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms. The result was a sum of the 32 best agility times. Results: The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in distinguishing groups of athletes of different sport specializations. Table tennis players, badminton players, fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors and karate competitors showed the best agility times (< 350 ms, followed by ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, and hockeyball players (350-400 ms, then aikidoists (400-450 ms, and finally judoists and wrestlers (450-500 ms. Conclusions: The best agility times are in athletes of racquet sports, followed by competitors of combat sports with reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports, and finally competitors of combat sports with reactions to tactile stimuli. Since this is the first study testing agility skills using the Reactive agility test in athletes of different sport specializations, data obtained can be used for comparison of athletes within particular sports.

  11. Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2012-12-01

    The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (≥ 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ≥ 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals.

  12. The impact of parental pressure on the performance of high school track athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study was conducted to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between, parental pressure, stress levels and athletic performance in high school track and field athletes. The question can be asked whether parental pressure will result in increased stress levels in the athlete and therefore poorer performance? Sixty-six high school track and field athletes, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were selected for the study. The athletes were taken from training groups ...

  13. Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepe, Christoph J; Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H Michael

    2007-07-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant's resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9-50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts.

  14. Comparison of Academic and Behavioral Performance between Athletes and Non-athletes

    OpenAIRE

    ELDRIDGE, JAMES A.; PALMER, TY B.; GILLIS, KYLE; LLOYD, RICHARD; SQUIRES, WILLIAM G.; MURRAY, TINKER D.

    2014-01-01

    The Toronto Charter for Physical Activity (2010) and several national physical activity plans advocate sports participation as an important part of population targeted physical activity for youth. Emerging research evidence also suggests that sports participation during adolescents is linked to significant positive correlations with academic and behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to compare academic and behavioral performance between male and female public school athletes (...

  15. Athletic performance outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J

    2010-04-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0

  16. Japanese University Athletes' Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…

  17. The Analysis of Athletic Performance: Some Practical and Philosophical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lee J.; Groom, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hypothetical dialogue between a notational analyst (NA) recently schooled in the positivistic assessment of athletic performance, an "old-school" traditional coach (TC) who favours subjective analysis, and a pragmatic educator (PE). The conversation opens with NA and TC debating the respective value of quantitative and…

  18. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  19. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ghasemnian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group or placebo (control group exercised on a treadmill at the intensity of 81/8% heart rate max %70 VO2 max(until exhaustion. Subjects received 6 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo, 40 minutes before starting of exercise bout, and they received 2 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo every 15 minutes during each exercise. To evaluate the results, independent T-test was used. Results: Results showed no significant difference between Sport Drink and placebo trials in the total work time to exhaustion, heart rate or RPE (p>0.05. However plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher in sport drink group compared with the placebo group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ingredient in the this sport drink did not provide any advantages to running endurance performance.

  20. Postactivation potentiation enhances upper- and lower-body athletic performance in collegiate male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetovich, Tammy K; Conley, Donovan S; McCawley, Paul F

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postactivation potentiation (PAP)-inducing activities in 4 separate studies examining vertical (VJP) and horizontal (HJP) jump performance, shot put performance (SPP), and sprint performance (SP), in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Study 1: 12 male (mean ± SD; age = 20.2 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; weight = 73.3 ± 6.43 kg) and 8 female (age = 20.1 ± 1.0 years; height = 169.6 ± 5.5 cm; weight = 59.8 ± 7.6 kg) track athletes participated in HJP and VJP testing before and after performing a parallel back squat (PBS) at 85% 1 repetition maximum (RM). Study 2: 10 (6 men and 4 women) shot put throwers (age = 20.6 ± 0.7 years; height = 182.1 ± 9.8 cm; weight = 102.8 ± 23.6 kg) participated in SPP testing for control (C), 3RM bench press, and 3RM PBS protocols. Study 3: 7 football players (age = 20.4 ± 1.6 years; weight = 87.8 ± 8.3 kg; height = 184.3 ± 7.2 cm) participated in SP testing before (PBS1) and after (PBS2) performing a 3RM PBS. Study 4: 11 football players (age = 20.3 ± 1.8 years; height = 180.6 ± 7.5 cm; weight = 86.1 ± 12.8 kg) participated in VJP testing for C and 3RM PBS protocols. Results of study 1: There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in VJP (PRE = 61.9 ± 12.3 cm; POST = 63.6 ± 11.6 cm) and HJP (PRE = 93.7 ± 11.0 cm; POST = 95.9 ± 11.5 cm). Study 2: SPP after PBS (11.67 ± 1.92 m) was not different vs. C (11.77 ± 1.81), but bench press (11.91 ± 1.81 m) was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) than both PBS and C. Study 3: SP time was significantly lower for PBS2 (4.6014 ± 0.17995 seconds) vs. PB1 (4.6557 ± 0.19603 seconds). Study 4: There was no difference in VJP for C (68.35 ± 2.16 cm) vs. PBS (68.12 ± 2.51 cm). Our data show that a 3RM PBS resulted in significant improvements in VJP, HJP, SPP, and SP in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II male and female athletes. Strength and conditioning practitioners

  1. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  2. Current opinion in clinical sport psychology: from athletic performance to psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zella E; Bonagura, Kehana

    2017-08-01

    Clinical sport psychology (CSP) is a contemporary, empirically informed model that employs a scope, style, and mode of practice built upon cutting-edge findings from both clinical and sport sciences, and that follows the sound methodological traditions of clinical psychology [1(••)]. Conceptualizing athletic performance and well-being through the context of empirical research in both athletic and nonathletic domains of functioning, CSP practice can involve the enhancement of athletic performance, and also the personal development and psychological well-being of performers. CSP intervention options expand (if desired) to include those currently considered to be outside of the purview of traditional sport psychology and within the domains of clinical/counseling psychology. Importantly, CSP does not imply that its practitioners must choose a population. CSPers can, if appropriate, assess and intervene with psychological disorders, performance dysfunction, and performance improvement, and/or can make appropriate referrals. Despite whether one personally addresses the variety of interpersonal, non-diagnosable, and clinical issues potentially presented, they must support a comprehensive, client-specific approach and engage in interventions based on sound evidence. Expanding practice boundaries, and with it one's roles and responsibilities, also results in expanded job opportunities. This scope highlights the clinical sport psychologist as the human behavior expert in the athletic milieu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  4. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  5. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eGranacher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD, resistance training (RT is an important means for (i stimulating athletic development, (ii tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age.Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research.In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females, (ii to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters, and (iii to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  6. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G.

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538

  7. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports...

  8. Effects of High-Velocity Resistance Training on Athletic Performance in Prepuberal Male Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés; Granacher, Urs

    2016-12-01

    Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Hammami, M, Hachana, Y, and Granacher, U. Effects of high-velocity resistance training on athletic performance in prepuberal male soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3290-3297, 2016-The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 12-week in-season low-to-moderate load high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) in addition to soccer training as compared with soccer training only on proxies of athletic performance in prepubertal soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players performed 2 different protocols: (a) regular soccer training with 5 sessions per week (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years) and (b) regular soccer training with 3 sessions per week and HVRT with 2 sessions per week (n = 13; age = 12.8 ± 0.2 years). The outcome measures included tests for the assessment of muscle strength (e.g., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat tests), jump ability (e.g., countermovement jump, squat jump [SJ], standing long jump [SLJ], and multiple 5-bound tests [MB5s]), linear speed (e.g., 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint tests), and change of direction (e.g., T-test and Illinois change of direction test). Results revealed significant group × test interactions for the SJ test (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.59) and the SLJ test (p soccer training is a safe and feasible intervention that has positive effects on maximal strength, vertical and horizontal jump and sprint performance as compared with soccer training only.

  9. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of ...

  10. NFL Combine Athletic Performance after ACL Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marshall, Nathan E; Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Austin, William; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the functional performance of NFL combine participants after ACL reconstruction compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group...

  11. Comparing Division IA Scholarship and Non-Scholarship Student-Athletes: A Discriminant Analysis of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lisa Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the academic performance and graduation rates of college student-athletes. The limited focus on scholarship student-athletes has overlooked the majority of NCAA student-athletes, those participating in collegiate athletic programs without athletic scholarships. Therefore, this study contributes to a gap in the…

  12. Enhancing imagery through hypnosis: a performance aid for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, D R

    2000-10-01

    This value of imagery in sports is widely acknowledged. The contribution of hypnosis to enhancing athletes' performance is also recognized, but the value of hypnosis in enhancing imagery has little recognition. The reason for this neglect is explored. The study used Martens' Sport Imagery Questionnaire, which asked the participants to image 4 different situations in their own sport--practicing alone, practicing in front of others, watching a teammate, and competing. Participants reported their subjective impression of vividness on four dimensions--visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and affective. The 14 athletes participating imaged each situation in and out of hypnosis--half of the time the imagery in hypnosis came first and half after. The participants reported that the imagery under hypnosis was more intense for each dimension and more intense for each situation. Whether the imagery was done under hypnosis first or after was not significant. The findings suggest that hypnosis substantially enhances imagery intensity and effectiveness.

  13. Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Miller, Vincent J; Ward, Emery

    2015-01-01

    The training regimens of modern-day athletes have evolved from the sole emphasis on a single fitness component (e.g., endurance athlete or resistance/strength athlete) to an integrative, multimode approach encompassing all four of the major fitness components: resistance (R), interval sprints (I), stretching (S), and endurance (E) training. Athletes rarely, if ever, focus their training on only one mode of exercise but instead routinely engage in a multimode training program. In addition, timed-daily protein (P) intake has become a hallmark for all athletes. Recent studies, including from our laboratory, have validated the effectiveness of this multimode paradigm (RISE) and protein-feeding regimen, which we have collectively termed PRISE. Unfortunately, sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model and therefore limit an athletes' ability to succeed. Thus, it is the purpose of this review to provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance.

  14. The Impact of a Performance Profiling Intervention on Athletes' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Neil J. V.; Greenlees, Iain A.; Thelwell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Originally developed by Butler (1989) with the Great Britain Olympic boxing team, performance profiling is an assessment tool primarily used by sport psychologists to enhance athlete awareness. The completed profile provides the athlete, the coach, and psychologist with a visual representation of the athlete's perception of his or her performance…

  15. The Impact of a Performance Profiling Intervention on Athletes' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Neil J. V.; Greenlees, Iain A.; Thelwell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Originally developed by Butler (1989) with the Great Britain Olympic boxing team, performance profiling is an assessment tool primarily used by sport psychologists to enhance athlete awareness. The completed profile provides the athlete, the coach, and psychologist with a visual representation of the athlete's perception of his or her performance…

  16. PERFORMANCE LEVEL AFFECTS THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT INTAKE OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigenia Giannopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.

  17. The influence of athletic status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics and postural balance performance in Division I female soccer athletes and non-athlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Thiele, Ryan M; Conchola, Eric C; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance to discriminate between female collegiate soccer athletes and non-athlete controls. Ten athletes (mean ± SE: age = 19·20 ± 0·36 year; mass = 62·23 ± 3·12 kg; height = 162·43 ± 1·70 cm) and 10 non-athletes (age = 20·30 ± 0·40 year; mass = 69·64 ± 3·20 kg; height = 163·22 ± 2·10 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of static stability based on sway index (SI). Results indicated that absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms (RTD50 and RTD50norm) were greater (P = 0·007 and 0·026), and postural SI was lower (P = 0·022) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes. However, no differences (P = 0·375-0·709) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms (RTD100-200 and RTD100-200norm). Significant relationships were also observed between RTD50 and RTD50norm and SI (r = -0·559 and -0·521; P = 0·010 and 0·019). These findings suggest that early rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between college-aged athletes and non-athletes. Coaches and practitioners may use these findings as performance evaluation tools to help in identifying athletes with both superior early rapid torque and balance performance abilities, which may possibly be an indicator of overall athletic potential.

  18. Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The training regimens of modern-day athletes have evolved from the sole emphasis on a single fitness component (e.g., endurance athlete or resistance/strength athlete to an integrative, multimode approach encompassing all four of the major fitness components: resistance (R, interval sprints (I, stretching (S, and endurance (E training. Athletes rarely, if ever, focus their training on only one mode of exercise but instead routinely engage in a multimode training program. In addition, timed-daily protein (P intake has become a hallmark for all athletes. Recent studies, including from our laboratory, have validated the effectiveness of this multimode paradigm (RISE and protein-feeding regimen, which we have collectively termed PRISE. Unfortunately, sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model and therefore limit an athletes’ ability to succeed. Thus, it is the purpose of this review to provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance.

  19. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  20. The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne; Gainsburg, Izzy; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Although the effects of negative stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance have been well researched, the effects of positive stereotypes on performance, particularly in the presence of observers, is not known. In the current study, White males watched a video either depicting Whites basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (positive stereotype), Black basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (negative stereotype), or a neutral sports video (control). Participants then shot a set of free throws, during which half the participants were also videotaped (observer condition), whereas the other half were not (no observer condition). Results demonstrated that positive stereotypes improved free throw performance, but only in the no observer condition. Interestingly, observer pressure interacted with the positive stereotype to lead to performance decrements. In the negative stereotype condition, performance decrements were observed both in the observer and no observer conditions.

  1. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Švedas, Edmundas; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Abaravičius, Jonas Algis

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures. Materials and me...

  2. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Baranauskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.

  3. Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…

  4. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

  5. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

  6. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Silfies,Sheri P.; David Ebaugh; Marisa Pontillo; Butowicz,Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and comp...

  7. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and comp...

  8. [Impact of Vitamin D in Sports: Does Vitamin D Insufficiency Compromise Athletic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscheidt, Sebastian; Rolvien, Tim; Ueblacker, Peter; Amling, Michael; Barvencik, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D is essential for calcium homeostasis and regulates the expression of over 900 genes. It thereby influences musculoskeletal health and function. Additionally, multiple other effects were observed through the detection of vitamin D receptors (VDR) in numerous tissues of the human body. Material and Methods We reviewed the literature regarding evidence of the impact of vitamin D on musculoskeletal health and peak athletic performance. Results and Discussion It is well known that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the average European population. This article confirmed the same for athletes in different disciplines. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency and its effects are relevant for competitive sports. The surprisingly high prevalence of inadequate vitamin D levels depends on the geographic location, the time of day and year, local climate conditions, and sports disciplines (indoor vs. outdoor). Based on the analysed literature, we found several correlations between 25-OH-D3 serum levels and different aspects of competitive sports. A serum level ≥ 30 ng/ml provides sufficient mineralisation of non-mineralised bone matrix and is therefore crucial for skeletal health. Furthermore, this concentration was positively correlated with an accelerated regeneration of muscular force. Levels above 40 ng/ml provided a protective effect on the development of stress fractures. Researchers suspect that levels above 50 ng/ml are required for athletes to achieve maximal physical performance. While there is an ongoing discussion amongst researchers regarding beneficial effects of such high levels, it is well known that blood levels lower than 30 ng/ml lead to mineralisation defects in bone (rickets, osteomalacia) and muscular function (reversible myopathy). Conclusion This review suggests that athletes should have an evaluation of vitamin D-dependent calcium homeostasis based on laboratory tests of 25-OH-D3, calcium, creatinine

  9. Athletes and the arts--the role of sports medicine in the performing arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Randall W; Berning, Jacqueline R; Dawson, William; Ginsburg, Richard D; Miller, Clay; Shybut, George T

    2013-01-01

    Performing artists are athletes. Like athletes, performing artists practice and/or perform most days with little off season, play through pain, "compete" in challenging environments, and risk career-threatening injury. Athletes and the Arts is a multiorganizational initiative linking the sport athlete and musician/performing artist communities. Performing artists of all ages and genre are an underserved population related to medical coverage, care, injury prevention, performance enhancement, and wellness. Sports medicine professionals are a valuable resource for filling this gap by applying existing knowledge of treating sport athletes (nutrition, injury prevention) while gaining a better understanding of performers' unique needs (hearing loss, focal dystonia) and environment. These applications can occur in the clinical setting and through developing organizational policies. By better understanding the needs of the performing arts population and applying existing concepts and knowledge, sports medicine professionals can expand their impact to a new patient base that desperately needs support.

  10. The impact of perfectionism traits on motivation in high-performance soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pestillo de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of performance traits on self-determined motivation in high-performance soccer athletes. Participants were professionalized and non-professionalized athletes from a soccer club of the state of Paraná, totaling 182 subjects. Data were collected using the Sport Motivation Scale and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale through previous scheduling and the application of research instruments occurred through direct contact with subjects during practices, which were individually answered with average duration of 35 minutes. For data analysis, Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation and Simple Regression were conducted (p<0.05. Results showed that professional athletes had higher levels in externally controlled motivation compared to non-professionalized (p<0.05 athletes, while non-professionalized athletes were more amotivated (p=0.002. Professionalized athletes had higher scores in the adaptive perfectionism domains compared to non-professionalized athletes (p<0.05. Adaptive perfectionism had significant impact (p<0.05 on the self-determined motivation regulations in professional athletes, while maladaptive perfectionism had an effect (p<0.05 on the external regulation of non-professionalized athletes. It was concluded that for athletes who reach professional level, adaptive perfectionism is an intervening element in the development of self-determined motivation. In addition, for non-professionalized.

  11. Genetic aspects of athletic performance: the African runners phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancini RL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Luiz Vancini,1 João Bosco Pesquero,2 Rafael Júlio Fachina,3,4 Marília dos Santos Andrade,1 João Paulo Borin,3 Paulo César Montagner,3 Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira51Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Biofísica, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciência do Esporte, Faculdade de Educação Física, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 4Confederação Brasileira de Basquetebol, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Faculdade de Educação Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, BrazilAbstract: The current dominance of African runners in long-distance running is an intriguing phenomenon that highlights the close relationship between genetics and physical performance. Many factors in the interesting interaction between genotype and phenotype (eg, high cardiorespiratory fitness, higher hemoglobin concentration, good metabolic efficiency, muscle fiber composition, enzyme profile, diet, altitude training, and psychological aspects have been proposed in the attempt to explain the extraordinary success of these runners. Increasing evidence shows that genetics may be a determining factor in physical and athletic performance. But, could this also be true for African long-distance runners? Based on this question, this brief review proposed the role of genetic factors (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, the Y chromosome, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the alpha-actinin-3 genes in the amazing athletic performance observed in African runners, especially the Kenyans and Ethiopians, despite their environmental constraints.Keywords: genes, genotype, physical exercise, endurance runners

  12. A COMPARISON OF MENTAL STRATEGIES DURING ATHLETIC SKILLS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio A. Peluso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effects of performance enhancement techniques (PET's on motor skill performance. Specifically, one hundred fifty college student volunteers (Men = 41; 27.3% and Women = 109; 72.6% were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions (Cond: Cond 1 and 2, simultaneous, externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie" or engaged in imagery out loud while putting; Cond 3 and 4, delayed externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie" or engaged in imagery out loud before putting; Cond 5 and 6, simultaneous, internally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie" or engaged in imagery silently to oneself while putting; Cond 7 and 8, delayed internally verbalized (e.g., participant were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie" or engaged in imagery silently to oneself before putting; and Cond 9, no instruction control group. All participants were asked to perform a golf-putting task. Results indicated that participants who implemented several (PET's increased their putting accuracy across overall difference score evaluations F (8, 141 = 4.01, p < 0.05 when compared to a no instruction control condition. Follow-up analyses indicated that participants who reportedly engaged in ten hours or less of athletic activities per week preferred self-talk strategies F (2, 119 = 4.38, p < 0.05 whereas participants who endorsed ten hours or more of athletic activity per week preferred imagery strategies F (2, 25 = 5.27, p < 0.05

  13. The dancer as a performing athlete: physiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios

    2004-01-01

    The physical demands placed on dancers from current choreography and performance schedules make their physiology and fitness just as important as skill development. However, even at the height of their professional careers, dancers' aerobic power, muscular strength, muscular balance, bone and joint integrity are the 'Achilles heels' of the dance-only selection and training system. This partly reflects the unfounded view, shared by sections of the dance world, that any exercise training that is not directly related to dance would diminish dancers' aesthetic appearances. Given that performing dance itself elicits only limited stimuli for positive fitness adaptations, it is not surprising that professional dancers often demonstrate values similar to those obtained from healthy sedentary individuals of comparable age in key fitness-related parameters. In contrast, recent data on male and female dancers revealed that supplementary exercise training can lead to improvements of such fitness parameters and reduce incidents of dance injuries, without interfering with key artistic and aesthetic requirements. It seems, however, that strict selection and training regimens have succeeded in transforming dance to an activity practised by individuals who have selectively developed different flexibility characteristics compared with athletes. Bodyweight targets are normally met by low energy intakes, with female dance students and professional ballerinas reported to consume below 70% and 80% of the recommended daily allowance of energy intake, respectively, while the female athlete 'triad' of disordered eating, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis is now well recognised and is seen just as commonly in dancers. An awareness of these factors will assist dancers and their teachers to improve training techniques, to employ effective injury prevention strategies and to determine better physical conditioning. However, any change in the traditional training regimes must be approached cautiously

  14. The impact of patellar tendinopathy on sports and work performance in active athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males;

  15. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  16. A Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment-Based Approach to Athletic Performance Enhancement: Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frank L.; Moore, Zella E.

    2004-01-01

    While traditional cognitive-behavioral skills-training-based approaches to athletic performance enhancement posit that negative thoughts and emotions must be controlled, eliminated, or replaced for athlete-clients to perform optimally, recent evidence suggests that efforts to control, eliminate, or suppress these internal states may actually have…

  17. Can biofeedback training of psychophysiological responses enhance athletes' sport performance? A practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenjak, Nika; Grad, Anton; Tusak, Matej; Leskovsek, Matevz; Schwarzlin, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.

  18. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  19. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  20. From big data to rich data: The key features of athlete wheelchair mobility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Veeger, H E J

    2016-10-03

    Quantitative assessment of an athlete׳s individual wheelchair mobility performance is one prerequisite needed to evaluate game performance, improve wheelchair settings and optimize training routines. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based methods can be used to perform such quantitative assessment, providing a large number of kinematic data. The goal of this research was to reduce that large amount of data to a set of key features best describing wheelchair mobility performance in match play and present them in meaningful way for both scientists and athletes. To test the discriminative power, wheelchair mobility characteristics of athletes with different performance levels were compared. The wheelchair kinematics of 29 (inter-)national level athletes were measured during a match using three inertial sensors mounted on the wheelchair. Principal component analysis was used to reduce 22 kinematic outcomes to a set of six outcomes regarding linear and rotational movement; speed and acceleration; average and best performance. In addition, it was explored whether groups of athletes with known performance differences based on their impairment classification also differed with respect to these key outcomes using univariate general linear models. For all six key outcomes classification showed to be a significant factor (pperformance in match play. The key kinematic outcomes were displayed in an easy to interpret way, usable for athletes, coaches and scientists. This standardized representation enables comparison of different wheelchair sports regarding wheelchair mobility, but also evaluation at the level of an individual athlete. By this means, the tool could enhance further development of wheelchair sports in general.

  1. THE EFFECT OF CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON ATHLETE ISOKINETIC PERFORMANCE

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    Erkan Faruk ŞİRİN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the effects of Creatin Monohydrate (CrH2O on athlete performance (isokinetic power measured as a total workout used as an ergojenic aid in long-term (6 weeks supplementation. There are 38 participants willing to join to the study. Their ages are between 20 and 27. All of them are choosed from active athletes. From the findings of this study; all the participants’ in the creatin group have increased the total workout production in all cycles of isokinetic exercise. The difference between the values in the first and fifth cycles, (both before and after loading are statistically significant. In the creatin group the difference between before loading and 15th day values are statistically significant. But the difference between before loading and 50th day values does not have statistical difference. In placebo group, before and after values in all 5 cycles, there is no statistical difference between the total workout production values. There is also no statistical difference between the before loading and 15th day values. As the same there is no statistical difference between the before loading and the 50th day values. The most important finding in this study is that, there is no affect of long term creatin loading (50 days on maximal voluntary knee extansion, as a total muscle workout values. But the change in values before loading day and 15th day are significantly improved. And so we understand that, for getting better results in total workout production, we better use two weeks period loading instead of long term loading. Key Words: Ergogenic aid, creatine supplementation, isokinetic performance

  2. Features static-and-dynamic performance in athletes of winter sports

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    Kotenko K.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analysis of static-dynamic performance of the musculoskeletal system of athletes of winter sports. Materials and Methods. The evaluation of static-dynamic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. Results. The highest percentage of load-balancing the body while maintaining a static position was observed in the group of athletes of speed and power of the sport and made up, the lowest — in athletes clearing difficult sport. Significant shift in the distribution of body load were detected in athletes clearing difficult sport in the speed and power sport, none of the athletes of the deviations were found. Conclusion. The survey revealed the features of the coordination ability and load balancing body in athletes of different sports: cycling, hard-house and speed-power.

  3. Performance enhancing drug abuse and cardiovascular risk in athletes: implications for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Peter J; Chester, Neil; Sculthorpe, Nick; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith; Somauroo, John

    2012-11-01

    The use of performance-enhancing and social drugs by athletes raises a number of ethical and health concerns. The World Anti-Doping Agency was constituted to address both of these issues as well as publishing a list of, and testing for, banned substances in athletes. Despite continuing methodological developments to detect drug use and associated punishments for positive dope tests, there are still many athletes who choose to use performance and image enhancing drugs. Of primary concern to this review are the health consequences of drug use by athletes. For such a large topic we must put in place delimitations. Specifically, we will address current knowledge, controversies and emerging evidence in relation to cardiovascular (CV) health of athletes taking drugs. Further, we delimit our discussion to the CV consequences of anabolic steroids and stimulant (including amphetamines and cocaine) use. These drugs are reported in the majority of adverse findings in athlete drug screenings and thus are more likely to be relevant to the healthcare professionals responsible for the well-being of athletes. In detailing CV health issues related to anabolic steroid and stimulant abuse by athletes we critique current research evidence, present exemplar case studies and suggest important avenues for on-going research. Specifically we prompt the need for awareness of clinical staff when assessing the potential CV consequences of drug use in athletes.

  4. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Ebaugh, David; Pontillo, Marisa; Butowicz, Courtney M

    2015-09-01

    Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2) Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3) Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance. Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance. A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  5. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri P. Silfies

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered.OBJECTIVES: 1 Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2 Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3 Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance.DISCUSSION: Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance.CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  6. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. PAIN (Performing Athletes with Abdominal or Inguinal Neuromuscular Pain Study Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical.

  7. Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic…

  8. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; van der Does, H. T. D.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes ( age, 27 +/- 8 years; VO2max, 50.3 +/- 4.6 mL center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress a

  9. Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic…

  10. A review and clinical summary of vitamin D in regard to bone health and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sara; Sykes, Jeannie; Rigby, Michael; Hess, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    The large amount of scientific literature regarding vitamin D can be overwhelming and confusing. Some organizations have made specific guidelines and recommendations regarding optimal blood levels of vitamin D. In the sports medicine literature, new information about the effects of vitamin D on performance and bone health abound. Most of these articles seem to raise more questions than they answer. Are athletes at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency? Does vitamin D deficiency affect athletic performance? Should athletes be tested for deficiency? What is the optimal goal for vitamin D levels in athletes and is this different from the general population? The goal of this article is to provide clinical insight and clarity, both for those practicing in the primary care setting as well as for those taking care of athletes.

  11. Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsby, Joshua T; Beckett, Keith D; Kern, Michael; Devor, Steven T

    2003-08-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation has yielded inconsistent results when applied to competitive swimming. To further define the role of Cr, we tested the hypothesis that a Cr supplementation group of Division III swimmers would demonstrate enhanced performance when compared with placebo. In order to test this hypothesis, 8 male and 7 female collegiate Division III swimmers were assigned in a random, double-blind manner into either a Cr supplementation group (0.3 g Cr.kg(-1) body mass) or a placebo group. Loading was maintained for 5 days followed by a 9-day period where Cr-supplemented subjects consumed 2.25 g Cr regardless of body weight. A 50- and 100-yd sprint was performed prior to and following the supplementation regimens. The Cr supplementation group decreased their finish times in both the 50- and 100-yd sprints. Support of the hypothesis suggests that Cr supplementation for swimming events is effective for singular effort sprints of 50 and 100 yd in Division III athletes.

  12. [Endurance and Fatigue Caused by Local Muscular Performance in Skilled Athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, T V; Koryukalov, Y I; Kourova, O G

    2015-01-01

    It was the objective of this research to study the functional parameters of endurance and performance and the brain electrobiological activity during local antebrachial muscle work performance among skilled athletes and unfit people aged 18-23. We examined performance and the brain bioelectrical activity changes at local muscle work by means of an ergograph until fatigue. Our results suggested that local performance increased the spectral power of slow alpha- and theta waves as the fatigue set in, but these changes developed slower and were manifested later in the athletes than in the unfit people. Besides, tired athletes' EEGs showed alpha waves synchronization and only demonstrated a decrease in low- and high frequency beta waves indexes. Athletes show higher performance and lower fatigability if compared to unfit people during local performance, also proved by the EEG bioelectrical changes.

  13. Examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy on performance outcomes in elite paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A G; Barker, J B; Turner, M J; Sheffield, D

    2017-06-05

    Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological well-being of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. This study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes. Using a single-case research design, eight athletes recruited from the same Paralympic sport (M=40.12, SD=12.99) received five, one-to-one REBT sessions. Measures of irrational beliefs were collected weekly, whereas the remaining psychological and physiological measures were collected at a pre-, post-, and at a 9-month follow-up time point. Visual and statistical analyzes of the data indicates reductions in irrational beliefs were coupled with reductions in systolic blood pressure indicative of an adaptive physiological response, improved athletic performance during competition simulations, and reductions in avoidance goals. Furthermore, social validation data indicated greater self-awareness, emotional control, and enhanced focus during competition as a result of the REBT intervention. This study contributes to growing literature supporting the efficacy of REBT as an intervention that not only facilitates psychological health but also enhances athletic performance. Results are discussed with reference to theory, limitations, and future recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  15. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-04-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  16. Improvement of physical performance by transcutaneous nerve stimulation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaada, B

    1984-01-01

    The present pilot study tested the exercise response to transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) of 21 volunteers, who were well-trained competitive athletes. In 62 experiments (n) they received low-frequency TNS (2 Hz) for 30-45 min prior to either a road or track race, swimming race, bicycle ergometer exercise, isometric muscular endurance test, or dynamometer hand grip test. Improvement in performance compared with a corresponding number of control tests, without TNS or with placebo stimulation in the same subjects, was almost regularly observed in running, swimming and ergometer cycling, although with great individual variations. The average improvement was 4.3 sec (2.2%) in 1.000 m road racing (n = 9); 2.3 sec (1.8%) in 800 m track racing (n = 5); 0.9 sec (1.4%) in 100 m swimming (n = 12); 1.3 sec (0.8%) in 200 m swimming (n = 6); and 2.5 sec (0.9%) in 400 m swimming (n = 3). In a bicycle ergometer test with stepwise, progressive exercise to muscular fatigue, the maximal capacity was increased by 9% (n = 4). Local isometric muscle endurance of the elbow flexors (n = 7) and hand grip strengths (n = 11) were not significantly altered. Possible mechanisms involved in the response to TNS are discussed.

  17. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  18. The Strict Liability Principle and the Human Rights of the Athlete in Doping Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Soek

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAthletes who achieve extraordinary feats on the pitch stir up the imagination and enjoy a unique position within society. However, laurels received one day, may be just as quickly snatched back the next if it becomes known that the athlete achieved his or her exceptional performance w

  19. The Strict Liability Principle and the Human Rights of the Athlete in Doping Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Soek

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAthletes who achieve extraordinary feats on the pitch stir up the imagination and enjoy a unique position within society. However, laurels received one day, may be just as quickly snatched back the next if it becomes known that the athlete achieved his or her exceptional performance w

  20. Physical constitution matters for athletic performance and salary of NBA players

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkenbüll, Linn-Brit

    2017-01-01

    Basketball is one of the most practised sports in the world, especially in America. America has the most famous professional basketball league, the National Basketball Association (NBA). This study examines whether there is a relationship between the physical constitution of professional basketball players and their athletic performance in the 2015/16 NBA season. Regression results show that the relative wingspan influences the athletic performance in a significantly positive way whereas the ...

  1. The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Leiper, John B; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chamari, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The behavioural modifications that accompany Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) are usually associated with some alterations in the metabolic, physiological, and psychological responses of athletes that may affect sport performance. Muslim athletes who are required to train and/or compete during the month-long, diurnal fast must adopt coping strategies that allow them to maintain physical fitness and motivation if they are to perform at the highest level. This updated review aims to present the current state of knowledge of the effects of RIF on training and performance, focusing on key-factors that contribute to the effects of Ramadan on exercise performance: energy restriction, sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm perturbation, dehydration, and alterations in the training load. The available literature contain few studies that have examined the effects of RIF on physical performance in athletes and, to date, the results are inconclusive, so the effects of RIF on competition outcomes are not at present wholly understood. The diverse findings probably indicate individual differences in the adaptability and self-generated coping strategies of athletes during fasting and training. However, the results of the small number of well-controlled studies that have examined the effects of Ramadan on athletic performance suggest that few aspects of physical fitness are negatively affected, and where decrements are observed these are usually modest. Subjective feelings of fatigue and other mood indicators are often cited as implying additional stress on the athlete throughout Ramadan, but most studies show that these factors may not result in decreases in performance and that perceived exercise intensity is unlikely to increase to any significant degree. Current evidence from good, well-controlled research supports the conclusion that athletes who maintain their total energy and macronutrient intake, training load, body composition, and sleep length and quality are unlikely to

  2. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance.

  3. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  4. The effects of isolated and integrated 'core stability' training on athletic performance measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Casey A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2012-08-01

    Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June 2011). A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance

  5. Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance.

  6. Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on neuromuscular factors that may affect endurance performance in master athletes. During the last decade, due to the rapid increase in the number of master or veteran participants in endurance sporting competitions, many studies attempted to identify metabolic factors associated with the decrease in endurance, especially long-distance running performance with ageing, focusing on decreases in maximal oxygen consumption. However, neuromuscular factors have been less studied despite the well-known phenomena of strength loss with ageing. For master athletes to perform better in long-distance running events, it is important to reduce muscle fatigue and/or muscle damage, to improve locomotion efficiency and to facilitate recovery. To date, no consensus exists that regular endurance training is beneficial for improving locomotion efficiency, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle damage, and enhancing recovery capacity in master athletes. Some recent studies seem to indicate that master athletes have similar muscle damage to young athletes, but they require a longer recovery time after a long-distance running event. Further analyses of these parameters in master athletes require more experimental and practical interest from researchers and coaches. In particular, more attention should be directed towards the capacity to maintain muscle function with training and the role of neuromuscular factors in long-distance performance decline with ageing using a more cellular and molecular approach.

  7. The limits of human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Ralph; Böning, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Human performance, defined by mechanical resistance and distance per time, includes human, task and environmental factors, all interrelated. It requires metabolic energy provided by anaerobic and aerobic metabolic energy sources. These sources have specific limitations in the capacity and rate to provide re-phosphorylation energy, which determines individual ratios of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic power and their sustainability. In healthy athletes, limits to provide and utilize metabolic energy are multifactorial, carefully matched and include a safety margin imposed in order to protect the integrity of the human organism under maximal effort. Perception of afferent input associated with effort leads to conscious or unconscious decisions to modulate or terminate performance; however, the underlying mechanisms of cerebral control are not fully understood. The idea to move borders of performance with the help of biochemicals is two millennia old. Biochemical findings resulted in highly effective substances widely used to increase performance in daily life, during preparation for sport events and during competition, but many of them must be considered as doping and therefore illegal. Supplements and food have ergogenic potential; however, numerous concepts are controversially discussed with respect to legality and particularly evidence in terms of usefulness and risks. The effect of evidence-based nutritional strategies on adaptations in terms of gene and protein expression that occur in skeletal muscle during and after exercise training sessions is widely unknown. Biochemical research is essential for better understanding of the basic mechanisms causing fatigue and the regulation of the dynamic adaptation to physical and mental training.

  8. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in r

  9. Sensory enhancing insoles improve athletic performance during a hexagonal agility task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Daniel L; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Gravelle, Denise C; Petersen, Kelsey; Ryzman, Rachael; Niemi, James; Lesniewski-Laas, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    Athletes incorporate afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors of their plantar feet to provide information about posture, stability, and joint position. Sub-threshold stochastic resonance (SR) sensory enhancing insoles have been shown to improve balance and proprioception in young and elderly participant populations. Balance and proprioception are correlated with improved athletic performance, such as agility. Agility is defined as the ability to quickly change direction. An athlete's agility is commonly evaluated during athletic performance testing to assess their ability to participate in a competitive sporting event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SR insoles during a hexagonal agility task routinely used by coaches and sports scientists. Twenty recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Each athlete was asked to perform a set of hexagonal agility trials while SR stimulation was either on or off. Vicon motion capture was used to measure feet position during six successful trials for each stimulation condition. Stimulation condition was randomized in a pairwise fashion. The study outcome measures were the task completion time and the positional accuracy of footfalls. Pairwise comparisons revealed a 0.12s decrease in task completion time (p=0.02) with no change in hopping accuracy (p=0.99) when SR stimulation was on. This is the first study to show athletic performance benefits while wearing proprioception and balance improving equipment on healthy participants. With further development, a self-contained sensory enhancing insole device could be used by recreational and professional athletes to improve movements that require rapid changes in direction.

  10. Performance trade-offs and ageing in the 'world's greatest athletes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Wilson, Robbie S

    2017-08-16

    The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels. Here, we evaluate performance trade-offs among and within 1369 elite athletes that performed in a total of 6418 combined-events competitions (decathlon and heptathlon). Controlling for age, experience and wind conditions, we detected strong trade-offs between groups of functionally similar events (throwing versus jumping versus running) occurring at the among-individual level. We further modelled individual (co)variation in age-related plasticity of performance and found previously unseen trade-offs in throwing versus running performance that manifest through ageing. Our results verify that human performance is limited by fundamental genetic, environmental and ageing constraints that preclude the simultaneous improvement of performance in multiple dimensions. Identifying these constraints is fundamental to understanding performance trade-offs and predicting the ageing of motor function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, N S; Gibbs, E L; Matheson, G O

    2017-03-01

    Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e.g., illness and injury risk, and weight maintenance) have all been shown to be negatively affected by insufficient sleep or experimentally modeled sleep restriction. However, healthy adults are notoriously poor at self-assessing the magnitude of the impact of sleep loss, underscoring the need for increased awareness of the importance of sleep among both elite athletes and practitioners managing their care. Strategies to optimize sleep quality and quantity in athletes include approaches for expanding total sleep duration, improving sleep environment, and identifying potential sleep disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences.

  13. Scientometric analyses of studies on the role of innate variation in athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael P; Emiah, Shadie

    2014-01-01

    Historical events have produced an ideologically charged atmosphere in the USA surrounding the potential influences of innate variation on athletic performance. We tested the hypothesis that scientific studies of the role of innate variation in athletic performance were less likely to have authors with USA addresses than addresses elsewhere because of this cultural milieu. Using scientometric data collected from 290 scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000-2012, we compared the proportions of authors with USA addresses with those that listed addresses elsewhere that studied the relationships between athletic performance and (a) prenatal exposure to androgens, as indicated by the ratio between digits 2 and 4, and (b) the genotypes for angiotensin converting enzyme, α-actinin-3, and myostatin; traits often associated with athletic performance. Authors with USA addresses were disproportionately underrepresented on papers about the role of innate variation in athletic performance. We searched NIH and NSF databases for grant proposals solicited or funded from 2000-2012 to determine if the proportion of authors that listed USA addresses was associated with funding patterns. NIH did not solicit grant proposals designed to examine these factors in the context of athletic performance and neither NIH nor NSF funded grants designed to study these topics. We think the combined effects of a lack of government funding and the avoidance of studying controversial or non-fundable topics by USA based scientists are responsible for the observation that authors with USA addresses were underrepresented on scientific papers examining the relationships between athletic performance and innate variation.

  14. Performance-Based Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Athletes Differ Between Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-08-01

    Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P NBA and NFL players showed decreased performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival rates, longest postoperative career lengths, and no significant changes in performance. The unique physical demand that each sport requires is likely one of the explanations for these differences in outcomes.

  15. Age-Related Changes in Performance and Recovery Kinetics in Masters Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai; Reaburn, Peter; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF COORDINATIVE ABILITIES IN ACHIEVING ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Neluta Smidu

    2014-01-01

    During the training process, the development of coordinative abilities represents a priority from the first stage of training. Coordinative abilities, as well as speed, are genetically determined; therefore the possibility of improving them is lower for athletes who do not have these innate abilities. Training coordinative abilities at the proper time is crucial in what concerns future development capacity. Developing coordinative abilities to a higher level influences learning and perfecting...

  17. Professional Athletes' Return to Play and Performance After Operative Repair of an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofa, David P; Miller, J Chance; Jang, Eugene S; Woode, Denzel R; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner

    2017-06-01

    Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports. To examine RTP and performance among professional athletes after Achilles tendon repair and compare pre- versus postoperative functional outcomes of professional athletes from different major leagues in the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who sustained a primary complete Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically between 1989 and 2013 were identified via public injury reports and press releases. Demographic information and performance-related statistics were recorded for 2 seasons before and after surgery and compared with matched controls. Statistical analyses were used to assess differences in recorded metrics. Of 86 athletes screened, 62 met inclusion criteria including 25 NBA, 32 NFL, and 5 MLB players. Nineteen (30.6%) professional athletes with an isolated Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically were unable to return to play. Among athletes who successfully returned to play, game participation averaged 75.4% ( P .05). When individual sports were compared, NBA players were most significantly affected, experiencing significant decreases in games played, play time, and performance. An Achilles tendon rupture is a devastating injury that prevents RTP for 30.6% of professional players. Athletes who do return play in fewer games, have less play time, and perform at a lower level than their preinjury status. However, these functional deficits are seen only at 1 year after surgery compared with matched controls, such that players who return to play can expect to perform at a level commensurate with uninjured controls 2 years postoperatively.

  18. [Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and appetite regulation can lead to improved competitive performance of athletes. Mediators of the entero-insular axis generate neurohumoral signals that influence on the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Determine the influence of diet and prolonged exercise on intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) in an athlete population. It is a prospective intervention study, conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. 32 healthy semiprofessional rugby players, aged 13-39 years were included. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken at time 0 and after six months of study. Athletes were randomized to a protein diet (PD) or Mediterranean diet (MD) and plasma levels of intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins were calculated. In the PD group, GLP-1 and GIP plasmatic levels showed a significant decrease (p <0.03; p <0.01 respectively). GLP-1 and ghrelin plasmatic concentration demonstrated a significant decrease (p <0.03 respectively) in those who experienced gain of muscle mass (MM). Finally, the athletes related to the PD who showed increased total weight and muscle mass presented significantly decreased GLP-1 concentration (p <0.03 and p<0.002, respectively). GLP-1 plasmatic concentration was decreased, with the PD suggesting to be more beneficial for the athletes in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Furthermore, muscle mass and total weight gain, linked to the PD, could enhance athletic performance in certain sport modalities. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Athletes' precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Lovell, Geoff Peter; Sargent, Charli

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined precompetitive sleep behaviour of 103 athletes and how it relates to precompetitive mood and subsequent performance. Results revealed that on the night before competition athletes slept well under the recommended target of eight hours of sleep for healthy adults, with almost 70% of athletes experiencing poorer sleep than usual. It was found that anxiety, noise, the need to use the bathroom and early event times were amongst the most commonly reported causes of disrupted sleep in athletes on the night prior to competition. The negative moods of fatigue and tension were both significantly negatively correlated with precompetitive relative sleep quality (r = -0.28, P = 0.004, r = -0.21, P = 0.030, respectively) and total sleep time (r = -0.23, P = 0.023, r = -0.20, P = 0.044, respectively). Additionally, tension was positively correlated with number of awakenings (r = -0.20, P = 0.045). Vigour was seen to be significantly positively associated with relative sleep quality (r = 0.24, P=0.013). The relationships between relative sleep quality and fatigue, tension and vigour accounted for approximately 4 - 5% of the variance in mood scores. Disrupted sleep did not demonstrate any significant relationship with relative sporting performance. Conclusions from the present investigation are that athletes may be at particular risk of disrupted sleep on the night prior to competition, and this disruption can negatively relate to an athlete's precompetitive mood states.

  20. Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonatas FS; Esteves, João VDC; Panissa, Valeria LG; Julio, Ursula F; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12.7 ± 4.8% of body fat, 59.2 ± 5.0% of muscle mass and their somatotype was dominated by the mesomorphic component (5.3 ± 2.0), followed by endomorphic (3.7 ± 1.5) and ectomorphic (1.4 ± 0.9) components. Nutritional assessment suggested a diet consisting of 54 ± 7% of carbohydrates, 19 ± 4% of protein and 27 ± 6% of lipids. Movement time on the handgrip tests was 0.42 ± 0.05 s, for handgrip strength, 53 ± 7 kgf was found for the dominant hand and 50 ± 9 kgf for the non-dominant hand. For the countermovement jump, the jiu-jitsu athletes reached 41 ± 5 cm. Athletes remained 30 ± 14 s in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono, and reached 27 ± 8 cm in the sit-and-reach test. Overall the sample presented average levels of body fat, elevated muscle mass and a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype. Diet was generally poor, with low carbohydrate intake, high protein intake and adequate lipid intake. Maximum isometric handgrip strength was consistent with observations of other athletes in this sport discipline. However, the performance in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono was lower than in other Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Movement time was comparable and lower body muscle power was worse compared to athletes in similar sports. Additionally, flexibility was rated as poor. PMID:28149429

  1. Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreato, Leonardo V; Santos, Jonatas Fs; Esteves, João Vdc; Panissa, Valeria Lg; Julio, Ursula F; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-12-01

    This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12.7 ± 4.8% of body fat, 59.2 ± 5.0% of muscle mass and their somatotype was dominated by the mesomorphic component (5.3 ± 2.0), followed by endomorphic (3.7 ± 1.5) and ectomorphic (1.4 ± 0.9) components. Nutritional assessment suggested a diet consisting of 54 ± 7% of carbohydrates, 19 ± 4% of protein and 27 ± 6% of lipids. Movement time on the handgrip tests was 0.42 ± 0.05 s, for handgrip strength, 53 ± 7 kgf was found for the dominant hand and 50 ± 9 kgf for the non-dominant hand. For the countermovement jump, the jiu-jitsu athletes reached 41 ± 5 cm. Athletes remained 30 ± 14 s in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono, and reached 27 ± 8 cm in the sit-and-reach test. Overall the sample presented average levels of body fat, elevated muscle mass and a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype. Diet was generally poor, with low carbohydrate intake, high protein intake and adequate lipid intake. Maximum isometric handgrip strength was consistent with observations of other athletes in this sport discipline. However, the performance in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono was lower than in other Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Movement time was comparable and lower body muscle power was worse compared to athletes in similar sports. Additionally, flexibility was rated as poor.

  2. Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreato Leonardo V

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype, dietary evaluation (24 h recall and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests. The athletes had 12.7 ± 4.8% of body fat, 59.2 ± 5.0% of muscle mass and their somatotype was dominated by the mesomorphic component (5.3 ± 2.0, followed by endomorphic (3.7 ± 1.5 and ectomorphic (1.4 ± 0.9 components. Nutritional assessment suggested a diet consisting of 54 ± 7% of carbohydrates, 19 ± 4% of protein and 27 ± 6% of lipids. Movement time on the handgrip tests was 0.42 ± 0.05 s, for handgrip strength, 53 ± 7 kgf was found for the dominant hand and 50 ± 9 kgf for the non-dominant hand. For the countermovement jump, the jiu-jitsu athletes reached 41 ± 5 cm. Athletes remained 30 ± 14 s in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono, and reached 27 ± 8 cm in the sit-and-reach test. Overall the sample presented average levels of body fat, elevated muscle mass and a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype. Diet was generally poor, with low carbohydrate intake, high protein intake and adequate lipid intake. Maximum isometric handgrip strength was consistent with observations of other athletes in this sport discipline. However, the performance in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono was lower than in other Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Movement time was comparable and lower body muscle power was worse compared to athletes in similar sports. Additionally, flexibility was rated as poor.

  3. A pilot study of core stability and athletic performance: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Chris; Cropper, Jarrod; Mostad, Joel; Johnson, Matt; Malone, Terry

    2011-06-01

    Correlation study To objectively evaluate the relationship between core stability and athletic performance measures in male and female collegiate athletes. The relationship between core stability and athletic performance has yet to be quantified in the available literature. The current literature does not demonstrate whether or not core strength relates to functional performance. Questions remain regarding the most important components of core stability, the role of sport specificity, and the measurement of core stability in relation to athletic performance. A sample of 35 volunteer student athletes from Asbury College (NAIA Division II) provided informed consent. Participants performed a series of five tests: double leg lowering (core stability test), the forty yard dash, the T-test, vertical jump, and a medicine ball throw. Participants performed three trials of each test in a randomized order. Correlations between the core stability test and each of the other four performance tests were determined using a General Linear Model. Medicine ball throw negatively correlated to the core stability test (r -0.389, p=0.023). Participants that performed better on the core stability test had a stronger negative correlation to the medicine ball throw (r =-0.527). Gender was the most strongly correlated variable to core strength, males with a mean measurement of double leg lowering of 47.43 degrees compared to females having a mean of 54.75 degrees. There appears to be a link between a core stability test and athletic performance tests; however, more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the nature of this relationship. Ideally, specific performance tests will be able to better define and to examine relationships to core stability. Future studies should also seek to determine if there are specific sub-categories of core stability which are most important to allow for optimal training and performance for individual sports.

  4. The Student-Athlete in the Classroom: Developmental Issues Affecting College Athletes and Their Impact on Academic Motivation and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparent, Martha E.

    If college instructors are to work effectively with student-athletes, they must be aware of the career goals, identity as athletes, lifestyle, and educational attitudes of these students and develop appropriate strategies for facilitating their growth and maximizing their learning experiences. The college athletic environment, with its rigid…

  5. Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: skill-focus or performance worries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R D; Kuijpers, Wilma; Kooijman, Chris C; Bakker, Frank C

    2011-01-01

    Choking under pressure in sport has been explained by either explicit attention to skill execution (self-focus theories), or attention to performance worries (distraction theories). The aim of the present study was to find out which focus of attention occurs most often when expert athletes perform under pressure. Two retrospective methods were employed, namely, verbal reports and concept mapping. In the verbal reports, 70 expert athletes indicated their main focus of attention when performing under high pressure in competition. For concept mapping seven expert athletes generated statements about their focus of attention in such high-pressure situations. These statements were clustered and rated on how often they occurred and how important they were for choking. Both methods revealed that under pressure attention of expert athletes was often focused on worries and hardly ever on movement execution. Furthermore, the athletes reported that they focused attention on external factors and that they reverted to positive monitoring in an attempt to maintain performance. These results are more in line with distraction theories than self-focus theories, suggesting that attention to performance worries rather than to skill execution generally explains choking.

  6. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  7. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  8. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  9. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...

  10. ATHLETE Mobility Performance in Long-Range Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a modular mobility and manipulation platform being developed to support NASA operations in a variety of missions, including exploration of planetary surfaces. The agile system consists of a symmetrical arrangement of six limbs, each with seven articulated degrees of freedom and a powered wheel. This design enables transport of bulky payloads over a wide range of terrains and is envisioned as a tool to mobilize habitats, power-generation equipment, and other supplies for long-range exploration and outpost construction.

  11. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  12. Performance development in adolescent track and field athletes according to age, sex and sport discipline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Tønnessen

    Full Text Available Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex.The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete.Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events or 14 (for jumping events and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr.To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation.

  13. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  14. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in

  15. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.

  16. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  17. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in a

  18. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in a

  19. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  20. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  1. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  2. The FTO A/T polymorphism and elite athletic performance: a study involving three groups of European athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eynon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285 as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. RESULTS: There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants. These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. CONCLUSION: The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics.

  3. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  4. Premenstrual syndrome and perception of impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“notaffected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMS was RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performanceimpact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.195%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and thekind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.

  5. Behavioural and psychophysiological correlates of athletic performance: a test of the multi-action plan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertollo, Maurizio; Bortoli, Laura; Gramaccioni, Gianfranco; Hanin, Yuri; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to substantiate the existence of the four types of performance categories (i.e., optimal-automatic, optimal-controlled, suboptimal-controlled, and suboptimal-automatic) as hypothesised in the multi-action plan (MAP) model, and to investigate whether some specific affective, behavioural, psychophysiological, and postural trends may typify each type of performance. A 20-year-old athlete of the Italian shooting team, and a 46-year-old athlete of the Italian dart-throwing team participated in the study. Athletes were asked to identify the core components of the action and then to execute a large number of shots/flights. A 2 × 2 (optimal/suboptimal × automated/controlled) within subjects multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among the four types of performance. Findings provided preliminary evidence of psychophysiological and postural differences among four performance categories as conceptualized within the MAP model. Monitoring the entire spectrum of psychophysiological and behavioural features related to the different types of performance is important to develop and implement biofeedback and neurofeedback techniques aimed at helping athletes to identify individual zones of optimal functioning and to enhance their performance.

  6. Effects of tendon viscoelasticity in Achilles tendinosis on explosive performance and clinical severity in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-K; Lin, K-H; Su, S-C; Shih, T T-F; Huang, Y-C

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to compare viscoelastic properties of Achilles tendons between legs in elite athletes with unilateral tendinosis, and to investigate relationships between the properties and explosive performance and clinical severity. Seventeen male athletes (mean ± standard deviation age, 27.3 ± 2.0 years) who had unilateral, chronic middle-portion tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon were assessed by the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment questionnaire, measurements of tendon viscoelastic properties, voluntary electromechanical delay (EMD), normalized rate of force development (RFD), and one-leg hopping distance. Compared with the non-injured leg, the tendinopathic leg showed reduced tendon stiffness (-19.2%. P tendinosis affect explosive performance in athletes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N; Keller, Robert A; Khalil, Lafi S; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)-caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete's jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). In athletes who are able to return to sport and compete at a high level such as the NBA Combine, there is no

  8. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  9. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  10. Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karila Tuomo AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfa-Hydroxy-isocaproic acid (HICA is an end product of leucine metabolism in human tissues such as muscle and connective tissue. According to the clinical and experimental studies, HICA can be considered as an anti-catabolic substance. The present study investigated the effects of HICA supplementation on body composition, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and physical performance of athletes during a training period. Methods Fifteen healthy male soccer players (age 22.1+/-3.9 yr volunteered for the 4-week double-blind study during an intensive training period. The subjects in the group HICA (n = 8 received 583 mg of sodium salt of HICA (corresponding 500 mg of HICA mixed with liquid three times a day for 4 weeks, and those in the group PLACEBO (n = 7 received 650 mg of maltodextrin mixed with liquid three times a day for the same period. According to a weekly training schedule, they practiced soccer 3 - 4 times a week, had strength training 1 - 2 times a week, and had one soccer game during the study. The subjects were required to keep diaries on training, nutrition, and symptoms of DOMS. Body composition was evaluated with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and after the 4-week period. Muscle strength and running velocity were measured with field tests. Results As compared to placebo, the HICA supplementation increased significantly body weight (p th week of the treatment (p Conclusion Already a 4-week HICA supplementation of 1.5 g a day leads to small increases in muscle mass during an intensive training period in soccer athletes.

  11. Expert Performance by Athletes in the Verbal Estimation of Spatial Extents Does Not Alter Their Perceptual Metric of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H Durgin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes often give more accurate estimates of egocentric distance along the ground than do non-athletes. To explore whether cognitive calibration was accompanied by perceptual change, athletes and non-athletes made verbal height and distance estimates and also did a perceptual matching task between perceived egocentric distances and frontal vertical extents. Both groups were well calibrated for height estimation for poles viewed frontally, but athletes were much better calibrated at estimating longer egocentric distances (which are systematically underestimated by non-athletes. Athletes were more likely to have learned specific units of ground distance from relevant sports contexts. Both groups reported using human height as a metric for vertical extent. For non-athletes, verbal underestimation of ground distance corresponded to predictions based on perceptual matches between egocentric distances and vertical extents in conjunction with human-height-based verbal estimates of vertical extents. For athletes, the verbal scaling of egocentric distances of 10 m or more was more accurate and was not predicted by their egocentric distance matches to vertical extents.

  12. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  13. Return to Play and Performance After Jones Fracture in National Basketball Association Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begly, John P; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Retrospective cohort study. Level 5. Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m(2), and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Influence of different types of mouthguards on strength and performance of collegiate athletes: a controlled-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddy, Fergus A; Weissman, Jake; Lee, Rich A; Paranjpe, Avina; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2012-08-01

    Prevention of traumatic dental injuries relies on the identification of etiologic factors and the use of protective devices during contact sports. Mouthguards are considered to be an effective and cost-efficient device aimed at buffering the impacts or blows that might otherwise cause moderate to severe dental and maxillofacial injuries. Interestingly, besides their role in preventing injury, some authors claim that mouthguards can enhance athletic performance. Thus, the purpose of this controlled randomized trial was to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of mouthguards on the athletic performance and strength of collegiate athletes. Eighteen college athletes ranging from 19 to 23 years participated in this study. Devices tested in this study included an over-the-counter boil-and-bite mouthguard (O-Flow™ Max Under Armour®) (UA) and a custom-made mouthguard (CM). Physical tests were carefully selected by the head athletic trainer and aimed at evaluating the strength and performance. The following sequence was carried out on each test day: (i) 3-stroke maximum power ergometer test, (ii) 1-min ergometer test, and (iii) a 1600-m run. A random assignment was developed to test all three experimental groups on each test day. Following the tests, each athlete completed a brief anonymous survey aimed at evaluating the athletes' overall satisfaction with each type of mouthguard. Custom-made mouthguards had no detrimental effect on athletic strength and performance and were reported by the athletes as being comfortable and not causing difficulty in breathing. In contrast, boil-and-bite mouthguards did not perform as well and were reported as being uncomfortable and causing breathing difficulties. Based on the results of this study, the use of custom-made mouthguards should be encouraged in contact sports as a protective measure, without concern for any negative effect on the athletic performance of the athletes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  16. Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…

  17. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  18. Drug Testing US Student-Athletes for Performance-Enhancing Substance Misuse: A Flawed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that drug testing of U.S. high school students for performance-enhancing substance misuse is invasive, expensive, and the low number of positive test results do not justify the costs, especially in financially strapped school districts where this money would be better spent on injury prevention for athletes and the education of all students.

  19. Internal Challenges Affecting Academic Performance of Student-Athletes in Ghanaian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…

  20. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  1. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  2. Possible Hormone Predictors Of Physical Performance In Adolescent Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alanna C; Heazlewood, Ian T; Kitic, Cecilia M; Lys, Isabelle; Johnson, Liam

    2017-05-30

    The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete. Saliva was analysed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) levels. A strong negative correlation existed between multistage fitness test performance and T:E ratio (r=-0.76, p=0.01) in females not taking oral contraceptives and a strong positive correlation existed between repeat agility total time and estradiol levels (r=-0.71, p=0.001) in females taking oral contraceptives. In males, strong negative correlations were evident for individual changes in planned agility time and estradiol levels (r=0.87, p=0.02), and CMJ height and T:C (r=-0.88, p=0.01). In females taking oral contraceptives a strong positive correlation was noted between individual change in yo-yo intermittent recovery test performance and T:E (r=0.74, p=0.01) and a strong negative correlation was noted between 20m speed and T:P (r=0.73, p=0.01). In females not taking oral contraceptives a strong negative correlation was found between individual change in CMJ height and T:P (r=-0.72, p=0.02). The findings show that in adolescent team sport athletes the P:E, T:E and the T:P ratios are important predictors of performance in tests of physical capacity. The findings also indicate estradiol and progesterone have a predictive function in the physical performance of adolescent male team sport athletes.

  3. Impaired jump landing after exercise in recreational and in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuni, Benita; Cárdenas-Montemayor, Eloy; Bangert, Yannic; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ales, Janez; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Schmitt, Holger

    2014-08-01

    The risk of sustaining injuries increases with fatigue. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of fatigue on dynamic postural control in jump landing and stabilization (ST) in athletes of different levels. In all, 18 high-performance ball sports athletes and 24 recreationally active subjects performed a jump test (JT) before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after a 30-minute treadmill run at the individual anaerobic threshold. An overhead ball switch hit during a forward jump triggered indicator lamps on either side of a force plate. After landing on the plate, ST on 1 leg (no light cue) or a second jump sideways (toward a light cue) was required. The ST force integral index was calculated for the ST trials. Dynamic postural control was significantly impaired in jump landing and ST in the first minute after the run: mean difference ± SD: 0.25 ± 0.48 m·s-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.40 m·s-1, p = 0.043; analysis of variance). No significant group differences were found. Under fatigued conditions, dynamic postural control in jump landing was impaired in an unexpected ST task. Not only recreational but also high-performance athletes were affected. Ball sports athletes could add a training exercise to their workout, which alternates between periods of high effort and neuromuscular training. Resistance to fatigue effects should be checked on a regular basis using JTs.

  4. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Matera, Angela J; Basinger, Jency; Evans, Mindy; Schurman, Taylor; Marquez, Rodney

    2012-05-01

    Energy drinks are frequently consumed by athletes prior to competition to improve performance. This study examined the effect of Red Bull™ on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Fifteen collegiate soccer players participated, with mean age, height, and body mass equal to 19.5±1.1 year, 168.4±5.8 cm, and 63.4±6.1 kg, respectively. After performing a familiarization trial, subjects performed three sets of eight bouts of the modified t test after ingestion of 255 mL of placebo or Red Bull 1 h pre-exercise in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Throughout testing, sprint time, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were continuously obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in variables between drink conditions. Across athletes, t test time ranged from 10.4 to 12.7 s. Mean sprint time was similar (p>0.05) between Red Bull (11.31±0.61 s) and placebo (11.35±0.61 s). HR and RPE increased (p0.05) of Red Bull on either variable versus placebo. Findings indicate that 255 mL of Red Bull containing 1.3 mg/kg of caffeine and 1 g of taurine does not alter repeated sprint performance, RPE, or HR in women athletes versus placebo. One serving of this energy drink provides no ergogenic benefit for women athletes engaging in sprint-based exercise.

  5. Acute Effect of Countermovement Jumping on Throwing Performance in Track and Field Athletes During Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Korfiatis, Panagiotis G; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2017-02-01

    Karampatsos, GP, Korfiatis, PG, Zaras, ND, Georgiadis, GV, and Terzis, GD. Acute effect of countermovement jumping on throwing performance in track and field athletes during competition. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 359-364, 2017-The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performing 3 consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs) just before an attempt enhances performance in track and field throwers during competition. Twelve shot putters, 8 hammer throwers, 9 discus throwers, and 3 javelin throwers of both sexes participated in the study. They performed 3 maximal CMJs 85 ± 12 seconds before the second, fourth, and sixth attempt during 3 different official competitions of national level. Maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in squat and bench press was measured 1 week after the competition. Mean throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs intervention (2.66 ± 4.3%, range of increase 0.02-18.98%, p = 0.0001). Similarly, maximum throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs (2.76 ± 3.29%, range of increase 0.09-13.93%, p = 0.0009). All but 2 athletes increased their best performance after the CMJs. The percentage increase in performance was similar between sexes (male athletes 2.56 ± 3.01%; female athletes 3.06 ± 3.76%, p = 0.677), but it was higher for the "lighter throws" (discus and javelin throw: 4.66 ± 4.11%) compared with the "heavier throws" (shot and hammer throw: 1.62 ± 2.04%, p = 0.008). The percentage increase in performance was not significantly correlated with 1RM squat or bench press, anthropometric characteristics, and personal best performance. These results suggest that performing 3 CMJs approximately 1 minute before an attempt may increase track and field throwing performance during competition.

  6. Performance-based outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional athletes in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wellington K

    2010-05-20

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine the performance-based outcomes in National Football League (NFL) athletes after discectomy for a lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Long-term outcomes following surgical treatment in elite athletes in the NFL are unknown. Postoperative outcomes may be significantly different from the general population due to the exceptional physical demands imposed by the sport. National Football League players diagnosed with a lumbar disc herniation were identified using information from press releases, team injury reports, and newspaper archives. Demographic, treatment, and performance data based on vital statistics to each position were recorded for each player over the length of his career. Using a modification of a previously published scoring system (Carey et al, Am J Sports Med 2006;34:1911-7) based on game statistics, a "Performance Score" was calculated for each player both before and after diagnosis of LDH. A total of 137 National Football League players were identified as having an LDH necessitating treatment. Ninety-six players underwent surgical treatment with a lumbar discectomy, and 34 athletes were treated nonoperatively. Seventy-eight percent of athletes treated surgically for an LDH returned to play in at least 1 NFL game. Players treated surgically played in statistically more games post-treatment (36) than those treated nonoperatively (20) (P Pro Bowl appearances, and position played did not significantly affect outcome. The data in this study suggests that even though a lumbar discectomy has career-threatening implications, a large percentage of NFL athletes return to play at competitive levels. Despite the general opinion of many NFL general managers, players who are able to complete the rigorous rehabilitation required to return to play after lumbar discectomy can expect excellent performance-based outcomes after surgery.

  7. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary l

  8. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary l

  9. Perceived Sleep Quality, Mood States, and Their Relationship With Performance Among Brazilian Elite Athletes During a Competitive Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Andrade, Alexandro

    2017-04-01

    Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?"). Evaluations of mood state and sleep quality were performed up to 60 minutes before national and international sports competitions began. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including logistic regression) were used to evaluate the relationship of sleep quality and mood states with performance (i.e., winning or losing). Athletes typically had good sleep quality and mood states similar to the Iceberg profile (i.e., high vigor and low tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and mental confusion). The Wald test revealed that sleep, anger, tension, and vigor predicted athletes' performance. Specifically, poor sleep quality and low vigor and anger decreased the odds of winning, whereas higher tension increased these odds. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated that the results were sufficiently generalizable. Overall, we observed a significant relationship between sleep and mood states, which in turn both significantly influenced athletes' sports performance. Thus, coaching staff and athletes should monitor athletes' sleep quality before competitions to ensure athletes are in the optimal condition for performance.

  10. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  11. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Trivers

    Full Text Available In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  12. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  13. Athletic Performance at the NFL Scouting Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Austin, William; Marshall, Nathan E; Bastin, Kevin; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common and potentially career ending in the National Football League (NFL). Although statistical performance has been demonstrated after ACL reconstruction, functional performance is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional performance of NFL combine participants after ACL reconstruction compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group. The hypothesis was that there would be no difference between players after ACL reconstruction as compared with controls in functional athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 98 NFL-caliber athletes who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction and participated in the NFL scouting combine between 2010 and 2014 were reviewed and compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group. Data recorded for each player included a 40-yard dash, vertical leap, broad jump, shuttle drill, and 3-cone drill. With regard to speed and acceleration, the mean 40-yard dash time for ACL-reconstructed players was 4.74 seconds (range, 4.33-5.55 seconds) compared with controls at 4.74 seconds (range, 4.34-5.38 seconds; P = .96). Jumping performance was also similar, with a mean vertical leap for ACL-reconstructed players of 33.35 inches (range, 23-43 inches) and broad jump of 113.9 inches (range, 96-136 inches) compared with respective values for the controls of 33.22 inches (range, 23.5-43.5 inches; P = .84) and 113.9 inches (range, 92-134 inches; P = .99). Agility and quickness testing measures also did not show a statistically significantly difference, with ACL-reconstructed players performing the shuttle drill in 4.37 seconds (range, 4.02-4.84 seconds) and the 3-cone drill in 7.16 seconds (range, 6.45-8.14 seconds), respectively, compared with respective times for the controls of 4.37 seconds (range, 3.96-5.00 seconds; P = .91) and 7.18 seconds (range, 6.64-8.24 seconds; P = .75). This study suggests that after ACL

  14. Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Kavouras, Stavros A; Queen, Robin M; Pryor, John Luke; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-10-01

    Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Kavouras, SA, Queen, RM, Pryor, JL, and Casa, DJ. Biomarkers in sports and exercise: tracking health, performance, and recovery in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2920-2937, 2017-Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk.

  15. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  16. Performance level and sexual harassment prevalence among female athletes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Celia H. Brackenridge; Knorre, Nada

    2010-01-01

    The results presented in this article are from a larger research project on issues related to women in sport in the Czech Republic. The article tries to answer research questions related to whether there are any relationships between the experience of sexual harassment among female athletes inside and outside sport, and at different sport performance levels. The sample, totalling 595 women, was divided into three performance groups: elite, competing and exercisers. No significant differences ...

  17. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING VERSUS ATHLETIC TAPING ON PAIN AND MUSCLE PERFORMANCE IN LATERAL EPICONDYLALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Goel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylalgia is a degenerative musculoskeletal pain state characterised by pain over the lateral humeral epicondyle resulting in absenteeism from work and daily living activities. It is most prevalent in jobs requiring repetitive manual activities of the upper extremity. Literature describes different treatment options for lateral Epicondylalgia but there is no consensus about the most efficacious intervention strategy. Taping (athletic/kinesio has been used successfully in various musculoskeletal conditions with successful results. To date, no study has investigated the effect of kinesio taping in lateral epicondylalgia. The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare the effects of kinesio taping and athletic taping on pain and muscle performance in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. 16 patients (9 males, 7 females within age group of 18 – 50 years participated in the study. It was a cross over design. VAS, digital al goniometer and Jamar Dynamometer were used to quantify pain, pressure pain threshold and pain free grip strength. These were evaluated pre taping, immediately after taping and after 30 minutes of each taping application selected randomly for two consecutive days. Repeated measures ANOVA and percentage change were used to examine differences in outcome measures. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for repeated testing. The results showed significant pain reduction and increase in grip strength after both the taping techniques but no statistically significant differences for any outcome measure between the two taping techniques (p>0.05. Also the immediate pain reduction was more after athletic taping (21% than kinesio taping (10% that corresponded to the immediate increase in pain free grip strength more after athletic taping (14.5% than kinesio taping (9.7%. 30 minutes later both the outcome measures gave similar percentage changes . The present study concludes with the recommendation of both

  18. Iron supplementation for female athletes: effects on iron status and performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaValle, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient involved in oxidative metabolism and critical to exercise performance. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) is much higher in active women for a variety of reasons, and poor iron status has been shown to be detrimental to overall health as well as physical performance. Iron status can be assessed using a number of indicators; however clinical cut-offs for active populations remain controversial. Randomized, placebo-controlled supplementation trials of iron-depleted female athletes have shown that oral iron supplementation in doses of 100-mg FeSO4·d (approximately 20 mg elemental iron) improves iron status and may improve measures of physical performance. It is recommended that female athletes most at risk of ID be screened at the beginning of and during the training season using hemoglobin and serum ferritin, and appropriate dietary and/or supplementation recommendations be made to those with compromised iron status.

  19. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  20. Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2015-08-01

    Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.

  1. The impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction on athletic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Oliver J; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    of this review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current status of knowledge regarding EIB and exercise performance and to highlight potential mechanisms by which performance may be compromised by EIB. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed/Medline and EBSCO databases were searched up to May 2014...

  2. ACTN3 and AMPD1 Polymorphism and Genotype Combinations in Bulgarian Athletes Performing Wingate Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Atanasov[1; Trayana Djarova[2; Michael Kalinski[3; Lubomir Petrov[4; Radka Kaneva[5; Sam Mugandani[6; Gregori Watson[7; Monem Jemni[8

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ACTN3 (ct-actinin-3) and AMPD1 (adenosine monophosphate deaminase) polymorphism and genotype combinations in Bulgarian athletes competing in various sports and the relation to peak power output. A mixed group of athletes (n = 52) competing at national and international level and a matching genetic control group (n = 109) of volunteers were recruited. Participants were genotyped for ACTN3 and AMPD1 by polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences in ACTN3 genotype distribution between athletes performing Wingate test (38% RR, 46% RX, 16% XX) and controls (41.2% RR, 46% RX, 12.8% XX). AMPD1 distribution was (73% CC, 27% CT, 0% TT) and in controls (73.2% CC, 25% CT, 1.8% TT). Athletes performing Wingate test showed equal 33% frequency of RR/CC and RX/CC combination, and 12% RX/CT. Significantly higher (P 〈 0.05) peak power output (11.10 W kg1) was found in athletes with RX/CT combination compared to other combinations (range: 8.83-9.71 W kg-1) and in R-power (RR + RX) and C-power (CC + CT) dominant models (9.91 W kgl). Mean power was higher (P 〈 0.05) in RX/CT combination (8.93 W kg-1) compared to RR/CC (7.75 W kg-1) and RR/CT (7.95 W kgl). In conclusion, the low frequency of T AMPD1 allele in Bulgarian athletes might indicate that this mutant allele is related to the physical performance. The prevalence of R ACTN3 and C AMPD1 alleles suggests that they could contribute to anaerobic performance. Higher peak power in Wingate test is associated with RX/CT genotype combination and R- and C-power dominant models.

  3. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE; TAN; NAFISUL; ISLAM; MILAN; MITRASINOVIC

    2015-01-01

    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  4. Bone quality in the lumbar spine in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Pfeil, J; Reiter, A

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of high-performance training on the bone quality of the lumbar spine, in particular, the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in athletes with high weight-bearing demands on the spine. Measurements were therefore performed in internationally top-ranked high-performance athletes of different disciplines (weight lifters, boxers, and endurance-cyclists). The measurements were carried out by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the results compared with the measurements of 21 age-matched male controls. The BMD of the high-performance weight lifters was greater than that of the controls by 24% (0.252 g/cm2) on the AP view by 23% (0.200 g/cm2) on the lateral view (P boxers and the controls was +17% (0.174 g/cm2) on the AP view and +19% (0.174 g/cm2) on the lateral view. The BMD of the lumbar spine in all endurance cyclists was lower than that in the controls (AP view -10%, 0.105 g/cm2; lateral view -8%, 0.067 g/cm2; P > 0.05). The results show that training program stressing axial loads of the skeleton may lead to a significant increase of BMD in the lumbar spine of young individuals. Other authors' findings that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease are confirmed. Nevertheless the 10% BMD loss of cyclists was surprisingly high.

  5. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.

  6. Physical Performance of West Java Soccer Athletes during February to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Army Zaka Anwary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soccer is one of the sports included in the 18th National Sports Week (Pekan Olahraga Nasional, (PON 2012, in Riau. Soccer requires a good physical condition to perform various football techniques such as running, shooting, dribbling, tackling, sliding, throw-in and heading. A good physical component can be achieved through a well-rounded program in accordance to the periodization training program. This study was conducted to describe the physical performance of the West Java’s football athletes in order to develop periodization training program and to predict the athletes’ performance. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 23 West Java’s football athletes using secondary data from West Java’s KONI sports medicine team test reports during the period of February to December 2012. The variables in this study were 7 predominant physical components in football as follows: muscle strength, muscle endurance, speed, agility, flexibility, explosive leg muscle power, and general endurance (VO2 max. All components were categorized asInsufficient, Fair, Good, Excellent, and Perfect compared to the central KONI standards. Results: The leg muscle strength, abdominal muscle endurance, speed, agility of all athletes were not considered perfect. Not one of the components was above 50% which was the excellent category. Only Arm and shoulder endurance (56.5%, speed (68.18%, and leg muscle power (52.17% were in good category. The most of the results regarding the athletes’ leg muscle strength was categorized as fair. All results in the abdominal endurance were in insufficient category. Conclusion: Not all physical performance components are achieved perfectly by all of the football athletes.

  7. The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D.; Mah, Kenneth E.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Dement, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Setting: Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Participants: Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Interventions: Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2–4 week baseline followed by a 5–7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Results: Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance. Citation: Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. SLEEP 2011;34(7):943-950. PMID:21731144

  8. Effect of acute fatigue and training adaptation on countermovement jump performance in elite snowboard cross athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Rob J; Stellingwerff, Trent; Sporer, Ben C

    2015-01-01

    Countermovement jump performance was examined in response to acute neuromuscular (NM) fatigue (study I) and chronic training (study II) in elite snowboard cross (SBX) athletes, through both typical (countermovement jump [CMJ]-TYP) and alternative (CMJ-ALT) CMJ variables. Seven (4 men and 3 women) elite (Olympic-level) SBX athletes participated in study I, and 5 of the same athletes (2 men and 3 women) participated in study II. Countermovement jump variables relating to force, velocity, power, and time were measured during both eccentric and concentric jump phases, with CMJ-TYP variables reflecting CMJ output and CMJ-ALT variables reflecting CMJ mechanics. In study I, CMJ performance was assessed before and after a fatiguing lower-body exercise protocol, and in study II, CMJ performance was examined before and after a 19-week structured training block. Meaningful differences in CMJ performance were examined using the magnitude of change (effect sizes [ES]) for group and individual changes. Acute fatigue decreased peak force and eccentric function, while the duration of the jump increased. The structured training block increased peak force and eccentric function, while jump duration markedly decreased. In both study I and study II, the largest ES were associated with CMJ-ALT variables. The CMJ test seems a suitable monitoring tool in elite SBX athletes for the detection of both acute fatigue and training-adaptation. Compared with CMJ output, CMJ mechanics exhibits more marked and divergent changes after both acute NM fatigue and a structured training block. CMJ-ALT variables should therefore be incorporated into CMJ analysis.

  9. New Developments in Creatine Supplementation Research: Mechanisms of Athletic Performance Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Derhovanessian, Ariss

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade creatine supplementation has become the most popular ergogenic aid among athletes, with particular performance enhancements found in high-power output, anaerobic exercises. Physiologically, creatine and phosphocreatine provide an energy reservoir in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have also shown that the ergogenic effects of creatine are caused by muscle protein metabolism (or reduced catabolism), satellite cell proliferation, protective oxidant scavenging, and membrane st...

  10. Athlete Characteristics and Team Competitive Performance as Moderators for the Relationship Between Coach Transformational Leadership and Athlete Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Kai C; Schulte-Coerne, Paul; Diebig, Mathias; Rowold, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of coaches' transformational leadership on player performance. To advance existing research, we examine (a) effects on individual and team performance and (b) consider joint moderating effects of players' win orientation and teams' competitive performance on the leadership- individual performance link. In a three-source sample from German handball teams, we collected data on 336 players and 30 coaches and teams. Results showed positive main effects of transformational leadership's facet of articulating a vision (AV) on team and individual performance and negative main effects of providing an appropriate model (PAM) on team performance. With regard to moderating effects, AV increased and PAM decreased individual performance when both moderators were low, and intellectual stimulation had a positive effect when both were high. This study expands insights into the potential and limitation of transformational leadership with a strong focus on the role of situational contingencies.

  11. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D; Mah, Kenneth E; Kezirian, Eric J; Dement, William C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2-4 week baseline followed by a 5-7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P sleep extension (P sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance.

  12. Audiovisual Stimulation Modulates Physical Performance and Biochemical and Hormonal Status of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, M S; Golovin, M S; Aizman, R I

    2016-09-01

    We studied the effect of audiovisual stimulation training course on physical development, functional state of the cardiovascular system, blood biochemical parameters, and hormonal status of athletes. The training course led to improvement of physical performance and adaptive capacities of the circulatory system, increase in plasma levels of total protein, albumin, and glucose and total antioxidant activity, and decrease in triglyceride, lipase, total bilirubin, calcium, and phosphorus. The concentration of hormones (cortisol, thyrotropin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine) also decreased under these conditions. In the control group, an increase in the concentration of creatinine and uric acid and a tendency toward elevation of lowdensity lipoproteins and total antioxidant activity were observed in the absence of changes in cardiac function and physical performance; calcium and phosphorus concentrations reduced. The improvement in functional state in athletes was mainly associated with intensification of anabolic processes and suppression of catabolic reactions after audiovisual stimulation (in comparison with the control). Stimulation was followed by an increase in the number of correlations between biochemical and hormonal changes and physical performance of athletes, which attested to better integration of processes at the intersystem level.

  13. Energy Thermodynamics Revisited: Energy intake strategies for optimizing athlete body composition and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Benardot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of physical activity is that it results in an increased rate of energy expenditure and, as a result of metabolic inefficiencies that lead to high heat production, an increase in the requirement to dissipate the added heat through sweat.  Nevertheless, surveys commonly find that athletes fail to optimally satisfy both energy and fluid needs, causing them to perform at levels below their conditioned capacities.  To some extent this problem results from an excess reliance on the sensations of ‘hunger’ and ‘thirst’ to guide energy and fluid intakes, but there are also common misunderstandings of the best eating strategies for achieving optimal body composition and performance.  The need to improve the strength-to-weight ratio to enable an enhanced ability to overcome sport-related resistance can be misinterpreted as a need to be ‘small’, which may result in an under-consumption of energy through restrained eating and special ‘diets’.  The outcome, however, is nearly always the precise opposite of the desired effect, with lower strength-to-weight ratios that result in an ever-increasing downward spiral in energy and fluid consumption.  This paper focuses on within-day energy balance eating and drinking strategies that are now successfully followed by many elite-level athletes.  These strategies can help athletes avoid the common errors of under-consumption while simultaneously improving both body composition and performance.

  14. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.

  15. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, D; Morgan, G

    2010-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Performance-Enhancing Drugs and the High School Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckowiak, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    A performance-enhancing drug (PED) is any substance that is used to increase muscle mass, dull pain, reduce weight, or ease stress. The use of PEDs is a growing concern among adolescents, due in part to the pressures to perform, the influence of professional role models, and a general lack of education about the dangers of these substances. Use of performance enhancers has been identified in middle school as well as high school age students. This article details the school nurse's role in identifying youth who are using a PED, providing education for students and families, and referring for treatment if needed. Although PED use is not as prevalent as use of other illicit drugs, PEDs still pose a threat to adolescent physical and mental health. Discussion about PED use can open the door to discussion about use of other substances.

  17. Effect of ginger and cinnamon intake on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with the placebo group.

  18. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-09-01

    To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.

  19. Analysis of upper-extremity performance in athletes and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K N; Bejjani, F J

    1990-08-01

    Injuries can result from direct or indirect trauma and overuse in sports and the performing arts. These injuries occur when the objective exceeds the physiologic tolerance. Biomechanics analysis enables the estimation of the capacities of the body as well as the loading environment encountered by the tendons, muscles, bones, and joints during various types of sports and musical activities.

  20. The effects of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B; van der Woude, L; Tolfrey, K; Goosey-Tolfrey, V

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprint times reduced in 18° (5.89±0.47 s, P=0.011) and 20° camber (5.93±0.47 s, P=0.030) compared with 24° (6.05±0.45 s). Large effect sizes revealed that 18° camber enabled greater acceleration over the first 2 (r=0.53, 95% CI=0.004 to 0.239) and 3 (r=0.59, 95% CI=0.017 to 0.170) pushes compared with 24°. Linear mobility times significantly improved (P≤0.05) in 15° (16.08±0.84 s), 18° (16.06±0.97 s) and 20° (16.22±0.84 s) camber compared with 24° (16.62±1.10 s). Although no statistically significant main effect of camber was revealed, large effect sizes (r=0.72, 95% CI=0.066 to 0.250) demonstrated that 18° camber reduced times taken to perform the manoeuvrability drill compared with 15°. It was concluded that 18° camber was the best performing setting investigated given its superior performance for both linear and non-linear aspects of mobility, whereas 24° camber impaired linear performance. This was likely to be due to the greater drag forces experienced. Subsequently, athletes would be recommended to avoid 24° camber and young or inexperienced athletes in particular may benefit from selecting 18° as a starting point due to its favourable performance for all aspects of mobility performance in the current study.

  1. System performance patterns of the individual dynamics of competitive action athletes in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to disclose methodological foundations and experimental validation patterns of the individual dynamics of competitive performance of skilled athletes in team sports. The study involved 12 men's basketball players in the team of Super League of Ukraine "Polytechnic", 3 of which candidate master, 9 masters of sports and 23 women's basketball team player first league "BC-HAI", including 4 master of sports, nine candidates Master of Sport, 8 athletes 1st grade. It is shown that the impact of individual dynamics play a fair representation of quadratic, cubic and sinusoidal functions. In a sinusoidal function oscillation period in basketball is 25-30 days (periods of physical and emotional biorhythm period and ovarian-menstrual cycle, and at basketball - 31-38 days (periods of intellectual and intuitive biorhythms. The data obtained can be used to improve the management of competitive activity and the training process.

  2. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Among Bodybuilding Athletes in the South of Iran, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerinejad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Several reports have implied progressive increase of performance-enhancing drug (PED use among Iranian athletes. More importantly, most of the previous research in the Iranian population had mainly focused on the anabolic steroid abuse, and ignored other agents. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PED use among bodybuilding athletes in Bushehr, south of Iran. Methods Four hundred and fifty three male bodybuilding athletes were recruited from Bushehr gyms between February and May of 2015. Men were eligible to participate in the survey if they had regularly participated in the strength-training exercise (minimum of 1 year and 4 hour/week. Data were collected via a face-to-face interview. The survey consisted of three separate parts including demographic data, exercise pattern and PED use. Results According to this study, 234 (51.7% of bodybuilding athletes had used PEDs. The PED users reported an average of 3.80 ± 4.52 agents’ use in their programs and they had used PEDs for the average of 3.24 ± 3.99 years. The most prevalent agents which had been abused by the athletes were anabolic steroids (used by 185 athletes (79.4% of athletes. Furthermore, 110 (47% of athletes reported stimulant agents’ use during their routines. The most prevalent motivation for using PEDs was increasing muscle mass that was reported by 164 (70.1% of PED users. In addition, sexual and dermatologic effects were the most prevalent adverse effects reported by the PED user athletes (114 (49.4% and 103 (44.2%, respectively. Conclusions This study showed the high rate of PED use among recreational and professional Iranian bodybuilding athletes that can expose them to the serious side effects of these agents.

  3. Sports Activities High Performance Athletes Muslim Women in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.

  4. Impact of Demographic Variables on African-American Student Athletes' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lacey; Fisher, Dwalah; Cavil, J. Kenyatta

    2012-01-01

    Since the passage of Proposition 48 (NCAA, 1984), African-American student-athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) major colleges and universities have meet new challenges in their future as student-athletes. This major change altered the landscape of the future of college athletics particularly for students of color.…

  5. Game Changers: The Role Athletic Identity and Racial Identity Play on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which athletic and racial identity predict the academic outcomes of Black student athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Bowl Series football. The academic outcomes of Black student athletes are a growing concern to both scholars and…

  6. Kinanthropometric Profile and Physical Performance of Athletic Track Events in Relation to Different Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zamirullah; ahmed, Naseem; Raja, Waseem Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out kinanthropometric profile of 20 Athletes of middle distance 800 meters, & long distance runners 5000 meters of Track Event of age 17 years were assessed for the present study. The data of athletes was collected at Athletics Summer Camp 2015 in Kashmir region. The athletes having participation of at…

  7. Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ≥94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects.

  8. Effects of respiratory muscle training on performance in athletes: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HajGhanbari, Bahareh; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Buna, Teryn R; Coelho, Jonathan D; Freedman, Kyle D; Morton, Trevor A; Palmer, Sheree A; Toy, Melissa A; Walsh, Cody; Sheel, A William; Reid, W Darlene

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to determine if respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves sport performance and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Methodology followed the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, EMBASE, EBM reviews, and COCHRANE electronic databases were searched until July 2011. Articles were included if: (a) participants were athletes; (b) RMT was compared with sham or control in a randomized controlled design and included outcomes of respiratory muscle and sport performance; and (d) published in English. Quality assessment using PEDro and data abstraction was performed by 2 authors. Outcomes evaluated were measures of sport performance, exercise capacity, spirometry, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Meta-analyses were performed on outcomes reported in 2 or more papers. Results of this systematic review revealed that of the 6,923 citations retrieved from the search strategy, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses demonstrated a significant positive effect of RMT on sport performance outcomes of time trials, exercise endurance time, and repetitions on Yo-Yo tests. Inspiratory muscle strength and endurance improved in most studies, which in part, was dependent on the type of RMT employed. Determination of the type of athlete that may benefit most from RMT was limited by small sample sizes, differing RMT protocols, and differences in outcome measures across studies. In conclusion, RMT can improve sport performance. Closer attention to matching the ventilatory demands of RMT to those required during athletic competition and more aggressive progression of training intensity may show greater improvements in future studies.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK ENDURANCE PLANK TESTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE TESTS IN ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players. Study design Cross sectional study design. Methods Fifty-five adolescent male soccer players performed prone and side plank tests and seven performance tests: the Cooper test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the step 50 agility test, a 30-m sprint test, a vertical countermovement jump, a standing five-step jump, and a rebound jump. The relationships between each individual plank test, the combined score of both plank tests, and performance tests were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The combined score of plank tests was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r = 0.710, p < 0.001), and was moderately correlated with the Cooper test (r = 0.567, p < 0.001). Poor correlation was observed between the prone plank test and step 50 agility test (r = -0.436, p = 0.001) and no significant correlations were observed between plank tests and jump performance tests. Conclusions The results suggest that trunk endurance plank tests are positively correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the Cooper test, and the step 50 agility test. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27757284

  10. Predicting the protein targets for athletic performance-enhancing substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Lazaros; Mitchell, John Bo

    2013-06-25

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the Prohibited List, a manually compiled international standard of substances and methods prohibited in-competition, out-of-competition and in particular sports. It would be ideal to be able to identify all substances that have one or more performance-enhancing pharmacological actions in an automated, fast and cost effective way. Here, we use experimental data derived from the ChEMBL database (~7,000,000 activity records for 1,300,000 compounds) to build a database model that takes into account both structure and experimental information, and use this database to predict both on-target and off-target interactions between these molecules and targets relevant to doping in sport. The ChEMBL database was screened and eight well populated categories of activities (Ki, Kd, EC50, ED50, activity, potency, inhibition and IC50) were used for a rule-based filtering process to define the labels "active" or "inactive". The "active" compounds for each of the ChEMBL families were thereby defined and these populated our bioactivity-based filtered families. A structure-based clustering step was subsequently performed in order to split families with more than one distinct chemical scaffold. This produced refined families, whose members share both a common chemical scaffold and bioactivity against a common target in ChEMBL. We have used the Parzen-Rosenblatt machine learning approach to test whether compounds in ChEMBL can be correctly predicted to belong to their appropriate refined families. Validation tests using the refined families gave a significant increase in predictivity compared with the filtered or with the original families. Out of 61,660 queries in our Monte Carlo cross-validation, belonging to 19,639 refined families, 41,300 (66.98%) had the parent family as the top prediction and 53,797 (87.25%) had the parent family in the top four hits. Having thus validated our approach, we used it to identify the protein targets

  11. Increased Athletic Performance in Lighter Basketball Shoes: Shoe or Psychology Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Maurice; Trudeau, Matthieu B; Nigg, Sandro R; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of shoe mass on performance in basketball-specific movements and how this affects changes if an athlete is aware or not of the shoe's mass relative to other shoes. In an experimental design, 22 male participants were assigned to 2 groups. In the "aware" group, differences in the mass of the shoes were disclosed, while participants in the other group were blinded to the mass of shoes. For both groups lateral shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances were quantified in 3 different basketball-shoe conditions (light, 352 ± 18.4 g; medium, 510 ± 17 g; heavy, 637 ± 17.7 g). A mixed ANOVA compared mean shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances across shoes and groups. For blinded participants, perceived shoe-weight ratings were collected and compared across shoe conditions using a Friedman 2-way ANOVA. In the aware group, performance in the light shoes was significantly increased by 2% (vertical jump 2%, P performance across shoes. Differences in performance of the aware participants were most likely due to psychological effects such as positive and negative expectancies toward the light and heavy shoes, respectively. These results underline the importance for coaches and shoe manufacturers to communicate the performance-enhancing benefits of products or other interventions to athletes to optimize their performance outcome.

  12. The strict liability principle in antidoping rules and the human rights of athletes: an approach critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: the human lives in search of overrun at all levels, whether professional, emotional or in their interpersonal relationships. In the middle of sports this search becomes more visible, because hundredths of seconds can make the difference between the podium and the failure. Journals at any moment announces a new case of a positive doping in several sports. Objective: analyse the processes judged for doping in the STJD of the Brazilian athletism and verify if the pronounced sentences are in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Materials and Methods: 18 cases were reviewed by the use of prohibited substance, between the years 2003 to 2006 by the STJD of Athletism. Results: of the 18 cases examined only 3 were acquitted by the STJD, however, these three, two have met suspension for two years, in order that WADA, not satisfied with the results asked the International Federation (IAAF to analyze them, and after guided them to the Court of Arbitration Sports (CAS. Conclusion: the rule of objective responsibility are not in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, leading athletes to respond irrespective proven their guilt.

  13. The strict liability principle in antidoping rules and the human rights of athletes: an approach critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Cruz Cunha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: the human lives in search of overrun at all levels, whether professional, emotional or in their interpersonal relationships. In the middle of sports this search becomes more visible, because hundredths of seconds can make the difference between the podium and the failure. Journals at any moment announces a new case of a positive doping in several sports. Objective: analyse the processes judged for doping in the STJD of the Brazilian athletism and verify if the pronounced sentences are in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Materials and Methods: 18 cases were reviewed by the use of prohibited substance, between the years 2003 to 2006 by the STJD of Athletism. Results: of the 18 cases examined only 3 were acquitted by the STJD, however, these three, two have met suspension for two years, in order that WADA, not satisfied with the results asked the International Federation (IAAF to analyze them, and after guided them to the Court of Arbitration Sports (CAS. Conclusion: the rule of objective responsibility are not in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, leading athletes to respond irrespective proven their guilt.

  14. Sprint mechanics in world-class athletes: a new insight into the limits of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabita, G; Dorel, S; Slawinski, J; Sàez-de-Villarreal, E; Couturier, A; Samozino, P; Morin, J-B

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanics of maximal running sprint acceleration in high-level athletes. Four elite (100-m best time 9.95-10.29 s) and five sub-elite (10.40-10.60 s) sprinters performed seven sprints in overground conditions. A single virtual 40-m sprint was reconstructed and kinetics parameters were calculated for each step using a force platform system and video analyses. Anteroposterior force (FY), power (PY), and the ratio of the horizontal force component to the resultant (total) force (RF, which reflects the orientation of the resultant ground reaction force for each support phase) were computed as a function of velocity (V). FY-V, RF-V, and PY-V relationships were well described by significant linear (mean R(2) of 0.892 ± 0.049 and 0.950 ± 0.023) and quadratic (mean R(2) = 0.732 ± 0.114) models, respectively. The current study allows a better understanding of the mechanics of the sprint acceleration notably by modeling the relationships between the forward velocity and the main mechanical key variables of the sprint. As these findings partly concern world-class sprinters tested in overground conditions, they give new insights into some aspects of the biomechanical limits of human locomotion.

  15. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Jump-Squat Performance and Its Relationship With Relative Training Intensity in High-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; Ortega-Becerra, Manuel A; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationship between the relative load in full squats and the height achieved in jump-squat (JS) exercises and to determine the load that maximizes the power output of high-level athletes. Fifty-one male high-level track-and-field athletes (age 25.2 ± 4.4 y, weight 77. ± 6.2 kg, height 179.9 ± 5.6 cm) who competed in sprinting and jumping events took part in the study. Full-squat 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) and JS height (JH) with loads from 17 to 97 kg were measured in 2 sessions separated by 48 h. Individual regression analyses showed that JH (R2 = .992 ± .005) and the jump decrease (JD) that each load produced with respect to the unloaded countermovement jump (CMJ) (R2 = .992 ± 0.007) are highly correlated with the full-squat %1-RM, which means that training intensities can be prescribed using JH and JD values. The authors also found that the load that maximizes JS's power output was 0%RM (ie, unloaded CMJ). These results highlight the close relationship between JS performance and relative training intensity in terms of %1-RM. The authors also observed that the load that maximizes power output was 0%1-RM. Monitoring jump height during JS training could help coaches and athletes determine and optimize their training loads.

  17. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Stephanie L; Wellborn-Kim, Jennifer J; Clauson, Kevin A

    2010-04-01

    Energy drinks are frequently marketed to individuals interested in athletics and an active lifestyle. From 2001 to 2008, estimates of energy drink use in adolescent to middle-aged populations ranged from 24% to 56%. Most energy drinks feature caffeine and a combination of other components, including taurine, sucrose, guarana, ginseng, niacin, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin. This article examines the evidence for 2 commonly purported uses of energy drinks: athletic performance enhancement and weight loss. Observed ergogenic benefits of energy drinks are likely attributable to caffeine and glucose content. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of energy drinks on weight loss, although some data suggest that combining energy drink use with exercise may enhance body fat reduction. As with any pharmacologically active substance, energy drinks are associated with adverse effects. Combining energy drinks with alcohol exacerbates safety concerns and is an increasingly common practice contributing to toxic jock identity among college-aged male athletes. Practitioners should monitor identified populations likely to consume these loosely regulated beverages.

  18. Simple reaction time and decision making performance after different physical workloads: an examination with elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Ali Özdemir

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of both local and general physical fatigue on visual simple and visual choice reaction time of elite level athletes. 15 male and 3 female national Muay-Thai athletes (Mage = 21.55, SD= 3.47 who participated at least 5 training sessions per week volunteered to participate present study. Subjects were asked to perform Wingate anaerobic test on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer (834 E, Monark to induce general fatigue. Hand grip dynamometer was used for resistance exercises to induce local fatigue. Simple, two-choice and three-choice visual reaction times were measured at resting, after local and general physical fatigue conditions both on right and left hands, respectively. The results of repeated measure ANOVAs yielded that compared to resting conditions simple reaction time significantly increased after inducing the local and general physical fatigue on both hands. On the other hand, although two-choice and three-choice reaction time mean scores increased from resting to both general and local physical fatigue conditions, these increments were not statistically different among measurements. It was concluded that both dynamic and resistance exercise induced fatigue may seems to lengthen only simple reaction time and did not affect decision making processes of elite level Muay-Thai athletes.

  19. PPAR-α and PPARGC1A gene variants have strong effects on aerobic performance of Turkish elite endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Ercan; Kara, Nurten; Agaoglu, Seydi Ahmet; Elbistan, Mehmet; Tasmektepligil, Mehmet Yalcin; Imamoglu, Osman

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on aerobic performance of elite level endurance athletes. This study was carried out on 170 individuals (60 elite level endurance athletes and 110 sedentary controls). Aerobic performance of athletes and sedentary control groups were defined by maximal oxygen uptake capacity. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using GeneJet Genomic DNA Purification kit. Genotyping of the PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP methods, and statistical evaluations were carried out using SPSS 15.0. Mean age of athletes were 21.38 ± 2.83 (18-29) and control mean age were 25.92 ± 4.88 (18-35). Mean maximal oxygen consumption of athletes were 42.14 ± 7.6 ml/(kg min) and controls were 34.33 ± 5.43 ml/(kg min). We found statistically significant differences between the athlete and control groups with respect to both PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions (p = 0.006, performance test parameters, we found a statistically significant association between velocity, time and maximal oxygen consumption and PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotypes (p C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser gene polymorphisms in elite level endurance athletes. Our results suggest that PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genes have strong effect on aerobic performance of elit level athletes.

  20. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mónica Sousa; Maria J. Fernandes; Pedro Carvalho; José Soares; Pedro Moreira; Vitor Hugo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods: Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results: From the 244 athletes (66%males, 13–37 years), 64%reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p<0.05), for at least 1 gender, for energy, and for 7 of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR=0.28, 95%CI:0.12–0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR=0.06, 95%CI:0.00–0.98). Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  1. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes.

  2. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p put performance. These results suggest that muscular power of the lower extremities is a better predictor of rotational shot put performance than absolute muscular strength in skilled athletes, at least during the competition period.

  3. Potential benefits of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Baker, Julien S; Evans, Peter; Hullin, David; Thomas, Non-Eleri; Davies, Bruce

    2009-08-01

    Athletes have enjoyed almost a thirty year amnesty of rhGH abuse, which they consider has contributed to the winning of medals and the breaking of world records. Such a reprieve is almost at an end, since WADA have identified a method to detect rhGH abuse. Or have they? The anecdotal word "on the street" is that rhGH is still undetectable and athletes believe that the benefits, at the dosages they administer, far outweigh the risks! Scientists are aware that in a hormone deficiency condition, replacement can halt and in certain situations reverse some of the adverse effects. Growth hormone deficiency can lead to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and an increase in abdomino-visceral obesity, which is reversed on replacement with rhGH. Since the availability of GH, athletes have been trying to extrapolate these effects from the deficiency state to the healthy corpus and increase their sporting prowess. Past confessions from athletes, such as Ben Johnson, Kelly White, Tim Montgomery, Marion Jones and currently Dwain Chambers have demonstrated that they are prepared to tread the very fine lines that separate the "men from the boys". Rewards are so great, that anonymous surveys have identified that athletes will risk ill health, if they believe they can cheat, win and not get caught. The question that still needs to be answered is, "does growth hormone enhance performance"? Recent research suggests that it could. There is also a suspicion that in "cycled" low supraphysiological doses, it is no where near as harmful as WADA claim it to be.

  4. The relationship of symptoms and neurocognitive performance to perceived recovery from sports-related concussion among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie K; Lovell, Mark R; Kegel, Nathan E; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes' self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). A total of 101 concussed athletes (62 males, 39 females) aged 12 to 18 years old were included in the study (M(age) = 14.75, SD = 1.76). Athletes were asked to rate their "percent back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery) at the time of evaluation. A multiple regression for neurocognitive performance and symptoms revealed a significant model that accounted for 58% of the variance in perceptions of recovery. Adolescent athletes base their perceptions primarily on somatic symptoms (e.g., headache, nausea, vomiting, etc.), and these perceptions may be incongruent with objective neurocognitive measures. Athletes' tendency to overlook several factors when forming their perceptions of recovery should caution the sports medicine practitioner from relying on self-reported symptoms as their primary criterion for return-to-play decisions. These data further support the need for valid and reliable measures for concussion management.

  5. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  6. Impact of 5-h phase advance on sleep architecture and physical performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Elisabeth; Mougin, Fabienne; Bourdin, Hubert; Tio, Grégory; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    Travel across time zones causes jet lag and is accompanied by deleterious effects on sleep and performance in athletes. These poor performances have been evaluated in field studies but not in laboratory conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in athletes, the impact of 5-h phase advance on the architecture of sleep and physical performances (Wingate test). In a sleep laboratory, 16 male athletes (age: 22.2 ± 1.7 years, height: 178.3 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 73.6 ± 7.9 kg) spent 1 night in baseline condition and 2 nights, 1 week apart, in phase shift condition recorded by electroencephalography to calculate sleep architecture variables. For these last 2 nights, the clock was advanced by 5 h. Core body temperature rhythm was assessed continuously. The first night with phase advance decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, stage 2 of nonrapid eye movement (N2), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with baseline condition, whereas the second night decreased N2 and increased slow-wave sleep and REM, thus improving the quality of sleep. After phase advance, mean power improved, which resulted in higher lactatemia. Acrophase and bathyphase of temperature occurred earlier and amplitude decreased in phase advance but the period was not modified. These results suggest that a simulated phase shift contributed to the changes in sleep architecture, but did not significantly impair physical performances in relation with early phase adjustment of temperature to the new local time.

  7. THE SOCIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupu S. G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A performance sport is an activity which forces physical and mental limits of the possibilities of professional athlete, the performance is the result of three basic components, namely organic, psychological and social.Biological component consists of the equipping somatic physiological and gymnast, the psychological means personality with aspirational notes, will power, self-checking, creativity, ideals, and the social is linked to the education, culture and interhuman relationships. In addition to solving questions of order of psychic athlete, preparing psychological influences the yield, creating conditions required to use the most of natural resources.Sociometric test is considered as main instrument and the point of departure of the knowledge of various aspects of the process of interaction that occurs as a collective, offering only raw material in connection with the professional athlete and relational aspects of the group as a whole.The purpose of research is represented by the identification interpersonal relations team sports games, as well as the possibilities in the improvement of their capacity in order to increase performance in general and in particular of the handball boys team Stiinta Municipal Bacau. At the inclusion in the sample of subjects, they were aged between 19 and 34 years of age and a seniority in practicing sport performance from 6 to 10 years. A conclusion that we can detach from the situation presented, it would be that even though they are players of basic team, it would seem that, in key moments of the game, the preferences of collaboration between them do not coincide with team composition in the same situations, that may cause negative effects in the course of carrying out the game and, by default, in attaining the desired results.

  8. The Effect of Course Length on Individual Medley Swimming Performance in National and International Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Mathias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000-2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p0.05. Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05 during 2000-2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000-2011

  9. Caffeine improves muscular performance in elite Brazilian Jiu-jitsu athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; García, Jose Manuel; Portillo, Luis J; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Scientific information about the effects of caffeine intake on combat sport performance is scarce and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of caffeine to improve Brazilian Jiu-jitsu (BJJ)-specific muscular performance. Fourteen male and elite BJJ athletes (29.2 ± 3.3 years; 71.3 ± 9.1 kg) participated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover experiment. In two different sessions, BJJ athletes ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. After 60 min, they performed a handgrip maximal force test, a countermovement jump, a maximal static lift test and bench-press tests consisting of one-repetition maximum, power-load, and repetitions to failure. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeine increased: hand grip force in both hands (50.9 ± 2.9 vs. 53.3 ± 3.1 kg; respectively p caffeine also increased the one-repetition maximum (90.5 ± 7.7 vs. 93.3 ± 7.5 kg; p = .02), maximal power obtained during the power-load test (750.5 ± 154.7 vs. 826.9 ± 163.7 W; p caffeine increased dynamic and isometric muscular force, power, and endurance strength in elite BJJ athletes. Thus, caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in BJJ.

  10. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.

  11. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G.; Coimbra, Danilo R.; Pereira, Fabiano S.; Brandt, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Participants (n = 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes, 214 (77.3%) men and 63 (22.7%) women) completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and reported their subjective sleep perception. Athletes with poor sleep quality reported higher scores for confusion compared to athletes with good sleep quality (p volleyball athletes. Our results indicated that for every pointwise increase in the level of confusion, there was an associated 19.7% reduction in sleep quality Athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. PMID:27928205

  12. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to

  13. Ketones and Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan M; Deuster, Patricia A

    Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal. A potential role for ketosis as a performance enhancer was first introduced in 1983 with the idea that chronic ketosis without caloric restriction could preserve submaximal exercise capability by sparing glycogen or conserving the limited carbohydrate stores. Few human studies on the effects of a ketogenic diet on performance have yielded positive results, and most studies have yielded equivocal or null results, and a few negative results. Many questions about ketones relevant to Special Operations Forces (SOF) remain unanswered. At present, a ketogenic diet and/or a ketone supplement do not appear confer performance benefits for SOF. Instead, Operators should engage with their unit dietitian to develop individualized nutritional strategies based on unique mission requirements. The authors review the concept of a ketogenic diet, describe some potential benefits and risks of ketosis, review the performance literature and how to measure ketone status, and then summarize the landscape in 2017. 2017.

  14. Adolescent athletes and the demand and supply of drugs to improve their performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the 'profiles' of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key PointsThis study confirms the existence of a 'black market' for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions.This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its 'suppliers', the two main sources being friends and parents.

  15. Does quercetin and vitamin C improve exercise performance, muscle damage, and body composition in male athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Karimian, Jahangir; Feizi, Awat; Paknahad, Zamzam; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hajishafiei, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quercetin is a bioflavonoid occurs in many food items. Some previous studies on quercetin showed the inconsistent results on exercise performance and muscle damage in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance and muscle damage indices in student athletes. Methods: This placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 male students for 8 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a) quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo), b) quercetin+ vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C), vitamin C (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day vitamin C), and placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo). Time to exhaustion (TTE) for measuring performance, aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) for measuring muscle damage and body fat percent (BFP) were measured before and after intervention. Results: CK levels reduced in group 1 significantly (P=0.045) and BFP reduced in group 1, 3, and 4, significantly, too (P=0.018, P=0.013, and P=0.043, respectively). Whereas statistically significant changes between groups were not observed for TTE, AST, CK, and BFP after 8 weeks of intervention. Conclusions: Supplementation with quercetin and vitamin C for 8 weeks did not improve exercise performance but reduced muscle damage and body fat percent in healthy subjects. PMID:23267392

  16. Does quercetin and vitamin C improve exercise performance, muscle damage, and body composition in male athletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: quercetin is a bioflavonoid occurs in many food items. Some previous studies on quercetin showed the inconsistent results on exercise performance and muscle damage in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance and muscle damage indices in student athletes. Methods: this placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 male students for 8 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo, b quercetin+ vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C, vitamin C (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day vitamin C, and placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo. Time to exhaustion (TTE for measuring performance, aspartate transaminase (AST, and creatine kinase (CK for measuring muscle damage and body fat percent (BFP were measured before and after intervention. Results: CK levels reduced in group 1 significantly (P=0.045 and BFP reduced in group 1, 3, and 4, significantly, too (P=0.018, P=0.013, and P=0.043, respectively. Whereas statistically significant changes between groups were not observed for TTE, AST, CK, and BFP after 8 weeks of intervention. Conclusions: supplementation with quercetin and vitamin C for 8 weeks did not improve exercise performance but reduced muscle damage and body fat percent in healthy subjects.

  17. Adolescent Athletes and the Demand and Supply of Drugs to Improve Their Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Laure; Caroline Binsinger

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on ...

  18. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  19. No Effects of a Short-Term Gluten-free Diet on Performance in Nonceliac Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dana; Stellingwerff, Trent; Kitic, Cecilia M; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Fell, James

    2015-12-01

    Implementation of gluten-free diets among nonceliac athletes has rapidly increased in recent years because of perceived ergogenic and health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on exercise performance, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, perceived well-being, intestinal injury, and inflammatory responses in nonceliac athletes. Thirteen competitive endurance cyclists (8 males, 5 females) with no positive clinical screening for celiac disease or history of irritable bowel syndrome (mean ± SD; age, 32 ± 7 yr; weight, 71.1 ± 13.4 kg; height, 177.0 ± 11.8 cm, VO2max 59.1 ± 8.0 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) were allocated to a 7-d gluten-containing diet (GCD) or GFD separated by a 10-d washout in a controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Cyclists ate a GFD alongside either gluten-containing or gluten-free food bars (16 g wheat gluten per day) while habitual training and nutrition behaviors were controlled. During each diet, cyclists completed the Daily Analysis of Life Demand for Athletes (DALDA) and GI questionnaires (postexercise and daily). On day 7, cyclists completed a submaximal steady-state (SS) 45-min ride at 70% Wmax followed by a 15-min time trial (TT). Blood samples were taken preexercise, post-SS, and post-TT to determine intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) and inflammatory markers (cytokine responses: interleukin [IL] 1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor α). Mixed effects logistic regression was used to analyze data. TT performance was not significantly different (P = 0.37) between the GCD (245.4 ± 53.4 kJ) and GFD (245.0 ± 54.6 kJ). GI symptoms during exercise, daily, and DALDA responses were similar for each diet (P > 0.11). There were no significant differences in IFABP (P = 0.69) or cytokine (P > 0.13) responses. A short-term GFD had no overall effect on performance, GI symptoms, well-being, and a select indicator of intestinal injury or inflammatory markers in

  20. The relationships among body composition, anaerobic performance and back strength characteristics of sub-elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sinan Aslan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, long jump (standing, vertical jump, 20 meter sprint, back strength, relative strength and anaerobic power characteristics of the 80 sub-elit male athletes who are students at a physical education and sports department and participate competitions.  In this study, 80 male students at 22.17 ± 1.97 average age who have been doing exercises regularly, were participate as voluntary. Firstly, their age, height, body weight and skin fold values were determined. Body fat percentage was estimated by Zorba Formula. Anaerobic performance was determined via long jump (standing, vertical jump and 20 meter sprint. Relative strength was estimated with “back strength / body weight” formula. Then, the relationships among body composition, anaerobic performance and back strength characteristics of the participants were determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Analyses of collected data were used by SPSS for Windows (Ver. 10 and alpha level was set as 0.05 for statistical significance.Correlation analysis’ results indicated that there were statically significant correlations among lots of physical and physiological parameters. In conclusion; it was determined that height, body weight, body fat percentage and back strength were played an explicit role on anaerobic performance of athletes.

  1. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  2. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  3. Growth and anabolic hormones, leptin, and neuromuscular performance in moderately trained prepubescent athletes and untrained boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, Charilaos; Vagenas, George; Dessypris, Athanasios

    2003-02-01

    We investigated hormonal regulators of growth and development, leptin levels, body composition, neuromuscular performance, and the associations among them in trained prepubertal athletes (experimental group [EG]) and an untrained control group (CG). Informed consent was obtained from the children and their parents. Their maturation stage was evaluated according to Tanner's criteria. There were no differences between EG and CG in physical characteristics, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin, free androgen index, growth hormone (GH), hand grip strength, and jumping performance. Leptin levels and percent fat of the EG were significantly lower than those of the CG (p growth and anabolic factors. Sex hormone-binding globulin and GH may explain the variation of leptin in athletes with low T (R(2) = 0.43) and in CG (R(2) = 0.35), respectively. Leptin seems to be a permissive factor for the onset of puberty, and the training background needs an optimal biological maturation to produce significant differences in muscle and power performance.

  4. The role of autonomic function on sport performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; West, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Devastating paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal cardiovascular control present significant hemodynamic challenges to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially during exercise. In general, resting arterial pressure after SCI is lower than with able-bodied individuals and is commonly associated with persistent orthostatic intolerance along with transient episodes of life-threatening hypertension, known as "autonomic dysreflexia." During exercise, the loss of central and reflexive cardiovascular control attenuates maximal heart rate and impairs blood pressure regulation and blood redistribution, which ultimately reduces venous return, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Thermoregulation also is severely compromised in high-lesion SCI, a problem that is compounded when competing in hot and humid conditions. There is some evidence that enhancing venous return via lower body positive pressure or abdominal binding improves exercise performance, as do cooling strategies. Athletes with SCI also have been documented to self-induce autonomic dysreflexia before competition with a view of increasing blood pressure and improving their performance, a technique known as "boosting." For health safety reasons, boosting is officially banned by the International Paralympics Committee. This article addresses the complex issue of how the autonomic nervous system affects sports performance in athletes with SCI, with a specific focus on the potential debilitating effects of deranged cardiovascular control.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AND ONE REPETITION MAXIMAL STRENGTH IN TRAINED ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim CAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between some performance parameters and one repetition maximal strength in trained athletes. In accordance with this purpose, thirty four amateur athletes competed in football, volleyball, wrestling and kickboxing sport branches (age: 22,0 ± 3,03 years; height: 179,2 ± 0,06 cm; weight: 75,2 ± 8,9 kg; training experince: 9,0 ± 2,82 years have participated voluntarily in this study. Repeated sprint test, agility test, standing long jump test, vertical jump test and one repetition maximal (1RM tests were applied to subjects. To assessment of data, descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation analysis methods were used to determine whether there was a relationship between some performance parameters and 1RM strength values in full back squat (SQ exercise. According to the analysis results, it was obtained that there wasn’t statistically significant relationship between standing long jump (r = ,157 and agility (r = - ,207 performances with 1RM strength values in full back SQ exercise of research group (p > 0,05. On the other hand, there was a positive, statistically significant relationship (p 0,05 relationships between 1RM strength values with total test duration (r = ,038 and fatigue index (r = ,142 in repeated sprint test.

  6. Effect of iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance of iron-depleted female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Blee, Tanya; Goodman, Carmel; Dawson, Brian; Claydon, Gary; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2007-06-01

    This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or to a placebo group (PG). Twenty days after the first injection, exercise and blood testing were repeated. A final blood test occurred on Day 28. Post supplementation, no differences were found between the groups' submaximal or maximal VO2, heart rate, or blood lactate (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was increased in the IG (P 0.05). The IG's serum ferritin (SF) was significantly increased on Days 20 and 28 (mean +/- standard error: 19 +/- 3 to 65 +/- 11 to 57 +/- 12 microg/L; P iron injections can effectively increase SF without enhancing submaximal or maximal aerobic-exercise performance in iron-depleted female athletes.

  7. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  8. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  9. The role of anthropometric characteristics in modern pentathlon performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, A L; Hlatky, S; Lefevre, J; Holdhaus, H

    1994-08-01

    In order to determine the role of body build characteristics in modern pentathletes, 65 female participants at the IXth World Modern Pentathlon Championships, 1989 (Wiener Neustadt, Austria) were investigated. Of these, 54 participate in the competition; the other 11 were reserves. Their mean (+/- S.D.) age was 22.34 +/- 3.97 years (range 16.08-32.58 years). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass, lengths, breadths, girths and skinfolds), somatotype and body composition estimates were determined. Compared with other female athletes (e.g. swimmers, runners, fencers), the elite modern pentathletes were rather tall (x = 168.1 cm) and, as indicated by the body mass index (x = 21.6), they had a high mass relative to their stature. Based on skinfolds, body fat was estimated as 16%, and anthropometrically determined somatotype was on average 2.5-3.9-2.8. The relationship between the athletes' anthropometric characteristics and modern pentathlon performance was investigated by means of Pearson zero-order correlations between the physical traits and the competitive performance scores. Significant correlations were found mainly for the 'fat' variables, such as skinfolds, percent fat and the endomorphy component, r varying from -0.34 to -0.58, which indicated an inverse relationship between the amount of fatness and modern pentathlon performance. To investigate this relationship further, Pearson zero-order correlations were calculated between the respective factors scores, derived from a rotated factor pattern (Varimax) carried out on selected somatic variables, and the performance scores. The results demonstrated that, in relation to anthropometric characteristics, modern pentathlon performance in females is mainly associated with the 'fat development' factor, and to a lesser degree with the 'bone-muscle development' factor. Variables representing linearity of physique seem to be unrelated to modern pentathlon performance. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that 42

  10. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P < 0.05, d = 0.86), 10-20-m sprint time (3%, P < 0.05, d = 2.56), and kicking performance (1%, P < 0.01, d = 1.28). No significant Group × test interactions were observed for any variable. In conclusion, trunk muscle strength, sprint, and kicking performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training.

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  12. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  13. Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, Nathan G; Halson, Shona L; Dawson, Brian T

    2013-11-01

    Water immersion is increasingly being used by elite athletes seeking to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. Accelerated short-term (hours to days) recovery may improve competition performance, allow greater training loads or enhance the effect of a given training load. However, the optimal water immersion protocols to assist short-term recovery of performance still remain unclear. This article will review the water immersion recovery protocols investigated in the literature, their effects on performance recovery, briefly outline the potential mechanisms involved and provide practical recommendations for their use by athletes. For the purposes of this review, water immersion has been divided into four techniques according to water temperature: cold water immersion (CWI; ≤20 °C), hot water immersion (HWI; ≥36 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT; alternating CWI and HWI) and thermoneutral water immersion (TWI; >20 to recovery of performance in a variety of sports, with immersion in 10-15 °C water for 5-15 min duration appearing to be most effective at accelerating performance recovery. However, the optimal CWI duration may depend on the water temperature, and the time between CWI and the subsequent exercise bout appears to influence the effect on performance. The few studies examining the effect of post-exercise HWI on subsequent performance have reported conflicting findings; therefore the effect of HWI on performance recovery is unclear. CWT is most likely to enhance performance recovery when equal time is spent in hot and cold water, individual immersion durations are short (~1 min) and the total immersion duration is up to approximately 15 min. A dose-response relationship between CWT duration and recovery of exercise performance is unlikely to exist. Some articles that have reported CWT to not enhance performance recovery have had methodological issues, such as failing to detect a decrease in performance in control trials, not

  14. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-12-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key pointsThe RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes.During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or

  15. Acute consumption of p-synephrine does not enhance performance in sprint athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Salinero, Juan José; Abían-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo, Cesar; Puente, Carlos; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-01-01

    P-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used as an ergogenic aid in sports. This substance has been included in the World Anti-Doping Agency monitoring program, although scientific information about its effects on performance and athletes' well-being is scarce. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of p-synephrine to increase performance in sprint athletes. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 13 experienced sprinters performed 2 acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg·kg(-1)) or after the ingestion of a placebo (control trial). Forty-five minutes after the ingestion of the substances, the sprinters performed a squat jump, a countermovement jump, a 15-s repeated jump test, and subsequently performed 60-m and 100-m simulated sprint competitions. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess side-effect prevalence. In comparison with the control trial, the ingestion of p-synephrine did not change countermovement jump height (37.4 ± 4.2 vs 36.7 ± 3.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.52), squat jump height (34.4 ± 3.6 vs 33.9 ± 3.7 cm; P = 0.34), or average 15-s repeated jumps height (31.8 ± 4.1 vs 32.2 ± 3.6 cm; P = 0.18). P-Synephrine did not modify maximal running speed during the 60-m (9.0 ± 0.5 vs 9.0 ± 0.4 m·s(-1), respectively; P = 0.55) and 100-m sprint competitions (8.8 ± 0.5 vs 8.8 ± 0.5 m·s(-1), respectively; P = 0.92). The ingestion of p-synephrine did not alter the prevalence of headache, gastrointestinal discomforts, muscle pain, or insomnia during the hours following the tests. Acute consumption of 3 mg·kg(-1) of p-synephrine was ineffective to increase performance in competitive sprint athletes. Moreover, p-synephrine did not increase the occurrence of side effects after the competition.

  16. The Effects of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Student Academic Achievement and Leadership Performance in a Selective Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Craig Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…

  17. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Ribeiro Ferreira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test, and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years' experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m. The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05 after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76, while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46 with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance.

  18. Effect of training in hypoxia on repeated sprint performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Nobukazu; Mizuno, Sahiro; Ishimoto, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Etsuko; Maruta, Misato; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effect of repeated sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) in female athletes. Thirty-two college female athletes performed repeated cycling sprints of two sets of 10 × 7-s sprints with a 30-s rest between sprints twice per week for 4 weeks under either normoxic conditions (RSN group; FiO2, 20.9%; n = 16) or hypoxic conditions (RSH group; FiO2, 14.5%; n = 16). The repeated sprint ability (10 × 7-s sprints) and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) were determined before and after the training period. After training, when compared to pre-values, the mean power output was higher in all sprints during the repeated sprint test in the RSH group but only for the second half of the sprints in the RSN group (P ≤ 0.05). The percentage increases in peak and mean power output between before and after the training period were significantly greater in the RSH group than in the RSN group (peak power output, 5.0 ± 0.7% vs. 1.5 ± 0.9%, respectively; mean power output, 9.7 ± 0.9% vs. 6.0 ± 0.8%, respectively; P repeated sprint test compared with RSN.

  19. Gradual and rapid weight loss: effects on nutrition and performance in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, G M; Koskinen, R; Laakso, J; Rankinen, T; Ruokonen, I

    1993-03-01

    We studied seven male wrestlers and three judo athletes (weight 55-93 kg) during two weight reductions. In the "gradual" procedure (GP), a 5.0 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) weight loss was achieved in 3 weeks by energy restriction. In the "rapid" procedure (RP), 6.0 +/- 0.6% of body weight was lost in 2.4 days by fluid and diet restriction and forced sweating, and followed by a 5-h "loading" (food and drinks ad libitum). The net weight loss after GP and loading was 2.7 +/- 0.5%. Protein intakes (4-d food records) during GP and RP were 71 +/- 16 and RP 56 +/- 17 g.d-1, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were 239 +/- 56 (GP) and 182 +/- 55 g.d-1 (RP). During GP and RP, mean thiamin, magnesium, and zinc intakes were at or below the respective recommendation. Thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron, and zinc status, assessed from blood chemistry, remained stable during both procedures. Changes in vitamin B6 indicator (E-ASTAC) and S-magnesium concentration were different (P athletes' performance.

  20. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tota Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15-17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects.

  1. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  2. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  3. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max : 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were...... benefits athletes' sprint ability. Thus, the present study supports the restriction of oral salbutamol in competitive sports........ deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P 

  4. Imaging "brain strain" in youth athletes with mild traumatic brain injury during dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoli, Katia J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wells, Greg; Fait, Philippe; Ptito, Alain; Taha, Tim; Keightley, Michelle

    2014-11-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common cause of injury in youth athletes. Much of what is known about the sequelae of mTBI is yielded from the adult literature, and it appears that it is mainly those with persistent post-injury symptoms who have ongoing cognitive and neural abnormalities. However, most studies have employed single-task paradigms, which may not be challenging enough to uncover subtle deficits. We sought to examine the neural correlates of dual-task performance in male athletes aged 9-15 years using a functional neuroimaging protocol. Participants included 13 youths with a history of mTBI three to six months prior to testing and 14 typically-developing controls. All participants completed a working memory task in isolation (single-task) and while completing a concurrent motor task (dual-task); neural activity during performance was then compared between groups. Although working memory performance was similar during the single-task condition, increased working memory load resulted in an altered pattern of neural activation in key working memory areas (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices) in youth with mTBI relative to controls. During the dual-task condition, accuracy was similar between groups but injured youth performed slower than typically-developing controls, suggesting a speed-accuracy tradeoff in the mTBI group only. The injured youths also exhibited abnormal recruitment of brain structures involved in both working memory and dual-tasking. These data show that the dual-task paradigm can uncover functional impairments in youth with mTBI who are not highly symptomatic and who do not exhibit neuropsychological dysfunction. Moreover, neural recruitment abnormalities were noted in both task conditions, which we argue suggests mTBI-related disruptions in achieving efficient cognitive control and allocation of processing resources.

  5. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  7. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.

  8. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  9. Reliability of Maximal Back Squat and Power Clean Performances in Inexperienced Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine between-session reliability of maximal weight lifted during the back squat and power clean, in inexperienced athletes, and to identify the smallest detectable difference between sessions. Forty-four collegiate athletes (men: n = 32; age: 21.5 ± 2.0 years; height: 180.0 ± 6.1 cm; body mass: 81.01 ± 7.42 kg; women: n = 12; age: 21.0 ± 1.9 years; height: 169.0 ± 5.2 cm; body mass: 62.90 ± 7.46 kg) participated in this study. One repetition maximum (1RM) back squat and power cleans were each performed twice on separate days, 3-5 days apart. Paired samples' t tests revealed no significant differences between trial 1 and trial 2 of the power clean (70.55 ± 24.24 kg, 71.22 ± 23.87 kg, p > 0.05, power = 0.99) and the back squat (130.32 ± 34.05 kg, 129.82 ± 34.07 kg, p > 0.05, power = 1.0). No differences in reliability or measurement error were observed between men and women. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) demonstrated a high reliability (ICC = 0.997, p clean with an R of 0.987; similarly, high reliability was observed for between-session back squat performances (ICC = 0.994, p 5% to identify a meaningful change in both maximal back squat and power clean performance.

  10. Sequencing Effects of Balance and Plyometric Training on Physical Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Raouf; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-12-01

    Hammami, R, Granacher, U, Makhlouf, I, Behm, DG, and Chaouachi, A. Sequencing effects of balance and plyometric training on physical performance in youth soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3278-3289, 2016-Balance training may have a preconditioning effect on subsequent power training with youth. There are no studies examining whether the sequencing of balance and plyometric training has additional training benefits. The objective was to examine the effect of sequencing balance and plyometric training on the performance of 12- to 13-year-old athletes. Twenty-four young elite soccer players trained twice per week for 8 weeks either with an initial 4 weeks of balance training followed by 4 weeks of plyometric training (BPT) or 4 weeks of plyometric training proceeded by 4 weeks of balance training (PBT). Testing was conducted pre- and posttraining and included medicine ball throw; horizontal and vertical jumps; reactive strength; leg stiffness; agility; 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprints; Standing Stork balance test; and Y-Balance test. Results indicated that BPT provided significantly greater improvements with reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, triple hop test, and a trend for the Y-Balance test (p = 0.054) compared with PBT. Although all other measures had similar changes for both groups, the average relative improvement for the BPT was 22.4% (d = 1.5) vs. 15.0% (d = 1.1) for the PBT. BPT effect sizes were greater with 8 of 13 measures. In conclusion, although either sequence of BPT or PBT improved jumping, hopping, sprint acceleration, and Standing Stork and Y-Balance, BPT initiated greater training improvements in reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, triple hop test, and the Y-Balance test. BPT may provide either similar or superior performance enhancements compared with PBT.

  11. Repeat Effort Performance is Reduced 24 h following Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Iredale, Fiona; Chapman, Dale W; Hopper, Amanda; Abbiss, Chris

    2017-09-11

    This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention. Body mass was reduced (4.8±0.8%) following DHY (p<0.001) and remained lower than CONT at 3 and 24 h post (p=0.003 and p=0.024, respectively). Compared to CONT average sled push times were slower 3 and 24 h following DHY (19±15%; p=0.001; g=1.229 and 14±15%; p=0.012; g=0.671, respectively). When compared to the CONT hand grip was weaker 3 h following DHY (53±8 and 51±8 kg; p=0.044, g=0.243 respectively) and medicine ball chest throw distances were shorter 24 h following DHY (474±52 and 449±44 cm; p=0.016, g=0.253 respectively). No significant differences were observed in vertical jump (p=0.467). Urine specific gravity was higher than CONT 20 min (p=0.035) and 24 h (p=0.035) following DHY. Acute dehydration of 4.8% body mass results in reduced physical performance 3 and 24 h following. There is need for caution when athletes use dehydration for weight loss 24 h prior to competition.

  12. Associations between Functional Movement Screen scores and performance variables in surf athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Bruno A; Clemente, Filipe M; Lourenço Martins, Fernando M

    2017-02-22

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) have been used to assess the movement patterns in daily sports practice. Some associations between FMS scores and physical variables have been found in some sports. Nevertheless, no study was conducted in surf. Eighteen surf athletes (11 male) participated in the study (18.3 ± 6.3 y; 60.0 ± 9.6 kg; 168.6 ± 8.1 cm). All participants completed anthropometrics, Knee to Wall test, Functional Movement Screen, Isometric Knee Extension, Handgrip, Squat and Countermovement Jump. Based on that, this study investigated: 1) the variance of FMS scores between gender; 2) the association between FMS scores and physical variables of strength of upper and lower limbs, power of lower limbs and anthropometric variables; and 3) which FMS scores best explain the physical performance variables. The analysis of comparison between gender of each item of FMS showed significant statistical differences only in Trunk Stability Push-Up (p = 0.01, ES=0.141). Kendall's Tau b correlation test between FMS scores and physical variables, revealed significant associations. After performed the stepwise multiple linear regression FMS Deep Squat and Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 57% of Knee to Wall test - right side and the model is statistically significant (F(2. 15) = 13.097; p-value = 0.001). In Squat Jump (height) the results show that FMS Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 50.3% of this dimension and the model is statistically significant (F(1. 16) = 18.182; p-value = 0.001). FMS individual scores seems to better explain physical variables than total score. Only Trunk Stability Push-Up test seems to be a reliable indicator to predict physical performance in surf athletes.

  13. The Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Body Composition, Exercise Performance and Muscle Damage Indices in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Paknahad, Zamzam; Karimian, Jahangir; Rabiee, Katayoun; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids comprise a large group of plant metabolites, 6,000 of which have been identified to date. Some studies have shown the increased aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and therefore fitness following quercetin intake as a result of elevated number of intracellular mitochondria caused by the flavonoid. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial comprised 60 male students having an athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, and some blood biomarkers were analyzed. The individuals were selected by convenient sampling, and then were assigned into four groups of equal number by using permuted block randomization. The first to fourth groups received a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, and a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, respectively, daily for 8 weeks. The participants were asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study and they were monitored through phone calls or text messages. Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO2max increased in the “quercetin” and “quercetin + vitamin C” groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance. PMID:23412140

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers Association for optimizing the fluid replacement practices of athletes, explaining that dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes must be educated about the risks of dehydration and overhydration. They must learn fluid…

  15. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  16. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study's basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources.

  17. The effect of two weeks morning and afternoon special training program on performance and plasma levels of IL-17 and cortisol in wushu athletes

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    B ghayeblo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Recent evidences (knowing the effects of time on physiological variables show that the human body undergoes a lot of changes during the day and the night and has a special ability in each hour. Competition in the morning Confronts athletes with the problem of susceptibility to infection and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine The effect of two weeks morning and afternoon special training program on performance and plasma levels of IL-17 and cortisol in boy wushu athletes Materials and Methods: Fourteen sanda boy athletes were purposefully selected and after Bruce and  rast tests run, divided into the two Similar groups morning-time training group (N = 7, training time 9 a.m. and evening-time training group (N=7, training time 18 pm . The Subjects were trained for two weeks (6 session in each week according to an Sanda sport specific training program. Values of peak anaerobic power, average anaerobic power, minimum anaerobic power and fatigue index measured with Field  rast test. To determine the amount of plasma IL-17 and cortisol , the participants’ blood samples was taken In the fasting state three times, 24 h before the first training session in baseline status and Immediately after tests at 9 am and 48 h after the last training session immediately after tests performance at 9 a.m. Data were analyzed using repeated measures, independent-samplesT-test, ,paired- samplesT-test  and Covariance. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the amounts of plasma IL-17 of the two groups after two weeks(P0.05. Conclusion: It seems likely transition training time to the morning, 2 weeks before the competition in the morning, decrease inflammatory factors such as IL-17 in sanda boys. Therefore appears that two weeks transition training time from evening to morning can increase the safety of athletes immune during the competition.

  18. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

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    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  19. Effects of ankle braces upon agility course performance in high school athletes.

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    Beriau, M R; Cox, W B; Manning, J

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the Aircast(TM) Sports Stirrup, Aircast(TM) Training brace, Swede-O(TM) brace, and DonJoy(TM) Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions. Sessions 2 and 3 consisted of randomly wearing the ankle braces while running the agility course. A questionnaire concerning support, comfort, and restriction was completed by each subject after wearing each of the braces. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test indicated that a significant difference existed between each ankle brace and the control 2 agility times as well as a control 1 and control 2 time difference. The control time difference was attributed to a learning effect. An ANOVA with repeated measures of only the four braces revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test showed the only difference was between the DonJoy Ankle Ligament Protector and the Aircast Training brace. We concluded: 1) there is limited practical performance effect upon agility while wearing an ankle brace; and 2) an athlete's perceived comfort, support, and performance restriction are contributing factors that may directly influence the effectiveness of ankle bracing.

  20. The effects of acute L-carnitine supplementation on endurance performance of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orer, Gamze E; Guzel, Nevin A

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effect of acute L-carnitine loading on the endurance performance of footballers. Measurements were performed on 26 candidate professional footballers who volunteered to take part in the study. Athletes were given a glass of fruit juice 1 hour before applying L-carnitine with the double-blind method. Then, 12 participants were given 3 g of L-carnitine (LK-3) and the remaining 14 were given 4 g (LK-4). Athletes began the exercise test at a running speed of 8 km·h and then continued at 10 km·h. The speed was increased 1 km·h every 3 minutes, and the test continued until the subject chose to quit. Heart rate was registered using a portable telemetric heart rate monitor during the test. Blood samples were taken from the earlobes of the footballers both before the test and before the speed increase (during the 1-minute interval), and the lactate (La) concentration was measured electroenzymatically. The test was repeated after 1 week as a group of placebos (P-3 and P-4). The result showed that the running speeds corresponding to specific La concentrations were increased, and La and heart rate responses to the running speeds were decreased in both supplemented groups compared with placebos (p ≤ 0.05). A significant reduction in heart rate was found in LK-4 and P-4 (p ≤ 0.05). When the Borg responses to the running speeds were analyzed, a significant difference was found in both supplemented groups (p ≤ 0.05). The results show that 3 or 4 g of L-carnitine taken before physical exercise prolonged exhaustion.

  1. ADOLESCENT ATHLETES AND THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF DRUGS TO IMPROVE THEIR PERFORMANCE

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    Patrick Laure

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402 were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5% say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%, the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the 'profiles' of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved

  2. The influence of gate start position on physical performance and anxiety perception in expert BMX athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Martinent, Guillaume; Levêque, Lucie; MacIntyre, Tadhg; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2017-03-24

    The critical importance of the start phase in bicycle motocross (BMX) racing is increasingly acknowledged. Past experiments underlined that the internal lane of the starting gate provides a strong positional advantage. However, how lane position affects start performance and cognitive and somatic state anxiety remains unexplored. We examined the start performance and anxiety responses of youth national-level BMX riders in both experimental and ecological contexts. We used contextualization motor imagery routines to evaluate start performance and state anxiety from the internal and external lanes. Cycle ergometer measures revealed a better start performance from the external lane, but we did not record any lane effect on actual gate start times. Both somatic and cognitive anxiety scores were higher before racing from the internal compared to the external lane. Finally, state anxiety (i.e., somatic anxiety, worry and concentration disruptions) negatively predicted the start performance. Present findings provide original insights on psychological factors involved in BMX start performance, and might contribute to fruitful coping interventions and training programmes in sports overlapping the framework of "handicap races" taking the specific form of positional advantages/disadvantages at the start (e.g., ski/snowboard cross, athletics, swimming, motorsports, etc.).

  3. Effects of Short Term Camp Periods on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Parameters in Ice Hockey National Team Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted for determining the effects of trainings, applied to athletes during short term camp period, on their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Measurements were made by the participation of 28 volunteer male ice hockey national team players. During the 15-day camp period, 10-minute running and stretching for warming and then…

  4. The effects of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals: a literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Jillian L.; McAlpine, Caitlin T.; Primak, Kari A.; Kissel, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Context: The effect of the application of kinesiotape to skin overlying musculature on measurable athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals has not been well established. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the effect of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals. Methods: An electronic search strategy was conducted in MANTIS, Cochrane Library and EBSCO databases. Retrieved articles that met the eligibility criteria were rated for methodological quality by using an adaption of the critical appraisal criteria in Clinical Epidemiology by Sackett et al. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven articles had positive results in at least one athletic-based performance measure compared to controls. Conclusion: Evidence is lacking to support the use of kinesiotape as a successful measure for improving athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals. However, there is no evidence to show that kinesiotape has a negative effect on any of the performace measures. PMID:24302784

  5. Psycho-social factors determining success in high-performance triathlon: compared perception in the coach-athlete pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tendero, Germán; Salinero Martín, Juan José

    2012-12-01

    High-level sport can be analyzed using the complex system model, in which performance is constrained by many factors. Coaches' and athletes' perceptions of important positive and negative factors affecting performance were compared. Participants were 48 high-level international triathletes (n = 34) and their coaches (n = 14). They were personally interviewed via a questionnaire designed by four accredited experts, who selected groups of both positive and negative factors affecting performance. A list of factors was developed, in order of greater to lesser importance in the opinion of athletes and coaches, for subsequent analysis. Two ranked lists (positive and negative factors) indicated that athletes appear to rate personal environment factors (family, teammates, lack of support from relatives) higher, while the coaches tended to give more importance to technical and institutional aspects (institutional support, coach, medical support). There was complete agreement between coaches and triathletes about the top five positive factors. Negative factor agreement was somewhat lower (agreement on 3/5 factors). The most important positive factor for coaches and athletes was "dedication/engagement," while the most important factor adversely affecting performance was "injuries".

  6. Does Goal Orientation Matter for Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance? An Investigation in University Athletes

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    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes (Behzadi, Hamzei, Nori and Salehian, 2011; Duda and Whitehead, 1998; Roberts, 2001; Biddle, 2001;…

  7. DOPING AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUG USE IN ATHLETES LIVING IN SIVAS, MID-ANATOLIA: A BRIEF REPORT

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    Levent Özdemir

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the rate of doping and performance enhancing drug use in athletes in Sivas, Turkey, and to analyze the main reasons for the use. This was a cross-sectional study based on a self-report questionnaire. The subjects filled the questionnaires under the supervision of the investigators during interviews. This questionnaire included 24 items describing the population in terms of demographics, sport practice, doping in sport and substance use. Moreover, we assessed the frequency of doping drug use. The number of respondents was 883, of which 433 athletes and 450 healthy non-athletes (control group. The mean age of the total volunteers was 21.8 ± 3.7 yrs. The male and female ratios were 78.2% and 21.8% respectively. Doping and performance enhancing drug usage rate was 8.0% (71cases in 883 subjects. Doping drug use among the athletes was significantly (p < 0.05 higher (14.5% compared with the non-athletes (1.8%. The agents used were anabolic steroids in 60.5%, l-carnitene in 12.7%, erythropoietin in 5.4%, Na-bicarbonate in 11.3% and creatinine in 14.1% of 71 cases. The reasons for doping use were to have a better body condition in 34 cases (47.9% and to solve weight (gaining or loosing problems in 8 (11.3% cases. Since the potential side effects of doping drugs are not satisfactorily familiar to the most users, the education of athletes on the matter must be a top priority

  8. Effect of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Iranian Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Darvishi, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Barani, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Asia. Cinnamon (containing cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde) is used as spices and as a pharmacological agent in ancient medicine. Intense exercise can result in oxidative damage to cellular compounds and also muscle soreness. Efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as antioxidant agents and their effectiveness in exercise performance and reducing muscle soreness have been investigated in limited studies on humans. So we studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the 6 week investigation and randomly categorized in three groups (cinnamon, ginger, or placebo) and received three grams of ginger, cinnamon, or placebo powder each day depending on the group they belonged. Human malondialdehyde (MDA) level, exercise performance, and body composition were evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the 6 weeks intervention. There was minor decrease in MDA in cinnamon and ginger group compared with the placebo group and significant increase in exercise performance in ginger group (P < 0.01), and considerable increase in skin fold in cinnamon groups (P < 0.01), whereas there were significant accretion in BMI for ginger group (P < 0.1) and cinnamon group (P < 0.05). No significant changes in MDA, EP, and BMI were observed between groups over time. But there were specific changes in skin fold between cinnamon and placebo group (P < 0.05) and cinnamon and ginger groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with

  9. Muscular performance characterization in athletes: a new perspective on isokinetic variables

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    Giovanna M. Amaral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isokinetic dynamometry allows the measurement of several variables related to muscular performance, many of which are seldom used, while others are redundantly applied to the characterization of muscle function. Objectives: The present study aimed to establish the particular features of muscle function that are captured by the variables currently included in isokinetic assessment and to determine which variables best represent these features in order to achieve a more objective interpretation of muscular performance. Method: This study included 235 male athletes. They performed isokinetic tests of concentric knee flexion and extension of the dominant leg at a velocity of 60º/s. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results: The findings demonstrated that isokinetic variables can characterize more than muscle torque production and pointed to the presence of 5 factors that enabled the characterization of muscular performance according to 5 different domains or constructs. Conclusions: The constructs can be described by torque generation capacity; variation of the torque generation capacity along repetitions; movement deceleration capacity; mechanical/physiological factors of torque generation; and acceleration capacity (torque development. Fewer than eight out of sixteen variables are enough to characterize these five constructs. Our results suggest that these variables and these 5 domains may lead to a more systematic and optimized interpretation of isokinetic assessments.

  10. Sources of sport confidence, imagery type and performance among competitive athletes: the mediating role of sports confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A R; Perry, J; Nicholls, A R; Larkin, D; Davies, J

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sport confidence upon (1) sources of sport confidence-performance relationship and (2) imagery-performance relationship. Participants were 157 competitive athletes who completed state measures of confidence level/sources, imagery type and performance within one hour after competition. Among the current sample, confirmatory factor analysis revealed appropriate support for the nine-factor SSCQ and the five-factor SIQ. Mediational analysis revealed that sport confidence had a mediating influence upon the achievement source of confidence-performance relationship. In addition, both cognitive and motivational imagery types were found to be important sources of confidence, as sport confidence mediated imagery type- performance relationship. Findings indicated that athletes who construed confidence from their own achievements and report multiple images on a more frequent basis are likely to benefit from enhanced levels of state sport confidence and subsequent performance.

  11. Effect of Aerobic Loading on Static Balance in Young Athletes

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    Akyüz, Öznur

    2017-01-01

    The fact that balances can also be a factor in performance distinction between athletes in athletic skills, and is considered to provide positive acceleration for physical development in which motor skills are exhibited. Human's skill to ensure balance can be defined as a determinant factor in development of other motor skills. From this point of…

  12. Case Study: Effect of Handrim Diameter on Performance in a Paralympic Wheelchair Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gabriel Brizuela; Rubio, Miguel Polo; Belloch, Salvador Llana; Soriano, Pedro Perez

    2009-01-01

    This study, with a top T-52 class athlete, determines the relationship between stroke frequency (SF) and push time (PT) and wheelchair velocity (Wv) using different handrim diameters (HD) and the effect of different HDs on the athlete's heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LACT) at competition speeds. Wv shows a linear-direct relationship with SF…

  13. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball Athletes

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    Alexandro Andrade, Guilherme G. Bevilacqua, Danilo R. Coimbra, Fabiano S. Pereira, Ricardo Brandt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Participants (n = 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes, 214 (77.3% men and 63 (22.7% women completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS and reported their subjective sleep perception. Athletes with poor sleep quality reported higher scores for confusion compared to athletes with good sleep quality (p < 0.01, d = 0.43. In addition, athletes who lost their game at the time of evaluation showed higher tension (p < 0.01, d = 0.49 and confusion (p < 0.01, d = 0.32 levels compared to athletes who won their game. A regression analysis demonstrated that for each point increase in the confusion level, there was a 19.7% reduction in sleep quality. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. Further, our results indicated that the athletes’ mood associated with their success in the competitions. Therefore, in a competition, it is important that the athletes show good sleep quality, and use techniques and strategies to ease their mood variations.

  14. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  15. Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filsinger, Lora C.

    2012-01-01

    As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

  16. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of flexibility in injury prevention and athletic performance: have we stretched the truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Stacy J

    2003-05-01

    The use of stretching to prevent injury, off-set muscle soreness, and improve performance has been widely accepted and promoted in sports. However, little or no scientific evidence supports the practice, and recent research suggests that stretching, which increases flexibility beyond that needed for sport-specific movements, may cause injury. This article presents studies that have looked at the effects of stretching on injury and performance. Many earlier studies that showed benefits of stretching did not look at the effects of stretching alone; they also involved general cardiovascular workouts in the experimental but not control groups. More recent research shows that general fitness, rather than stretching, is a more important risk factor in injury prevention. This article also discusses studies of the relationship between joint laxity and injury and the role that stiffness may play in enhancing performance and preventing injury. Overall, the evidence suggests that increasing range of motion beyond function through stretching is not beneficial and can actually cause injury and decrease performance. These findings should be used to challenge common warm-up practices in athletics.

  18. Athletic performance and career longevity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Benjamin S; Behery, Omar A; Minhas, Shobhit V; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-03-12

    To identify the impact of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on performance and career longevity for National Basketball Association (NBA) players. Seventy-nine players (80 knees) with acute ACL tears in the NBA between the 1984-2014 seasons, and 112 age, height, weight, and performance-matched controls were identified. Pre- and post-injury performance outcomes including seasons played, games played, games started, minutes per game, points per game, field goals, 3-point shots, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, turnovers, personal fouls, usage percentage and player efficiency ratings were compared between cases and controls using independent samples t tests and Fisher's exact tests. Sixty-eight of seventy-nine players (86.1 %) returned to play in the NBA following ACL reconstruction. Mean length of post-operative play was 1.84 years shorter than matched controls (P = 0.001). There was a significantly higher rate of attrition from professional basketball for players with a history of ACL reconstruction (P = 0.014). In the first full season following surgery, players started in 15.5 fewer games (P = 0.001), they played in 17.3 fewer games (P NBA following ACL reconstruction, although playing time, games played, player efficiency ratings and career lengths are significantly impacted in the post-operative period. These data should be used to manage patients' expectations regarding their abilities to return to elite levels of athletic performance.

  19. Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, David R; Dulkis, Lexie L; Secola, Paul J; Holtzum, Gabriel; Harper, Sean P; Kalkowski, Ryan J; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Culley, Kevin P; Kraemer, William J

    2015-09-01

    Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 ± 2.9 years; height: 181.0 ± 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 ± 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 ± 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 ± 1.3 years; height: 178.1 ± 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 ± 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 ± 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 ± 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 ± 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 ± 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 ± 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 ± 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 ± 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 ± 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 ± 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 ± 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 ± 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements.

  20. Exercise Training in Athletes with Bicuspid Aortic Valve Does Not Result in Increased Dimensions and Impaired Performance of the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stefani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is one of the most common congenital heart disease (0.9%–2% and is frequently found in the athletes and in the general population. BAV can lead to aortic valve dysfunction and to a progressive aortic dilatation. Trained BAV athletes exhibit a progressive enlargement of the left ventricle (LV compared to athletes with normal aortic valve morphology. The present study investigates the possible relationship between different aortic valve morphology and LV dimensions. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2011, we investigated a total of 292 BAV subjects, divided into three different groups (210 athletes, 59 sedentaries, and 23 ex-athletes. A 2D echocardiogram exam to classify BAV morphology and measure the standard LV systo-diastolic parameters was performed. The study was conducted as a 5-year follow-up echocardiographic longitudinal and as cross-sectional study. Results. Typical BAV was more frequent in all three groups (68% athletes, 67% sedentaries, and 63% ex-athletes than atypical. In BAV athletes, the typical form was found in 51% (107/210 of soccer players, 10% (21/210 of basketball players, 10% track and field athletics (20/210, 8% (17/210 of cyclists, 6% (13/210 swimmers, and 15% (32/210 of rugby players and others sport. Despite a progressive enlargement of the LV (P<0.001 observed during the follow-up study, no statistical differences of the LV morphology and function were evident among the diverse BAV patterns either in sedentary subjects or in athletes. Conclusion. In a large population of trained BAV athletes, with different prevalence of typical and atypical BAV type, there is a progressive nonstatistically significant enlargement of the LV. In any case, the dimensions of the LV remained within normal range. The metabolic requirements of the diverse sport examined in the present investigations do not seem to produce any negative impact in BAV athletes

  1. The dynamics of competitive activity performance of the strongest athletes in the world during the Olympic year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Muhammad Fahmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper scrutinizes the annual dynamics of competitive activity performance of prize winners in track and field of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro. The studies performed allow to identify two basic strategies of participation of elite athletes in the competitions. The first implies a strong focus on achieving the best results in major competitions of the year. It is used by most of the strongest athletes in the world. The second focuses the athlete on the effective combination of competitive activity in major competitions of the year (the Olympics and World Championships and in the Diamond League. As shown by the experience of the best sports practice, only a limited number of athletes manage to implement the latter strategy. The methodological approaches to planning competitive activity during the year are identified. The first involves the rational allocation of the optimal number of competitions throughout the year, the second focuses on preparatory competitive activities of a fairly high intensity, and the third involves the use of a small number of competitions in the system of annual training.

  2. Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Millet

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2 or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2 over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1 period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT. Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO increased (p<0.05 after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively, but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively. No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.

  3. Ideal diet versus athletic performance: a study about nutritional stereotypes applied by triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kanno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype is a term designated to some generalized perceptions that people attri-bute to another individual, groups, objects and/or events. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the priorities that nutritionist and triathletes attributed to food to enhance the sport performance. Method: The sample was composed by 56 subjects, splited in two groups: Nutritionists (G1, n = 29 and Triathletes (G2, n = 27. The Intake Food Priority Question-naire (QPA, composed by food groups, was used to evaluate the importance of each food in the athletic performance. Results: To the data analysis, each food was grouped into one of the eight categories designed in nutrition pyramid. An arithmetic means were elaborated to categories and it was performed t tests for independent samples to compare nutritionists and triathletes priorities about each category. There were no differences between groups in Vegetables, Leguminous, Fruits and Sugar/Candies categories and, also, to the black coffee item. However, the triathletes overestimated the Cereals/Breads/Tubercle and Meat/Eggs categories and underestimated the Milk/Dairy Products and Oils/Fat categories. Conclusion: The triathletes overestimated some macronutrients (carbohydrates and proteins in detriment from another, like lipids.

  4. Errors in Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-15

    activities. Internatin , f - Studie, 1979, _ 5-24. Collins, A. h., & Loftus, E. F. A spreading activation theory of seman- tic processing. k fl _j-ej w...rea-daAm i_=E1jJh. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1967. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. Toward a theory of automatic information processing...Report, November, 1979. Norman, D. A. Er n human pefg ce (Tech. Rep. 8004). University of California, San Diego, July 1980. Norman, D. A. Post Freudian

  5. Human Performance Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Roth, Tinklenberg, and Kopell (1977) studied ethanol and marihuana , and reported that the amplitude of the P300 component of the evoked cortical...potential showed a drug effect and a set size effect. Both drugs differed significantly from placebo but not from each other, and marihuana increased the...slope. Crosby and Parkinson (1979) reported that performance of a ground-controlled approach by pilots affected the intercept but not the slope

  6. PREDICTION VERSUS REALITY: THE USE OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS TO PREDICT ELITE PERFORMANCE IN SWIMMING AND ATHLETICS AT THE OLYMPIC GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Heazlewood

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have attempted to predict future Olympic performances in athletics and swimming based on trends displayed in previous Olympic Games. Some have utilised linear models to plot and predict change, whereas others have utilised multiple curve estimation methods based on inverse, sigmoidal, quadratic, cubic, compound, logistic, growth and exponential functions. The non linear models displayed closer fits to the actual data and were used to predict performance changes 10's, 100's and 1000's of years into the future. Some models predicted that in some events male and female times and distances would crossover and females would eventually display superior performance to males. Predictions using mathematical models based on pre-1996 athletics and pre-1998 swimming performances were evaluated based on how closely they predicted sprints and jumps, and freestyle swimming performances for both male and females at the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Games. The analyses revealed predictions were closer for the shorter swimming events where men's 50m and women's 50m and 100m actual times were almost identical to predicted times. For both men and women, as the swim distances increased the accuracy of the predictive model decreased, where predicted times were 4.5-7% faster than actual times achieved. The real trends in some events currently displaying performance declines were not foreseen by the mathematical models, which predicted consistent improvements across all athletic and swimming events selected for in this study

  7. Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-05-15

    Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML team sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.

  8. An accelerometer-based system for elite athlete swimming performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Neil P.; Anderson, Megan E.; James, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of sport specific performance characteristics is an important part of an athletes training and preparation for competition. Thus automated measurement, extraction and analysis of performance measures is desired and addressed in this paper. A tri-axial accelerometer based system was located on the lower back or swimmers to record acceleration profiles. The accelerometer system contained two ADXL202 bi-axial accelerometers positioned perpendicular to one another, and can store over 6 hours of data at 150Hz per channel using internal flash memory. The simultaneous collection of video and electronics touch pad timing was used to validate the algorithm results. Using the tri-axial accelerometer data, algorithms have been developed to derive lap times and stroke count. Comparison against electronic touch pad timing against accelerometer lap times has produced results with a typical error of better than +/-0.5 seconds. Video comparison of the stroke count algorithm for freestyle also produced results with an average error of +/-1 stroke. The developed algorithms have a higher level of reliability compared to hand timed and counted date that is commonly used during training.

  9. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  10. Shoulder functional performance status of National Collegiate Athletic Association swimmers: baseline Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, Lucas; Fronek, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Shoulder trouble, described in the literature as "swimmer's shoulder," has been associated with competitive swimmers. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow Score is a validated survey used to define functional and performance measures of the upper extremity in overhead athletes. To date, no study has investigated the baseline functional scores for swimmers actively competing in the sport. To establish a baseline score for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) swimmers actively competing in the sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. After institutional review board approval, the KJOC Shoulder and Elbow Score was administered to 5 NCAA swim teams (N = 99 participants; 46 men, 53 women). The results on 10 specific individual questions and on the total score were calculated according to the survey's original description. The mean scores were calculated for all participants. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences between sexes, years swimming, and self-reported injury status. The mean ± SD baseline KJOC score (out of a possible 100) for all participants was 79.0 ± 18.7; the mean score for men was 81.9 ± 15.6 and for women 76.6 ± 20.8. The score for athletes identifying themselves as injured at baseline was 53.9 ± 18.8, compared with 84.4 ± 13.6 for those not reporting as injured (P < .001). Athletes competing ≥11 years had a mean score of 72.0 ± 22.1; those competing ≤10 years scored 86.4 ± 11.4 (P = .007). Baseline scores for swimmers, which were lower than expected, were lower than baseline scores seen in studies of other overhead sports athletes. The data corroborate previous studies identifying swimmers as having a high level of shoulder trouble. Further research is indicated for improving shoulder symptoms and performance in competitive swimmers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  12. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  13. Intrinsic Motivation Predicting Performance Satisfaction in Athletes: Further Psychometric Evaluations of the Sport Motivation Scale-6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Blecharz; Karolina Horodyska; Karolina Zarychta; Aleksandra Adamiec; Aleksandra Luszczynska

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated psychometric properties of the Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6), assessing intrinsic regulation, four extrinsic regulation constructs, and amotivation among athletes competing at a regional and national level...

  14. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mónica Sousa Maria J.Fernandes Pedro Carvalho José Soares Pedro Moreira Vitor Hugo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    ...) between NS users and non-users.Methods: Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months...

  15. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  16. Isokinetic Scapular Muscle Performance in Overhead Athletes With and Without Impingement Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Cools; Witvrouw, Erik E.; Mahieu, Nele N; Danneels, Lieven A

    2005-01-01

    Context: Overhead activities such as throwing, tennis, or volleyball place athletes at considerable risk for overuse injuries. A relationship between scapulothoracic muscle imbalance and shoulder pain has been suggested.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE IN TEAMSES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF THE ATHLETICAL CLUB PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes da Silva Szezerbicki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary the modern organizations are facing surrounding extremely dynamic, provoking radical alterations in the way to be managed. Thus, with the advent and the perfectioning of the organizations theories, the knowledge became the more important economic factor in the competitive environment of the organizations. Treating more specifically to the sportive area, in Brazil the clubs that more adopted the paradigms of enterprise organization had been the Teamses of Soccer, for if dealing with the sport most popular of the country. This study it has as objective to investigate, inside of a Club of national Soccer, if it exists the development of teams of high performance and which had been the taken procedures to arrive itself at this. The methodology of the research used in this study is of the qualitative and exploratory type, of the point of view of its nature that has as characteristic an applied research. For the collection of data the half-structuralized interview was used as instrument. The analysis was established in the procedure of the content analysis. The conclusions of the research had pointed that the results reached in the activity end of the club, the sportive context, using the sharing of the knowledge through a disciplined model of management are an example of that the management of the knowledge lead to the evolution of the organization. In the case of the Athletical club Paranaense, the performance of the directive team demonstrated, through the management of the knowledge, to establish clear objectives of performance, defined and accomplished the goals based on performance, found the work boarding integrating abilities and, mainly, it developed objective ways to implant disciplines it conscientious of that all are responsible for the presented results. Key-Words: teamses; high performance; knowledge.

  18. Blurred lines: Performance enhancement, common mental disorders and referral in the U.K. athletic population

    OpenAIRE

    Claire-Marie Roberts; Andrea Leigh Faull; David Tod

    2016-01-01

    Through the awareness-raising efforts of several high-profile current and former athletes, the issue of common mental disorders (CMD) in this population is gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Yet the prevalence is unclear and most likely, under-reported. Whilst the characteristics of the sporting environment may generate CMD within the athletic population, it also may exacerbate pre-existing conditions, and hence it is not surprising that sport psychology an...

  19. Flat-footedness is not a disadvantage for athletic performance in children aged 11 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Anton; Ruzic, Lana; Sestan, Branko; Sirola, Luka; Prpic, Tomislav

    2009-03-01

    Because the controversy about the relation of foot morphology and foot function is still present, we find it surprising that there are no studies published dealing with motor skills and athletic performance in flat-footed school children. Our aim in this study was to determine if there is an association between the degree of foot flatness and several motor skills that are necessary for sport performance. The feet of 218 children aged 11 to 15 years were scanned, and the arch index was determined. The value of the arch index was corrected for the influence of age, and then the entire sample was categorized into 4 groups according to the flatness of their feet. The children were tested for eccentric-concentric contraction and hopping on a Kistler force platform, speed-coordination polygon (Newtest system), balance (3 tests), toe flexion (textile crunching), tiptoe standing angle, and repetitive leg movements. Altogether, 17 measures of athletic performance were measured. No significant correlations between the arch height and 17 motor skills were found. Categorizing the sample into 4 groups did not reveal any differences between the groups in athletic performance. Also, several multivariate analysis of variance sets of multiple independent variables referring to a particular motor ability were not found to be significant. The differences were not found even after comparing only the 2 extreme groups, meaning children with very low and children with very high arches. No disadvantages in sport performance originating from flat-footedness were confirmed. Children with flat and children with "normal" feet were equally successful at accomplishing all motor tests; thus, we suggest that there is no need for treatment of flexible flat feet with the sole purpose of improving athletic performance, as traditionally advised by many.

  20. Is there an interaction between BDKRB2 -9/+9 and GNB3 C825T polymorphisms and elite athletic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, N; Meckel, Y; Alves, A J; Nemet, D; Eliakim, A

    2011-12-01

    The -9 deletion allele in the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism was associated previously with improved endurance performance. We compared the frequency distribution of the BDKRB2 -9/+9 (rs5810761) polymorphism between athletes (n=155) of sports with different demands (endurance runners; n=74 vs sprinters; n=81) as well as between athletes of different competitive levels (elite level; n=46 vs national level; n=109). These results were compared with those of 240 non-athletic healthy individuals. We also tested the influence of the interaction between the BDKRB2 -9/+9 and the GNB3 C825T (rs5443) genotypes in relation to endurance performance. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies were found to be similar in the endurance athlete, sprinter, and control groups (P=0.83 for genotype distribution and P=0.9 for allele frequencies). Similarly, no statistical differences were found between the subgroups of elite-level endurance athletes and national-level endurance athletes, or between elite-level and national-level sprinters (P>0.09 for all comparisons). There was no interaction between BDKRB2 -9/+9 and GNB3 C825T polymorphisms in relation to endurance performance (P=0.16 for interaction effect). In conclusion, the BDKRB2 +9/-9 polymorphism is not associated with endurance performance, at least among Israeli athletes, and the GNB3TT+BDKRB2 -9/-9 "optimal genotype" is not associated with endurance performance.

  1. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  2. Intermittent But Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance In Flexibility-Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Smilios, Ilias; Bishop, David J

    2017-02-23

    This study examined changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) height after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Sixteen male, elite-level gymnasts performed 90 s of intermittent (3 x 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous stretching (90 s) of the quadriceps muscle. A single-leg stretching and jumping design was used, with the contra-lateral limb serving as a control. The same individuals performed both conditions with alternate legs in a randomized, counterbalanced order. One leg CMJ height was measured for the stretched and the control leg after warm-up, immediately after stretching, and at regular intervals for 10 min after stretching. Range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints was measured before, after, and 10 min post-stretching. Compared to the control leg, intermittent stretching increased CMJ height by 8.1±2.0%, 4 min into recovery (+2.2±2.0 cm, 95%CI: 1.0-3.4 cm, p=0.001), while continuous stretching decreased CMJ height by 17.5±3.3% immediately after (-2.9±1.7 cm, 95%CI: -2.0 to -3.7 cm, p=0.001) and by 12.0±2.7% one min after stretching (-2.2±2.1 cm, 95%CI: -1.2 to -3.2 cm, p=0.001). The increases in hip (2.9 and 3.6, p=0.001. d=2.4) and knee joint ROM (5.1 and 6.1, p=0.001. d=0.85) after the intermittent and continuous stretching protocols were not different. The opposite effects of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on subsequent CMJ performance suggests that stretching mode is an important variable when examining the acute effects of static stretching on performance in flexibility-trained athletes.

  3. Verbal Instructions Acutely Affect Drop Vertical Jump Biomechanics--Implications for Athletic Performance and Injury Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Steven; Musalem, Lindsay L; Beach, Tyson A C

    2015-10-01

    Biomechanical quantities acquired during the drop vertical jump (DVJ) are used in the assessment of athletic performance and injury risk. The objective was to examine the impact of different verbal instructions on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic variables commonly included in such assessments. Ten men and 10 women from local varsity and club volleyball, basketball, figure skating, and track and field teams volunteered to participate. The athletes performed DVJs after given instructions to minimize ground contact time (CT), maximize jump height (HT), and synchronously extend the lower extremity joints (EX). Between the CT, HT, and EX conditions, body segment and joint angles were compared together with characteristics of vertical ground reaction force (GRF), whole-body power output, stiffness, and center-of-mass displacement time histories. Verbal instructions were found to influence nearly all of the spatiotemporal, body segment and joint kinematic, and kinetic variables that were statistically analyzed. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that athletic performance indices (e.g., jump height, power output, vertical stiffness, and reactive strength index) and lower extremity injury risk markers (e.g., peak vertical GRF and frontal plane knee angle) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between the CT, HT, and EX conditions. The findings of this study suggest that verbal instructions should be controlled and/or clearly documented when using the DVJ to assess athletic performance potential and injury risk. Moreover, practitioners who devise performance enhancement and injury prevention strategies based on DVJ assessments are advised to consider that "coaching" or "cueing" during the task execution could impact conclusions drawn.

  4. Special feature for the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, L T

    2000-10-01

    Overtraining is a process of excessive exercise training in high-performance athletes that may lead to overtraining syndrome. Overtraining syndrome is a neuroendocrine disorder characterized by poor performance in competition, inability to maintain training loads, persistent fatigue, reduced catecholamine excretion, frequent illness, disturbed sleep and alterations in mood state. Although high-performance athletes are generally not clinically immune deficient, there is evidence that several immune parameters are suppressed during prolonged periods of intense exercise training. These include decreases in neutrophil function, serum and salivary immunoglobulin concentrations and natural killer cell number and possibly cytotoxic activity in peripheral blood. Moreover, the incidence of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection increases during periods of endurance training. However, all of these changes appear to result from prolonged periods of intense exercise training, rather than from the effects of overtraining syndrome itself. At present, there is no single objective marker to identify overtraining syndrome. It is best identified by a combination of markers, such as decreases in urinary norepinephrine output, maximal heart rate and blood lactate levels, impaired sport performance and work output at 110% of individual anaerobic threshold, and daily self-analysis by the athlete (e.g. high fatigue and stress ratings). The mechanisms underlying overtraining syndrome have not been clearly identified, but are likely to involve autonomic dysfunction and possibly increased cytokine production resulting from the physical stress of intense daily training with inadequate recovery.

  5. GRAPE EXTRACT IMPROVES ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ELITE MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lafay

    2009-09-01

    .8+/-0.2 vs g·dL-1, p < 0.05, suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05 and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1 after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball. Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes

  6. The effect of wheel size on mobility performance in wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B; van der Woude, L; Lenton, J P; Goosey-Tolfrey, V

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in an adjustable wheelchair with 3 different wheel sizes (0.59 m, 0.61 m and 0.65 m). Performance was assessed using the time taken to perform drills, with velocity and acceleration data also collected via a wheelchair velocometer. 20 m sprint time improved in the 0.65 m condition (5.58 ± 0.43 s, P=0.029) compared with 0.59 m (5.72 ± 0.40 s). Acceleration performance over the first 2 (P=0.299) and 3 (P=0.145) pushes was not statistically influenced by wheel size. However, the peak velocities reached were greater in the 0.65 m condition (4.77 ± 0.46 m ∙ s(-1), P=0.078, Effect Size [ES]=0.63) compared with 0.59 m (4.61 ± 0.40 m ∙ s(-1)). Impact velocity, calculated as the change in velocity from the onset of a push to the following impact peak, to define coupling performance, was also significantly improved in 0.65 m wheels (0.14 ± 0.14 m ∙ s(-1), P=0.006) than 0.59 m wheels (0.05 ± 0.10 m ∙ s(-1)). The time taken to complete the linear mobility (P=0.630) and the agility drill (P=0.505) were not affected by wheel size. Finally, no significant interactions existed between wheel size, classification and any performance measure. To conclude, larger 0.65 m wheels improved the maximal sprinting performance of highly trained wheelchair basketball players, without any negative effects on acceleration or manoeuvrability. Improvements in sprinting were attributed to a combination of the reduced drag forces experienced and improvements in coupling thought to be due to the lower angular velocities of the wheel/hand-rim when developing high wheelchair velocities in larger wheels.

  7. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  8. Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, D; Feist, J; Jost, J; Kieser, M; Friedmann-Bette, B

    2016-05-01

    Rapid body mass loss (RBML) before competition was found to decrease hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite boxers. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this observation. Fourteen well-trained combat athletes who reduced body mass before competitions (weight loss group, WLG) and 14 combat athletes who did not practice RBML (control group, CON) were tested during an ordinary training period (t-1), 1-2 days before an official competition (after 5-7 days RBML in WLG, t-2), and after a post-competition period (t-3). In WLG, body mass (-5.5%, range: 2.9-6.8 kg) and Hbmass (-4.1%) were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced after RBML and were still decreased by 1.6% (P < 0.05) and 2.6% (P < 0.001) at t-3 compared with t-1. After RBML, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, haptoglobin, triiodothyronine (FT3 ), and free androgen index (FAI) were decreased compared with t-1 and t-3. An increase occurred in ferritin and bilirubin. Peak treadmill-running performance and VO2peak did not change significantly, but performance at 4-mmol lactate threshold was higher after RBML (P < 0.05). In CON, no significant changes were found in any parameter. Apparently, the significant decrease in Hbmass after RBML in combat athletes was caused by impaired erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis without significant impact on aerobic performance capacity.

  9. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Auchenberg, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max: 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were included in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled parallel study. At baseline, after acute administration, and again after 2-week administration of the study drugs (8 mg salbutamol or placebo), subjects' maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps and isometric endurance of m. deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P salbutamol increased (P salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol benefits athletes' sprint ability. Thus, the present study supports the restriction of oral salbutamol in competitive sports.

  10. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF JAVELIN THROW PERFORMED BY WHEELCHAIR ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann F. Kuenster

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify those kinematic characteristics that are most closely related to the functional classification of a wheelchair athlete and measured distance of a javelin throw. Two S-VHS camcorders (60 field·s-1 were used to record the performance of 15 males of different classes. Each subject performed 6-10 throws and the best two legal throws from each subject were selected for analysis. Three-dimensional kinematics of the javelin and upper body segments at the instant of release and during the throw (delivery were determined. The selection of kinematic parameters that were analyzed in this study was based on a javelin throw model showing the factors that determine the measured distance of a throw. The average of two throws for each subject was used to compute Spearman rank correlation coefficients between selected parameters and measured distance, and between selected parameters and the functional classification. The speeds and angles of the javelin at release, ranged from 9.1 to 14.7 m·s-1 and 29.6 to 35.8º, respectively, were smaller than those exhibited by elite male able-bodied throwers. As expected, the speed of the javelin at release was significantly correlated to both the classification (p<0.01 and measured distance (p<0.001. Of the segmental kinematic parameters, significant correlations were found between the trunk inclination at release and classification and between the angular speed at release and measured distance (p<0.01 for both. The angular speed of the shoulder girdle at release and the average angular speeds of the shoulder girdle during the delivery were significantly correlated to both the classification and measured distance (p<0.05. The results indicate that shoulder girdle movement during the delivery is an important determinant of classification and measured distance.

  11. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athlet...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic ß2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  12. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athlet...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  13. The athlete's foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, S S; Lewis, L A; Cohen, B H

    1977-09-01

    In general, painful feet can affect the performance of an athlete in any sport. To prevent skin diseases of the feet, the "Athlete's Foot" should be kept clean and dry with toenails trimmed. Properly fitting athletic shoes should be worn to avoid the formation of blisters. Wearing of sandals in locker and shower rooms, which prevents intimate contact with infecting organisms, can alleviate many of the problems that affect the feet.

  14. Iron and the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedekum, Natalie A; Dimeff, Robert J

    2005-08-01

    Iron is an important mineral necessary for many biologic pathways. Different levels of deficiency can occur in the athlete, resulting in symptoms that range from none to severe fatigue. Iron deficiency without anemia may adversely affect athletic performance. Causes of iron deficiency include poor intake, menstrual losses, gastrointestinal and genitourinary losses due to exercise-induced ischemia or organ movement, foot strike hemolysis, thermohemolysis, and sweat losses. A higher incidence of deficiency occurs in female athletes compared with males.

  15. The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Methods Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (...

  16. Effects of Coach and Parent Training on Performance Anxiety in Young Athletes: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Smoll

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Coaches and parents play a major role in determining the consequences of sport participation in young athletes. This study focuses on the assessment of a systemic, empirically inspired intervention directed at coaches and parents. Parallel workshops derived in part from achievement goal theory were presented to the coaches and parents of 9 to 15 year old boys and girls participating in community-based basketball programs, and their effects were compared with a matched control condition. Multilevel analyses revealed significant Time x Condition interactions on all three subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 and on a total anxiety score. Athletes in the intervention condition decreased in cognitive and somatic anxiety scores on the SAS-2, whereas athletes in the control condition exhibited increases in cognitive and somatic anxiety. Results suggest the potential efficacy of brief, economical interventions in enhancing the psychosocial impact of the youth sport environment.

  17. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas eRomeas; Jocelyn eFaubert

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that athletes’ domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students’ non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a ...

  18. Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rijken, Noortje H.; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B.; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily...

  19. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  20. Information processing. [in human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Flach, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of sensory-information processing by the human brain are reviewed from a human-factors perspective, with a focus on their implications for aircraft and avionics design. The topics addressed include perception (signal detection and selection), linguistic factors in perception (context provision, logical reversals, absence of cues, and order reversals), mental models, and working and long-term memory. Particular attention is given to decision-making problems such as situation assessment, decision formulation, decision quality, selection of action, the speed-accuracy tradeoff, stimulus-response compatibility, stimulus sequencing, dual-task performance, task difficulty and structure, and factors affecting multiple task performance (processing modalities, codes, and stages).

  1. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  2. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

  3. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions.

  4. Structural Support of High-Performance Athletes' Education: Supporting Dual Careers in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, George; Gargalianos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how the current Greek sport-education context seems to offer relatively poor dual-career support in comparison to other available structures in the world. This results in additional obstacles for Greek athletes who wish to educate themselves and an ambiguous prospect for their future. Consequently, the Greek…

  5. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in…

  6. Impact of coenzyme Q-10 on parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle performance in older athletes taking statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Richard E; Lavie, Carl J; Dornelles, Adriana C

    2012-11-01

    Many older athletes take statins, which are known to have potential for muscle toxicity. The adverse effects of statins on muscles and the influence thereof on athletic performance remain uncertain. Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) may improve performance and reduce muscle toxicity in older athletes taking statins. This trial was designed to evaluate the benefits of CoQ10 administration for mitochondrial function in this population. Twenty athletes aged ≥ 50 years who were taking stable doses of statins were randomized to receive either CoQ10 (200 mg daily) or placebo for 6 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the impact of CoQ10 on the anaerobic threshold (AT). Several secondary endpoints, including muscle function, cardiopulmonary exercise function, and subjective feelings of fitness, were also assessed. The mean (SD) change in AT from baseline was -0.59 (1.2) mL/kg/min during placebo treatment and 2.34 (0.8) mL/kg/min during CoQ10 treatment (P = 0.116). The mean change in time to AT from baseline was significantly greater during CoQ10 treatment than during placebo treatment (40.26 s vs 0.58 s, P = 0.038). Furthermore, muscle strength as measured by leg extension repetitions (reps) increased significantly during CoQ10 treatment, with a mean (SD) increase from baseline of 1.73 (2.9) reps during placebo treatment versus 3.78 (5.0) reps during CoQ10 treatment (P = 0.031). Many other parameters also tended to improve in response to CoQ10 treatment. Treatment with CoQ10 improved AT in comparison with baseline values in 11 of 19 (58%) subjects and in comparison with placebo treatment values in 10 of 19 (53%) subjects. Treatment with CoQ10 (200 mg daily) did not significantly improve AT in older athletes taking statins. However, it did improve muscle performance as measured by time to AT and leg strength (quadriceps muscle reps). Many other measures of mitochondrial function also tended to improve during CoQ10 treatment.

  7. The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naughton Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6% and vitamin C (70.7% were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%, whey protein (31.7%, echinacea (30.9%, iron (29.9% and caffeine (23.7%. Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously

  8. European athletes dominate performances in Double Iron ultra-triathlons--a retrospective data analysis from 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas; Onywera, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the participation and performance trends of ultra-endurance triathletes from all nationalities competing in a Double Iron ultra-triathlon (7.6-km swim, 360-km cycle and 84.4-km run) from 1985 to 2010. A total of 1854 athletes participated in 92 Double Iron ultra-triathlons. The majority of the winners came from Europe with 72 victories, followed by North America with 17 victories. The race time for the European ultra-triathletes was 1340 (s=95.3) min, decreasing highly significantly (r (2)=0.28; Pathletes and their best performance.

  9. Thermal stress and human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, A E; Hygge, S

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence that the thermal stress encountered in many work environments may negatively affect various aspects of human performance and behavior. Evaluation of the empirical research is, however, complicated by differences in both the methodology and the definition of the basic stimulus. Effects of heat and cold stress are briefly reviewed, with particular regard to theoretical considerations.

  10. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  12. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  13. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  14. Effects of 2-week intermittent training in hypobaric hypoxia on the aerobic energy metabolism and performance of cycling athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; An, Ho-Jung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Youn

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level). The training was conducted in twelve 60-min sessions for 2 weeks and it was based on the ventilatory threshold intensity, measured in an exercise stress test, conducted prior to training, at constant temperature (23 °C ± 2 °C) and humidity conditions (50% ± 5%). [Results] B and C athletes showed no noticeable changes in relative VO2max and HRmax values after training. A, B, and C athletes all showed increases in all-out time, 2'09″ (13.1%), 2'43″ (18.7%), and 1'22″ (7.4%), respectively after training. Although the relative VO2max and HRmax values were not improved, submaximal exercise performance ability was improved. [Conclusion] Therefore, 2 weeks of intermittent training in a hypobaric hypoxia environment positively affected aerobic energy metabolism and performance.

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  16. The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training.

  17. Nutritional and body composition assessment and its relationship with athletic performance in a women’s soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María González-Neira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In women’s soccer, meeting the nutritional requirements could have a positive impact on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to analyze dietary intake and body composition (CC, proving their relationship with athletic performance.Material and Methods: Observational, descriptive, prospective, and correlational study performed on 17 players from Torrelodones C.F., a semi-professional team in Madrid. Weight and height were measured and the body mass index (IMC was calculated. The CC was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Dietary intake was analyzed through a weekly food registry (assessed with the program DIAL and the KIDMED test. The maximum volume of oxygen (VO2 max was determined by the Course-Navette test and the rating of perceived effort test (PSE was also taken.Results: IMC was 22.80±2.9kg/m2, fat mass was 24.51±5.5% and lean mass 43.6±2.9kg. Energy intake was 1901±388 kcal. The contribution of carbohydrates accounted for 40.3±5.6%, protein 15.9±3.29%, and fat 41.8±4.1% of total kcal. There was an inverse relationship between IMC and weight, and VO2 max values. There was a significant weight loss after training (p=0.003 and after the match (p=0.008.Conclusions: Player’s diet was inadequate, not corresponding nutrient intake with their requirements, despite training in a semi-professional team. Because of the importance that nutrition plays in competition and athletic performance, investigations should continue working on an appropriate recommendation for this collective.

  18. Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific me...

  19. Relationships Between Sprint, Jumping and Strength Abilities, and 800 M Performance in Male Athletes of National and International Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachero-Mena Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the relationships between sprinting, jumping and strength abilities, with regard to 800 m running performance. Fourteen athletes of national and international levels in 800 m (personal best: 1:43-1:58 min:ss completed sprint tests (20 m and 200 m, a countermovement jump, jump squat and full squat test as well as an 800 m race. Significant relationships (p < 0.01 were observed between 800 m performance and sprint tests: 20 m (r = 0.72 and 200 m (r = 0.84. Analysing the 200 m run, the magnitude of the relationship between the first to the last 50 m interval times and the 800 m time tended to increase (1st 50 m: r = 0.71; 2nd 50 m: r = 0.72; 3rd 50 m: r = 0.81; 4th 50 m: r = 0.85. Performance in 800 m also correlated significantly (p < 0.01-0.05 with strength variables: the countermovement jump (r = -0.69, jump squat (r = -0.65, and full squat test (r = -0.58. Performance of 800 m in high-level athletes was related to sprint, strength and jumping abilities, with 200 m and the latest 50 m of the 200 m being the variables that most explained the variance of the 800 m performance.

  20. Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D

    2000-06-01

    A popular concept in the exercise sciences holds that fatigue develops during exercise of moderate to high intensity, when the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to provide oxygen to the exercising muscles falls behind their demand inducing "anaerobic" metabolism. But this cardiovascular/anaerobic model is unsatisfactory because (i) a more rigorous analysis indicates that the first organ to be affected by anaerobiosis during maximal exercise would likely be the heart, not the skeletal muscles. This probability was fully appreciated by the pioneering exercise physiologists, A. V Hill, A. Bock and D. B. Dill, but has been systematically ignored by modern exercise physiologists; (ii) no study has yet definitely established the presence of either anaerobiosis, hypoxia or ischaemia in skeletal muscle during maximal exercise; (iii) the model is unable to explain why exercise terminates in a variety of conditions including prolonged exercise, exercise in the heat and at altitude, and in those with chronic diseases of the heart and lungs, without any evidence for skeletal muscle anaerobiosis, hypoxia or ischaemia, and before there is full activation of the total skeletal muscle mass, and (iv) cardiovascular and other measures believed to relate to skeletal muscle anaerobiosis, including the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and the "anaerobic threshold", are indifferent predictors of exercise capacity in athletes with similar abilities. This review considers four additional models that need to be considered when factors limiting either short duration, maximal or prolonged submaximal exercise are evaluated. These additional models are: (i) the energy supply/energy depletion model; (ii) the muscle power/muscle recruitment model; (iii) the biomechanical model and (iv) the psychological model. By reviewing features of these models, this review provides a broad overview of the physiological, metabolic and biomechanical factors that may limit exercise performance under

  1. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  2. Restoration of physical performance capacity of athletes after prolonged restriction of their motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. D.; Finogeyev, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of different regimens of treatment following prolonged hypokinesia were studied in order to determine the most effective program. The types of programs considered were passive means, consisting of physical therapy; active means, consisting of athletic training; and a combined program. In the first stage of the experiment, the effects of a 10 day period of hypokinesia were studied. It was determined that the restoration programs must address the problems of: (1) increasing defense function and general tone of the body; (2) restore orthostatic stability; and (3) increase general endurance. In later stages, groups of athletes and nonathletes underwent 30 day periods of hypokinesia. Restoration was carefully monitored for groups treated with the various regimens. It was determined that the most effective treatment was a comprehensive program of passive and active therapy.

  3. "Andro" or "No go": Evaluating the Risks of Androstenedione in Boosting Athletic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Androstenedione, a precursor to testosterone, is produced in the adrenal glands and gonads. Testosterone's effects in promoting skeletal muscle growth are well-known among athletes. By taking these anabolic steroids, however, they predispose themselves to dangerous side effects. An ingested plant form of androstenedione has recently gained popularity as a natural and safe alternative to conventional anabolic steroids. Unfortunately, until recently, there had been only one study that investiga...

  4. A Review of the Development of Sport Hypnosis as a Performance Enhancement Method for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    William F Straub; John J Bowman

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to trace the historical milestones in the emergence of sport hypnosis from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The authors reviewed some important definitional conceptualizations of hypnosis from the work of Braid, Bernheim, Freud, Hull and Erickson. Erickson laid the groundwork for the modern definitions of hypnosis and eventually of sport hypnosis. Clinical sport hypnosis was defined as: “helping athletes overcome a variety o...

  5. Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6 g L-arginine and 614 mg nitrate against 614 mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18 ± 0 years, VO2max 69.3 ± 5.8 ml ⋅ min(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10 km ⋅ h(-1) and 14 km ⋅ h(-1) at 1% incline and 180 m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine + nitrate supplementation (319 ± 54 nmol ⋅ L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328 ± 107 nmol ⋅ L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149 ± 64 nmol ⋅ L(-1), p performance between treatments. The plasma nitrite concentrations indicate greater nitric oxide availability both following acute supplementation of L-arginine + nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers.

  6. Floating patella: combined quadriceps tendon, retinacula, and patellar tendon ruptures in a high-performance elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Phillip R; Selesnick, F Harlan

    2010-09-01

    Simultaneous quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture is rare. To our knowledge, we present the first known case of simultaneous quadriceps tendon, patella tendon, and retinacula rupture in the ipsilateral knee of a high-performance elite athlete. This disabling injury in the active person results in an inability to actively obtain and maintain full knee extension. When the tendons do not heal properly, at the correct length and tension, knee range of motion and strength can become significantly altered, leading to early fatigue, patellofemoral pain, and possibly instability, preventing return to preinjury status. Immediate surgical repair is recommended for optimal return of knee function and power.

  7. Coaches, Athletes Training Motivation and Athlete Performance Correlation Study%教练员、运动员参训动机与运动员效能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武笑玲; 魏烨; 李艳华

    2012-01-01

    通过问卷调研法和典型相关分析法,以河南省39名教练员和411名运动员为研究对象,探讨河南教练员、运动员参训动机与运动员效能的关系。结果表明:教练员、运动员参训动机与运动员效能整体良好;教练内在动机、教练外在动机与教练满意、团队满意和团队表现呈负相关,与个人表现呈正相关;教练满意、团队满意、团队表现和个人表现呈正相关;运动员认同调节、内射调节、外在调节与教练满意、团队满意、团队表现和个人表现呈正相关;运动员无动机与教练满意、团队满意、团队表现和个人表现呈负相关。%The main purpose of this study is to explore Henan's coaches, athletes training motivation and ath lete performance relationship, through the questionnaire survey method and canonical correlation analysis meth od, to Henan province 39 coaches and 411 athletes as the research object, the results: coaches, athletes training motivation and athlete performance is good; intrinsic motivation extrinsic motivation, coach coach and coach team satisfaction, satisfaction and team was negatively related to performance, and individual performance was posi tively related to satisfaction; coach, team satisfaction, team performance and individual performance was posi tively related to regulation, introjected regulation ; athletic identity, external regulati team satisfaction, team performance and individual performance was positively related tion; athlete, coach team satisfaction, team performance and individual performance on and coach satisfaction, to motivation and satisfac is negatively related to.

  8. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Heck, Philipp; Ziegler, Matthias

    2014-01-30

    Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes' intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes' attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (rtt = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available "open source". The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs.

  9. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of Gron

  10. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of Gron

  11. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p performance between guard and pass fighters (t = 1.97; p = 0.05), its magnitude was considered medium (ES = 0.77). There was an association between FMS and presence of injury (χ = 4.95; p = 0.03). Considering the FMS score as a predictor and the presence or absence of injury as the dependent variable, the data met a Wald coefficient of 4.55, p = 0.03 and Exp (B) = 5.71. The study found that almost half of the sample had injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a higher risk of injury in BJJ athletes.

  12. Neurofeedback as supplementary training for optimizing athletes' performance: A systematic review with implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirifar, Arash; Beckmann, Jürgen; Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in enhancing human performance. Neurofeedback is a promising noninvasive approach for modifying human brain oscillation and can be utilized in developing skills for self-regulation of brain activity. So far, the effectiveness of neurofeedback has been evaluated with regard to not only its application in clinical populations but also the enhancement of performance in general. However, reviews of the application of neurofeedback training in the sports domain are absent, although this application goes back to 1991, when it was first applied in archery. Sport scientists have shown an increasing interest in this topic in recent years. This article provides an overview of empirical studies examining the effects of neurofeedback in sports and evaluates these studies against cardinal and methodological criteria. Furthermore, it includes guidelines and suggestions for future evaluations of neurofeedback training in sports.

  13. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  14. Risk Factors for Reoperation and Performance-Based Outcomes After Operative Fixation of Foot Fractures in the Professional Athlete: A Cross-Sport Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sameer; Larkin, Kevin; Kadakia, Anish; Hsu, Wellington

    2017-09-01

    Professional athletes are predisposed to fractures of the foot due to large stresses placed on the lower extremity. These players are concerned with efficiently returning to play at a high level. Return-to-play rates after operative treatment have been previously reported, yet performance outcomes after such treatment are generally unknown in this population. Overall, professional athletes sustaining a foot fracture would return to play at high rates with little impact on post-operative performance or league participation. However, National Football League (NFL) athletes would have a significantly greater decline in performance, due to the high impact nature of the sport. Case series. Level 4. Athletes in the National Basketball League (NBA), NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) undergoing operative fixation of a foot fracture were identified through a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were collected for each sport. League participation and game performance data were collected before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed, with significance accepted as P ≤ 0.05. A total of 77 players undergoing 84 procedures met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 98.7% (76/77) of players were able to return to play, with a median time to return across all sports of 137 days. Players returned to preoperative performance levels within 1 season of surgery. Six players (7.8%) sustained refracture requiring reoperation, all of whom were in the NBA. Percentage of games started during the season after primary operative treatment was a predictive factor for reinjury (99% vs 40%, P = 0.001). Athletes returned to play at a high rate after foot fracture fixation, with excellent postoperative performance levels, regardless of sport and fracture location. NBA athletes sustaining fifth metatarsal and navicular fractures are at greater risk of reinjury compared with

  15. 预冷对运动员高温环境下运动表现的影响研究%The Study of the Influence on Athletic Performance for Athletes in the High Temperature Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝思哲

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research shows that high temperature environment on the performance of the movement of athletes are harmful, such as oxygen transportation capacity, cardiovascular function and the internal environment, and ionic balance will be a bad in- fluence. The sports science researchers find that the cold treatment can improve athletes in the high temperature environment of athletic performance. The cold treatment find in training or before the game, the body temperature in advance is processed, by lowering core body temperature, improving cardiovascular pressure, reduce the metabolism disorders and ability to adjust the phys- iological indexes, improve the heat storage capacity athletes, slow motion fatigue, athletes in training or in the games will have a good performance.%很多研究表明高温环境对运动员的运动表现是有害的,如对氧运输能力、心血管功能以及内环境和离子平衡都会造成不良影响。体育科研人员发现预冷处理能够改善运动员在高温环境下的运动表现。预冷处理是指在训练前或比赛前,预先将运动员身体做降温处理,通过降低核心体温、改善心血管压力、减少代谢失调等来调整各项生理指标,提升运动员的热贮存能力,延缓运动疲劳产生,使运动员在训练或比赛时有良好的运动表现。

  16. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  17. Why isn't flow-mediated dilation enhanced in athletes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Rowley, N.; Spence, A.; Carter, H.; Whyte, G.; George, K.; Naylor, L.H.; Cable, N.T.; Dawson, E.A.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies performed in animals and humans strongly suggest that exercise training and physical activity enhance arterial endothelial function. Studies of athletes have, however, been less definitive. METHODS: We recruited a range of Olympic and world class athletes who participate in upper or

  18. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  19. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  20. Effects of Ankle Braces Upon Agility Course Performance in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Beriau, Mark R.; Cox, William B.; Manning, James

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the AircastTM Sports Stirrup, AircastTM Training brace, Swede-OTM brace, and DonJoyTM Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions...

  1. A preliminary examination of neurocognitive performance and symptoms following a bout of soccer heading in athletes wearing protective soccer headbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbin, R J; Beatty, Amanda; Covassin, Tracey; Schatz, Philip; Hydeman, Ana; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared changes in neurocognitive performance and symptom reports following an acute bout of soccer heading among athletes with and without protective soccer headgear. A total of 25 participants headed a soccer ball 15 times over a 15-minute period, using a proper linear heading technique. Participants in the experimental group completed the heading exercise while wearing a protective soccer headband and controls performed the heading exercise without wearing the soccer headband. Neurocognitive performance and symptom reports were assessed before and after the acute bout of heading. Participants wearing the headband showed significant decreases on verbal memory (p = 0.02) compared with the no headband group, while the no headband group demonstrated significantly faster reaction time (p = 0.03) than the headband group following the heading exercise. These findings suggest that protective soccer headgear likely does not mitigate the subtle neurocognitive effects of acute soccer heading.

  2. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  3. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term, female athlete triad may lead to reduced physical performance, stress fractures, and other injuries. Over the long term, it can cause bone weakness, long-term effects on the reproductive system, and heart problems. A ...

  4. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  5. Beetroot Juice Improves On-Water 500 M Time-Trial Performance, and Laboratory-Based Paddling Economy in National and International-Level Kayak Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Cox, Gregory R; Bullock, Nicola; Burke, Louise M

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the ingestion of a beetroot juice supplement (BR) on 4-min laboratory-based kayak performance in national level male (n = 6) athletes (Study A), and on 500 m on-water kayak time-trial (TT) performance in international level female (n = 5) athletes (Study B). In Study A, participants completed three laboratory-based sessions on a kayak ergometer, including a 7 × 4 min step test, and two 4 min maximal effort performance trials. Two and a half hours before the warm-up of each 4 min performance trial, athletes received either a 70 ml BR shot containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). The distance covered over the 4 min TT was not different between conditions; however, the average VO2 over the 4 min period was significantly lower in BR (p = .04), resulting in an improved exercise economy (p = .05). In Study B, participants completed two field-based 500 m TTs, separated by 4 days. Two hours before each trial, athletes received either two 70 ml BR shots containing ~9.6 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). BR supplementation significantly enhanced TT performance by 1.7% (p = .01). Our results show that in national-level male kayak athletes, commercially available BR shots (70 ml) containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate improved exercise economy during laboratory-based tasks predominantly reliant on the aerobic energy system. Furthermore, greater volumes of BR (140 ml; ~9.6 mmol nitrate) provided to international-level female kayak athletes resulted in enhancements to TT performance in the field.

  6. Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Noortje H; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B). Measurements were performed at baseline, post intervention and at 5 weeks follow-up. Objective measures: EEG and ECG. Subjective measures: Numeric Rating Scale for performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rest and Stress Questionnaire and Sports Improvement-60. Group characteristics were too distinct to compare the interventions. Linear mixed models were used to analyze differences within groups over time. In Group A, significant changes over time were present in alpha power at 5 of 7 EEG locations (p performance-related outcomes and stress reduction. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of either type of feedback and to compare effects with a control group.

  7. Do maximal aerobic power and blood lactate concentration affect Specific Judo Fitness Test performance in female judo athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbouj, H; Selmi, M A; Sassi, R Haj; Yahmed, M Haj; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A

    2016-12-01

    The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8.0 kg · m(-2)) took part in this study. All participants performed the SJFT, 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), and 30 m straight sprint test (SST), from which we calculated both acceleration (10 m) and the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS: flying 20 m sprint). A blood sample was taken 3 min after the SJFT. The number of throws was significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (r=0.795, p=0.0001) and both acceleration (r=0.63, p =0.006) and MAnS (r=0.76, p=0.0004). Peak blood lactate recorded after the SJFT was 13.90±1.39 mmol · l(-1). No significant correlation was found between blood lactate concentration and the SJFT performance indices. The lack of significant correlation between blood lactate and SJFT performance suggests that lactic anaerobic metabolism has no effect on this type of judo-specific supra-maximal exercise. The observed results can provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with relevant information for the interpretation of SJFT performance and the prescription of specific training programmes for female judo athletes.

  8. Archetypal Athletes

    CERN Document Server

    Eugster, Manuel J A

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called archetypes, i.e., archetypal athletes, approximate the observations as convex combinations. We interpret the archetypal athletes and their characteristics, and, furthermore, the composition of all athletes based on the archetypal athletes. The application of archetypal analysis is demonstrated on basketball statistics and soccer skill ratings.

  9. The role of effective mass and hand speed in the performance of kung fu athletes compared with nonpractitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F

    2007-05-01

    The main goal of this article is to quantify the contribution of effective mass (me) and handspeed (shi) on the palm strike performance of kung fu athletes (kung fu group) compared with nonpractitioners (control group). All subjects were asked to strike a basketball. Hand and ball speed (sbf) were determined by high-speed video analysis. The value for me was determined by an equation that does not depend upon postimpact measurement of the hand speed. The results show that kung fu athletes had greater shi (6.67 [SD 1.42] m/s), p = 0.042), higher me (2.62 [SD 0.33] kg, p = 0.004), and greater sbf (9.00 [SD 1.89] m/s), p = 0.004) than the nonpractitioners (5.04 [SD 0.57] m/s, 1.33 [SD 0.19] kg, and 5.72 [SD 0.44] m/s, respectively). Comparing the average values obtained for me and hand and forearm mass (m), it was found that for the control group me is statistically equal to m (p = 0.917), whereas for the kung fu group me is significant greater than m (p = 0.003). It is suggested that for impacts against heavier objects, the effective mass would be the main factor to distinguish a martial arts-trained from an untrained subject.

  10. According to Handball Coaches, What Are The Psychological Factors That Affect The Performance of Athletes? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat ERDOĞAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the factors that affect psychogical aspects of athletes’ performance accordi ng to the handball coaches. In this study, the case study design within qualitative research methods was used. As a sampling method, the convenient sampling method from the purposive sampling methods was used. As a data collection tool, semi - structured interview form which is developed by the researcher himself was used. The descriptive analysis and the content analysis were used in the analysis of the findings. In this study, the performance of athletes by handball coaches as factors affecting the psych ological aspect determined as, training place, coaches, training methods and equipment, socio - economic status, body language, arousal level, competitors, spectators, family, friends, education, referees, concentration, personality, communication, motivatio n, time - out, psychological training.

  11. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  12. 基因多态性与杰出运动能力%Association of elite athlete performance and gene polymorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若愚; 王予彬; 沈勋章; 蔡广

    2014-01-01

    背景:人的运动能力具有很高的遗传度,随着分子生物学技术和检测方法的发展,体育科研工作者越来越关心基因的变化对优秀运动员运动能力的影响,也逐渐认识到通过基因来预测杰出运动能力的重要价值。  目的:对当前基因多态性与杰出运动能力关联研究领域的研究发现和成果进行全面的综述,并对这些研究的共性问题进行阐述,给出今后发展的可能建议。  方法:计算机检索PubMed数据库以及中国期刊网全文数据库1998至2013年期间有关杰出运动能力与基因多态性方面的文章。分别以“Elite athlete performance”、“Gene polymorphism”、“Endurance”、“Power”、“Training response”为关键词进行检索,最初检索到150篇中英文文献,最后根据内容纳入80篇文献。  结果与结论:当前研究杰出运动能力与基因多态性主要集中在杰出耐力素质、杰出爆发力素质和运动训练敏感性3个方面与基因多态性的关联上。杰出耐力素质相关基因主要有 ACE、线粒体 DNA、PPAR、ADR、GNB3、NRF2等基因;杰出爆发力素质相关基因主要有ACTN3、ACE、GDF-8、IL-6、HIF-1等基因;与运动训练敏感性相关的基因主要有 HBB、TFAM、NRF2、AR、FECH 等基因。近年来杰出运动能力相关基因多态性的研究大量出现,但仍存在着一些不足,如样本量较小、研究对象涉及人种较为单一等。将众多研究得到的理论成果可以通过建立某些算法和模型应用到运动员基因选材中。%BACKGROUND:Human has a high level heritability in physical performance. With the development of technology and test method in molecular biology, the researchers of sport science are concerned with the influence of gene variation on the elite athlete performance. They begin to know the important value of gene on predicting the physical performance. OBJECTIVE:To review the

  13. 女性运动员不同月经周期性激素水平与运动成绩的变化%Hormone levels at different menstrual cycle phases and changes of athletic performance in female athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海英; 董晓虹; 张景红

    2005-01-01

    二醇、促卵泡激素和促黄体生成素则无差别.赛艇运动员500m测功仪和田径运动员100m、200 m全力跑的成绩,黄体期均优于卵泡期,而赛艇运动员2 000 m成绩无显著性差异.运动员在卵泡期和黄体期完成同等负荷的运动时,黄体期血乳酸值均显著低于卵泡期.结论:黄体期受试运动员机能状态较好,可能与月经周期中激素水平的变化以及在运动状态下各种激素间具有的协同效应有关,提示对女运动员的生理周期应引起充分的重视.%BACKGROUND: What deserves exploration is the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and athletic ability of female athletes, especially the mechanism of athletic performance influenced by different menstrual cycle phases.OBJECTIVE: To compare the hormone level of different menstrual cycle phases and the changes of athletic performance as well as its effect on athletic performance.DESIGN: Single sample and single factor analysis.SETTING: Zhejiang Insftute of Sport Science; College of Education,Zhejiang University; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Specially designed menses card were distributed to all the female athletes in the gig team and track & field team in Zhejiang Province in 2000. Consecutive 3-month recording was made to investigate the status of menstrual cycle phases of female athletes. Twenty-five athletes with regular menses were chosen as subjects, among whom 12 were specialized in gig racing with the average age of 19 years and 13 were specialized in track & field events with the average age of 18 years. They all had more than 3-year training experience, 6 days a week and 4-6 hours a day. They were healthy, had regular menstrual cycle, and had not taken any drug which influences the menstrual cycle.METHODS: Blood samples of the testees were collected at hour 8-9 AM at follicular phase (days 6-10) and luteal phase (days 19-23). Full

  14. Epidemiology of isolated meniscal injury and its effect on performance in athletes from the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter C; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen; Vitti, Gary; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The current incidence and outcomes of meniscal injury have not been quantified in professional athletes. To describe the incidence, risk, amount of time lost, and effect on performance for isolated meniscal injury in athletes from the National Basketball Association (NBA). Demographic factors predicting the risk of meniscal tears and the effect of injury in return to play were also investigated. Descriptive epidemiology study. A centralized database was queried to identify meniscal injuries occurring in the NBA over 21 seasons. The frequency of injury, time lost, game exposures, and incidence, rate, and risk were calculated. The preinjury and postinjury player efficiency rating (PER) was used to identify changes in player performance. We identified 129 isolated meniscal tears in NBA athletes during a 21-season span. From this number, 77 (59.7%) involved the lateral meniscus and 52 (40.3%) the medial meniscus. Injuries occurred more frequently in games. The lateral meniscus had a statistically significant higher injury rate. Both left and right knees were equally affected. The number of days missed for lateral meniscal tears and medial meniscal tears was 43.8 ± 35.7 days and 40.9 ± 29.7 days, respectively, and was not statistically different. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and rate of lateral meniscal tears, with lateral meniscal tears more likely to occur up to age 30 years; beyond that medial meniscal tears were more common. Players with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 had a significantly increased risk of meniscal tears compared with players with a BMI less than 25, specifically with an increased risk of lateral meniscal tears. Twenty-five players (19.4%) did not return to play. For those who did, upon returning to competition, there was no statistical change in PER from their preinjury status, and the mean number of seasons completed was 4.1 ± 3.7 seasons. The lateral meniscus is more frequently torn than the medial meniscus

  15. THERMOREGULATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vol 53 (Medicine & Sport Science This collection on the latest interpretation of research data about the relationship between thermoregulation, exercise performance and fatigue is published as the 53rd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE The book aims to explain how the advances in technology and methodology allowed studying the affects of the changing body temperature on metabolism and the role played by the nervous system in shaping human performance under challenging thermal situations. FEATURES This publication provides different interpretations of recent research for a better understanding of the limitations of thermoregulation in nine titles. The presented titles are: The Evolutionary Basis of Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance; Comparative Thermoregulation and the Quest for Athletic Supremacy; Thermoregulation, Fatigue and Exercise Modality; Neuromuscular Response to Exercise Heat Stress; Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, Endotoxemia and Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The 'Canary in the Coal Mine' during Exercise-Heat Stress?; Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Characteristics of Local Muscle; Cooling Interventions for the Protection and Recovery of Exercise Performance from Exercise-Induced Heat Stress; Ethnicity and Temperature Regulation; Exercise Heat Stress and Metabolism. The evidence for the human's ability to adjust their performance according to the thermal limits in order to preserve cellular homeostasis is particularly noteworthy. AUDIENCE This is a fundamental book for any students and/or researchers involved in the fields of medicine, exercise physiology and human performance with special reference to thermal regulation. ASSESSMENT This publication is a must-read text for all those working in thermal medicine, exercise physiology and human performance fields

  16. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  17. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Leonie Flueck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2 Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3 Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4 Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are

  18. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  19. Drugs of abuse and the adolescent athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogol Alan D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Doping with endocrine drugs is quite prevalent in amateur and professional athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA has a list of banned drugs for athletes who compete and a strategy to detect such drugs. Some are relatively easy, anabolic steroids and erythropoietin, and others more difficult, human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I. The use of such compounds is likely less in adolescent athletes, but the detection that much more difficult given that the baseline secretion of the endogenous hormone is shifting during pubertal development with the greatest rise in testosterone in boys occuring about the time of peak height velocity and maximal secretion of hGH and IGF-I. This review notes the rationale, physiology, performance enhancement, adverse events and the detection of doping with insulin, rhGH, rhIGF-I, erythropoietin, and anabolic-androgenic steroids.

  20. Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Rosario; Ventura, Rosa; Palmi, Ilaria; di Carlo, Simonetta; Bacosi, Antonella; Bellver, Montse; Olive, Ramon; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pacifici, Roberta; Segura, Jordi; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pichini, Simona

    2008-11-04

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) -2 and -3 and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) have been proposed, among others, as indirect biomarkers of the recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. An extended intra- and inter-laboratory validation of commercially available immunoassays for biomarkers detection was performed. ELISA assays for total IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 (IGF-II/ELISA1: DSLabs, IGFBP-2/ELISA2: Biosource, and IGFBP-3/ELISA3: BioSource) and an EIA assay for ICTP (ICTP/EIA: Orion Diagnostica) were evaluated. The inter- and intra-laboratory precision values were acceptable for all evaluated assays (maximum imprecision of 30% and 66% were found only for the lowest quality control samples of IGF-II and IGFBP-3). Correct accuracy was obtained for all inter-laboratory immunoassays and for IGFBP-2 intra-laboratory immunoassay. The range of concentrations found in serum samples under investigation was always covered by the calibration curves of the studied immunoassays. However, 11% and 15% of the samples felt below the estimated LOQ for IGF-II and ICTP, respectively, in the zone where lower precision was obtained. Although the majority of evaluated assays showed an overall reliability not always suitable for antidoping control analysis, relatively high concordances between laboratory results were obtained for all assays. Evaluated immunoassays were used to measure serum concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3 and ICTP in elite athletes of various sport disciplines at different moments of the training season; in recreational athletes at baseline conditions and finally in sedentary individuals. Serum IGF-II was statistically higher both in recreational and elite athletes compared to sedentary individuals. Elite athletes showed lower IGFBP-2 and higher IGFBP-3 concentration with respect to recreational athletes and sedentary people. Among elite athletes, serum IGFBP-3 (synchronized

  1. Archetypal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called arche...

  2. The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R

    2017-08-01

    Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes

  3. Comparison of the electrophysiological pattern of fatigue between athletes required to perform explosive and endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatine, J J; Blank, A; Shochina, M; Swissa, A; Mahler, Y; Gonen, B; Magora, A

    1990-01-01

    The electrophysiological behavior of an isometric contraction sustained to fatigue, was examined in 6 long distance runners and 9 athletes involved in explosive (burst) sports, by on line computer analysis of the electrical activity of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. The experiments were carried out with a counterload of 50% of the maximal strength of the muscle. The duration of spike increased and the frequency decreased in the 3 examined muscles, in both types of sport. In the burst sports the changes of value of both parameters were statistically significant in the 3 muscles. In endurance sports the variations of duration were not significant and the changes of frequency were statistically significant only in the vastus lateralis. These results could be explained by the gradual activation of motor units of more strikingly different sizes in burst sports. Thus it may be speculated that prolonged training in burst sports may result in the automatic mobilization of higher number of small motor units, for the initiation of contraction while in endurance sports the onset of contraction is more gradual and carried out by large motor units.

  4. A Review of the Development of Sport Hypnosis as a Performance Enhancement Method for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Straub

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to trace the historical milestones in the emergence of sport hypnosis from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The authors reviewed some important definitional conceptualizations of hypnosis from the work of Braid, Bernheim, Freud, Hull and Erickson. Erickson laid the groundwork for the modern definitions of hypnosis and eventually of sport hypnosis. Clinical sport hypnosis was defined as: “helping athletes overcome a variety of psychological symptoms and problems” [1] Attention was given to both research and conceptual literature on the role of hypnosis in sport. Contributions of leading sport psychologists, e.g., Bruce Ogilvie, Lars-Eric Uneståhl, Terry Orlick, Ken Ravizza, Brent Rushall, Robert Nideffer, Kay Porter, Maxwell Maltz, whose work in mental training, laid the foundation for sport hypnosis were presented. Finally, the future of sport hypnosis was explored as an empirically demonstrated methodology for expanding the range of mental skills training.

  5. Alcohol, Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Performance Enhancers: A Comparison of Use by College Student Athletes and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the prevalence and pattern of substance use in undergraduate student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Participants: Authors collected data from male (n = 418) and female (n = 475) student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Methods: The authors administered self-report questionnaires to assess…

  6. Análisis del rendimiento en competición entre corredores de 100 metros lisos de diferente nivel. (Performance analysis in competition between athletes 100 meters dash athletes of different levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Floria Martín

    2011-10-01

    án hacer ajustes individuales en el entrenamiento con objeto de mejorar las desventajas que se producen en competición.AbstractIn the literature there are studies that compare the technique and performance of athletes of very different level, but these studies are not relevant for elite athletes. The well-trained athlete with good records who do not win competitions must know what needs to achieve to improve their record with respect to the champion. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of well-trained athletes, finalists in the 100 meters of the national championship in order to obtain biomechanical criteria to compare faster athletes with slower athletes and thus determine in which section causes of disadvantage. Were analyzed 14 men, 100 m. finalists in two Spanish championships. Using two-dimensional photogrammetric technique carried out a kinematic analysis on sections of ten meters along the race 100 m. The results indicated that the time spent in sections 0-10 m and 20-30 m, in the acceleration phase, was higher in slower athletes (2.04 vs. 1.93 s, P = 0.003, and 1.01 vs. 0.98 s, P = 0.031, respectively. Similarly, slower athletes spent more time to travel the 80-90 m section of the deceleration phase (0.97 vs. 0.92 s, P = 0.014. The maximum speeds were reached between 40-50 m and 50-60 m sections no significant differences were found between athletes. These results support the hypothesis that to win in a 100 m. the acceleration should be increased in the first 10 meters of the race since the slower athletes run only 44.6% of their maximum speed, while the faster athletes do 47% of their maximum speed. In the section of 80-90 m slower athletes lost 5.6% of its maximum speed, while the fastest athletes lose only 2%. These data will make individual adjustments in training to improve the handicaps that occur in competition.

  7. The Effects of Different Stretching Techniques of the Quadriceps Muscles on Agility Performance in Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, C. B.; Martinez, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Stretching has long been an integral component of pre-performance activities for a multitude of athletic endeavors. Previous research has demonstrated that stretching may have detrimental effects on performance. Specific knowledge of the precise effects of stretching may influence the decision to appropriately apply stretching techniques in the sport and therapeutic settings. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (contract-relax) stretching, and no stretching of the quadriceps muscle group on agility performance. Methods Twelve healthy, female, collegiate soccer players aged 18 – 25 performed one of the three stretching protocols (static, contract-relax, no stretch) and the agility test (T-test) on three non-consecutive days. Agility times were recorded and compared based on stretching technique and day that each test was performed. Results No significant difference was found among the means of the different stretching techniques. The t-test agility performance times were as follows: control, =9.7 seconds; static stretch, =9.73 seconds; and contract-relax, =9.62 seconds. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that agility performance may be independent of stretching technique of the quadriceps performed in female collegiate soccer athletes. It is recommended that female soccer athletes about to engage in agility activity may perform either no stretch, static stretch, or contract-relax stretching according to individual preference. PMID:21509139

  8. The influence of upper-body strength on flat-water sprint kayak performance in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2014-07-01

    Dry-land strength training is a fundamental component for elite kayak performance. The aims of this research were 3-fold: 1st, to determine the relationship between performance time and strength scores for elite kayakers; 2nd, to identify how strength changes (gains or losses) over 3 training y relate with changes in performance time for elite kayakers; and 3rd, to compare the progression in performance times for elite athletes with the top 3 performers from the national championships. The performance data for 15 elite male and 10 elite female kayakers were collected over 2 y. This group was reduced to 9 men and 8 women in the 3rd and final year. There were direct and significant correlations between strength scores and performance times across the 3 y. Bench-press 1RM increased by 34.8% for men and 42.3% for women. Over the 3 seasons, mean 1000-m time decreased by approximately 4.8%, 500-m times decreased by 7.3% (women), and 200-m times decreased by 9.1%. The women's 500-m changed from 11.9% difference from medalists to within 1.1% during the 3 y. During the 3 y of this study a change in 1-repetitionmaximum (1RM) bench press of 13% for men and 6.5% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%. For 1RM pull-up a change of 10% in men and 2.3% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%.

  9. A Proposed Athletic Training Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Sue

    An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…

  10. Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Philipp; Lake, Mark J; Stewart, Claire E; Drust, Barry; Erskine, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged unaccustomed exercise involving muscle lengthening (eccentric) actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, inflammation and muscle protein degradation. This process is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness and is referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage. Although a certain amount of muscle damage may be necessary for adaptation to occur, excessive damage or inadequate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage can increase injury risk, particularly in older individuals, who experience more damage and require longer to recover from muscle damaging exercise than younger adults. Furthermore, it is apparent that inter-individual variation exists in the response to exercise-induced muscle damage, and there is evidence that genetic variability may play a key role. Although this area of research is in its infancy, certain gene variations, or polymorphisms have been associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (i.e. individuals with certain genotypes experience greater muscle damage, and require longer recovery, following strenuous exercise). These polymorphisms include ACTN3 (R577X, rs1815739), TNF (-308 G>A, rs1800629), IL6 (-174 G>C, rs1800795), and IGF2 (ApaI, 17200 G>A, rs680). Knowing how someone is likely to respond to a particular type of exercise could help coaches/practitioners individualise the exercise training of their athletes/patients, thus maximising recovery and adaptation, while reducing overload-associated injury risk. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the literature concerning gene polymorphisms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, both in young and older individuals, and to highlight the potential mechanisms underpinning these associations, thus providing a better understanding of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  11. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses.

  12. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

  13. Frequency of the C34T mutation of the AMPD1 gene in world-class endurance athletes: does this mutation impair performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Juan C; Martín, Miguel A; Rabadán, Manuel; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; San Juan, Alejandro F; Alonso, Juan M; Chicharro, José L; Pérez, Margarita; Arenas, Joaquín; Lucia, Alejandro

    2005-06-01

    The C34T mutation in the gene encoding for the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of AMP deaminase (AMPD1) is a common mutation among Caucasians (i.e., one of five individuals) that can impair exercise capacity. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we determined the frequency distribution of the C34T mutation in a group of top-level Caucasian (Spanish) male endurance athletes (cyclists and runners, n = 104). This group was compared with randomly selected Caucasian (Spanish) healthy (asymptomatic) nonathletes (n = 100). The second aim of this study was to compare common laboratory indexes of endurance performance (maximal oxygen uptake or ventilatory thresholds) within the group of athletes depending on their C34T AMPD1 genotype. The frequency of the mutant T allele was lower (P 0.05) between athlete carriers or noncarriers of the C34T mutation (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake 72.3 +/- 4.6 vs. 73.5 +/- 5.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively). In conclusion, although the frequency distribution of the mutant T allele of the AMPD1 genotype is lower in Caucasian elite endurance athletes than in controls, the C34T mutation does not significantly impair endurance performance once the elite-level status has been reached in sports.

  14. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Wood, Matthew; Williden, Mikki; Chatterton, Simon; Maunder, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the athletes' experiences of the ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention. Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to exhaustion, VO2 max, peak power and ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at baseline and at 10 weeks. Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen's effect sizes and 90% confidence limits were applied to quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at 5 weeks and a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes' ketogenic diet experiences. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Mean body weight was reduced by 4 kg ± SD 3.1 (p = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of 8 skinfolds by 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p = 0.001). Mean time to exhaustion dropped by ~2 min (±SD 0.7; p = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in two individuals (VO2 Max: -1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 (p = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 (p = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 (p = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by a return of high levels thereafter, especially during

  15. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  16. Nutrition for the pediatric athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath B; Goulopoulou, Styliani

    2004-08-01

    A paucity of literature exists with regard to research on nutrition for the pediatric athlete. This lack of research makes the development of specific nutritional recommendations for young athletes problematic. This issue is made difficult by the macro- and micronutrient intake required for growth and development in conjunction with that required for sports. Exogenous carbohydrate drinks could be considered for the young athlete engaged in both endurance exercise and high-intensity exercise. Monitoring of the energy intake during resistance training in the pediatric athlete needs to be considered, as there is evidence to suggest that energy deficits may occur. If decrements in exercise performance are noted, then serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations should be monitored, as nonanemic iron deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric athlete. The pediatric athlete exercising in the heat is susceptible to voluntary dehydration and evidence exists to suggest that a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink will abolish this phenomenon.

  17. Human body communication performance simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, H. (Haseeb)

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication (HBC) is a novel communication method between devices which use human body as a transmission medium. This idea is mostly based on the concept of wireless biomedical monitoring system. The on-body sensor nodes can monitor vital signs of a human body and use the body as a transmission medium. This technology is convenient for long durations of clinical monitoring with the option of more mobility and freedom for the user. In this thesis, IEEE 802.15.6-2012 phy...

  18. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college stud...

  19. Influence of caffeine and sodium citrate ingestion on 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine and sodium citrate. Nine healthy, elite wheelchair-racing athletes (median: [min; max] age: 28 y [23; 54]; height: 173 cm [165; 188]; weight: 62.9 kg [48.9; 68.4], category T53/54) completed the study. All athletes were national team members, including several Paralympic Games, World and European Championship medalists. The athletes performed a 1,500-m time trial four times on a wheelchair training roller. Time to complete 1,500-m, pH, bicarbonate and sodium concentration as well as lactate concentration were measured. The time to complete 1,500-m was not significantly different between the four treatments (placebo: 170.6 s [141.7; 232.0]; caffeine: 179.5 s [134.8; 239.6]; sodium citrate: 178.3 s [136.4; 247.1]; combination: 177.6 s [136.1; 256.2]). However, pH and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly increased with sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo. Moreover, maximal lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the caffeine and the combination treatment compared with placebo. The supplementation with sodium citrate and/or caffeine did not provide an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in wheelchair elite athletes.

  20. Carbohydrates and exercise performance in non-fasted athletes: A systematic review of studies mimicking real-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombani Paolo C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a consensus claiming an ergogenic effect of carbohydrates ingested in the proximity of or during a performance bout. However, in performance studies, the protocols that are used are often highly standardized (e.g. fasted subjects, constant exercise intensity with time-to-exhaustion tests, and do not necessarily reflect competitive real-life situations. Therefore, we aimed at systematically summarizing all studies with a setting mimicking the situation of a real-life competition (e.g., subjects exercising in the postprandial state and with time-trial-like performance tests such as fixed distance or fixed time tests. We performed a PubMed search by using a selection of search terms covering inclusion criteria for sport, athletes, carbohydrates, and fluids, and exclusion criteria for diseases and animals. This search yielded 16,658 articles and the abstract of 16,508 articles contained sufficient information to identify the study as non-eligible for this review. The screening of the full text of the remaining 150 articles yielded 17 articles that were included in this review. These articles described 22 carbohydrate interventions covering test durations from 26 to 241 min (mostly cycling. We observed no performance improvement with half of the carbohydrate interventions, while the other half of the interventions had significant improvement between 1% and 13% (improvement with one of five interventions lasting up to 68 min and with 10 of 17 interventions lasting between 70 and 241 min. Thus, when considering only studies with a setting mimicking real-life competition, there is a mixed general picture about the ergogenic effect of carbohydrates ingested in the proximity of or during a performance bout with an unlikely effect with bouts up to perhaps 70 min and a possible but not compelling ergogenic effect with performance durations longer than about 70 min.

  1. Carbohydrates and exercise performance in non-fasted athletes: a systematic review of studies mimicking real-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Paolo C; Mannhart, Christof; Mettler, Samuel

    2013-01-28

    There is a consensus claiming an ergogenic effect of carbohydrates ingested in the proximity of or during a performance bout. However, in performance studies, the protocols that are used are often highly standardized (e.g. fasted subjects, constant exercise intensity with time-to-exhaustion tests), and do not necessarily reflect competitive real-life situations. Therefore, we aimed at systematically summarizing all studies with a setting mimicking the situation of a real-life competition (e.g., subjects exercising in the postprandial state and with time-trial-like performance tests such as fixed distance or fixed time tests). We performed a PubMed search by using a selection of search terms covering inclusion criteria for sport, athletes, carbohydrates, and fluids, and exclusion criteria for diseases and animals. This search yielded 16,658 articles and the abstract of 16,508 articles contained sufficient information to identify the study as non-eligible for this review. The screening of the full text of the remaining 150 articles yielded 17 articles that were included in this review. These articles described 22 carbohydrate interventions covering test durations from 26 to 241 min (mostly cycling). We observed no performance improvement with half of the carbohydrate interventions, while the other half of the interventions had significant improvement between 1% and 13% (improvement with one of five interventions lasting up to 68 min and with 10 of 17 interventions lasting between 70 and 241 min). Thus, when considering only studies with a setting mimicking real-life competition, there is a mixed general picture about the ergogenic effect of carbohydrates ingested in the proximity of or during a performance bout with an unlikely effect with bouts up to perhaps 70 min and a possible but not compelling ergogenic effect with performance durations longer than about 70 min.

  2. Optimizing ankle performance when taped: Effects of kinesiology and athletic taping on proprioception in full weight-bearing stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhi; Wang, Renwei; Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Anson, Judith

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and athletic taping (AT) on ankle proprioception when tested in functional, full weight-bearing stance. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-four healthy university students participated. Proprioception was measured using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). The three testing conditions: no-taping, KT, AT, and foot tested were randomly assigned. Perceived comfort, support and proprioceptive performance under two taping conditions were recorded. Proprioceptive discrimination scores with 95% CIs for no-taping, KT and AT were 0.81 (0.79-0.84), 0.81 (0.79-0.83), and 0.79 (0.77-0.81). Repeated measures ANOVA showed neither any significant difference associated with taping compared with no-taping (p=0.30), nor any difference between KT and AT (p=0.19). The group was then divided, according to their no-taping scores, into two sub-groups: with scores below the no-taping mean (n=13), and above the mean (n=11). ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p=0.008) indicating that above-average no-taping performers proprioception scores were worse when taped, whereas below-average performers improved. For both KT and AT, only ratings of perceived comfort when taped were significantly associated with actual proprioceptive performance (both r>0.44, p≤0.03). Other perception ratings (support and performance) were significantly inter-correlated (both r>0.42, p0.31). Taping of the foot and ankle may amplify sensory input in a way that enhances proprioception of poor performers but produces an input overload that impairs proprioception in those who originally performed well when no-taping. Screening of ankle proprioception may identify those who would benefit most from taping. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingg MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Zingg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph A Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers3 1Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods: Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km and Spartathlon (246 km races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results: The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P 0.05. In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05. In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P 0.05. In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03 and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01 increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04. Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01, 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04, 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04, and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02 improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion: The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in ultramarathoners competing in races of more than 200 km. Keywords: ultra

  4. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  5. Human Performance Technology and HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul

    2014-01-01

    Performance--the achievement of results--is central to definitions of HRD. Performance Technology (HPT) refers to a systematic methodology for developing performance in individuals and organizations. Through a systematic process, HPT explores issues at the organizational, unit, and individual level, and with skills and knowledge, resources, and…

  6. Psychological skills training and a mindfulness-based intervention to enhance functional athletic performance: design of a randomized controlled trial using ambulatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlin, Philipp; Birrer, Daniel; Horvath, Stephan; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2016-07-26

    Struggling to deliver performance in competitions is one of the main reasons why athletes seek the advice of sport psychologists. Psychologists apply a variety of intervention techniques, many of which are not evidence-based. Evidence-based techniques promote quality management and could help athletes, for example, to increase and maintain functional athletic behavior in competitions/games (i.e., being focused on task relevant cues and executing movements and actions in high quality). However, well-designed trials investigating the effectiveness of sport psychological interventions for performance enhancement are scarce. The planed study is founded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and examines the effectiveness of two interventions with elite and sub-elite athletes. A psychological skills training (PST) and a mindfulness-based intervention (MI), administered as group-program, will be compared to a waiting-list control group concerning how they enhance functional athletic behavior - which is a prerequisite for optimal performance. Furthermore, we will investigate underlying mechanisms (mediators) and moderators (e.g., task difficulty, individual characteristics, intervention-expectancy and intervention-integrity). The presented trial uses a randomized controlled design with three groups, comparing PST, MI and a waiting list control condition. Both group interventions will last 5 weeks, consist of four 2 h sessions and will be administered by a trained sport psychologist. Primary outcome is functional athletic behavior assessed using ambulatory assessment in a competition/game. As secondary outcomes competition anxiety, cognitive interference and negative outcome expectations will be assessed. Assessments are held at pre- and post-intervention as well as at 2 months follow up. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of the Swiss Federal Institute of Sport. Both PST and MI are expected to help improve functional behavior in athletes. By

  7. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  8. Universality, limits and predictability of gold-medal performances at the Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Radicchi

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are...

  9. Do psychological factors play a crucial role in sport performance? – Research on personality and psychological variables of athletes in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gyomber, Noemi; Kovacs, Krisztina; Lenart, Agota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Contemporary research aims to investigate background factors that contribute to successful sport performance. Of these factors the psychological well-being and mental health status should be underlined that have gained a significant role, particularly in the frames of sport psychological counseling. The aim of the present study is to seek for interrelations of psychological variables and sport performance of young athletes, and to reveal what advantages might be ut...

  10. Effects and dose-response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2016-07-01

    To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose-response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985-2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6-18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8-1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58-0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose-response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6-8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80-89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3-4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09-3.40). Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose-response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Effects and dose–response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose–response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Data sources Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985–2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6–18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. Results 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8–1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58–0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose–response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6–8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80–89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3–4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09–3.40). Summary/conclusions Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose–response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. PMID:26851290

  12. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  13. Scarred for the Rest of My Career? Career-Long Effects of Abusive Leadership on Professional Athlete Aggression and Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Erica L; Barling, Julian; Christie, Amy M; Trivisonno, Melissa; Tulloch, Kelsey; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Based on the contention that leadership has sustained effects on followers even after the leader-follower relationship has ended, we investigated the career-long effects of abusive coach leadership on athlete aggression and task performance. Abusive leadership scores were derived from ratings by two independent raters' evaluations of coaches' biographies, and athlete aggression and task performance data were derived from objective sources. Data were obtained from players (N = 693) and coaches (N = 57) involved in the National Basketball Association (NBA) between the 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 seasons. Controlling for tenure, salary, team winning percentage, and absence due to injuries, multilevel modeling showed that exposure to abusive leadership influenced both the trajectory of psychological aggression and task performance over players' careers. These findings suggest that the effects of abusive leadership extend far longer than currently acknowledged, thus furthering our understanding of the nature and effects of abusive leadership.

  14. Atropine, Stress and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    substance use and abuse and for fitness (exercise stress test) exactly as in the first-year studies. b.2 Research design The research design was A1...Physiological Correlates. New York: Plenum Press, 705-718. 20. Callaway, E. (1984). Human information-processing: Some effects of methylphenidate , age and

  15. The effects of inhaled L-methamphetamine on athletic performance while riding a stationary bike: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufka, F; Galloway, G; Baggott, M; Mendelson, J

    2009-10-01

    L-methamphetamine (the non-abused isomer of methamphetamine) is banned in athletic competition because it may improve athletic performance, but there are no studies assessing its effects on performance. In the United States L-methamphetamine is formulated in the non-prescription Vick's Vapor Inhaler (VVI) nasal decongestant. VVIs sold elsewhere (we used ones from the UK) contain similar inactive ingredients (menthol, camphor and Siberian pine oil) but no L-methamphetamine. This study tested the effects of inhaled L-methamphetamine delivered from a widely available non-prescription product on athletic performance. In a 2-session double-blind placebo-controlled study 12 participants (ages 14-17) were dosed with 4 (session 1) and 12 (session 2) inhalations from VVIs with (USA) or without (UK) L-methamphetamine and then performed two 20 minute rides on a stationary bike with rides separated by a 30 minute rest. The main outcome measure was miles travelled during each 20 minute ride. Secondary outcome measures included postride urine toxicology; heart rate and blood pressure before, 1, 5 and 10 minutes postride; energy, performance, endurance, and ability to breathe; and VVI preference. Data were analysed using Excel statistical macros. After approximately 16 microg L-methamphetamine distance travelled was 5.26 (SD 0.53) miles vs 5.30 (0.55) with placebo; p = 0.81. After approximately 48 microg L-methamphetamine distance travelled was 5.30 (0.51) vs 5.35 (0.43) with placebo; p = 0.85. The approximately 16 microg dose increased systolic blood pressure from 72.6 (4.3) to 79.6 (6.6) mm Hg (p = 0.03) at 5 minutes postride but there were no other differences in outcomes. Modest doses of inhaled L-methamphetamine probably do not improve athletic performance but do minimally raise diastolic blood pressure.

  16. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  17. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  18. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  19. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Taubert

    Full Text Available In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual's performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete's brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes' persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years.

  20. Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineback, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

  1. Human Performance Resource Center (HPRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HPRC is aligned under Force Health Protection and Readiness and is the educational arm of the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) at the Uniformed...

  2. The effect of six days of dietary nitrate supplementation on performance in trained CrossFit athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Samuel J; Baur, Daniel A; Spicer, Maria T; Vukovich, Matthew D; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    While it is well established that dietary nitrate reduces the metabolic cost of exercise, recent evidence suggests this effect is maintained 24 h following the final nitrate dose when plasma nitrite levels have returned to baseline. In addition, acute dietary nitrate was recently reported to enhance peak power production. Our purpose was to examine whether chronic dietary nitrate supplementation enhanced peak power 24 h following the final dose and if this impacted performance in a heavily power-dependent sport. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, maximal aerobic capacity, body composition, strength, maximal power (30 s Wingate), endurance (2 km rowing time trial), and CrossFit performance (Grace protocol) were assessed before and after six days of supplementation with nitrate (NO) (8 mmol·potassium nitrate·d(-1)) or a non-caloric placebo (PL). A 10-day washout period divided treatment conditions. Paired t-tests were utilized to assess changes over time and to compare changes between treatments. Peak Wingate power increased significantly over time with NO (889.17 ± 179.69 W to 948.08 ± 186.80 W; p = 0.01) but not PL (898.08 ± 183.24 W to 905.00 ± 157.23 W; p = 0.75). However, CrossFit performance was unchanged, and there were no changes in any other performance parameters. Consuming dietary nitrate in the potassium nitrate salt form improved peak power during a Wingate test, but did not improve elements of strength or endurance in male CrossFit athletes.

  3. The Impact of a Food Elimination Diet on Collegiate Athletes' 300-meter Run Time and Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Stockton, Susan; Breshears, Karen; Baker, David McA.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Optimal human function and performance through diet strategies are critical for everyone but especially for those involved in collegiate or professional athletics. Currently, individualized medicine (IM) is emerging as a more efficacious approach to health with emphasis on personalized diet strategies for the public and is common practice for elite athletes. One method for directing patient-specific foods in the diet, while concomitantly impacting physical performance, may be via ...

  4. Cyclic Variations in Sustained Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, William R.; Arruda, James E.; Kass, Steven J.; Stanny, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a prominent role in the modulation of human physiology and behavior. [Smith, K., Valentino, D., & Arruda, J. (2003). "Rhythmic oscillations in the performance of a sustained attention task." "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology," 25, 561-570] suggested that sustained human performance may systematically…

  5. Human localization and performance measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    Localization is for some scenarios and situations vital for the success of hearing, e. g. when listening out single sources in multi-source environments, or when navigating primarily by audible information. It is therefore of interest to know the limits of the human localization capacity, and its...... dependence on e.g. direction and distance. When addressed in laboratory experiments, the significance of other modalities are controlled in different ways, yet figures will inherently reflect properties of the test situation as well. The present paper will discuss the methodologies of localization...... experiments, generally and by examples....

  6. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  7. Effective nutrition support programs for college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, D M

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Husky Sport Nutrition Program at the University of Washington. This program is a component of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Total Student-Athlete Program, an NCAA-sponsored CHAMPS/Life Skills Program that provides life skills assistance to student-athletes. Successful integration of a sport nutrition program requires an understanding of the athletic culture, physiological milestones, and life stressors faced by college athletes. The sport nutritionist functions as an educator, counselor, and administrator. Team presentations and individual nutrition counseling provide athletes with accurate information on healthy eating behaviors for optimal performance. For women's sports, a multidisciplinary team including the sport nutritionist, team physician, clinical psychologist, and athletic trainer work to prevent and treat eating disorders. Case studies are presented illustrating the breadth of nutrition-related issues faced by a sport nutritionist working with college athletes.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  9. The Effect of Vitamins C and E Supplementation on Muscle Damage, Performance, and Body Composition in Athlete Women: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyar, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Darvishi, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to the special training conditions and lifestyle athletes require an antioxidant system that is more efficient than others. To keep this system optimal, many of them use antioxidant supplements. This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamins C and E supplementation on muscle damage, performance, and body composition in athlete women. Methods: The study was a 4-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted on 64 trained female athletes recruited in Isfahan sports club. They were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups; A: vitamin C (250 mg/day), B: vitamin E (400 IU), C: vitamin C + vitamin E and control (placebo). Harvard Step Test was used to measure maximal oxygen consumption for performance, body composition, and damage marker (myoglobin) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Comparing the result of the test in performance of sport, there was no significant difference between groups in VO2 max. Also, vitamin supplements had no significant effect on subcutaneous fat between the groups, however, in the intergroup comparison, were significantly increased in group control (P = 0.03). But, there were no significant differences, change in myoglobin between the groups. There was a significant increase in group A (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Vitamins C and E supplementation had no significant effect on any of the studied parameters. PMID:23717765

  10. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  11. Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Burke D.; Taylor, Patricia A.; Weiner, Jay

    2002-01-01

    During the women's all-around gymnastics final at the 2000 Olympics, the vault was inadvertently set 5 cm too low for a random half of the gymnasts. The error was widely viewed as undermining their confidence and subsequent performance. However, data from pretest and posttest scores on the vault, bars, beam, and floor indicated that the vault…

  12. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  13. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  14. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  15. Nutritional Status and Dietary Pattern of Male Athletes in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    1Department of Human Nutrition, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: Several factors ... intake is paramount in ensuring athletic performance at its peak ..... Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 62: 5-13. Witt K.A., and ...

  16. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    ) than that of the spike-jump (39% and 34% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively). Differences between prediction models calculated for males and females are mostly explained by gender-specific biomechanics of jumping. Study defined importance of knee-isokinetic-strength in volleyball jumping performance in female athletes. Further studies should evaluate association between ankle-isokinetic-strength and volleyball-specific jumping performances. Results reinforce the need for the cross-validation of the prediction-models in sport and exercise sciences.

  17. Sport-Specific Conditioning Variables Predict Offensive and Defensive Performance in High-Level Youth Water Polo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Kontic, Dean; Esco, Michael R; Zenic, Natasa; Milanovic, Zoran; Zvan, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Specific-conditioning capacities (SCC) are known to be generally important in water polo (WP), yet the independent associations to offensive and defensive performance is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether offense and defense abilities in WP were independently associated with SCC and anthropometrics. The participants were 82 high-level male youth WP players (all 17-19 years of age; body height, 186.3 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 84.8 ± 9.6 kg). The independent variables were body height and body mass, and 5 sport-specific fitness tests: sprint swimming over 15 meters; 4 × 50-meter anaerobic-endurance test; vertical in-water-jump; maximum intensity isometric force in upright swimming using an eggbeater kick; and test of throwing velocity. The 6 dependent variables comprised parameters of defensive and offensive performance, such as polyvalence, i.e., ability to play on different positions in defensive tasks (PD) and offensive tasks (PO), efficacy in primary playing position in defensive (ED) and offensive (EO) tasks, and agility in defensive (AD) and offensive (AO) tasks. Analyses showed appropriate reliability for independent (intraclass coefficient of 0.82-0.91) and dependent variables (Cronbach alpha of 0.81-0.95). Multiple regressions were significant for ED (R = 0.25; p performance was positively related to AD (β = -0.26; p ≤ 0.05), whereas advanced sprint swimming was related to better AO (β = -0.38; p ≤ 0.05). In-water-jumping performance held the significant positive relationship to EO (β = 0.31; p ≤ 0.05), ED (β = 0.33; p ≤ 0.05), and AD (β = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05). Strength and conditioning professionals working in WP should be aware of established importance of SCC in performing unique duties in WP. The SCC should be specifically developed to meet the needs of offensive and defensive performance in young WP athletes.

  18. ESTUDIO DEL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO EN ATLETAS ADOLESCENTES DEL CLUB DE ATLETISMO PLAYAS DE CASTELLÓN [Academic performance study in young athletes from Playas de Castellón Athletics Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Capdevila Seder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analizó la posible relación entre el rendimiento académico de jóvenes atletas y algunas de las variables más utilizadas en este campo. La muestra estaba compuesta por 40 atletas del Club de Atletismo Playas de Castellón, con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, 22 hombres y 18 mujeres. Las principales variables analizadas fueron el rendimiento académico, los hábitos de estudio, el género, las horas de sueño, el ocio sedentario, el nivel socioeconómico y la dedicación al deporte. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron los cuestionarios CHTE (Cuestionario de Hábitos y Técnicas de Estudio, PFYTL (Práctica Física Y uso del Tiempo Libre y el Cuestionario destinado a los padres. Los resultados mostraron que el rendimiento académico correlacionaba de forma positiva con la dedicación al deporte y de forma negativa con las horas de sueño. Además, el género femenino tuvo un rendimiento académico superior al masculino. AbstractThe study analyzed the possible relationship between academic performance of young athletes and some of the variables most used in this field. The sample consisted of 40 athletes Athletics Club Playas de Castellón, between 14 and 16 years, 22 boys and 18 girls. The main variables analyzed were academic performance, study habits, gender, sleep, sedentary leisure, socioeconomic status and dedication to sport. The instruments used were questionnaires CHTE (habits and study skills, PFYTL (physical practice and use of leisure time and the Questionnaire for parents. The results showed that academic performance was positively correlated with the dedication to sport and negatively with sleep. In addition, the female gender had a higher performance than male. Key words: academic performance; dedication to sport; study habits; leisure.

  19. Context, ability, and performance: comparison of competitive athletics among mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H G; Langness, L L

    1983-03-01

    Setting demands and performance characteristics were compared for mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded basketball players similar in age, playing experience, and general skill level. Observational research was used to study organizational and interactional aspects of competitive games and to record individual and team playing statistics. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess levels of anxiety. Results show that even though the retarded adults studied were ostensibly playing under "normal" conditions, the games were demonstrably different from those played by nonretarded players in terms of physical setting, rules, coaching, and officiating. Retarded players performed under these conditions with significantly higher levels of anxiety and diminished team effectiveness. The broader consequences of competition in the lives of retarded players was examined.

  20. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  1. The effect of heavy resistance exercise on repeated sprint performance in youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel; Harsley, Paul; Shaw, Matthew; Peart, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether prior heavy resistance exercise would improve the repeated sprint performance of 16 trained youth soccer players (Age 17.05 ± 0.65 years; height 182.6 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 77.8 ± 8.2 kg). In session 1, individual 1 repetition max was measured utilising a squat movement. In sessions 2 and 3, participants performed a running-based repeated anaerobic sprint test with and without prior heavy resistance exercise of 91% of their 1 repetition max. Times were recorded for each of the 6 sprints performed in the repeated sprint test and summed to provide total time. T-tests compared the two exercise conditions via differences in corresponding sprint times and total time. Analysis revealed significantly reduced total time with use of heavy resistance exercise (33.48 (±1.27) vs. 33.59 (±1.27); P = 0.01). Sprints 1 (P = 0.05) and 2 (P = 0.02) were also faster in the heavy resistance exercise condition (5.09 (±0.16) vs. 5.11 (±0.16) and 5.36 (±0.24) vs. 5.45 (±0.26) seconds respectively) although no other differences were shown. Findings demonstrate improved sprint times of trained adolescent soccer players after heavy resistance exercise although benefits appear not as sustained as in adult participants.

  2. A low carbohydrate-protein supplement improves endurance performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleave, Erin L; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Ding, Zhenping; Doerner, Phillip G; Wang, Bei; Kammer, Lynne M; Ivy, John L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a low mixed carbohydrate (CHO) plus moderate protein (PRO) supplement, provided during endurance exercise, would improve time to exhaustion (TTE) in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO supplement. Fourteen (n = 14) trained female cyclists and triathletes cycled on 2 separate occasions for 3 hours at intensities varying between 45 and 70% VO2max, followed by a ride to exhaustion at an intensity approximating the individual's ventilatory threshold average 75.06% VO2max. Supplements (275 mL) were provided every 20 minutes during exercise and were composed of a CHO mixture (1% each of dextrose, fructose, and maltodextrin) + 1.2% PRO (CHO + PRO) or 6% dextrose only (CHO). The TTE was significantly greater with CHO + PRO in comparison to with CHO (49.94 ± 7.01 vs. 42.36 ± 6.21 minutes, respectively, p < 0.05). Blood glucose was significantly lower during the CHO + PRO trial (4.07 ± 0.12 mmol · L(-1)) compared to during the CHO trial (4.47 ± 0.12 mmol · L(-1)), with treatment × time interactions occurring from 118 minutes of exercise until exhaustion (p < 0.05). Results from the present study suggest that the addition of a moderate amount of PRO to a low mixed CHO supplement improves endurance performance in women above that of a traditional 6% CHO supplement. Improvement in performance occurred despite CHO + PRO containing a lower CHO and caloric content. It is likely that the greater performance seen with CHO + PRO was a result of the CHO-PRO combination and the use of a mixture of CHO sources.

  3. Evaluation of Explosive Power Performance in Ski Jumpers and Nordic Combined Competitive Athletes: A 19-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2010, a total of 334 males participated in this study that assessed the differences and relationships between anthropometric variables and lower limb muscle strength in young and adult ski jumpers (n = 207) and Nordic combined (NC, n = 127) athletes. All athletes completed a maximal vertical jump from an in-run position and a maximal relative isometric force (MRIF) of the knee extensor measurement in a laboratory setting. The body mass index (BMI) in young competitors was lower than in adult groups (NC: p ski jumping [SJ]: p ski jumpers even at lower-body weights. These changes are in accordance with the change in ski jump techniques.

  4. The athlete biological passport: ticket to a fair Commonwealth Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, Vittoria; Rehman, Haroon; Bassindale, Thomas; Clement, Rhys Ge

    2014-08-01

    In summer 2014, the world watched as Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and athletes pushed the boundaries of human performance. Sport has developed into a multi-billion pound industry leading to the development of a 'win at any cost' mentality in some individuals. The abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has developed into a sophisticated arms race between those unfairly enhancing performance and those wishing to preserve the dignity of sport and the health of the competitors. The challenge for the Commonwealth games organising committee was to ensure that competition remained fair and that athletes were kept safe. The athlete biological passport is a system implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency directed towards enhancing the identification of those athletes accountable for the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. This article exemplifies which drugs are currently being exploited and how the athlete biological passport has evolved to improve their detection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-05-09

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  6. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V˙O2max: 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of per