WorldWideScience

Sample records for human assisted reproductive

  1. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bos-Mikich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with varying degrees of success in terms of parthenote generation rates, embryo development stem cell derivation rates. Success in achieving a standardized artificial activation methodology for human oocytes and the subsequent potential therapeutic gain obtained from these embryos depends mainly on the availability of gametes donated from infertility treatments. This review will focus on the creation of parthenotes from clinically unusable oocytes for derivation and establishment of human parthenogenetic stem cell lines and their potential applications in regenerative medicine.

  2. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Analyser l’effet du recours à la procréation assistée (PA) sur les issues périnatales, identifier les aspects propres aux issues de naissance et à la PA qui nécessitent des recherches approfondies, et fournir des lignes directrices permettant l’optimisation de la prise en charge obstétricale et du counseling des parents potentiels canadiens. Issues : Le présent document compare les issues périnatales constatées dans le cadre de différents types de grossesse attribuable à la PA les unes aux autres, ainsi qu’à celles qui sont constatées dans le cadre des grossesses conçues de façon spontanée. Les cliniciens seront mieux renseignés au sujet des issues indésirables associées à la PA qui ont été documentées, y compris les complications obstétricales, les issues périnatales indésirables, les gestations multiples, les anomalies congénitales structurelles, les anomalies chromosomiques et les troubles de l’empreinte génomique. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« assisted reproduction », « assisted reproductive technology », « ovulation induction », « intracytoplasmic sperm injection », « embryo transfer » et « in vitro fertilization »). Les résultats n’ont pas été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles; les études (tous devis confondus) publiées en anglais entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2012 ont été analysées, et des publications additionnelles ont été identifiées à partir des bibliographies de ces études. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en août 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a

  4. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  5. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  6. Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konc J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has become an integral component of assisted reproductive technology. The ability to cryopreserve, thaw, and establish pregnancies with supernumerary preimplantation embryos has become an important tool in fertility treatment. Human oocyte cryopreservation has practical application in preserving fertility for individuals prior to cancer treatments. While the efficiency of oocyte and embryo freezing technology has increased over time, there is still room for improvement, since even under ideal circumstances the clinical pregnancy rate from frozen embryo transfer is approximately two-thirds of that from the fresh transfer of embryos. Thus, studies connected with cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos are very important to the expansion of effective clinical services. This review gives a summary of the theoretical and technical aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.

  7. Autologous Germline Mitochondrial Energy Transfer (AUGMENT) in Human Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian aging is characterized by a decline in both the total number and overall quality of oocytes, the latter of which has been experimentally tied to mitochondrial dysfunction. Clinical studies in the late 1990s demonstrated that transfer of cytoplasm aspirated from eggs of young female donors into eggs of infertile women at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection improved pregnancy success rates. However, donor mitochondria were identified in offspring, and the United States Food and Drug Administration raised questions about delivery of foreign genetic material into human eggs at the time of fertilization. Accordingly, heterologous cytoplasmic transfer, while promising, was in effect shut down as a clinical protocol. The recent discovery of adult oogonial (oocyte-generating) stem cells in mice, and subsequently in women, has since re-opened the prospects of delivering a rich source of pristine and patient-matched germline mitochondria to boost egg health and embryonic developmental potential without the need for young donor eggs to obtain cytoplasm. Herein we overview the science behind this new protocol, which has been patented and termed autologous germline mitochondrial energy transfer, and its use to date in clinical studies for improving pregnancy success in women with a prior history of assisted reproduction failure.

  8. [Right of access to the assisted human reproduction: bioethics discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luciana Soares de; Verdi, Marta Inez Machado

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how is configured the right of access to the assisted human reproduction service (AHRS). It was developed through documentary research in official sources of the Brazilian Federal Government. From the criteria of the analysis of content were analyzed: 1 government directive and 6 projects of law, divided in 3 thematic areas (access to what?; access to whom?; and conditions and criteria of access), revealing nucleus of meaning that had been explored in this research. This revealed that the right of access in official documents is exclusive, and morally induced by a professional category and its arbitrariness. The joint of these nucleus of meaning with the everyday bioethics was of extreme relevance to deal with the different kinds of family that are being legitimated through these proposals of regulation, as well as the ethical questions intrinsic to the formulation of these texts, which remit us to the idea of traditional family, model not hegemonic anymore in our society, and social and legally surpassed by new familiar conceptions that also demand visibility and legitimacy from the State. The study intends to be one more possibility of reflection about the questions that involve the right of access to the AHRS from the everyday bioethics issues.

  9. Epigenetic Alterations in Density Selected Human Spermatozoa for Assisted Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Yu

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that assisted reproductive technologies (ART may be associated with several epigenetic diseases such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Selection of sperm by density-gradients in ART has improved DNA integrity and sperm quality; however, epigenetic alterations associated with this approach are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation and histone retention profiles in raw sperm and selected sperm derived from the same individual and separated by using density-gradients. Results from a study group consisting of 93 males demonstrated that both global DNA methylation and histone retention levels decreased in density selected sperm. Compared to unselected raw sperm, histone transition rates decreased by an average of 27.2% in selected sperm, and the global methylation rate was 3.8% in unselected sperm and 3.3% in the selected sperm. DNA methylation and histone retention location profiling analyses suggested that these alterations displayed specific location patterns in the human genome. Changes in the pattern of hypomethylation largely occurred in transcriptional factor gene families such as HOX, FOX, and GATA. Histone retention increased in 67 genes, whereas it was significantly clustered in neural development-related gene families, particularly the olfactory sensor gene family. Although a causative relationship could not be established, the results of the present study suggest the possibility that sperm with good density also possess unique epigenetic profiles, particularly for genes involved in neural and olfactory development. As increasing evidence demonstrates that epigenetics plays a key role in embryonic development and offspring growth characteristics, the specific epigenetic alterations we observed in selected sperm may influence the transcriptional process and neural development in embryos.

  10. The devil we know: the implications of bill C-38 for assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana; Cohen, Sara R

    2013-07-01

    In June 2012, the Canadian House of Commons passed the so-called omnibus budget bill, making several important changes to the governance of assisted reproduction in Canada. The bill (Bill C-38) was widely criticized for its unwieldy size and rapid passage through Parliament, preventing adequate parliamentary debate and public scrutiny. Given the substantive nature of the amendments to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act made by Bill C-38, and the lack of relevant discussion about these changes both before and following its passage, this commentary is intended to identify how Bill C-38 may alter the governance of reproductive technologies in Canada. In this commentary, we address some of the more significant changes made by Bill C-38 to the regulation of reproductive medicine in Canada. We identify the benefits and challenges of closing Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, noting that doing so eliminates a much-needed forum for stakeholder consultation in this field. Further, we explore the implications of moving the regulation of donor semen from the Food and Drugs Act to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act; these include increased liability for physicians, and opportunities to expand the existing regulations to account for the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer Canadians using donor gametes and recent advances in reproductive technologies. Overall, we argue that although the implementation of a policy framework in this field remains highly dependent on yet-to-be written regulations, the changes to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act enabled by Bill C-38 may significantly alter how Canadians interact with reproductive technologies.

  11. Status of human assisted reproduction in Spain: results from the new registry of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosser, Roser; Gispert, Rosa; Torné, Mar; Calaf, Joaquim

    2009-11-01

    The FIVCAT. NET database in Catalonia is the only official obligatory registry of human assisted reproduction practitioners in Spain. The present study assessed the effectiveness and outcomes of assisted reproduction over the period 2001-2005 relative to other established worldwide registries. The data analysed were derived from all centres conducting assisted reproduction in Catalonia, and included users of the services (resident and non-resident); all cycles performed; descriptive characteristics of the assisted reproduction procedures; and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Effectiveness of assisted reproduction was measured by standard indicators such as rates of pregnancy and rates of live births per pregnancy. The results indicated that the preferred number of embryos for transfer changed from three to two over this period. Pregnancies per transfer improved from 33.2% to 37.1% (from 36.9% to 40.2% using fresh embryos and from to 18.4% to 27.0% with frozen embryos). Multiple births decreased from 50.1% to 38.6%, premature births from 37.5% to 28.3% and low-birth-weight infants from 38.0% to 25.6%. It is concluded that the conduct of assisted reproduction in Catalonia has improved considerably and compares favourably with other countries, not only with respect to the level of activity, but also the effectiveness and outcomes achieved, although the quality of the sociodemographic information requires improvement.

  12. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  13. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  14. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hor...

  15. Techniques of Assisted Human Reproduction and the Problematic of Parental Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Moraes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the issues related to the civil responsibility of parents, when using the assisted human reproductions techniques. Drew up a discussion about the reflections of the principles of responsible parenting and of human dignity in the use of those techniques, delineating one by one of them that can cause damages to the embryo, unborn or child already born. Discussing about the assisted human reproduction techniques, it outlined those allowed by the Federal Medical Council through the Resolution nº 2013/2013 and stood out the legal system omission related to the regulation of the use of those techniques, since the only legal instrument that deals with it, that is the Law nº 11.105/2005, did not specify about it. Was presented therefore, all human assisted reproduction techniques that give rise to a possible potentiation of vulnerability of the embryo as well as to possibly answers regarding to the legal status of the embryo that the doctrine is trying to trace. Finally, we discussed about the civil responsibility forms, relating it to the responsible parenthood and the damages caused from not using those techniques.

  16. 21 CFR 884.6150 - Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette...

  18. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  19. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  20. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  1. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  2. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  3. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  4. Fake it till you make it: Policymaking and assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave

    2014-06-01

    The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.

  5. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-10-03

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prion proteins. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a different role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant gonadotropins (r-hFSH and r-hLH) have become available for ART therapies. Recombinant LH contains only LH molecules. In the field of reproduction there has been controversy in recent years over whether r-hLH or hCG should be used for ART. This review examines the existing evidence for molecular and functional differences between LH and hCG and assesses the clinical implications of hCG-supplemented urinary therapy compared with recombinant therapies used for ART.

  6. Efficient blastomere biopsy for mouse embryo splitting for future applications in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to establish a safe, efficient biopsy procedure for embryo splitting using the mouse model for future applications in human assisted reproduction. From mouse embryos at the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell stage, half the number of blastomeres were microsurgically biopsied and transferred into empty mouse zonae pellucidae. Twin embryonic development was monitored during in-vitro culture. Blastocyst developmental rate using 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-cell splitting was 74.4, 75.0, 66.7 and 38.4 respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 94.9, 97.5, 92.7 and 83.8%. Blastocysts from 2-, 4-, and 6-cell splitting resulted in elevated hatching rates compared with non-operated blastocysts (87.5%), due to the Tyrode-assisted hatching effect. Blastocyst morphology was superior from 2- and 4-cell splitting when compared with 6- and 8-cell splitting. Furthermore, outgrowth of twin blastocysts from 2- and 4-cell splitting showed well-developed colonies with trophoblast cells and clusters of ICM cells, whereas those obtained from 6- and 8-cell splitting frequently formed small-sized colonies. Due to the high twinning success rate obtained under the experimental conditions employed in this study, it appears that with further modifications and proper safeguards, such embryo splitting efforts could have potential applications in humans.

  7. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birth weight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception......Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...

  8. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policyEuropean Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C.; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogent...

  9. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  10. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Assisted reproductive technologies in the common marmoset: an integral species for developing nonhuman primate models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Di Marzo, Andrea; Golos, Thaddeus

    2017-02-01

    Generation of nonhuman primate models of human disease conditions will foster the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Callithrix jacchus, or the common marmoset, is a New World, nonhuman primate species that exhibits great reproductive fitness in captivity with an ovarian cycle that can be easily managed with pharmacological agents. This characteristic, among others, provides an opportunity to employ assisted reproductive technologies to generate embryos that can be genetically manipulated to create a variety of nonhuman primate models for human disease. Here, we review methods to synchronize the marmoset ovarian cycle and stimulate oocyte donors, and compare various protocols for in vitro production of embryos. In light of advances in genomic editing, recent approaches used to generate transgenic or genetically edited embryos in the marmoset and also future perspective are reviewed.

  12. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike.

  13. 21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction catheters. 884.6110 Section 884.6110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  14. 21 CFR 884.6160 - Assisted reproduction labware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction labware. 884.6160 Section 884.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  15. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section 884.6100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200 Section 884.6200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6130 - Assisted reproduction microtools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction microtools. 884.6130 Section 884.6130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  19. Human reproduction: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Izzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  20. Human reproduction: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Carlos Roberto; Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Serafini, Paulo C

    2015-01-01

    The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  1. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  2. [Assisted reproductive technologies and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Since the first birth after in vitro fertilization more than 5 million of IVF babies are born in the world. Assisted reproductive technologies captivate the public, they allow maternity without ovary (oocyte donation), without uterus (surrogate mother), paternity without spermatozoids (sperm donation), parentality without limits of age, parentality after death and homoparentality. These technologies arise a lot of ethics questions, the problem is that the answers are not the same all-round the world, laws are based on morals, beliefs, faiths, and convictions. Theses variations arise themselves questions on the value of these non-universal answers.

  3. Laser-assisted hatching in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, H

    1999-09-01

    The use of a 1.48 um diode laser for assisted hatching was investigated in animal experimentation. Laser assisted hatching was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit. Using the Fertilase(r) system we investigated the impact of openings with different size in the zona of mouse embryos on the hatching process, as well as that of two openings. Laser-drilling was performed at the blastocyst stage to look for differences in timing and efficacy of hatching. The possible benefit of assisted hatching was studied in 24 couples with advanced maternal age (38.8+2.1 years) and compared to a control group (37.8+2.5 years) treated in the same time period but without assisted hatching. A certain diameter of a laser drilled opening in the zona pellucida is necessary for efficient hatching. When two openings are present in the zona, the embryo will use both openings for hatching and subsequently become trapped. Laser-drilling at th e expanded blastocyst stage causes an immediate collapse of treated blastocysts and the onset of hatching is retarded. Assisted hatching in 24 patients with advanced maternal age resulted in a significant increase (plaser to drill an opening into the zona pellucida provides a good alternate to conventionally applied techniques. The procedure is efficient and safe as long as it is applied properly. In a human in vitro fertilization program, selected patients will have a benefit form assisted hatching.

  4. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  5. emerging roles of anatomists: development of assisted reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poonamjeet

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... human reproductive medicine research and assisted ... Anatomists and Embryologist in clinical medicine with regards to ... LHRH injection into the experimental animals restored their peri-ovulatory follicle-stimulating hormone ...

  6. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  7. Imprinting disorders after assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  10. The Filiation by Assisted Human Reproductions Techniques in the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code. An Advance that Allows to Harmonize the Rule with the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí Krasnow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the contributions and changes that the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code introduce in the filiation. The focus of attention is moved to the assisted human reproduction techniques in relation with the informed consent as an exteriorization of the will to procreate. Moreover, it is intended a study space about two proceedings that were silenced in the norm as the gestational surrogacy and the post mortem fertilization.

  11. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  12. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  13. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  14. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water...

  15. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  16. Introduction: Microbiome in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.

  17. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M

    2013-01-01

    The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?......The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...

  18. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  19. The issue of constitutional law legitimacy on "human assisted reproduction" between reasonableness of the choices and effectiveness of the protection of all involved subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This artiche analyzes the constitutionality petition to the constitutional Court against Law 40 of 2004 on "human assisted reproduction", where it prohibits the "preimplantatory genetical diagnosis", because it could be against the mother's right to health (art. 32 Italian Constitution) and the egalitarian protection clause (art. 3 Italian Constitution). In the constitutionally petition the ordinary judge proposes an interpretation in accordance with Constitution of the contested disposition (art. 13 of Law 40 of 2004) and this could be the possibility to teste the "living law" theory and its relation with the "adequate interpretation" of the law and the Constitution.

  20. Telomeres and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract.

  1. Reducing multiple births in assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Kamath, Mohan S

    2014-02-01

    Multiple pregnancy, a complication of assisted reproduction technology, is associated with poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes. The primary reason behind this is the strategy of replacing more than one embryo during an assisted reproduction technology cycle to maximise pregnancy rates. The solution to this problem is to reduce the number of embryos transferred during in-vitro fertilisation. The transition from triple- to double-embryo transfer, which decreased the risk of triplets without compromising pregnancy rates, was easily implemented. The adoption of a single embryo transfer policy has been slow because of concerns about impaired pregnancy rates in a fresh assisted reproduction technology cycle. Widespread availability of effective cryopreservation programmes means that elective single embryo transfer, along with subsequent frozen embryo transfers, could provide a way forward. Any such strategy will need to consider couples' preferences and existing funding policies, both of which have a profound influence on decision making around embryo transfer.

  2. Abuse of Assistant Reproductive Technologies Banned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Is it morally and legally viable for unmarried womento have a child through in vitro fertilization? Is fetusreduction operation necessary for multi-births causedby assistant reproductive technologies? Such issueshave aroused great concerns from governmentofficials and demographers and the general public

  3. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1% of the birth cohorts. It is well known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment ...

  4. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S; Chambers, G M; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G; Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mansour, R; Ishihara, O; Banker, M; Adamson, G D

    2016-07-01

    were, in 2008, 2009 and 2010, 21.8, 20.5 and 20.4%, respectively, with a corresponding triplet rate of 1.3, 1.0 and 1.1%. Fresh IVF and ICSI carried a perinatal mortality rate per 1000 births of 22.8 (2008), 19.2 (2009) and 21.0 (2010), compared with 15.1, 12.8 and 14.6/1000 births following FET in the same periods of observation. The proportion of women aged 40 years or older undergoing non-donor ART increased from 20.8 to 23.2% from 2008 to 2010. The data presented are reliant on the quality and completeness of data submitted by individual countries. This report covers approximately two-thirds of the world ART activity. The ICMART World Reports provide the most comprehensive global statistical census and review of ART utilization, effectiveness, safety and quality. While ART treatment continues to increase globally, the wide disparities in access to treatment and embryo transfer practices warrant attention by clinicians and policy makers. The authors declare no conflict of interest and no specific support from any organizations in relation to this manuscript. ICMART acknowledges financial support from the following organizations: American Society for Reproductive Medicine; European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology; Fertility Society of Australia; Japan Society for Reproductive Medicine; Japan Society of Fertilization and Implantation; Red Latinoamericana de Reproduccion Asistida; Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology; Government of Canada (Research grant), Ferring Pharmaceuticals (Grant unrelated to World Reports). not applicable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. assisted reproduction technology in a resource-limited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    The idea of Assisted Reproduction ... reasons of unstable infrastructure, ...... suicide and other psychological disorders. It is in every way a disease ... 7: 46-56. 12. Akande EO. Affordable. Assisted. Reproductive. Technologies in developing.

  6. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 1992, Congress enacted the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act (FCSRCA). The act requires CDC to collect data from clinics and submit an annual...

  7. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways.

  8. Legal issues of biomedical assisted reproduction: Reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National laws represent a combination of customary and ethical, but also political and other opinions in a society. Particularly delicate, are the laws regulating the issue of assisted reproduction. In this area, broad social acceptance of legal solutions is an essential prerequisite for their use, while achieving the consent of the majority, especially the consensus is extremely difficult, almost impossible. As much as the laws seek to implement those views that are predominant, the adopted solutions will always remain incapable of granting wishes to a certain number of people. These persons, in an understandable effort to realize their desire for an offspring at any cost, will not hold back from seeking help at any place, even if it meant going to distant destinations and extracting large sums of money. In fact, many patients go to other countries which set less restrictive rules in the field of assisted reproduction, and it appears that in the near future we could not expect a reduction of this trend. This phenomenon, which is in theory called reproductive tourism, has long been a reality that one can see as a problem, while others view it as an irreplaceable solution. This paper seeks to highlight the main causes of this phenomenon, but also to try and give an answer as to, whether reproductive tourism should be prevented (and how or actually its maintenance in force reduces moral conflict in society through a mechanism that recognizes the right of everyone to a considerable extent of free will in decision making regarding the most significant issues which offspring certainly is.

  9. Assistive Reproductive Techniques: From Past to Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is an important disease ,which has high prevalance in the society. In order to plan the appropriate treatment, etiopathogenesis should be well understood. Knowing the evolution of these methods, make us understand how fastly changing and promising area of research is this. Assistive reproductive technologies which are very important especially for carriers of various diseases, are also used to minimalise the adverse effects of gonadotoxic treatments and used to fertility preservation for cancer patients.

  10. Assisted reproductive technologies in the common marmoset: an integral species for developing nonhuman primate models of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kropp, Jenna; Di Marzo, Andrea; Golos, Thaddeus

    2017-01-01

    .... Callithrix jacchus, or the common marmoset, is a New World, nonhuman primate species that exhibits great reproductive fitness in captivity with an ovarian cycle that can be easily managed with pharmacological agents...

  11. Human reproductive issues in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  12. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Assisted Reproduction: shaping the future of research and practice in reproductive endocrinology/infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Winston, Robert M; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2004-09-02

    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Assisted Reproduction is an open access, online, peer-review journal publishing papers on all aspects of research into reproductive endocrinology, infertility, bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies. The journal reports on important developments impacting the field of human reproductive medicine and surgery. The field exists as a sub-specialty of obstetrics & gynecology, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of complex human reproductive problems. The continued growth of this relatively new field depends on quality research by proven scientists as well as junior investigators who, together, make contributions to this area of medical and surgical practice. The publishing revolution made possible by internet technology presages a bright future for continued interdisciplinary collaboration among researchers. Against this background, Journal of Experimental & Clinical Assisted Reproduction exists for the scientific community to facilitate this scholarly dialogue.

  13. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  14. Oocyte Cryopreservation in Human Assited Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Konc; S Cseh; E Varga; R Kriston; K Kanyó

    2006-01-01

    Embryo cryopreservation(CP) has became a very important part of the clinical use of in vitro fertilization. Oocyte CP offers more advantages compared with embryo freezing with regard to less ethical, legal and moral problems. However, the efficiency of this procedure is still low, which prevents its clinical application in wide range. The aim of our paper is to review the basic principles, technical and safety aspects and current status of oocyte cryopreservation in human assisted reproduction.

  15. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression...

  16. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. METHODS: From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074...

  17. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN...... AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS A Swedish study has shown a reduction in unwanted outcomes over time in children conceived after ART. Our analyses based on data from more than 92 000 ART children born in four Nordic countries confirm these findings. STUDY DESIGN Nordic population-based matched cohort study...... with ART outcome and health data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS We analysed the perinatal outcome of 62 379 ART singletons and 29 758 ART twins, born from 1988 to 2007 in four Nordic countries. The ART singletons were compared with a control group of 362 215...

  18. 体外培养与胚胎移植的策略选择%Strategies of in Vitro Culture and Embryo Transfer in Human Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    人类辅助生殖技术(ART)是目前解决不孕症最为有效的治疗方式之一。在ART治疗过程中,体外培养条件以及胚胎移植的策略是直接影响其临床活产率和单胎妊娠率的关键因素。体外培养条件主要包括温度、pH值、氧浓度、培养液的成分以及培养过程中不同阶段是否应该更换培养液等。胚胎移植的策略则包含胚胎移植数量的选择、卵裂期与囊胚期移植的选择以及优质囊胚指标的选择等。结合近期国外研究成果对体外培养条件以及胚胎移植的策略中仍然存在争议的一些问题进行了探讨和综述。%Human assisted reproductive technology (ART) is one of the most effective therapies for human infertility. In vitro culture condition and the strategy of embryo transfer are important factors of ART outcomes such as the live birth rate and the singleton pregnancies rate. Those conditions of in vitro culture include temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, medium and sequential or continuous culture. The strategy of embryo transfer involves the elective single or double embryo transfer, transfer in cleavage or blastocyst stage, and the index for selecting the best blastocyst. Based on recent studies, this review discussed above controversial problems.

  19. Do assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies require additional antenatal care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Ben-Ami, I; Maymon, R

    2013-02-01

    Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect assisted reproduction treatment. We have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-reproduction twins may require compared with spontaneous twins. Misacarriages are increased in women with tubal problems and after specific treatments. Assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies complicated by a vanishing twin after 8 weeks have an increased risk of preterm delivery and of low and very low birthweight compared with singleton assisted-reproduction pregnancies. Monozygotic twin pregnancies occur at a higher rate after assisted reproduction treatment and are associated with a higher risk of perinatal complications. The incidence of placenta praevia and vasa praevia is increased in assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies. Large cohort studies do not indicate a higher rate of fetal congenital malformations in assisted-reproduction twins. Overall, assisted-reproduction twins in healthy women assisted-reproduction twins is only increased in women with a pre-existing medical condition such as hypertensive disorders and diabetes and most of these risks can be avoided with single-embryo transfer. Following the birth of the first IVF baby, rumours started to spread in both the medical literature and the media about the long-term health effects for children born following assisted reproduction treatment. However, after more than 30 years, the most common complications associated with IVF treatment remain indirect and technical such as the failure of treatment and ovarian hyperstimulation. Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect of assisted reproduction treatment and the increasing number of twin pregnancies, in particular in older women, has generated numerous debates on the need for additional healthcare provision. In this review, we have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-conception twin pregnancies may require compared with spontaneous twin pregnancies. Twin pregnancies are

  20. Assisted hatching in assisted reproduction: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadeh, Mohamad Eid; Fischer-Hammadeh, Constanze; Ali, Khaled Refaat

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that one in six couples experience some delay in conception and an increasing number require treatment by the assisted conception (AC) procedures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The implantation rate of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization cycles is generally less than 20%. The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo's ability to undergo normal hatching, resulting in low rates of implantation following IVF and embryo transfer. Human embryos resulting from superovulation develop more slowly in vitro compared to embryos in vivo, manifest a relatively high degree of cytogenetic abnormalities and undergo cellular fragmentation. Artificially disrupting the zona pellucida is known as assisted hatching (AH) and there is some evidence that embryos that have undergone zona manipulation for assisted hatching tend to implant one day earlier than unhatched embryos. A variety of techniques have since been employed to assist embryo hatching, including partial mechanical zona dissection, zona drilling and zona thinning, making use of acid tyrodes, proteinases, piezon vibrator manipulators and lasers. This review will consider the impact of IVF conditions on zona pellucida physiology, zona hardening, different techniques of assisted hatching, who may benefit from assisted hatching and potential hazards.

  1. 人类辅助生殖技术临床实践中的伦理问题及对策%Ethical Problems and Countermeasures of Clinical Practice of Human Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应可满; 任建枝

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of human assisted reproductive technology brings hope and happiness to infertile and sterile couples, at the same time, it has great impact on the ethnical problems. The principles for human assisted reproductive technologies are analyzed to ensure the healthy development of human assisted reproductive technology to propose the countermeasures of the existing problems.%人类辅助生殖技术的飞速发展,给众多不孕不育家庭带来希望和幸福的同时,也不可避免地对人类原有的社会伦理观念产生了巨大的冲击.文章分析了在临床工作中如何处理辅助生殖技术与伦理道德的矛盾关系问题,提出了辅助生殖技术伦理问题的应对策略.

  2. Final Oocyte Maturation in Assisted Reproduction with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone agonist (Dual Trigger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia Andrade de; Calsavara, Vinícius Fernando; Cortés, Gemma Castillón

    2016-12-01

    Final oocyte maturation with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and ovarian stimulation with Follicle Stimulation Hormone (FSH) combined with Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonist to block Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is a standard procedure of in vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, GnRH agonist has been replacing the use of hCG in certain situations, especially in patients at risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Some studies have also shown advantages in the combined use of GnRH agonist concurrently with hCG in inducing final oocyte maturation, a treatment known as "Dual Trigger". In theory, this method combines the advantages of both induction regimens, and it has brought promising results. The objective of this study is to compare Dual Trigger with the use of hCG alone or the use of GnRH agonist alone. A systematic review of articles on Dual Trigger and a retrospective cohort study comparing the three methods of induction of final oocyte maturation have been conducted. It has been found that Dual Triggering for poor responder patients had a statistically significant increase in the number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, and fertilized embryos in the positive beta hCG rate, implantation rate, and newborn/transferred embryo (TE) rate.

  3. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

  4. Banning reproductive travel: Turkey's ART legislation and third-party assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtin, Zeynep B

    2011-11-01

    In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example.

  5. Childhood outcomes of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Peek, John; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2011-09-01

    There is a large population of children conceived via assisted reproductive technology (ART), which continues to increase worldwide, without a clear understanding of associated long-term outcomes. ART children are more likely to be the result of multiple pregnancies, and thus to be born prematurely or low birthweight. There is growing evidence that ART children are phenotypically and biochemically different from naturally conceived children, but the mechanism(s) leading to these changes have not been elucidated. There is a possible increased risk of rare imprinted gene disorders in these children. However, it remains unclear whether more subtle changes in DNA methylation occur commonly, leading to differences in gene expression and phenotype in ART children. Although an increased risk of cancer among ART children has been reported, the role of ART in the development of cancer has not been demonstrated. Further research and ongoing surveillance of ART children is essential to better understand the possible effects of ART on the long-term health of this population.

  6. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.

  7. Assisted reproduction--Islamic views on the science of procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norhayati Haji

    2003-03-01

    The field of assisted reproduction is one of the fastest growing areas in medicine. The development of new and sophisticated techniques all aim to give reproductive technologies and scientists a better understanding of reproductive biology. The development of new techniques may also be able to improve the chances of an infertile couple towards achieving a pregnancy. However the ethics and legality of assisted reproductive technology must not be brushed aside. Islamic scholars whose reference basis resides in the Holy Quran and the Hadith have addressed different issues relating to assisted reproductive technology. Some of the issues remain controversial and need detailed discussion before it can be deemed as appropriate and legible for use as guidelines in the development of the processes involved.

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technology: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Fertility Counseling and Treatment for Certain Veterans and Spouses. Interim... Article: Embryo wastage rates remain high in assisted reproductive technology (ART):... Article: 2017 in-training initiative of the ...

  9. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the firs...

  10. Steroids pretreatment in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, V; Streda, R; Mardesic, T; Tosner, J; Heracek, J

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to present an overview of trials and appreciate the relevant data on the effect of steroids pretreatment (oral contraceptives, 17β-estradiol and estradiol valerate) in assisted reproduction cycles. The subject of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics during steroids pretreatment cycles focused on the prevention of ovarian cysts, the positive contraceptive effect on the onset of regular period during long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist protocol. In gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist protocol the review is interested in supporting ovarian stimulation in low responders, the idea of cycle scheduling and improving treatment outcomes. The method is a review from MEDLINE/Pubmed database between 1994 and July 2012. We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (n=3069 patients). One trail (n=83 patients) assessed GnRH agonist protocol with or without steroids pretreatment, 8 trials (n=1884 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols with or without steroids pretreatment and 6 trials (n=1102 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols versus agonist ones with steroid pretreatment. Data demonstrates that oral contraceptives offer the effective prevention of functional ovarian cysts, the predictable onset of period during desensitisation. Existing data suggest that pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills or estradiol valerate give no advantage concerning number of oocytes or pregnancy rate. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills aiming to avoid weekend oocytes retrievals has to be more elucidated. In low responders oral contraceptive pill pretreatment may be beneficial in improving ovarian responses by reducing the amount of gonadotropins and the number of days required for ovarian stimulation. Current research indicates that also 17β-estradiol may be encouraging pretreatment in low responders and in cycle scheduling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  11. Assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.

  12. Assisted reproductive technologies: professional and legal restrictions in Australian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kerry; Baker, H W G; Pitts, Marian; Thorpe, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    The professional and legal regulation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Australia is a vast maze of intersecting laws and guidelines which place restrictions on the provision of services such as infertility treatment, surrogacy, sex selection for social reasons, donor insemination, pre-implantation diagnosis and human embryo research. This study investigated the application of these restrictions on clinical practice in New South Wales, a relatively unregulated State, and Victoria, a relatively highly regulated State. The results of the survey indicate that the range of ART services in Victorian clinics was far more limited than in New South Wales clinics. The Victorian clinics uniformly restricted access of single and lesbian women and did not offer social sex selection procedures. The New South Wales clinics adopted different polices regarding these services. It was found that restrictive laws governing "social" issues have a significant impact on the availability of ART services and some respondents seemed unclear about the nature of restrictions and laws relevant to their work. It was also found that "reproductive tourism" is prevalent and restrictions were circumnavigated by patients with assistance from clinics. It was concluded that more evidence is required to evaluate regulation in this field of medicine.

  13. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations.

  14. Enduring politics: the culture of obstacles in legislating for assisted reproduction technologies in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Allison

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology has become a normalized part of reproductive medicine in many countries around the world. Access, however, is uneven and inconsistent, facilitated and restricted by such factors as affordability, social and moral acceptance or refusal and local cultures of medical practice. In Ireland, assisted reproductive technology has been available since 1987 but remains unregulated by legislation. This creates an uncertain and untenable legal circumstance given the contested issues related to constitutional protection of the right to life of the unborn and the indeterminate legal status of embryos in vitro. This paper examines the impact of an enduring political impasse. It explores how clinical assisted reproductive technology services in Ireland operate both inside and outside dominant institutional frameworks, meeting a pronatalist and pro-family social and political agenda, while sometimes contradicting the pro-life politics that has continued to shape women’s reproductive lives. The medical approaches to infertility thus intersect with the ongoing debates around abortion, the failure of the government to regulate, and notions of embodied motherhood and responsibility within changing meanings of family and kinship. At the same time women and their partners seek assisted reproductive technology treatment in other countries throughout the European Union where laws differ and availability of services varies. A decade has passed since the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction in Ireland released its recommendations; the enduring legislative vacuum leaves women, families and practitioners in potential legal limbo.

  15. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  16. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    assisting trans people to become parents through the use of AR, our study demonstrates that they are already accessing or attempting to access these services. This reality necessitates a shift toward exploring the ways in which AR services can be improved to better meet the needs of this population, from the perspectives of both service users and service providers. This project was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research-Institute of Gender and Health, in partnership with the Assisted Human Reproduction Canada: Catalyst Grant: Psychosocial Issues Associated with Assisted Human Reproduction (FRN-103595). S.M. was supported by a Canada Graduate Scholarship from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council, as well as research funding from Osgoode Hall Law School, York University. S.J.-A. was supported by an Ontario Graduate Scholarship funded by the Province of Ontario and the University of Toronto. N/A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  18. Cultural and Ethical Challenges of Assisted Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, ... and loss of self esteem, side effects of the technologies and the cost of accessing them are ... KEYWORDS: Reproduction, Technology, Infertility, Africa, Management.

  19. Synergies between assisted reproduction technologies and functional genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Pasqualino; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Ptak, Grazyna; Scapolo, Pier A.; Capra, Emanuele; Stella, Alessandra; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Williams, John L.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This review, is a synopsis of advanced reproductive technologies in farm animals, including the discussion of their limiting factors as revealed by the study of offspring derived from embryos produced in vitro and through cloning. These studies show that the problems of epigenetic mis-programming, which were reported in the initial stages of assisted reproduction, still persist. The importance of whole-genome analyses, including the methylome and transcriptome, in impr...

  20. Lifestyle-related factors and access to medically assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; de Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle is increasingly recognized as an outcome-determining factor in assisted reproduction, not only with regard to the cost-effectiveness but also in view of the balance of benefits and risks, including risks related to the welfare of the future child. This document briefly summarizes the evidence concerning the impact of three lifestyle-related factors (obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) on both natural and assisted reproduction (IVF) and discusses the implications of this for the practice of medically assisted reproduction in the light of relevant ethical principles. The central question is whether and to what extent fertility treatment of obese, smoking or drinking patients should be made conditional on prior lifestyle changes.

  1. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  2. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  3. Cloning for human reproduction: one American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, R

    2001-09-01

    The author, an American law professor, believes that whole-body cloning of adult humans will be possible in the near future. He does not believe the procedure should be banned when used as a form of assisted reproduction, but that it should be regulated by the government to ensure proper testing and application. After raising a number of scientific, ethical, religious and legal issues, Professor Chester addresses parentage in light of both old and new concepts of the 'family.' Finally, he focuses on the problem of women as surrogate mothers of clones, arguing in the process that the surrogate, having no real genetic tie to the clone, would have less of a claim to parentage than at least some of the surrogates currently gestating foetuses.

  4. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Related Clinical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuan-chong FENG; Zhong-mei LI

    2004-01-01

    @@ As a widely-applied clinical therapy for infertility and sterility, ART has its own merits compared to other techniques and operations; however, the outcome of ART is influenced by various factors ranging from age, endometrial receptivity, reproductive system condition (e.g.uterus, fallopian tube and pelvic factors, etc.), immune system and so on. From our clinical experience and the literatures reviewd, it is strongly recommended that the situation of every infertile couple be evaluated thoroughly before applying therapy.

  5. Maternal and neonatal health outcomes following assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, A; Reichman, B; Boyko, V; Hourvitz, A; Ron-El, R; Lerner-Geva, L

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the risk for maternal complications in women and neonatal outcomes in children conceived following assisted reproductive treatment as compared with spontaneously conception and also separately evaluated conventional IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The prospective cohort included 1161 women with singleton pregnancies: 561 who conceived following assisted reproduction (223 following IVF and 338 following ICSI) and 600 who conceived spontaneously. No differences were observed in pregnancy complications (including spontaneous abortion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes and Caesarean delivery) except for significantly increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding in assisted reproduction pregnancies (21.4% versus 12.9%; OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.37), which was prominent in women who reported polycystic ovary syndrome. Neonates born following assisted reproduction had increased risk for prematurity (10.6% versus 5.3%; OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87), and IVF, but not ICSI, was associated with significantly increased risk for prematurity (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.28-4.37) and low birthweight (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.46). In conclusion, this study observed only an increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding as a pregnancy-associated complication in singleton pregnancies following assisted compared with spontaneous conception. However, singleton neonates born following IVF, but not ICSI, were at increased risk for prematurity.

  6. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; IUI Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles; Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006

  7. Zona hardening, zona drilling and assisted hatching: new achievements in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to fertilization, the zona pellucida surrounding the mammalian oocyte acts as a species-specific sperm barrier and is involved in sperm binding. After fertilization, the zona plays a role in blocking polyspermic fertilization, it protects the integrity of the preimplantation embryo during early embryonic development, and also helps its oviductal transport. Zona hardening occurs naturally after fertilization in order to ensure this threefold function. A combination of lysins produced by the cleaving embryo or the uterus and physical expansion then reduces the zona thickness in preparation for hatching. Zona hardening, although not readily quantifiable, may also be induced by in vitro culture and by in vivo aging. Indeed, prolonged exposure of human oocytes and embryos to artificial culture conditions seems to impair their ability to implant. Implantation rates are also inversely correlated with advanced female age. Recently, failure of the embryonic zona pellucida to rupture following blastocyst expansion has been put forward as a possible contributing factor in implantation failure. In order to help embryos escape from their zonae during blastocyst expansion, different types of assisted hatching have been developed. Zona drilling involves the creation of an opening in the zona with acidified medium, whereas zona slitting is carried out in the same manner as partial zona dissection. In zona thinning, the zona is just made thinner over a certain area without a hole or a slit being created. More recently, laser-assisted hatching has been introduced. In vitro studies with both mouse and human embryos have indicated that an artificial gap in the zona pellucida significantly improves the hatching ability of blastocysts grown in vitro as compared to non-micromanipulated embryos. However, the clinical relevance of assisted hatching within an assisted reproduction program remains controversial and elusive. Very few randomized studies are available. Most reports are of

  8. INPO Assistance Activities: Human Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, J.T.

    1999-11-14

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has a number of ongoing activities designed to provide assistance to our members in the human resources area. These include the Educational Assistance Program and the ongoing facilitation of information exchange through Nuclear Network and INPO publications. INPO will continue to seek ways to assist its member utilities.

  9. Endometrial cocultured cells in assisted reproduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Bahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Endometrium, which plays a very important role in reproductive biology and one of the pathologies connected with it as are the problems in the implantation. One of the most important processes for the female fertility are experienced in implantation failure and one of the developed methods for the solution are endometrial coculture application. In this study, to provide knowledge of the types of cells in in vitro monolayer endometrial coculture. Methods: In our study, consisting of 8 fertile and 16 infertile women suffering from recurrent implantation failure were included in two groups. Performing aspiration with negative pressure pipeline endometrial tissue samples were obtained. Intended to carry embryo to the blastocyst stage, Endometrial Epithelial-gland cells (EG and Epithelial stromal (ES cells are obtained, after concluding of the culture was provided to do light microscopic tissue follow of these tissues. Cocultured cells were grouped stained with toluidine blue. Working with the numerical values of the cell types was performed using the Chi-square statistical analysis method. Results: In cocultured, both fertile and cell types derived from the TIB group, with light microscopic examination, were distinguished by morphological characteristics. Each of the two groups, called cells called vacuoles, microvilli and cytoplasmic extension was defined. Conclusion: Both groups, coculture derived from endometrial tissue were examined by light microscope. Thus, the identification of differences between groups was provided classification of cell structures in the coculture and endometrial cocultured practices, was concluded to be beneficial in the embryo's development. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 357-363

  10. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproductive...... technology (ART) can impact declining fertility rates....

  11. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  12. Toward a gender-sensitive assisted reproduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The recent case of the UK woman who lost her legal struggle to be impregnated with her own frozen embryos, raises critical issues about the meaning of reproductive autonomy and the scope of regulatory practices. I revisit this case within the context of contemporary debate about the moral and legal dimensions of assisted reproduction. I argue that the gender neutral context that frames discussion of regulatory practices is unjust unless it gives appropriate consideration to the different positions women and men occupy in relation to reproductive processes and their options for autonomous choice. First, I consider relevant legal rulings, media debate, and scholarly commentary. Then I discuss the concept of reproductive autonomy imbedded in this debate. I argue that this concept conflates informed consent and reproductive autonomy, thereby providing an excessively narrow reading of autonomy that fails to give due regard to relations among individuals or the social, political and economic environment that shapes their options. I contrast this notion of autonomy with feminist formulations that seek to preserve respect for the agency of individuals without severing them from the conditions of their embodiment, their surrounding social relationships, or the political contexts that shape their options. Taking these considerations into account I weigh the advantages of regulation over the commercial market arrangement that prevails in some countries and suggest general guidelines for a regulatory policy that would more equitably resolve conflicting claims to reproductive autonomy.

  13. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  14. Two Y genes can replace the entire Y chromosome for assisted reproduction in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Ward, Monika A

    2014-01-03

    The Y chromosome is thought to be important for male reproduction. We have previously shown that, with the use of assisted reproduction, live offspring can be obtained from mice lacking the entire Y chromosome long arm. Here, we demonstrate that live mouse progeny can also be generated by using germ cells from males with the Y chromosome contribution limited to only two genes, the testis determinant factor Sry and the spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Sry is believed to function primarily in sex determination during fetal life. Eif2s3y may be the only Y chromosome gene required to drive mouse spermatogenesis, allowing formation of haploid germ cells that are functional in assisted reproduction. Our findings are relevant, but not directly translatable, to human male infertility cases.

  15. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): utility in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2008-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

  16. "Baby oh baby"--advances in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solursh, D S; Schorer, J W; Solursh, L P

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that one couple in six in the United States has to deal with issues of infertility. It is assumed that worldwide rates are comparable. In 35% of cases, the infertility is caused by female reproductive problems, in 35% by male reproductive problems, in 15% by multiple factors and in 15% the cause is unknown. Medical and scientific advances in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) have created 12 different pregnancy producing options for infertile couples. An ART infant could have as many as five parents (i.e. a donor father, a donor mother, a surrogate or gestational mother, and the couple actually rearing the child). These technical, medical, and moral complexities have resulted in a nightmare of accompanying legal complexities: anonymous donors versus those with identification disclosed, parental rights, grandparental rights, the rights of siblings and of the extended families; sperm, ovum and embryo "ownership", custody, visitation and inheritance rights and multiple other issues challenge a system of laws that evolves far slower than the technological realities to which it applies. This presentation will describe Assisted Reproductive Technology advances and the legal implications inherent in them. Case histories will be discussed.

  17. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  18. Assisted reproductive technology after the birth of louise brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Remah Moustafa

    2013-07-01

    Public interest in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has remained high since the birth of the world's first in vitro fertilization baby, Louise Brown, in the United Kingdom. ART allows scientists to manipulate the fertilization process in order to bypass some pathological obstacles such as blocked fallopian tubes and non-functioning ovaries in the females, and blocked vas deferens and low sperm count in the males. The purpose was to provide a historical outline and identify the researches that most contributed to ART. A review of published experimental and clinical studies of assisted reproduction carried out at the University of Bristol library website (MetaLib(®)). A cross-search of seven different medical databases (AMED-Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, BIOSIS Previews on Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Medline on Web of Knowledge, OvidSP and PubMed) was completed by using the key words to explore the major milestones and progress in the development and implementation of ART. A speedy advancement in the development of different assisted reproductive techniques makes infertility problem more treatable than it ever had been. Although no other field in the medicine has integrated new knowledge into the daily practice more quickly than ART yet, there is a need for social research to counterbalance the dominance of biomedical one, in particular the people's actual experiences and expectations of ART.

  19. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  20. [Prokineticins: new regulatory peptides in human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Alfaidy, Nadia; Feige, Jean-Jacques

    2014-03-01

    During the last decade, there has been growing evidence for the involvement of prokineticins and their receptors (PROK/PROKR) in human reproduction, with multiple roles in the female and male reproductive systems. The PROK/PROKR signalling complex has been reported as a new actor in ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis physiology, with marked dysfunction in various pathological conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome, recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and ectopic pregnancy. Altogether, the results strongly suggest the involvement of prokineticins in spermatogenesis, oocyte competence, embryo implantation, pregnancy, and delivery, and argue for the clinical relevance of these cytokines and their receptors as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.

  1. A survey of assisted reproductive technology births and imprinting disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdin, Sarah; Allen, Cathy; Kirby, Gail; Brueton, Louise; Afnan, Masoud; Barratt, Christopher; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Harrison, Robert; Maher, Eamonn R; Reardon, William

    2007-12-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process in which allele-specific gene expression is dependent on the parental inheritance. Although only a minority of human genes are imprinted, those that have been identified to date have been preferentially implicated in prenatal growth and neurodevelopment. Mutations or epimutations in imprinted genes or imprinting control centres are associated with imprinting disorders such as Angelman syndrome (AS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Recently, an increased frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART) conceptions has been reported in children with BWS and AS. However, the risk of imprinting disorders in ART children is unknown. We undertook a survey of 2492 children born after ART in the Republic of Ireland and Central England with the aim of detecting cases (both clinically diagnosed and previously unrecognized) of BWS and AS in this cohort. The response rate to an initial questionnaire was 61%, corresponding to data for 1524 children. After evaluation of the questionnaire, 70 children were invited for a detailed clinical assessment, and 47 accepted (response rate of 67%). In this entire cohort, we detected one case of BWS and no cases of AS. We did not find evidence that there exists a significant group of ART children with unrecognized milder forms of AS or BWS. Although previous studies have suggested an increased relative risk of BWS and AS after ART, our findings suggest that the absolute risk of imprinting disorders in children conceived by ART is small (<1%). Precise risk estimates of risk are difficult to define because of the rarity of the conditions and incomplete response rates to the questionnaire and clinical examination invitations. Hence further investigations are indicated to (i) refine the absolute and relative risks of imprinting disorders after ART and (ii) ensure that changes in ART protocols are not associated with increased frequencies of epigenetic changes and imprinting disorders in

  2. Ethics and regulation of inter-country medically assisted reproduction: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Moreno, Adi; Eyal, Hedva; Leibel, Michal; Schuz, Rhona; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) for the treatment of infertility has brought benefit to many individuals around the world. But infertility and its treatment continue to be a cause of suffering, and over the past decade, there has been a steady growth in a new global market of inter-country medically assisted reproduction (IMAR) involving 'third-party' individuals acting as surrogate mothers and gamete donors in reproductive collaborations for the benefit of other individuals and couples who wish to have children. At the same time there is evidence of a double standard of care for third-party women involved in IMAR, violations of human rights of children and women, and extreme abuses that are tantamount to reproductive trafficking. This paper is the report of an inter-disciplinary working group of experts who convened in Israel to discuss the complex issues of IMAR. In Israel too IMAR practices have grown rapidly in recent years, mainly because of restrictions on access to domestic surrogacy for same sex couples and a chronically insufficient supply of egg cells for the treatment of couples and singles in need. Drawing upon local expertise, the paper describes documented practices that are harmful, suggests principles of good practice based on an ethic of care, and calls for action at the international, national and professional levels to establish a human rights based system of international governance for IMAR based on three regulatory models: public health monitoring, inter-country adoption, and trafficking in human beings, organs and tissues.

  3. Social and Human Service Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Employment of social and human service assistants is projected to grow ...

  4. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  5. Effect of electromagnetic waves on human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Mazurek, Paweł A; Wdowiak, Anita; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-31

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitting from the natural environment, as well as from the use of industrial and everyday appliances, constantly influence the human body. The effect of this type of energy on living tissues may exert various effects on their functioning, although the mechanisms conditioning this phenomenon have not been fully explained. It may be expected that the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the living organism would depend on the amount and parameters of the transmitted energy and type of tissue exposed. Electromagnetic waves exert an influence on human reproduction by affecting the male and female reproductive systems, the developing embryo, and subsequently, the foetus. Knowledge concerning this problem is still being expanded; however, all the conditionings of human reproduction still remain unknown. The study presents the current state of knowledge concerning the problem, based on the latest scientific reports.

  6. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  7. Rethinking radical politics in the context of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Radical feminists have argued for both the radical potential of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and its oppressive and damaging effects for women. This paper will address the question of what constitutes a radical feminist position on ART; I will argue that the very debate over whether ART liberates or oppresses women is misguided, and that instead the issue should be understood dialectically. Reproductive technologies are neither inherently liberating nor entirely oppressive: we can only understand the potential and effects by considering how they are actually taken up within a culture. The internal contradictions, tensions, and inconsistencies within ART and the way it is addressed within the law points to a dialectic that resists a simple reductivist understanding.

  8. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  9. Joint reproductive autonomy: does Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd provide for a gender-neutral approach to assisted reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Assisted reproductive technology encompasses methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. Whilst these methods are more commonly used by couples suffering from problems of infertility, some forms of assistance are employed by fertile couples, for example pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. The overall regulatory framework in the UK is predominantly found in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The usual rules relating to consent and autonomy apply and were discussed in depth in Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and later in Evans v United Kingdom. This paper considers whether the Evans litigation envisages the possibility of further encouraging joint autonomy in the use of zygotes and whether there is a continuing right to autonomy by the party not bearing the pregnancy.

  10. Misconduct in third-party assisted reproduction: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Physicians who are told or discover information that would be material to another party's participation in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) arrangement (such as lawyer's, donor's, gestational carrier's, or intended parent's) should encourage disclosure to that party. In some instances, it is ethically and legally permissive for the physician to either disclose material information to an affected party or to transfer care of a patient to another willing provider. In all cases involving the legal status or rights of the parties, referral to legal professionals is advised.

  11. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement.

  12. Melatonin: a "Higgs boson" in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojevic Dikic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Ana Mitrovic; Dikic, Srdjan; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Jurisic, Aleksandar; Dobrosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    As the Higgs boson could be a key to unlocking mysteries regarding our Universe, melatonin, a somewhat mysterious substance secreted by the pineal gland primarily at night, might be a crucial factor in regulating numerous processes in human reproduction. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant which has an essential role in controlling several physiological reactions, as well as biological rhythms throughout human reproductive life. Melatonin, which is referred to as a hormone, but also as an autocoid, a chronobiotic, a hypnotic, an immunomodulator and a biological modifier, plays a crucial part in establishing homeostatic, neurohumoral balance and circadian rhythm in the body through synergic actions with other hormones and neuropeptides. This paper aims to analyze the effects of melatonin on the reproductive function, as well as to shed light on immunological and oncostatic properties of one of the most powerful hormones.

  13. Potential influence of the microbiome on infertility and assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Ido; Zarek, Shvetha M; Segars, James H

    2014-01-01

    Although an altered vaginal microbiota has been demonstrated to affect parturition, its role in assisted reproductive technologies is uncertain. Nevertheless, the effect of known pathogens such as Mycoplasma tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is clear, causing subclinical changes thought to be risk factors in subfertility. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has allowed for metagenomic studies to aid in characterizing normal vaginal flora. Recent findings from the HMP demonstrate that many different species of Lactobacillus are present in the vaginal tract, with a few that predominate. Studies that characterize the vaginal microbiome in assisted reproductive technology support the hypothesis that colonizing the transfer-catheter tip with Lactobacillus crispatus at the time of embryo transfer may increase the rates of implantation and live birth rate while decreasing the rate of infection. In addition, there is some evidence that a progesterone-resistant endometrium might increase the risk of an abnormal vaginal microbiome.

  14. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, V; Hinrichs, K; Lazzari, G; Betts, D H; Hyttel, P

    2013-08-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed.

  15. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  16. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies.

  17. Outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baxi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART. There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. Aims: To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. Settings and Design : Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods :In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B. The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. Statistical Analysis : The continuous variables were analyzed by Student′s t -test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher′s exact test. Results : Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001. Conclusions : Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins.

  18. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    O. P. Verma; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A; Chand, S

    2012-01-01

    It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction...

  19. AMH: An ovarian reserve biomarker in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, C; Fonseca, F L A; Rodart, I F; Cavalcanti, V; Gastaldo, G; Christofolini, D M; Barbosa, C P; Bianco, B

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian reserve tests provide knowledge of a possible response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment, allowing management and alteration of treatment protocol with the appropriate dose of gonadotrophin. Several parameters have been used as predictors of ovarian response. The basal FSH serum level on the third day of the menstrual cycle seemed to be the best predictor, but with significant intraindividual variability from one cycle to another. Thus, the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) emerges as a new ovarian test marker. AMH is produced exclusively in the gonads, by the granulosa cells, and plays an important role in folliculogenesis, acting on the modulation of follicular recruitment in the granulosa cells in order to limit the number of recruited oocytes and to regulate the number of growing follicles and their selection for ovulation. It has been suggested that AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and could therefore be capable of predicting the ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos. In this review, we discuss the role of AMH in assisted reproduction outcomes.

  20. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  1. Development of a security system for assisted reproductive technology (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yong Soo; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Park, Sung Jin; Yoon, Jeong; Yoon, San Hyun; Yang, Gi Deok; Hur, Chang Young; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    In the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART), medical accidents can result in serious legal and social consequences. This study was conducted to develop a security system (called IVF-guardian; IG) that could prevent mismatching or mix-ups in ART. A software program was developed in collaboration with outside computer programmers. A quick response (QR) code was used to identify the patients, gametes and embryos in a format that was printed on a label. There was a possibility that embryo development could be affected by volatile organic components (VOC) in the printing material and adhesive material in the label paper. Further, LED light was used as the light source to recognize the QR code. Using mouse embryos, the effects of the label paper and LED light were examined. The stability of IG was assessed when applied in clinical practice after developing the system. A total of 104 cycles formed the study group, and 82 cycles (from patients who did not want to use IG because of safety concerns and lack of confidence in the security system) to which IG was not applied comprised the control group. Many of the label paper samples were toxic to mouse embryo development. We selected a particular label paper (P touch label) that did not affect mouse embryo development. The LED lights were non-toxic to the development of the mouse embryos under any experimental conditions. There were no differences in the clinical pregnancy rates between the IG-applied group and the control group (40/104 = 38.5 % and 30/82 = 36.6 %, respectively). The application of IG in clinical practice did not affect human embryo development or clinical outcomes. The use of IG reduces the misspelling of patient names. Using IG, there was a disadvantage in that each treatment step became more complicated, but the medical staff improved and became sufficiently confident in ART to offset this disadvantage. Patients who received treatment using the IG system also went through a somewhat

  2. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, D

    2006-10-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so.

  3. Single-arm, observational study of the ease of use of a redesigned pen device to deliver recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa for assisted reproductive technology treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illingworth PJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Illingworth,1 Robert Lahoud,1 Frank Quinn,1 Kendal Chidwick,2 Claire Wilkinson,2 Gavin Sacks1 1IVFAustralia, Greenwich, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Scientific Affairs, Merck Serono Australia Pty Ltd, Frenchs Forest, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Evaluation of patients’ ease of use of the redesigned, disposable, ready-to-use ­follitropin alfa pen during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. Methods: This single-center, observational, open-label, single-arm study recruited infertile normo-ovulatory women (aged 18–45 years. Nurses trained patients to self-administer recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone daily using the follitropin alfa pen (300 IU, 450 IU, and 900 IU. Before treatment, patients completed Questionnaire A. Following self-administered treatment, on stimulation days 5–6 and 7–8 (within a day of receiving recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, patients completed Questionnaire B. Nurses completed an ease-of-learning/teaching questionnaire. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients rating the pen as “easy/very easy” to use (Questionnaire B on the final visit before recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin. Secondary endpoints included: proportion of patients rating the follitropin alfa pen as easy to learn, use, prepare, deliver, and dispose of (Questionnaires A and B. Proportions (95% confidence intervals [CIs] were provided for primary and secondary endpoints. Adverse events were reported descriptively. Results: Eighty-six patients received recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. Of the 72 patients who had completed the overall assessment questions, 66 (91.7%; 95% CI =82.7%–96.9% found the pen “easy” to use. Also, 70/86 (81.4% patients “strongly agreed/agreed” that, overall, it was easy to learn how to use the pen; 72/86 (83.7% “strongly agreed/agreed” that easily understandable, verbal information was provided; and 70/86

  4. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slow, yet no other field in medicine has integrated new knowledge ... Many countries have introduced tight ethical regulation ... and research, such as human reproductive cloning." Howover ... human pregnancy and birth after embryo donation.

  5. ESHRE guideline: routine psychosocial care in infertility and medically assisted reproduction-a guide for fertility staffdagger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameiro, S.; Boivin, J.; Dancet, E.; Klerk, C. de; Emery, M.; Lewis-Jones, C.; Thorn, P.; Broeck, U. Van den; Venetis, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Wischmann, T.; Vermeulen, N.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Based on the best available evidence in the literature, what is the optimal management of routine psychosocial care at infertility and medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using the structured methodology of the Manual for the European Society of Human

  6. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    for psychological maladjustment. Protective factors were related to the use of coping strategies that involve seeking information and attribution of a positive meaning to infertility, having the support of others and of one's spouse, and engaging in open communication about the infertility problem. WIDER...... to infertility and related treatments. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors...... IMPLICATIONS: Our findings recommend an active involvement of men during the treatment process by health care professionals, and the inclusion of coping skills training and couple communication enhancement interventions in counselling. Further prospective large studies with high-quality design and power...

  7. Full in vitro fertilization laboratory mechanization: toward robotic assisted reproduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer, Marcos; Krühne, Ulrich; Laursen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the current efforts made to standardize different steps of assisted reproductive technology processes by the introduction of new technologies for the nonsubjective sperm selection process, oocyte denudation by mechanical removal of cumulus cells, oocyte positioning, sperm...... motility screening, fertilization, embryo culture, media replacement by microfluidics, and monitoring of embryo development by time-lapse photography, embryo secretions, and/or O2 consumption. These technologies could be integrated in a unique and fully automated device. Design: Pubmed database...... and research and development data from authors. Setting: University-affiliated private center. Patient(s): None. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measurement(s): None. Result(s): Several technologies would be useful for: 1) selection of sperm based on viability; 2) manipulation and removal of the cumulus...

  8. Risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opdahl, S; Henningsen, A A; Tiitinen, A

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies conceived following specific assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures different from the risk in spontaneously conceived (SC) pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART pregnancies had a higher risk of hypertensive disorders......, in particular following cryopreservation, with the highest risk seen in twin pregnancies following frozen-thawed cycles. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of hypertensive disorders is higher in ART pregnancies than in SC pregnancies. The increased risk may be partly explained by multiple pregnancies...... twin pregnancies (46 674). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios and risk differences for hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following IVF, ICSI and fresh or frozen-thawed cycles. We also compared fresh and frozen-thawed cycles within mothers who had conceived following both...

  9. Spermbots: potential impact for drug delivery and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdanz, Veronika; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2014-08-01

    Micromotors and nanomotors are an emerging research field that aims at achieving locomotion on the microscale for a variety of applications such as drug delivery, single cell manipulation, microsensors and lab-on-a-chip devices, just to point out a few. The enthusiastic development of hybrid micromotors harnessing biological power sources for physiologically compatible nano/microdevices has recently brought a lot of attention to the international research community that is looking for a solution for the actuation and locomotion on the microscale. This article describes the potential of sperm-driven micro-bio-robots in the biomedical field such as drug delivery or single cell manipulation. Herein, a specific potential of the sperm-driven micro-bio-robot is described that might have impact on the development of assisted reproductive technologies.

  10. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4% in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness <6 mm is associated with a trend toward lower probability of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy – frozen embryo transfer (FET cycles appear to give better results due to an improvement in endometrial receptivity (ER. The etiology of thin endometrium plays a significant part in its receptivity. A number of treatments have been tried to improve endometrial growth, but none has been validated so far. Confirming ER of a thin endometrium by an ER array test before FET offers reassurance.

  11. Health and functioning of adolescents conceived by assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Eyal; Beck-Fruchter, Ronit; Hourvitz, Ariel; Weiser, Mark; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the general health, mental health, and cognitive ability of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived adolescents. A nested case-control study within a historic cohort. Not applicable. A total of 253 ART-conceived adolescents born between 1982 and 1993 and 253 matched references according to birth year, gender, and the high-school they attended. None. Medical and psychiatric diagnoses, and cognitive ability recorded at the military preinduction screening (ages 16-17 years) and doctor's appointments throughout the military service. No differences were detected in general and mental health of ART adolescents or cognitive ability, compared with the reference group. Similar results were obtained after stratification for gender and singleton births. The ART adolescents had fewer cases of discharge from military service due to health reasons (4% vs. 8.3%). Follow-up during the military service revealed that male ART adolescents had significantly more doctor's appointments compared with the reference group (23.80 ± 15.59 vs. 19.95 ± 13.79). Our preliminary results provide reassurance that in the long-run health and functioning of ART-conceived adolescents is not compromised. Further studies with larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  13. Zika Virus Outbreak - Should assisted reproduction patients avoid pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson; Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Zanetti, Bianca Ferrarini; Setti, Amanda Souza; Provenza, Rodrigo Rosa; Iaconelli, Assumpto

    2017-09-01

    To discuss the requirement from the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), for assisted reproduction treatment patients to undergo laboratory tests for ZIKV detection, and if the public health authorities and government leaders' recommendations to women simply avoid pregnancy is prudent. This study was performed in a university-affiliated in vitro fertilization center in Brazil. We present a critical discussion on the risk of microcephaly due to ZIKV infection and the prevalence of other harmful pathogens to vulnerable pregnant women and infants. We assessed, 954 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (ICSI), between April and November of 2016, concerning the results of ZIKV test, according to different regions in Brazil. Patients undergoing ICSI cycles were split into groups, according to their region of origin: 28 (3.0%) were from the North, 27 (2.8%) were from the Northeast, 40 (4.2%) were from the Midwest, 830 (87.2%) were from the Southeast, and 29 (3.0%) were from the South. Concerning the diagnosis, 112 samples had a positive or inconclusive result for ZIKV, by chromatography immunoassay. These samples were re-analyzed by ELISA and no result was positive. All positive results were from the Southeast region and none from the Northeast or Midwest regions, which are considered endemic regions. ZIKV test before the onset of assisted reproduction treatments does not rule out the risk of the infection during pregnancy. In addition, although ZIKV infection risk is extremely high, the microcephaly risk due to ZIKV is not higher than the risk of miscarriage and birth defects due to other recognized pathogens.

  14. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  15. The status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Choi, Young Min; Han, Hyuck Dong

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to report the status of assisted reproductive technology (ART) therapy in South Korea between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. A localized online survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was first launched and provided to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized as standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures, including surgical sperm retrieval, were surveyed. Data from 33,956 ovum pick-up procedures were provided by 75 clinics in 2012. Of the 33,088 cycles in which ovums were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 90.5% (29,932 cycles). In addition, 10,079 FET cycles were confirmed to have resulted in clinical pregnancy, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.5% per ovum pick-up and 33.7% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in FET was 2 (41.6%), followed by 3 (34.0%), and non-elective single ETs (10.0%). Of the 10,404 TET cycles in which transfer was completed, 3,760 clinical pregnancies (36.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. The overall clinical pregnancy rate for FET and TET cycles in 2012 was higher than in 2011 (33.7% vs. 33.2% and 36.1% vs. 31.1%, respectively). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was 2, unlike in 2011.

  16. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  17. Human reproduction: possibilities and ethical borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pr RenĂŠ Frydman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive medicine is a new important field in all the countries. The possibilities are tremendous, therefore we have to decide if limits are necessary or should we consider that everything that have been initiated (as clone, gene transfer... can be apply in humans. That will be the challenge of a global ethical approach in each country with their culture, morality, guidelines or laws.

  18. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  19. microRNA in Human Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Iris; Kotaja, Noora; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Imbar, Tal

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. microRNAs have been shown to play an important role in control of reproductive functions, especially in the processes of oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis, corpus luteum function, implantation, and early embryonic development. Knockout of Dicer, the cytoplasmic enzyme that cleaves the pre-miRNA to its mature form, results in postimplantation embryonic lethality in several animal models, attributing to these small RNA vital functions in reproduction and development. Another intriguing characteristic of microRNAs is their presence in body fluids in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. In this chapter we will describe the current knowledge on microRNAs, specifically relating to human gonadal cells. We will focus on their role in the ovarian physiologic process and ovulation dysfunction, regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility, and putative involvement in human normal and aberrant trophoblast differentiation and invasion through the process of placentation.

  20. Assisted reproductive technology, epigenetics, and long-term health: a developmental time bomb still ticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kristen S; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2009-09-01

    Live birthrates following assisted reproduction account for 1 to 3% of pregnancies in developed countries, and these figures seem set to rise. Concerns regarding the safe use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for the treatment of infertility have been voiced for several years, yet, to date, the vast majority of children conceived using these techniques are apparently normal. Controversy surrounding reports of epigenetic alterations to genomic imprinting following human ART in recent years has fueled the ongoing debate. In contrast, both the incidence and severity of such anomalies are more apparent following ART in comparative animal species. The reasons for this are not known. By and large, the confounding effects of infertility and advanced maternal age do not apply to animal studies, which report better pregnancy rates following embryo transfer. Perhaps the incidence of imprinting disorders is increased when procedures such as ovarian stimulation, in vitro maturation, or both are used in conjunction with extended periods of embryo culture; this frequently occurs in animal but rarely in human ART. The focus of attention on imprinting, however, may have served to distract the scientific community from more subtle epigenetic modifications to nonimprinted loci in gametes and the preimplantation embryo, with health-related consequences that do not manifest until adulthood. Accumulating evidence from animal studies indicates that such effects, not yet apparent in human subjects, exist; and this may ultimately transpire to be the true developmental legacy of human ART. This article discusses these issues in the context of epigenetic and developmental abnormalities following ART in animals.

  1. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  2. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven hund...

  3. [Medical assistance for health and human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesqui, A M

    1987-12-01

    Brazil's federal health policy is examined, with separate focus on the periods before and after 1964. Special attention is given to sanitation and to maternal and child health care. The impact of government involvement on health policy development and the policy's subsequent effects on demographic processes, especially fertility, are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredway Donald

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women have been able to delay childbearing since effective contraception became available in the 1960s. However, fertility decreases with increasing maternal age. A slow but steady decrease in fertility is observed in women aged between 30 and 35 years, which is followed by an accelerated decline among women aged over 35 years. A combination of delayed childbearing and reduced fecundity with increasing age has resulted in an increased number and proportion of women of greater than or equal to 35 years of age seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment. Methods Literature searches supplemented with the authors' knowledge. Results Despite major advances in medical technology, there is currently no ART treatment strategy that can fully compensate for the natural decline in fertility with increasing female age. Although chronological age is the most important predictor of ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone, the rate of reproductive ageing and ovarian sensitivity to gonadotrophins varies considerably among individuals. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to depletion of the ovarian oocyte pool and reduction in oocyte quality. Thus, biological and chronological ovarian age are not always equivalent. Furthermore, biological age is more important than chronological age in predicting the outcome of ART. As older patients present increasingly for ART treatment, it will become more important to critically assess prognosis, counsel appropriately and optimize treatment strategies. Several genetic markers and biomarkers (such as anti-Müllerian hormone and the antral follicle count are emerging that can identify women with accelerated biological ovarian ageing. Potential strategies for improving ovarian response include the use of luteinizing hormone (LH and growth hormone (GH. When endogenous LH levels are heavily suppressed by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, LH supplementation may help

  5. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Cindy; Rishworth, Josephine R; Brown, Julie; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2015-07-15

    As many as one in six couples will encounter problems with fertility, defined as failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular intercourse for 12 months. Increasingly, couples are turning to assisted reproductive technology (ART) for help with conceiving and ultimately giving birth to a healthy live baby of their own. Fertility treatments are complex, and each ART cycle consists of several steps. If one of the steps is incorrectly applied, the stakes are high as conception may not occur. With this in mind, it is important that each step of the ART cycle is supported by good evidence from well-designed studies. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on procedures and treatment options available to couples with subfertility undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Published Cochrane systematic reviews of couples undergoing ART (in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) were eligible for inclusion in the overview. We also identified Cochrane reviews in preparation, for future inclusion.The outcomes of the overview were live birth (primary outcome), clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, miscarriage and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (secondary outcomes). Studies of intrauterine insemination and ovulation induction were excluded.Selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken in duplicate. Review quality was assessed by using the AMSTAR tool. Reviews were organised by their relevance to specific stages in the ART cycle. Their findings were summarised in the text and data for each outcome were reported in 'Additional tables'. Fifty-nine systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library up to July 2015 were included. All were high quality. Thirty-two reviews identified interventions that were effective (n = 19) or promising (n = 13), 14 reviews identified interventions that were either ineffective (n = 2) or possibly ineffective (n = 12), and 13 reviews were unable to

  6. Selenium in human male reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldereid, N B; Thomassen, Y; Purvis, K

    1998-08-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain information on the concentration and distribution of selenium throughout the human male reproductive tract. Material was removed at autopsy from 41 men who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Semen samples were also provided from 184 men attending an andrology clinic for fertility investigation and from 32 healthy volunteers. Significant positive correlations in the selenium concentration were demonstrated between the different reproductive organs, the testis having the highest concentrations. No correlation was found between the concentration of selenium in the genital organs and liver, kidney or blood, suggesting that its uptake and/or biochemical activity in the reproductive organs may be controlled by similar mechanisms not shared by the other organs. No significant age-dependent changes could be detected in tissue selenium concentrations. In a group of men under fertility investigation, a significant positive correlation was obtained between seminal plasma concentrations of selenium and concentrations of spermatozoa in the same ejaculate. A significant positive correlation between concentrations of zinc and selenium in the same ejaculates indicated that selenium may arise largely from the prostate gland.

  7. Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, Karl; Levanduski, Mike; Vidali, Andrea; Husami, Nabil; Goudas, Vasilios T

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of human embryo twinning by blastomere biopsy at different early embryonic stages (splitting efficiency) and to determine the in vitro developmental capacity of twinned human embryos (developmental efficiency). Randomized comparative study. Private IVF centers. Couples undergoing IVF donating triploid embryos. Embryos at the 2- to 5- and 6- to 8-cell stage were split into twin embryos. Half the number of blastomeres from donor embryos were removed and inserted into recipient empty zonae pellucidae. After embryo splitting, donor and recipient embryos were cultured in vitro. Development of twinned embryos to the blastocyst stage. The number of developing embryos obtained after splitting could be increased in comparison with the number of embryos available before splitting at the 6- to 8-cell stage but not at the 2- to 5-cell stage (splitting efficiency). Splitting of 6- to 8-cell embryos yielded superior rates of twin embryos developing to blastocysts (developmental efficiency). Twinning success was related to the superior morphological quality of embryos used for splitting. This is the first report on twinned human embryos developing to blastocysts. This study exhibits the potential for novel applications in human assisted reproduction. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional reactions to human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Association between Thrombophilia and Repeated Assisted Reproductive Technology Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Hamdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the incidence of thrombophilic gene mutations in repeated assisted reproductive technology (ART failures. Methods: The prevalence of mutated genes in the patients with a history of three or more previous ART failures was compared with the patients with a history of successful pregnancy following ARTs. The study group included 70 patients, 34 with three or more previously failed ARTs (A and control group consisted of 36 patients with successful pregnancy following ARTs (B. All patients were tested for the presence of mutated thrombophilic genes including factor V Leiden (FVL, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and Prothrombin (G20210A using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR. Results: Mutation of FVL gene was detected in 5.9% women of group A (2 of 34 compared with 2.8% women (1 of 36 of control group (P = 0.6. Mutation of MTHFR gene was found in 35.3% (12 cases as compared with 50% (18 cases of control (35.3% versus 50%; P = 0.23. Regarding Prothrombin, only control group had 5.6% mutation (P = 0.49. No significant differences were detected in the incidences of FVL, Prothrombin and MTHFR in the study group A compared with the control group B. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that thrombophilia does not have a significant effect in ART failures.

  10. User involvement in assisted reproductive technologies: England and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorinha, Catarina; Lichon, Mateusz; Silva, Susana; Dent, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare user involvement in the case of assisted reproductive technologies in England and Portugal through the concepts of voice, choice and co-production, assessing the implications for user empowerment. This qualitative study draws primarily on policy review and uses exploratory semi-structured interviews with key informants as a way of illustrating points. Data on the following themes was compared: voice (users' representativeness on licensing bodies and channels of communication between users and doctors); choice (funding and accessibility criteria; choice of fertility centres, doctors and level of care); and co-production (criteria through which users actively engage with health professionals in planning the treatment). Inter- and intra-healthcare systems variations between the two countries on choice and co-production were identified. Differences between funding and accessibility, regions, public and private sectors and attitudes towards doctor-patient relationship (paternalistic/partnership) were the key issues. Although consumer choice and indicators of co-production are evident in treatment pathways in both countries, user empowerment is not. This is limited by inequalities in accessibility criteria, dependence on doctors' individual perspectives and lack of genuine and formal hearing of citizens' voice. Enhancing users' involvement claims for individual and organizational cultures reflecting user-centred values. Effective ways to incorporate users' knowledge in shared decision making and co-design are needed to empower patients and to improve the delivery of care.

  11. Serum and peritoneal fluid antiendometrial antibodies in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Gary W; Bush, Stephen; Gantt, Pickens A

    2009-06-01

    To study the impact of surgically verified endometriosis and serum and peritoneal fluid antiendometrial antibodies (AEA) on pregnancy outcomes in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients using assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Surgical evaluation of endometriosis and collection of serum and peritoneal fluid was performed at the time of laparoscopy. For patients who did not undergo laparoscopy, only serum samples were obtained. Sera and peritoneal fluid were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for AEA. There was no correlation between surgically verified endometriosis, serum or peritoneal fluid AEA and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing ART. There was no significant difference in surgically verified endometriosis in patients who delivered and those who miscarried (p < 0.0594), whereas serum (p < 0.0223) and peritoneal fluid (p < 0.0032) AEA showed differences. In the total group of 352 ART patients, positive serum AEA was statistically significant in those who miscarried vs. those who delivered (p < 0.0000). Endometriosis does not significantly impair the pregnancy potential of ART patients, but it may be associated with miscarriage. The presence of serum and peritoneal fluid AEA correlate better with miscarriage than surgically verified endometriosis.

  12. AMH and AMHR2 Polymorphisms and AMH Serum Level Can Predict Assisted Reproduction Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Peluso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In human assisted reproduction, the ovarian response to exogenous recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH therapy is variable and difficult to predict. The standard protocol of ovarian hyperstimulation can result in satisfactory response; however, an unsatisfactory response necessitates FSH dose adjustment or results in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Polymorphisms in AMH and AMHR2 genes appear to affect hormone biological activities, thus affecting follicle recruitment and development, leading to infertility. We aimed to evaluate AMH and AMHR2 polymorphisms in infertile women, and correlate those findings with AMH, FSH and estradiol serum level response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, as well as assisted reproduction outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 186 infertile women that underwent one cycle of high complexity assisted reproductive treatment. Blood samples were collected and a TaqMan assay was used for AMH G146T/rs10407022 and AMHR2 A-482G/rs2002555, A10G/rs11170555, C1749G/rs2071558 and G4952A/rs3741664 genotyping, and FSH, estradiol and AMH levels were measured. The findings were correlated to human reproduction outcomes. Results: AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555 polymorphisms were not associated with hormonal measurements, whereas AMHR2 rs11170555 and rs3741664 were positively associated with AMH, estradiol and FSH levels. The genotype distribution of AMH and AMHR2 genes according to Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation did not show a positive association. However, an association with AFC, degree of oocyte maturation (allele G of AMHR2 rs2071558 the number of embryos produced (alleles T and G of AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555, respectively and frozen embryo (allele G of AMHR2 rs11170555 were found to be statistically associated. Considering COH, serum AMH and AFC were a positive predictor to OHSS. Regarding serum AMH and assisted reproduction outcomes, a positive correlation

  13. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini Nadimpally

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies

  14. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-08-12

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  15. Effect of embryo freezing on perinatal outcome after assisted reproduction techniques: lessons from the Latin American Registry of Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Juan-Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation is an integral part of assisted reproduction techniques; it allows the sequential transfer of all embryos, thus diminishing the risk of multiple pregnancies and associated perinatal complications. To address concerns about the safety of this procedure, neonatal outcome after 43,070 fresh embryo transfers was compared with 12,068 frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FET). After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age, embryo development at time of transfer, number of babies born and gestational order, FET was not found to be associated with an increase in perinatal mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 3.62); preterm birth (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18); or extreme preterm birth (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.06). Furthermore, after correcting for known confounding factors, FET was found to be associated with an increase in neonatal weight of 39.7 g (95% CI 1.54 to 64.10; P < 0.0001). Embryo cryopreservation was, therefore, not associated with an increase in the risk of poor perinatal outcome.

  16. Gender, Conjugalities and assisted reproductive technologies: regulatory aspects and practices in different scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane da Costa Moás

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the construction of the reproductive practices in the access to assisted reproduction in which the conjugal sexuality, family dynamics and regulatory instances are intertwined. Considering the cultural and symbolic dimension inherent to the production of bodies, the identity processes in the contemporary scene pose challenges to the realization of the desire for children both under the heterosexual and homosexual conjugalities. Regulations and decision-making issues regarding the use of reproductive technologies are addressed, as well as the elements present in the marital dynamic involving the desire for a "natural" reproduction via assisted technologies. Prescriptive medical and legal parameters that do not match the experience of couples and individuals who turn to assisted reproductive technologies were found in this work.

  17. Transnational connections of health professionals: medicoscapes and assisted reproduction in Ghana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörbst, V.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Based on our comparative fieldwork in two private fertility clinics in Accra (Ghana) and Kampala (Uganda), we explore the transnational mobility of providers involved in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and analyze how resulting transnational networks influence the realization a

  18. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  19. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  20. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  1. Risk of Cancer in Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Marte Myhre; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Myklebust, Tor Åge; Robsahm, Trude Eid; Oldereid, Nan Birgitte; Brinton, Louise A; Storeng, Ritsa

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of children are born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and monitoring their long-term health effects is of interest. This study compares cancer risk in children conceived by ART to that in children conceived without. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway contains individual information on all children born in Norway (including information of ART conceptions). All children born between 1984 and 2011 constituted the study cohort, and cancer data were obtained from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Follow-up started at date of birth and ended on the date of the first cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, or December 31, 2011. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of overall cancer risk between children conceived by ART and those not. Cancer risk was also assessed separately for all childhood cancer types. The study cohort comprised 1 628 658 children, of which 25 782 were conceived by ART. Of the total 4554 cancers, 51 occurred in ART-conceived children. Risk of overall cancer was not significantly elevated (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.90-1.63). However, increased risk of leukemia was observed for children conceived by ART compared with those who were not (HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.02-2.73). Elevated risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma was also found for ART-conceived children (HR 3.63; 95% CI 1.12-11.72), although this was based on small numbers. This population-based cohort study found elevated risks of leukemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma in children conceived by ART. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  3. Infertility and assisted reproduction in Denmark. Epidemiology and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lone

    2006-11-01

    Clinically a couple is considered to be infertile after at least one year without contraception and without pregnancy. There was scant knowledge about the prevalences of infertility, involuntary childlessness and the seeking of fertility treatment and only few longitudinal studies about the psychosocial consequences of infertility and its treatment. This thesis is about the epidemiological aspects of infertility; the conceptualization and measurement of important psychosocial aspects of infertility; and a medical sociological analysis of the associations between these psychosocial variables among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on nine papers. The three main purposes were: (i) to review critically, population based studies of infertility and medical care seeking in industrialised countries. Further, to examine these prevalences and subsequent motherhood among women in former assisted reproduction in a Danish population. (ii) To develop measures of psychosocial consequences of infertility: fertility problem stress, marital benefit, communication, coping strategies, attitudes to and evaluation of fertility treatment. (iii) To examine these phenomena and to analyse their interrelations among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on four empirical studies: (i) The Women and Health Survey, a cross-sectional population-based study among 15-44 year old women (n=907, 25-44 year old) in Copenhagen County, 1989. (ii) The Psychosocial Infertility Interview Study, a qualitative interview study among 16 couples (n=2 participants) infertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, Herlev University Hospital,1992. (iii) The Infertility Cohort, a longitudinal cohort study consecutively including all couples (n=250 participants) beginning anew fertility treatment period at one of four public (Braedstrup, Herlev, Odense, Rigshospitalet) and one private fertility clinic (Trianglen),2000-2002. (iv) The Communication and Stress

  4. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...

  5. Complications and outcome of assisted reproduction technologies in overweight and obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. M. H.; Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecher, W. K. H.; Broekmans, F. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Hoek, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on a presumed negative impact of overweight and obesity on reproductive capacity and pregnancy outcome, some national guidelines and clinicians have argued that there should be an upper limit for a woman's BMI to access assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, evidence on

  6. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  7. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S;

    2010-01-01

    In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers.......In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers....

  8. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  9. [Literature review and state of the art of the Italian law on medically assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Delbon, P; Conti, A; Sirignano, A

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current situation of medically assisted reproduction in Italy after the promulgation of Law 40 in 2004. This law is actually completely different from the origin version. The controversial points like reproduction for couples who bear genetic diseases, prohibition of heterologous fertilization, cryoconservation of the embryos, obligation to perform just one and contemporaneous implant of all the embryos produced, are today definitively erased. This new situation is due to the jurisprudence of the Italian Courts but especially to the changes introduced by the European Court of Human Rights and by the questions of constitutionality raised by some Italian Courts. After analysis of the legislation, the views of various authors are compared, and the weaknesses and strong points of the law are considered from the point of view of legal medicine, science and bioethics. After ten years of operation of this law Italy has returned to a situation that existed before the law. In fact the old law was only full of prohibitions. Now is possible to do heterologous fertilization and this article photographs the current situation of hospitals for assisted procreation in Italy. The work also comments on procreative tourism, a direct consequence of this law, and on the status of women, who must be the subject and not the object of the legislation.

  10. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in an assisted reproduction technology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Giulia; Alteri, Alessandra; Corti, Laura; Rabellotti, Elisa; Papaleo, Enrico; Restelli, Liliana; Biondo, Stefania; Garancini, Maria Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Assisted reproduction technology laboratories have a very high degree of complexity. Mismatches of gametes or embryos can occur, with catastrophic consequences for patients. To minimize the risk of error, a multi-institutional working group applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to each critical activity/step as a method of risk assessment. This analysis led to the identification of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk priority number (RPN) scoring system. In total, 11 individual steps and 68 different potential failure modes were identified. The highest ranked failure modes, with an RPN score of 25, encompassed 17 failures and pertained to "patient mismatch" and "biological sample mismatch". The maximum reduction in risk, with RPN reduced from 25 to 5, was mostly related to the introduction of witnessing. The critical failure modes in sample processing were improved by 50% in the RPN by focusing on staff training. Three indicators of FMEA success, based on technical skill, competence and traceability, have been evaluated after FMEA implementation. Witnessing by a second human operator should be introduced in the laboratory to avoid sample mix-ups. These findings confirm that FMEA can effectively reduce errors in assisted reproduction technology laboratories.

  11. Investigation of nursing students’ and professional nurses’ attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balari C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and Χ2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

  12. Psychosocial needs of women and their partners after successful assisted reproduction treatment in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Crespo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that pregnancy and parenthood after a period of infertility are unproblematic and gratifying. However, a review of the literature highlights the complexity of the psychological and social consequences of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting after successful treatment with assisted reproductive technology. These experiences, including those following the creation of new forms of non-genetic and/or social parenthood, require investigation in order to understand how women and their partners integrate their journey from infertility to pregnancy and parenthood after successful assisted reproductive treatment. This paper presents results derived from qualitative interviews with 30 pregnant women and 21 couples after assisted reproductive treatment (repeated rounds of individual interviews with the study participants conducted from July 2010 to April 2014 as part of a larger ethnographic study exploring the psychosocial needs of women and partners following assisted reproductive treatment in Barcelona’s. The transcribed text was coded into categories of either predetermined or emergent topics. Prior studies have found that couples who achieve pregnancy after infertility may experience higher levels of anxiety in relation to pregnancy. This anxiety can be linked with a higher risk of complications during pregnancy after assisted reproductive treatment compared with spontaneous conception. However, the evidence concerning adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood is inconclusive. This study highlights the necessity for participants to give meaning to these treatments, given the variability that exists in perceptions of infertility and pregnancy after successful assisted reproductive treatment.

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim You

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization (n = 114, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 140, and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI] (n = 128. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503. The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69% sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45% and two (3.23% cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Woo Sik; Yoon, Tae Ki; Seok, Hyun Ha; Cho, Jung Hyun; Kim, You Shin; Lyu, Sang Woo; Shim, Sung Han

    2010-11-03

    We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E) performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization) (n = 114), ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) (n = 140), and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI]) (n = 128). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503). The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69%) sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45%) and two (3.23%) cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1.092-2.141). There is no increased risk of

  15. Meeting Report: Atmospheric Pollution and Human Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Darrow, Lyndsey; Parker, Jennifer; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Strickland, Matthew; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Hurley, Fintan; Kalinka, Jaroslaw; Šrám, Radim; Brauer, Michael; Wilhelm, Michelle; Heinrich, Joachim; Ritz, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of epidemiologic literature reporting associations between atmospheric pollutants and reproductive outcomes, particularly birth weight and gestational duration. Objectives The objectives of our international workshop were to discuss the current evidence, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiologic studies, and to suggest future directions for research. Discussion Participants identified promising exposure assessment tools, including exposure models with fine spatial and temporal resolution that take into account time–activity patterns. More knowledge on factors correlated with exposure to air pollution, such as other environmental pollutants with similar temporal variations, and assessment of nutritional factors possibly influencing birth outcomes would help evaluate importance of residual confounding. Participants proposed a list of points to report in future publications on this topic to facilitate research syntheses. Nested case–control studies analyzed using two-phase statistical techniques and development of cohorts with extensive information on pregnancy behaviors and biological samples are promising study designs. Issues related to the identification of critical exposure windows and potential biological mechanisms through which air pollutants may lead to intrauterine growth restriction and premature birth were reviewed. Conclusions To make progress, this research field needs input from toxicology, exposure assessment, and clinical research, especially to aid in the identification and exposure assessment of feto-toxic agents in ambient air, in the development of early markers of adverse reproductive outcomes, and of relevant biological pathways. In particular, additional research using animal models would help better delineate the biological mechanisms underpinning the associations reported in human studies. PMID:18560536

  16. The post-humanist embryo: genetic manipulation, assisted reproductive technologies and the Principle of Procreative Beneficence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell Pelayo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from Julian Savulescu's argument for the obligation to use technological interventions for the enhancement human life, the Principle of Procreative Beneficence (PPB) states that parents have a moral obligation to use available reproductive technologies, including techniques of genetic manipulation, to create children who have the best chance of enjoying the best possible life. The aim of this study is to analyse the extent to which the possibility of using genetic manipulation to promote specific personality traits and thereby enhance human life is actually supported by current scientific knowledge and to determine whether the techniques employed in embryo selection comply with the PPB. In light of this analysis, the importance of involving the scientific community in the enhancement debate will be made clear. Moreover, when current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic processes and evidence of the risks of assisted reproductive technologies are taken into account, we find sufficient reason - even when guided by the PPB - to abstain from the use of current techniques of genetic manipulation and embryonic selection.

  17. Direito de acesso ao serviço de reprodução humana assistida: discussões bioéticas Right of access to the assisted human reproduction: bioethics discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Soares de Medeiros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resume estudo cujo objetivo era avaliar como se configura o direito de acesso ao serviço de reprodução humana assistida (RHA. A pesquisa documental foi realizada em fontes oficiais do governo federal. A partir dos critérios da análise de conteúdo, analisaram-se seis projetos de lei e uma portaria, separados em três áreas temáticas (Acesso a quê?; Acesso para quem?; e Condições e critérios de acesso reveladoras dos núcleos de sentido aqui analisados. A pesquisa revelou que o direito de acesso presente nos documentos oficiais é excludente, restritivo e moralmente induzido por uma categoria profissional e suas arbitrariedades. A articulação com os referenciais da bioética cotidiana foi relevante para trabalharmos as visões de família que se fazem legitimadas por essas propostas de regulamentação, assim como as questões éticas intrínsecas à formulação dos próprios textos delas, que nos remetem à noção de família tradicional, nuclear e patriarcal - modelo este já não mais hegemônico em nossa sociedade, e social e juridicamente ultrapassado por novas concepções familiares que também reivindicam visibilidade e legitimidade pelo Estado. O estudo pretende ser mais uma possibilidade de reflexão sobre questões que envolvem o direito de acesso ao serviço de RHA, partindo do olhar bioético.The objective of this study is to evaluate how is configured the right of access to the assisted human reproduction service (AHRS. It was developed through documentary research in official sources of the Brazilian Federal Government. From the criteria of the analysis of content were analyzed: 1 government directive and 6 projects of law, divided in 3 thematic areas (access to what?; access to whom?; and conditions and criteria of access, revealing nucleus of meaning that had been explored in this research. This revealed that the right of access in official documents is exclusive, and morally induced by a professional

  18. Sexual reproduction of human fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A; Dyer, Paul S; Soll, David R

    2014-08-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

  19. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  20. Assisted reproductive technologies and fertility "tourism": examples from global Dubai and the Ivy League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Shrivastav, Pankaj; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    What motivates the global movements of infertile people searching for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)? In this article, we attempt to answer this question by exploring infertile patients' practices of so-called "fertility tourism." Based on ethnographic research carried out with nearly 300 infertile travelers in two major ART centers--one in the global hub of the United Arab Emirates and the other at a major East Coast Ivy League university--we examine a diverse set of reasons for reproductive travel. We argue that reproductive "tourism" should be reconceptualized as reproductive "exile" in that infertile couples feel barred from accessing ARTs in their home countries. Listening to reproductive travel stories is key to understanding infertile couples' transnational "quests for conception." Stories of two couples, one from Lebanon and one from Italy, demonstrate the poignancy of these quests and begin to shed light on the complex calculus of factors governing this global movement of reproductive actors.

  1. [The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.

  2. Just Another Reproductive Technology? The Ethics of Human Reproductive Cloning as an Experimental Medical Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Elsner

    2006-01-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice...

  3. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 23: medically assisted reproduction in singles, lesbian and gay couples, and transsexual people†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wert, G; Dondorp, W; Shenfield, F; Barri, P; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Tarlatzis, B; Provoost, V; Pennings, G

    2014-09-01

    This Task Force document discusses ethical issues arising with requests for medically assisted reproduction from people in what may be called 'non-standard' situations and relationships. The document stresses that categorically denying access to any of these groups cannot be reconciled with a human rights perspective. If there are concerns about the implications of assisted reproduction on the wellbeing of any of the persons involved, including the future child, a surrogate mother or the applicants themselves, these concerns have to be considered in the light of the available scientific evidence. When doing so it is important to avoid the use of double standards. More research is needed into the psychosocial implications of raising children in non-standard situations, especially with regard to single women, male homosexual couples and transsexual people.

  4. Assisted Reproduction and the Courts: The Case of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Linda S.; Schmid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze appellate court cases heard in California between 1960 and 2000 that focus on the status of children conceived through reproductive technology in an effort to examine the role of the courts in defining parentage and family in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In the absence of legislation, the primary…

  5. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  6. Long-term fiscal implications of funding assisted reproduction: a generational accounting model for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Matorras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the lifetime economic benefits of assisted reproduction in Spain by calculating the return on this investment. We developed a generational accounting model that simulates the flow of taxes paid by the individual, minus direct government transfers received over the individual’s lifetime. The difference between discounted transfers and taxes minus the cost of either IVF or artificial insemination (AI equals the net fiscal contribution (NFC of a child conceived through assisted reproduction. We conducted sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our results under various macroeconomic scenarios. A child conceived through assisted reproduction would contribute €370,482 in net taxes to the Spanish Treasury and would receive €275,972 in transfers over their lifetime. Taking into account that only 75% of assisted reproduction pregnancies are successful, the NFC was estimated at €66,709 for IVF-conceived children and €67,253 for AI-conceived children. The return on investment for each euro invested was €15.98 for IVF and €18.53 for AI. The long-term NFC of a child conceived through assisted reproduction could range from €466,379 to €-9,529 (IVF and from €466,923 to €-8,985 (AI. The return on investment would vary between €-2.28 and €111.75 (IVF, and €-2.48 and €128.66 (AI for each euro invested. The break-even point at which the financial position would begin to favour the Spanish Treasury ranges between 29 and 41 years of age. Investment in assisted reproductive techniques may lead to positive discounted future fiscal revenue, notwithstanding its beneficial psychological effect for infertile couples in Spain.

  7. Right to assisted reproductive technology: overcoming infertility in low-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2009-08-01

    This article examines the high prevalence of primary and secondary infertility in low-resource countries. Provision of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to overcome both female and male infertility is in line with the reproductive rights agenda developed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 15 years ago. In addition to the right to control fertility, reproductive rights must encompass the right to facilitate fertility when fertility is threatened. Facilitation of fertility may require resort to ART, among both men and women. Egypt is highlighted as a positive example of progress in this regard.

  8. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and reproductive cloning: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning," last published in Fertil Steril 2012;98:804-7. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contributions from assited human reproduction techniques' socio-legal research to the legislative field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s intention is to share some of the main results of two field-based research projects regarding assisted human reproduction practices in Argentina. Both projects have been developed in a dynamic legislative context involving medical coverage regulation, parentage determination and the right to know one's origins for children born with third party genetic material. Also, in this context, the Draft Civil and Commercial Code reform introduced two figures that were then removed in the parliamentary debate: post mortem fertilization and surrogate motherhood. All these issues concerning the use of assisted human reproduction challenge the legal field and are addressed in these research projects, one of them more from an explorative perspective and the other from a qualitative one. Therefore, this article aims to introduce some of the measured variables and the findings obtained to serve as relevant contributions to achieve a more appropriate legislation according with the medical and social reality.

  10. First trimester screening for Down syndrome and assisted reproduction: no basis for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Larsen, S O; Shalmi, A

    2001-01-01

    In pregnancies obtained after assisted reproduction the false-positive rate of second trimester Down syndrome (DS) screening is increased by 1.5-3-fold. This may cause an increase in the number of amniocenteses and the fetal loss rate. The present study for the first time examined whether assisted...... pregnancies. Therefore the false-positive rate in Down syndrome screening should be independent of the method of conception....

  11. Amphibian declines in the twenty-first century: why we need assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, John; Trudeau, Vance L; Kouba, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Each amphibian species is evolutionarily distinct, having developed highly specialized and diverse reproductive strategies in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. These unique reproductive patterns and mechanisms, key to species propagation, have only been explored in a limited number of laboratory models. Although the development of applied reproductive technologies for amphibians has proven useful for a few threatened species, the real benefit of this technology has been new insights into the reproductive adaptations, behavior, endocrinology, and physiological mechanisms that have evolved over millions of years. As the basic fundamental database on amphibian reproductive physiology has grown, so has the applied benefit for species conservation. In particular, technologies such as non-invasive fecal and urinary hormone assays, hormone treatments for induced breeding or gamete collection, in vitro fertilization, and the ability to establish genome resource banks have all played important roles in monitoring or managing small populations of captive species. Amphibians have the ability to produce a large excess of germplasm (up to 10,000 ovulated eggs in a single reproductive event) that if not collected and preserved, would represent a wasted valuable resource. We discuss the current state of knowledge in assisted reproductive technologies for amphibians and why their extinction crisis means these available tools can no longer be implemented as small-scale, last-ditch efforts. The reproductive technologies must be established early as a key component of large-scale species recovery.

  12. Assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Streich, Wj; Hildebrandt, Tb

    2007-09-01

    Over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. Recent surveys estimate the wild Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. For the five rhinoceros species, black (Diceros bicornis), white (Ceratotherium simum), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis), the population estimates of 3610, 11 330, 2400, 60 and 300, respectively, are of even greater concern. Protected against habitat loss, poaching and left undisturbed, rhinoceros and elephants reproduce well in the wild. But small and decreasing populations make successful captive management of these taxa increasingly important. In captivity, however, most populations face possible 'extinction' because of historically poor reproductive performance. From the first descriptions of the reproductive anatomy and the oestrous cycle (Laws 1969; Kassam and Lasley 1981; Balke et al. 1988a,b; Plotka et al. 1988; Godfrey et al. 1991) to the present use of advanced assisted reproduction technologies, researchers have strive to understand the function and dysfunction of the reproductive biology of these charismatic species. This paper reviewed the current knowledge on rhinoceros and elephant reproduction biology, reproductive cycle, gestation, dystocia, reproductive pathology, oestrous induction and artificial insemination, sperm sexing, IVF and contraception, and how this knowledge is or might be used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management.

  13. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  14. First trimester biochemistry in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Ekelund, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Pernille

    Objective: To examine the effects of method of conception on first trimester PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and the dependency of gestational age at the time of sampling on these effects Methods: Data on more than 100 000 spontaneously conceived and on 6 859 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproducti...

  15. First trimester biochemistry in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Ekelund, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Pernille

    Objective: To examine the effects of method of conception on first trimester PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and the dependency of gestational age at the time of sampling on these effects Methods: Data on more than 100 000 spontaneously conceived and on 6 859 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproducti...

  16. Infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) - with emphasis on In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, David André

    2004-01-01

    Infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) - with emphasis on In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). A literary study reviewing the epidemiology, pathology, investigation and treatment (with complications) of both male and female infertility. Causes of infertility in women include hostile cervical mucus, sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, tubal dysfunction, problems with ovulation, polycystic ovary syndrome, hormonal imbalance ...

  17. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated during 2004 are presented in this eighth report. METHODS: Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. From 29 countries, 785 clinics reported 367,066 treatment cycles including: IVF (114...

  18. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  19. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings.

  20. Why do singletons conceived after assisted reproduction technology have adverse perinatal outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Wennerholm, U B; Romundstad, L B

    2013-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) is used worldwide, at increasing rates, and data show that some adverse outcomes occur more frequently than following spontaneous conception (SC). Possible explanatory factors for the well-known adverse perinatal outcome in ART singletons were evaluated....

  1. Pregnancy following breast cancer using assisted reproduction and its effect on long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldrat, Oranite; Kroman, Niels; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We have previously shown that pregnancy is safe following breast cancer, even in endocrine sensitive disease. Yet infertility remains common following systemic treatment. To date, no study has evaluated the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) after breast cancer...

  2. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  3. "Whose Child Is This?": Determining Legal Status for Lesbian Parents Who Used Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jan; Skinner, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped heterosexuals, lesbians, and gays fulfill desires to become parents. In this article, we identify assumptions upon which parentage rights in the United States are based. Examining recent legal decisions in California concerning 3 families headed by lesbian parents who used ARTs, we find that…

  4. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  5. [Nurses as a support to improve the quality of life during assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells-Ayuso, Paula; Berenguer-Labaig, Cristina; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual; Sánchez-Martín, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure how infertility and assisted reproduction treatments (including artificial insemination) could affect the quality of life, and to evaluate how nurses could be helpful in this process, by alleviating anxiety and increasing the quality of life. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 48 patients (26 cycles) in an Assisted Reproduction Unit from 2nd December 2013 to 30th April 2014. Socio-demographic data were obtained, with the quality of life being assessed using the FertiQoL questionnaire before and after the treatment, and the consultations with a nurse by telephone or e-mail of these patients were also analyzed. The study results show a decreased quality of life in these patients, which was worse in men and in couples who had no previous children. Patient-centered care improved quality of life and tolerability to the assisted reproduction treatment. Patients frequently telephoned the nurse to solve their doubts and problems. The present study suggests that nurses can play an important role in improving the quality of life of patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining Differences in Psychological Adjustment Problems among Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…

  7. The Efficacy of Assisted Reproduction in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Impact of Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, S; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Fedder, Jens;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we analyze the chance of a live birth and the impact of inflammatory bowel disease surgery in women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study base...

  8. Evaluation of the vervet (Clorocebus aethiops) as a model for the assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparman, Michelle L; Ramsey, Cathy M; Thomas, Carrie M; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Fanton, John W; Maginnis, Gwen M; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don P

    2007-08-01

    The vervet monkey was evaluated as a primate model for use in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Eight adult female vervets were hormonally monitored for their potential use as egg donors and those six females displaying regular menstrual cycles were subjected to controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant human gonadotropins. Three animals failed to respond while laparoscopic follicular aspiration was performed on the other three females at 27-30 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin administration. A total of 62, 40, and 18 oocytes was recovered from these three animals of which 30, 20, and 4, respectively, matured to the metaphase II stage and were subsequently inseminated using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. An average of 40+/-15% (SEM) of the inseminated oocytes were fertilized based on pronucleus formation and timely cleavage. One embryo from each of the two stimulated females developed into expanded blastocysts. Two adult male vervets were assessed as sperm donors. Neither adjusted well to the restraint and collection procedure required for penile electroejaculation. Samples collected via rectal electroejaculation were very low in sperm motility and concentration; however, cauda epididymal aspirations from one male yielded an adequate concentration of motile sperm. These results emphasize the need to establish species-specific ovarian stimulation protocols and semen collection techniques if vervets are to be considered for basic and applied (ARTs) research on primate gametes or embryos.

  9. Access to medical-assisted reproduction and pgd in Italian law: a deadly blow to an illiberal statute? commentary to the European Court on Human Rights's decision Costa and Pavan v Italy (ECtHR, 28 August 2012, App. 54270/2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an account of the European Court on Human Rights' Second Section decision in the case Costa and Pavan v Italy. The judgment found that the Italian Statute on Assisted Reproduction (Law 40/2004), and particularly its prohibition to use in vitro fertilisation and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the birth of children affected by genetically transmissible conditions, breached Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). In fact, the statute in question permits only infertile people to access medically assisted reproduction techniques and forbids PGD and embryo selection. The Court regarded that the rationale of these prohibitions-identified by the Italian Government with the need to prevent eugenic practices as well as to protect the health of the unborn and of the woman-was at odds with the fact that Italian law allows pre-natal screening and therapeutic abortions in case foetal abnormalities are diagnosed. In order to clarify the decision's significance, the paper goes on to analyse the rationale of Law 40/2004 in the Italian legal and political context. Emphasis is placed on the fact that this statute is extremely controversial at domestic level, because many of its provisions-including those considered by the Strasbourg Court-are inherently contradictory and contrast with the settled constitutional principles on abortion, as many domestic authorities highlighted. In this context, should the commented decision be confirmed by the Grand Chamber, it may provide a basis to bring consistency back to the Italian regulation of assisted reproduction. Finally, the paper considers the appeal lodged by the Italian Government to the Grand Chamber, and in particular the contention that the European Court had failed to respect Italy's margin of appreciation. In this regard, it is argued that, under Law 40/2004, individuals face illogical and discriminatory restrictions to their right to private and family life and that

  10. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  11. Role of Estrogens on Human Male Reproductive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo Rochira; Lucia Zirilli; Bruno Madeo; Antonio Balestrieri; Cesare Carani; Antonio R. M. Granata

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on estrogen role on human male physiology. Biological estrogen actions on male reproductive system are summarized with particular regard to the effects of congenital estrogen deprivation in men. The effects of estrogen on spermatogenesis, hormonal secretion and gonadotropin feedback and on sexual behavior are discussed. It is remarked that the role of estrogens in male reproduction is a very recent acquisition in reproductive endocrinology, but it promises new future fields of research to be investigated as well as the possible disclosure of new strategies in clinical practice.

  12. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  13. Human reproductive technologies and the law: a select committee report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The House of Commons Science & Technology Committee has reviewed the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act. It considered a) the balance between legislation, regulation and reproductive freedom; b) the role of Parliament in human reproductive technologies; and c) the foundation, adequacy and appropriateness of the ethical framework for legislation. It also considered the Act itself and the workings of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Its report is written from a very liberal perspective, but is a very thorough overview of current issues and debate in the field. There follow, slightly abridged, the conclusions and recommendations of the 200-page report.

  14. Human reproductive cloning: an analysis of the Andrews Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Kim

    2002-01-01

    There is nothing like an overwhelming consensus of opinion to encourage a less than rigourous approach to analyzing complex ethical issues. Unfortunately, this is nowhere more apparent than in the discussion of human reproductive cloning contained in the federal House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs' report on human cloning, released last August. The report may well fulfil the first half of its project, namely the empirical task of adequately summarizing and categorizing the various submissions made to the Committee. However, it is clearly inadequate as a discussion of the ethical and legal permissibility of human reproductive cloning.

  15. [Humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fernanda Maria de Jesus S Pires; Crizostomo, Cilene Delgado; Nery, Inez Sampaio; Mendonça, Rita de Cássia Magalhães; de Araújo, Olívia Dias; da Rocha, Silvana Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Bibliographical study that sought to identify the scientific production about humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth. The sources were scientific articles from SCIELO-Brasil's database, from 2000 to 2007. We obtained 13 articles as result from the search, which were grouped in the following categories: childbirth medicalization, humanization of assistance to childbirth, companion during childbirth and performance of the obstetric nurse. The analysis pointed out that the current paradigm is centralized on childbirth intervention, despite of humanization movements defending the natural and physiological childbirth made by the nurse. We concluded that qualified and humanized assistance to childbirth and birth privileges women's respect, dignity and autonomy, regarding women's active role in the birth process.

  16. Emerging roles of anatomists: Development of assisted reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular biology is, indeed, rapidly gaining prominence in Human Anatomy ... culminating in the birth of the first in vitro fertilization baby in Nigeria and Sub Saharan ... produces a significantly better post – thaw mortality after 4 weeks storage.

  17. [Assisted reproduction technologies and the risk of fetal, chromosomal and genetic malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbar, T; Tsafrir, A; Lev-Sagie, A; Hurwitz, A; Laufer, N; Holzer, H

    2006-03-01

    Assisted reproduction techniques allowed thousands of otherwise infertile couples to attain pregnancy. As this technology moves into the mainstream of infertility treatment, it has become more critical to reassess its safety. To review the birth outcome of patients undergoing conventional in-vitro fertilization and intracyto- plasmic sperm injection regarding fetal malformations, chromosomal and genetic abnormalities. Selective review of the literature. Most of the published data is from observational studies and is not randomized or blinded. Unfortunately, most articles are inherently biased. Chromosomal and genetic abnormalities are increased probably only as a direct corollary to the underlying parental risk and not due to the technology itself. There is a slight increase in the congenital malformations rate, but inspection of these malformations reveal no clustering of any specific abnormality. Children born after assisted reproduction technologies have an increased risk of a major congenital malformation and chromosomal abnormalities compared with those born after natural conception. The risk is mainly due to paternal and maternal risk factors, which are more prevalent in couples who use assisted reproduction techniques for reproduction. Infertility-linked risk is highly probable for the observed findings. A technique-related risk, however, cannot be ruled out. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection appears to be a safe alternative for couples who otherwise would be unable to achieve pregnancy. The inherent risks associated with these genetically "at risk" couples mandate thorough evaluation and counseling before undertaking ICSI.

  18. Prostasomes: Their Characterisation: Implications for Human Reproduction: Prostasomes and Human Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a principal accessory genital gland that is vital for normal fertility. Epithelial cells lining the prostate acini release in a defined fashion (exocytosis) organellar nanosized structures named prostasomes. They are involved in the protection of sperm cells against immune response in the female reproductive tract by modulating the complement system and by inhibiting monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. The immunomodulatory function most probably involves small non-coding RNAs present in prostasomes. Prostasomes have also been proposed to regulate the timing of sperm cell capacitation and induction of the acrosome reaction, since they are rich in various transferable bioactive molecules (e.g. receptors and enzymes) that promote the fertilising ability of sperm cells. Antigenicity of sperm cells has been well documented and implicated in involuntary immunological infertility of human couples, and antisperm antibodies (ASA) occur in several body fluids. The propensity of sperm cells to carry attached prostasomes suggests that they are a new category of sperm antigens. Circulating human ASA recognise prostasomes, and among 12 identified prostasomal antigens, prolactin- inducible protein (95 %) and clusterin (85 %) were immunodominant at the expense of the other 10 that were sporadically occurring.

  19. Promotion of research in human reproduction: global needs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M F

    1988-01-01

    The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972, to respond to a global expansion in research needs in human reproduction, especially in the area of fertility regulation. The Programme's limited resources come from voluntary contributions by governments and international agencies. The emphasis is always on the needs of developing countries. The Programme has to keep the field under continuous review, and to direct its limited resources to the major unmet needs. This paper presents, from a global perspective, the needs and priorities in the promotion of research in human reproduction. It is emphasized that research has to be backed up by political commitment and resources if it is to have an impact on reproductive health. The role of determinants of health, other than and beyond the medical services, has also to be recognized. Promotion of research in human reproduction, to serve developing country needs, has to move into two directions. One is the mobilization of a global effort to develop and test technologies, where the available technologies are not satisfactory to meet the needs and where the research is slackening. The second is the strengthening of in-country resources for research to deal with country-specific problems and to enable countries to utilize, to the best, available technologies.

  20. Financial "risk-sharing" or refund programs in assisted reproduction: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Financial "risk-sharing" fee structures in assisted reproduction programs charge patients a higher initial fee but provide reduced fees for subsequent cycles and often a partial or complete refund if treatment fails. This opinion of the ASRM Ethics Committee analyzes the ethical issues raised by these fee structures, including patient selection criteria, conflicts of interest, success rate transparency, and patient informed consent. This document replaces the document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:334-6). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis: A plus for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aziken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  2. [Interconnection between assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications and risk of birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar', V V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to investigate the relationship between pregnancy complications, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The study was conducted on 1331 couples with complicated reproductive history. It is found that miscarriage and other complications of pregnancy depend rather on the etiopathogenesis of infertility than on the technique of ART. The highest frequency of complications of pregnancy was diagnosed in women with endocrine disorders. In case of congenital malformations in the fetus the frequency of birth defects was 3.6% after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 1.8% in case of spontaneous pregnancy. It was found an increased risk of birth defects in singleton boys conceived by IVF.

  3. Current controversies in turner syndrome: Genetic testing, assisted reproduction, and cardiovascular risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Turner syndrome (TS require close medical follow-up and management for cardiac abnormalities, growth and reproductive issues. This review summarizes current controversies in this condition, including: 1 the optimal genetic testing for Turner syndrome patients, particularly with respect to identification of Y chromosome material that may increase the patient's risk of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma, 2 which patients should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy and the recommended timing of such referral, 3 options for assisted reproduction in these patients and associated risks, 4 the increased risk of mortality associated with pregnancy in this population, and 5 how best to assess and monitor cardiovascular risks.

  4. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis:A plus for assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziken M; Osaikhuwuomwan J; Osemwenkha A; Iribhogbe O; Orhue A

    2015-01-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART) was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  5. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  6. Round-table multidisciplinary counselling of couples with HIV prior to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Sibil; Steimann, Sabine; Bitzer, Johannes; Hösli, Irene; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Elzi, Luigia; Klimkait, Thomas; Rudin, Christoph; Battegay, Manuel; De Geyter, Christian

    2008-08-01

    Assisted reproduction is used to support couples with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in achieving pregnancy without compromising the health of the partner or the offspring. This complex situation requires a joint effort by experts from different medical fields over prolonged periods. In order to fulfil all requirements, a comprehensive multidisciplinary counselling approach was initiated through round-table conventions of experts together with individual couples. The aim of this novel approach was an informed sharing of responsibility in the decision-making process, and also to ensure the adherence of the couples. The experts' and the couples' experience of the multidisciplinary meetings was evaluated using structured questionnaires. A total of 34 couples were referred, 15 with the male partner HIV infected, 15 with the female partner infected, four with both partners infected. Twenty-two couples participated in the multidisciplinary counselling. Three couples withdrew after counselling. Fourteen pregnancies were achieved leading to the birth of eight children. The experts viewed the panel's composition and the decision-making process as valuable, necessary and beneficial to the couples. The responding couples considered the meetings to be clarifying and helpful and they felt respected. It is concluded that the round-table multidisciplinary meeting approach is a feasible option for HIV-affected couples with infertility.

  7. The ethical, legal, and social issues impacted by modern assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Paul R; Zhao, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    Background. While assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization has given hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility, it has also introduced countless ethical, legal, and social challenges. The objective of this paper is to identify the aspects of ART that are most relevant to present-day society and discuss the multiple ethical, legal, and social challenges inherent to this technology. Scope of Review. This paper evaluates some of the most visible and challenging topics in the field of ART and outlines the ethical, legal, and social challenges they introduce. Major Conclusions. ART has resulted in a tectonic shift in the way physicians and the general population perceive infertility and ethics. In the coming years, advancing technology is likely to exacerbate ethical, legal, and social concerns associated with ART. ART is directly challenging society to reevaluate the way in which human life, social justice and equality, and claims to genetic offspring are viewed. Furthermore, these issues will force legal systems to modify existing laws to accommodate the unique challenges created by ART. Society has a responsibility to ensure that the advances achieved through ART are implemented in a socially responsible manner.

  8. Diverse functions of uterine proteoglycans in human reproduction (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Kotaro; Tada, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Terumi; Taguchi, Sagiri; Funabiki, Miyako; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Yasuo, Tadahiro

    2012-06-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are a group of heavily glycosylated proteins that are present throughout the mammalian body and are involved in a wide variety of biological phenomena, including structural maintenance, tissue remodeling, molecular presentation, cell adhesion and signal transmission. Previous studies have revealed an increasing number of roles for PGs in human reproduction. Several PGs are currently utilized or regarded as biomarkers for the diagnosis of certain pathological uterine conditions associated with infertility and obstetrical complications. The aim of this review was to discuss the involvement of PGs in the human uterus in reproductive biology and pathophysiology.

  9. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-03-22

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success.

  10. Intrapartum interventions for singleton pregnancies arising from assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu-Ming; Lanes, Andrea; Kingdom, John C P; Cao, Huiling; Kramer, Michael; Wen, Shi Wu; Wu, Junqing; Chen, Yue; Walker, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) sont associées à une hausse du recours à des interventions intrapartum, par comparaison avec les grossesses monofœtales spontanées. Méthodes : Au total, 1 327 grossesses attribuables aux TPA et 5 222 grossesses spontanées s’étant déroulées au cours de la période 2004-2008 ont été extraites du système informatique BORN (Better Outcomes Registry and Network ou, en français, « bons résultats dès la naissance ») de l’Ontario. L’incidence des interventions intrapartum courantes a été comparée et divers systèmes de classification des césariennes ont été utilisés pour en comparer les indications dans le cadre des grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux TPA (avec ou sans injection intracytoplasmique d’un spermatozoïde) et dans le cadre des grossesses monofœtales spontanées. Résultats : Par comparaison avec le groupe « spontanée », le groupe « TPA » présentait une hausse de l’incidence du monitorage fœtal électronique interne (RC, 1,60; IC à 95 %, 1,37 - 1,87), de la rupture artificielle des membranes (RC, 1,39; IC à 95 %, 1,17 - 1,66), de l’accélération du travail au moyen d’oxytocine (RC, 1,51; IC à 95 %, 1,28 - 1,77), du déclenchement du travail (RC, 1,31; IC à 95 %, 1,14 - 1,50) et de la césarienne (RC, 1,40; IC à 95 %, 1,24 - 1,60). Conclusion : Les grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux TPA ont été associées à une utilisation plus fréquente de plusieurs interventions intrapartum, dont la césarienne.

  11. Successful Pregnancy Following Assisted Reproduction in Woman With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Hypertension: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, José Fernando; de Macedo, Gustavo Capinzaiki; Campos, Luciana Aparecida; Baltatu, Ovidiu Constantin

    2015-09-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have a poor prognosis of pregnancy, since it is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity, including spontaneous miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal death and pre-term delivery. We report a case with successful pregnancy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and hypertension. A 39-year-old nulliparous woman presented with systemic lupus erythematosus with antinuclear and antiphospholipid antibodies, hypertension and recurrent pregnancy loss presented for assisted reproduction. The patient responded well to enoxaparin and prednisone during both assisted reproduction and prenatal treatment. This case report indicates that prescription of immunosuppressant and blood thinners can be safely recommended throughout the whole prenatal period in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Enoxaparin and prednisone may be prescribed concurrently during pregnancy.

  12. Pain relief for women undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Irene; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Knox, Fiona; McNeil, Alex

    2013-01-31

    Various methods of conscious sedation and analgesia have been used for pain relief during oocyte recovery in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. The choice of agent has also been influenced by the quality of sedation and analgesia as well as by concerns about possible detrimental effects on reproductive outcomes. To assess the effectiveness and safety of different methods of conscious sedation and analgesia on pain relief and pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval. We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL (from their inception to present); the National Research Register and Current Controlled Trials. We searched reference lists of included studies for relevant studies and contacted authors for information on unpublished and ongoing trials. There was no language restriction. The search was updated in July 2012. Only randomised controlled trials comparing different methods of conscious sedation and analgesia for pain relief during oocyte recovery were included. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two review authors. Interventions were classified and analysed under broad categories or strategies of sedation and pain relief to compare different methods and administrative protocols of conscious sedation and analgesia. Outcomes were extracted and the data were pooled when appropriate. With this update, nine new studies were identified resulting in a total of 21 trials including 2974 women undergoing oocyte retrieval. These trials compared five different categories of conscious sedation and analgesia: 1) conscious sedation and analgesia versus placebo; 2) conscious sedation and analgesia versus other active interventions such as general and acupuncture anaesthesia; 3) conscious sedation and analgesia plus

  13. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Asgarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V, Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for P<0.05. Results: In the sensation-seeking variable, there was a meaningful difference between under-study groups. However, the flexibility and happiness variables did not have a significant difference between under-study groups (P<0.001. Interaction between education, employment, and financial status was effective in happiness of infertile women underwent ART (P<0.05, while age, education and financial status were also effective in happiness of infertile women sought surrogacy (P<0.05. A positive meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and flexibility variables in both groups (P<0.05. And a negative meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and happiness in infertile

  14. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  15. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction. PMID:27579148

  16. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoral, Jan; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  17. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nevoral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART, because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  18. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, V.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.; Betts, D.H.; Hyttel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to creat...

  19. [Genetic engineering and assisted reproduction techniques in man: a framework for sociologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Morales, M R

    1999-01-01

    The possibilities opened up by genetic engineering and assisted reproduction techniques require reflection by sociologists and extensive public debate. In view of their potential as factors of social change, evaluation and control are warranted. They can be viable only if transparent and through public co-responsibility, for which an exchange of views is needed between all those who play a part in the development of said techniques. This dialogue must be wholly interdisciplinary and democratic.

  20. Risk of congenital heart defects associated with assisted reproductive technologies: a population-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tararbit, Karim; Houyel, Lucile; Bonnet, Damien; De Vigan, Catherine; Lelong, Nathalie; Goffinet, François; Khoshnood, Babak

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). We used data from the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations on 5493 cases of CHD and 3847 malformed controls for which no associations with ART were reported in the literature. Assisted reproductive technologies included inductors of ovulation only, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Exposure to ART was higher for cases than controls (4.7 vs. 3.6%, P= 0.008) and was associated with a 40% increase in the maternal age, socioeconomic factors, and year of birth-adjusted odds of CHD without chromosomal abnormalities [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.7]. Assisted reproductive technologies were specifically associated with significant increases in the odds of malformations of the outflow tracts and ventriculoarterial connections (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) and of cardiac neural crest defects and double outlet right ventricle (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7). In general, we found specific associations between methods of ART and subcategories of CHD. Cases with CHD were more likely to have been conceived following ART when compared with malformed controls. This higher risk for CHD varied specifically according to the method of ART and the type of CHD and may be due to ART per se and/or the underlying infertility of couples.

  1. The impact of assisted reproductive technologies on the genome and epigenome of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, A; Merritt, T A; Gadzinowski, J; Jopek, A

    2013-01-01

    The question of genetic alterations resulting from assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in humans is examined within the organization of the human genome. Increased rates of birth defects have been reported among children conceived using ART; however, questions remain and controversy exists regarding how "infertility" predisposes to birth defects. ART has been shown to be associated with an increased number of chromosomal alterations especially in the X chromosome. There is increased risk for embryonal tumors among ART conceived children, as well as, imprinting disorders (Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman Syndromes). Genetic studies of children conceived using ART reveal a larger (genome-wide) scale of methylation defects that encompass hundreds of genes. Genes involved in carcinogenesis and developmental pathways appear altered and may impact on later development of chronic illness, although these data are very preliminary. ART may create novel mutations by different chromosomal and molecular mechanisms; however, these techniques also enable propagation of pre-existing mutations that are associated with impaired fertility. While older maternal age is often associated with female infertility and chromosomal aneuploidy, sperm from older men have more new gene mutations. The prevalence of birth defects is increased when ART is used for conception. These data are summarized by large meta-analyses or from multi-year national registries. Whether the increased number of birth defects is due to ART procedures themselves or are a consequence of the impaired fertility of the parents is discussed. Long-term evaluation of children conceived using ART and/or ovarian hyper-stimulation is needed to determine whether alterations during embryonic development may increase the prevalence of chronic diseases in adulthood.

  2. DNA fragmentation of spermatozoa and assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ralf; Kierspel, Eva; Hajimohammad, Marjam; Stalf, Thomas; Hoogendijk, Christiaan; Mehnert, Claas; Menkveld, Roelof; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard; Kruger, Thinus F

    2003-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing knowledge of the fertilization process, there is still a need for better understanding of the causes of sperm DNA fragmentation and its impact on fertilization and pregnancy. For this reason, human sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated by means of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ejaculate and in the spermatozoa themselves. These data were correlated with fertilization and pregnancy data from IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients. Sperm DNA fragmentation did not correlate with fertilization rate, but there was a significantly reduced pregnancy rate in IVF patients inseminated with TUNEL-positive spermatozoa. ICSI patients exhibited the same tendency. This implies that spermatozoa with damaged DNA are able to fertilize an oocyte, but at the time the paternal genome is switched on, further development stops. The determination of ROS in the ejaculate and the percentage of ROS-producing spermatozoa revealed markedly stronger correlations between sperm functions (i.e. motility) and the percentage of ROS-producing spermatozoa. The influence of seminal leukocytes, known to produce large amounts of oxidants, on sperm DNA fragmentation should not be neglected.

  3. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed transfer followed immediately with ET (40%); [2] afterload transfer (30%); and [3] direct transfer without prior trial or afterload (27%). Embryos are discharged in the upper (66%) and middle thirds (29%) of the endometrial cavity and not closer than 1-1.5 cm from fundus (87%). Details of each step were reported and allowed the development of a "common" practice ET procedure. ET training and practices vary widely. Improved training and standardization based on outcomes data and best practices are warranted. A common practice procedure is suggested for validation by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assisted Reproduction: What factors interfere in the professional's decisions? Are single women an issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlatzis Basil C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of medical technology, many countries around the world have been implementing ethical guidelines and laws regarding Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR. A physician's reproductive decisions are not solely based on technical criteria but are also influenced by society values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the factors prioritized by MAR professionals when deciding on whether to accept to perform assisted reproduction and to show any existing cultural differences. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 224 healthcare professionals working with assisted reproduction in Brazil, Italy, Germany and Greece. Instrument used for data collection: a questionnaire, followed by the description of four special MAR cases (a single woman, a lesbian couple, an HIV discordant couple and gender selection which included case-specific questions regarding the professionals' decision on whether to perform the requested procedure as well as the following factors: socio-demographic variables, moral and legal values as well as the technical aspects which influence decision-making. Results Only the case involving a single woman who wishes to have a child (without the intention of having a partner in the future demonstrated significant differences. Therefore, the study was driven towards the results of this case specifically. The analyses we performed demonstrated that professionals holding a Master's Degree, those younger in age, female professionals, those having worked for less time in reproduction, those in private clinics and Brazilian health professionals all had a greater tendency to perform the procedure in that case. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the reasons for the professional's decision to perform the procedure were the woman's right to gestate and the duty of MAR professionals to help her. The professionals who decided not to perform the procedure identified the woman's marital status and

  5. Pathophysiological roles of chemokines in human reproduction: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Kotaro; Yamada, Hisao

    2011-05-01

    Chemokines are a group of small cytokines that have an ability to induce leukocyte migration. Chemokines exert their functions by binding and activating specific G protein-coupled receptors. Studies have unveiled pleiotropic bioactivities of chemokines in various phenomena ranging from immunomodulation, embryogenesis, and homeostasis to pathogenesis. In the mammalian reproductive system, chemokines unexceptionally serve in multimodal events that are closely associated with establishment, maintenance, and deterioration of fecundity. The aim of this review is to update the knowledge on chemokines in male and female genital organs, with a focus on their potential pathophysiological roles in human reproduction.

  6. Human reproduction in art: from myths to history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Felice; Bettini, Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    Conception, gestation, and birth, including maternal-fetal health, have been the subject of narrative and art since early human history. Myth and histories related to pregnancy were represented by sculptors and painters as well as the subject of several operas: the mystery of reproduction was always a fascinating theme. This mystery was commonly represented across cultures and time, in the old world, from Egypt to India, to Greece and Rome continuing until the Renaissance and the Modern period. To be an artist meant also to be a scientist in several societies. The current paper reports 12 examples of the fusion of art and reproductive science.

  7. Embodied subjects and fragmented objects: Women's bodies, assisted reproduction technologies and the right to self-determination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the transformation of the female reproductive body with the use of assisted reproduction technologies under neo-liberal economic globalisation, wherein the ideology of trade without borders is central, as well as under liberal feminist ideals, wherein the right to self-determ

  8. Medical devices; obstetrical and gynecological devices; classification of the assisted reproduction embryo image assessment system. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  9. The ethics of human reproductive cloning: when world views collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2004-01-01

    Two camps in bioethics with seemingly opposing world views have staked out conflicting positions regarding the ethics of human reproductive cloning. These camps do not appear to share common concepts or ways of reasoning through which to exchange views and come to a meeting of minds about uses of this technology. Yet analysis of their respective approaches to several issues surrounding reproductive cloning, such as where the ethical limits of individual reproductive choice lie, whether the use of this technology would violate human dignity, whether it would create risks to the resulting fetuses and children that would make its use intolerable, and whether it would challenge certain core social values, reveals that they are not wholly opposed to one another. Indeed, it displays that they hold certain beliefs, values, and concerns in common. Moreover, it indicates that the different world views that they each presuppose, while flawed in certain respects, do not collide in every respect, but can be reconciled in significant ways that provide fertile ground for agreement about several issues related to human reproductive cloning.

  10. [Analysis of factors associated with multiple pregnancies in assisted reproduction treatment complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Nieto, C A; Méndez-Lozano, D H; Fraustro-Ávila, M E; García-Martínez, M R; Soto-Cossio, L E; Basurto-Díaz, D; Flores-Mendoza, H

    2016-01-01

    Today, advances in technology provide the best success rates in the reproductive medicine field. One of the biggest concerns about it, is the high risk of achieving multiple pregnancies, which may carry greater health risks for both; the mother and fetuses. Besides that, multiple pregnancies are considered a complication or an adverse effect of assisted reproduction treatments. To compare the factors associated with multiple pregnancy in patients who underwent complex assisted reproduction techniques. A retrospective and transversal case control study was rolled to compare the factors associated with multiple pregnancy rates, these results were correlated using a logistic regression model. a total of 1063 cases were reviewed, we obtained a pregnancy rate of 35.9%, and a multiple pregnancy rate of 31.5%. We found positive statistical association between patient age, total number of oocytes obtained, total embryos transferred, total vitrified embryos per cycle, total serum cuantitative B-GCH level, endometrial thickness in milimeters, and the Honest of a multiple pregnancy. In the logistic regression model, we found statistical association between the number of embryos transferred, number of embryos obtained, embryo quality, total vitrified embryos and the risk for multiple pregnancies. The total number of embryos transferred in a cycle of a complex assisted reproduction, is the most important factor for the onset of multiple pregnancies. The age of patients, the number of oocytes, total number of embryos obtained, the number of embryos transferred, the quality of embryos transferred and the number of frozen embryos per cycle, correlate significantly with more risk for multiple pregnancies.

  11. Clinical and molecular analyses of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Comparison between spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Jair; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Fernández, García-Moya; Segovia, Mabel; Perandones, Claudia; Pérez Jurado, Luis A; Esteller, Manel; Fraga, Mario; Arias, Pedro; Gordo, Gema; Dapía, Irene; Mena, Rocío; Palomares, María; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Nevado, Julián; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Vallespín, Elena; Monk, David; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by an excessive prenatal and postnatal growth, macrosomia, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The molecular basis of this syndrome is complex and heterogeneous, involving genes located at 11p15.5. BWS is correlated with assisted reproductive techniques. BWS in individuals born following assisted reproductive techniques has been found to occur four to nine times higher compared to children with to BWS born after spontaneous conception. Here, we report a series of 187 patients with to BWS born either after assisted reproductive techniques or conceived naturally. Eighty-eight percent of BWS patients born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in comparison with 49% for patients with BWS conceived naturally. None of the patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypermethylation of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR, neither CDKN1 C mutations nor patUPD11. We did not find differences in the frequency of multi-locus imprinting disturbances between groups. Patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had an increased frequency of advanced bone age, congenital heart disease, and decreased frequency of earlobe anomalies but these differences may be explained by the different molecular background compared to those with BWS and spontaneous fertilization. We conclude there is a correlation of the molecular etiology of BWS with the type of conception. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Food availability at birth limited reproductive success in historical humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Ian J; Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Helle, Samuli; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life can profoundly affect individual development and have consequences for reproductive success. Limited food availability may be one of the reasons for this, but direct evidence linking variation in early-life nutrition to reproductive performance in adulthood in natural populations is sparse. We combined historical agricultural data with detailed demographic church records to investigate the effect of food availability around the time of birth on the reproductive success of 927 men and women born in 18th-century Finland. Our study population exhibits natural mortality and fertility rates typical of many preindustrial societies, and individuals experienced differing access to resources due to social stratification. We found that among both men and women born into landless families (i.e., with low access to resources), marital prospects, probability of reproduction, and offspring viability were all positively related to local crop yield during the birth year. Such effects were generally absent among those born into landowning families. Among landless individuals born when yields of the two main crops, rye and barley, were both below median, only 50% of adult males and 55% of adult females gained any reproductive success in their lifetime, whereas 97% and 95% of those born when both yields were above the median did so. Our results suggest that maternal investment in offspring in prenatal or early postnatal life may have profound implications for the evolutionary fitness of human offspring, particularly among those for which resources are more limiting. Our study adds support to the idea that early nutrition can limit reproductive success in natural animal populations, and provides the most direct evidence to date that this process applies to humans.

  13. The role of syncytins in human reproduction and reproductive organ cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygur, Bikem; Sati, Leyla

    2016-11-01

    Human life begins with sperm and oocyte fusion. After fertilization, various fusion events occur during human embryogenesis and morphogenesis. For example, the fusion of trophoblastic cells constitutes a key process for normal placental development. Fusion in the placenta is facilitated by syncytin 1 and syncytin 2. These syncytins arose from retroviral sequences that entered the primate genome 25 million and more than 40 million years ago respectively. About 8% of the human genome consists of similar human endogenous retroviral (HERVs) sequences. Many are inactive because of mutations or deletions. However, the role of the few that remain transcriptionally active has not been fully elucidated. Syncytin proteins maintain cell-cell fusogenic activity based on ENV: gene-mediated viral cell entry. In this review, we summarize how syncytins and their receptors are involved in fusion events during human reproduction. The significance of syncytins in tumorigenesis is also discussed.

  14. Twins conceived using assisted reproduction: parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment at middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-10-10

    Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P family demographics are representative of US ART patients, patients are from one US clinic. Responses also are from one family member and may be subject to social desirability biases. Additionally, our data did not include identification of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Studies on infant and toddler ART twins suggest these families have parents with more mental health difficulties and lower parent-child relationship

  15. Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2006-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle--as interpreted in the European Union--are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  16. A Review of The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryo Grading System and Proposed Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Amjad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART method of embryo grad- ing is unique, simple, and widely practiced, and its use has been mandatory for SART membership programs since 2010. Developed by SART in 2006, the current embryo grading system categories, “good, fair, and poor,” are limited because they do not describe the best 1-2 embryos in the interest of keeping pace with the shift in clinical practice to be more selective and to transfer fewer embryos. This inspired us to conduct a review on the SART embryo grading system. In this retrospective study, the literature on evaluation of human embryo quality in gen- eral, and the SART method of evaluation in particular, were reviewed for the period of 2000 to 2014. A multifaceted search pertaining to methods of embryo grading and trans- fer using a combination of relevant terms [embryo, mammalian, embryo transfer, grade, grading, morphology, biomarkers, SART, and in vitro fertilization (IVF] was performed. The inclusion and exclusion in this review were dictated by the aim and scope of the study. Two investigators independently assessed the studies and extracted information. A total of 61 articles were reviewed. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of the SART embryo grading method. The present study suggests the necessity for revision of the current SART grading system. The system, as it is now, lacks criteria for describing the cohort specific best embryo and thus is of limited use in single embryo transfer. The study foresees heightened descriptive efficiency of the SART system by implementing the proposed changes. Strengths and weaknesses of the SART embryo grading were identified. Ideas for selecting the best cohort-specific embryo have been discussed, which may trigger methodological improvement in SART and other embryo grading systems.

  17. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  18. Assisted reproduction services provision in a developing country: time to act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murage, Alfred; Muteshi, Murwa C; Githae, Francis

    2011-10-01

    To conduct a survey in a developing country to gauge the extent of subfertility and the current state of assisted reproductive technology (ART) service provision and explore factors limiting access to ART services. Cross-sectional online survey. The study was co-ordinated at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. One hundred eighty-eight obstetricians and gynecologists registered with the Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society were invited to complete the survey. None. None. A total of 47 responses (25%) were received after completion of the survey. The overall rate of subfertility was 26.1% among the gynecology consultations, with 50% attributed to tubal factors and 15% due to male factors. Assisted reproductive service provision (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection) was severely limited to only three units, despite the reported high rate of tubal disease. The high cost of treatment, patients' limited finances, and limited local services were almost universally cited as the main barriers to ART services in Kenya. The demand for ART in developing countries is not in doubt. Simplified, less costly, and more accessible ART approaches need to be considered in developing countries, even though the benefits and outcomes of such approaches may not be apparent immediately. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lise hTomsen; Peter Humaidan; Leif Bungum; Mona Bungum

    2014-01-01

    It is well‑documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conlficting regarding the inlfuence of male body mass index(BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology(ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non‑obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self‑reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI30kgm−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay(SCSA). No statistically signiifcant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters(sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA‑results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos(GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not inlfuenced by the increasing male BMI.

  20. "It just alienated us": a case study to explore the impact of assisted reproductive technology on family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra; Rudge, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    New reproductive technologies have the capacity to impact on both personal and healthcare relationships. This article utilizes a case study approach to unpack experiences of one couple who encountered immense and unforeseen difficulties as a result of treatment with assisted reproductive technology. Findings of this case reveal both difficulties and breaches in obtaining informed consent and the consequences these breaches have on relationships. Comprehensive information contributes to positive relationships between patients and healthcare providers. Maintaining supportive relationships between all parties concerned with assisted reproductive technology services is essential, as rifts in these relationships can be devastating and long-lasting.

  1. Manifestations of Immune Privilege in the Human Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary F Clark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.

  2. Sperm selection in natural conception: what can we learn from Mother Nature to improve assisted reproduction outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Denny; Ramalingam, Mythili; Garrido, Nicolas; Barratt, Christopher L R

    2015-01-01

    In natural conception only a few sperm cells reach the ampulla or the site of fertilization. This population is a selected group of cells since only motile cells can pass through cervical mucus and gain initial entry into the female reproductive tract. In animals, some studies indicate that the sperm selected by the reproductive tract and recovered from the uterus and the oviducts have higher fertilization rates but this is not a universal finding. Some species show less discrimination in sperm selection and abnormal sperm do arrive at the oviduct. In contrast, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) utilize a more random sperm population. In this review we contrast the journey of the spermatozoon in vivo and in vitro and discuss this in the context of developing new sperm preparation and selection techniques for ART. A review of the literature examining characteristics of the spermatozoa selected in vivo is compared with recent developments in in vitro selection and preparation methods. Contrasts and similarities are presented. New technologies are being developed to aid in the diagnosis, preparation and selection of spermatozoa in ART. To date progress has been frustrating and these methods have provided variable benefits in improving outcomes after ART. It is more likely that examining the mechanisms enforced by nature will provide valuable information in regard to sperm selection and preparation techniques in vitro. Identifying the properties of those spermatozoa which do reach the oviduct will also be important for the development of more effective tests of semen quality. In this review we examine the value of sperm selection to see how much guidance for ART can be gleaned from the natural selection processes in vivo. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  3. Results from the International Consensus Conference on myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol in Obstetrics and Gynecology--assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Gerli, Sandro; Montanino Oliva, Mario; Devroey, Paul; Lanzone, Antonio; Soulange, Christophe; Facchinetti, Fabio; Carlo Di Renzo, Gian; Bizzarri, Mariano; Hod, Moshe; Cavalli, Pietro; D'Anna, Rosario; Benvenga, Salvatore; Chiu, Tony T; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2015-06-01

    A substantial body of research on mammalian gametogenesis and human reproduction has recently investigated the effect of myo-inositol (MyoIns) on oocyte and sperm cell quality, due to its possible application to medically assisted reproduction. With a growing number of both clinical and basic research papers, the meaning of several observations now needs to be interpreted under a solid and rigorous physiological framework. The 2013 Florence International Consensus Conference on Myo- and D-chiro-inositol in obstetrics and gynecology has answered a number of research questions concerning the use of the two stereoisomers in assisted reproductive technologies. Available clinical trials and studies on the physiological and pharmacological effects of these molecules have been surveyed. Specifically, the physiological involvement of MyoIns in oocyte maturation and sperm cell functions has been discussed, providing an answer to the following questions: (1) Are inositols physiologically involved in oocyte maturation? (2) Are inositols involved in the physiology of spermatozoa function? (3) Is treatment with inositols helpful within assisted reproduction technology cycles? (4) Are there any differences in clinical efficacy between MyoIns and D-chiro-inositol? The conclusions of this Conference, drawn depending on expert panel opinions and shared with all the participants, are summarized in this review paper.

  4. Global Health Care Justice, Delivery Doctors and Assisted Reproduction: Taking a Note From Catholic Social Teachings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article will examine the Catholic concept of global justice within a health care framework as it relates to women's needs for delivery doctors in the developing world and women's demands for assisted reproduction in the developed world. I will first discuss justice as a theory, situating it within Catholic social teachings. The Catholic perspective on global justice in health care demands that everyone have access to basic needs before elective treatments are offered to the wealthy. After exploring specific discrepancies in global health care justice, I will point to the need for delivery doctors in the developing world to provide basic assistance to women who hazard many pregnancies as a priority before offering assisted reproduction to women in the developed world. The wide disparities between maternal health in the developing world and elective fertility treatments in the developed world are clearly unjust within Catholic social teachings. I conclude this article by offering policy suggestions for moving closer to health care justice via doctor distribution.

  5. Lab-on-a-chip biophotonics: its application to assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Smith, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2012-08-01

    With the benefits of automation, sensitivity and precision, microfluidics has enabled complex and otherwise tedious experiments. Lately, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) has proven to be a useful tool for enhancing non-invasive assisted reproductive technology (ART). Non-invasive gamete and embryo assessment has largely been through periodic morpohological assessment using optical microscopy and early LOC ART was the same. As we realize that morphological assessment is a poor indication of gamete or embryo health, more advanced biophotonics has emerged in LOC ART to assay for metabolites or gamete separation via optoelectrical tweezers. Off-chip, even more advanced biophotonics with broad spectrum analysis of metabolites and secretomes has been developed that show even higher accuracy to predicting reproductive potential. The integration of broad spectrum metabolite analysis into LOC ART is an exciting future that merges automation and sensitivity with the already highly accurate and strong predictive power of biophotonics.

  6. [Bacteriospermia in Assisted Reproductive Techniques: effects of bacteria on spermatozoa and seminal plasma, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitrelle, F; Robin, G; Lefebvre, C; Bailly, M; Selva, J; Courcol, R; Lornage, J; Albert, M

    2012-04-01

    The presence of bacteria in semen could induce impairment of sperm morphology, alteration of sperm function and mechanical or functional obstruction of the seminal tract. The term of bacteriospermia does not signify infection. Bacteriospermia and male accessory gland infection (MAGI) have indeed to be distinguished. They may lead both to male infertility but their diagnosis and treatment options differ. This review summarizes effects of bacteria and leucocytospermia on sperm parameters and functions. Then, indications, benefits and risks of treatment of bacteriospermia and MAGI, in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be discussed. For bacteria commonly observed in semen, this review aims at defining some thresholds above which a treatment is required. These thresholds were established according to literature, according to French microbiology society and in function of our usual practice. This review should help practitioners of reproductive medicine to take care of bacteriospermia in semen.

  7. The role of steroid hormone supplementation in non-assisted reproductive technology treatments for unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaas, Alexander M; Hansen, Karl R

    2016-12-01

    Fertility treatment strategies are evolving, with a more rapid transition to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments after unsuccessful non-ART treatments. This trend increases the potential importance of adjuvant treatments in non-ART cycles, such as steroid hormone supplementation. It has been established that success rates of ART treatments are increased with the use of luteal support with progesterone. In the setting of non-ART cycles, however, the evidence is less clear, and clinical practices vary widely between providers and clinics. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of the current evidence for the use of steroid hormone supplementation, including progesterone for luteal support, estrogens, androgens, and mineralocorticoids, in the setting of non-ART treatments for ovulatory women. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exotendons for assistance of human locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bogert Antonie J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered robotic exoskeletons for assistance of human locomotion are currently under development for military and medical applications. The energy requirements for such devices are excessive, and this has become a major obstacle for practical applications. Legged locomotion in many animals, however, is very energy efficient. We propose that poly-articular elastic mechanisms are a major contributor to the economy of locomotion in such specialized animals. Consequently, it should be possible to design unpowered assistive devices that make effective use of similar mechanisms. Methods A passive assistive technology is presented, based on long elastic cords attached to an exoskeleton and guided by pulleys placed at the joints. A general optimization procedure is described for finding the best geometrical arrangement of such "exotendons" for assisting a specific movement. Optimality is defined either as minimal residual joint moment or as minimal residual joint power. Four specific exotendon systems with increasing complexity are considered. Representative human gait data were used to optimize each of these four systems to achieve maximal assistance for normal walking. Results The most complex exotendon system, with twelve pulleys per limb, was able to reduce the joint moments required for normal walking by 71% and joint power by 74%. A simpler system, with only three pulleys per limb, could reduce joint moments by 46% and joint power by 47%. Conclusion It is concluded that unpowered passive elastic devices can substantially reduce the muscle forces and the metabolic energy needed for walking, without requiring a change in movement. When optimally designed, such devices may allow independent locomotion in patients with large deficits in muscle function.

  9. Birth defects and congenital health risks in children conceived through assisted reproduction technology (ART): a meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) is here to stay. This review addresses the parental background of birth defects, before, during and after conception and focuses both on the underlying subfertility and on the question whether ART as a treatment is an additional contributing factor. Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Summaries were discussed in a Delphi panel set-up by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Several birth defects and adult diseases arise during the earliest stages of ovarian development and oocyte differentiation: this is the case of cleft palate disorders in offspring from female rat exposed to Dioxin during fetal life or the polycystic ovary diseases in female offspring (primates) exposed to elevated androgen concentration during fetal life. Human oocytes and embryos often fail to stop the propagation of aneuploid cells but maintain their ability to repair DNA damages including those introduced by the fertilizing sperm. There is a 29 % increased risk of birth defects in the newborns spontaneously conceived by subfertile couples and the risk is further increased (34 %) when conception is achieved by treating infertlity with ART (Danish IVF Registry). Periconceptional conditions are critical for ART babies: their birth weight is in general smaller (Norvegian Registry) but a more prolonged culture time doubled the number of large babies (Finnish Registry). The long-term developmental effects of ART on child and subsequent health as an adult remains a subject worthy of futher monitoring and investigation.

  10. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Armando Meyer

    2002-01-01

    The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties ...

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology for HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples:A Review of Current Controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary S. Nakhuda; Mark V. Sauer

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported as a viable means of helping HIV-1 serodiscordant couples achieve pregnancy while theoretically reducing the risk for viral transmission. While the sum of the evidence suggests that ART is effective and safe, numerous controversies still exist. The following review addresses several of the important issues involved in the use of ART for HIV-serodiscordant couples, including patient selection, semen processing techniques,post-process HIV testing, the use of IUI vs IVF-ICSI.

  12. Assisted reproductive technology and congenital overgrowth: some speculations on a case of Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurazzi, P; Bajer, J; Tabolacci, E; Pomponi, M G; Lecce, R; Zollino, M; Neri, G

    2004-10-15

    We report on a boy with Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) who was conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically in vitro fertilization (IVF) with parents' gametes. A prenatal diagnosis performed elsewhere by CVS failed to detect the presence of the isochromosome 12p that was demonstrated postnatally in approximately 50% of cultured skin fibroblasts. Given that the patient did not show the congenital overgrowth typical of PKS, we speculate that ART might have restricted overgrowth in this particular case. More broadly, we hypothesize that overgrowth might protect from early demise fetuses conceived by ART, a technology known to cause low and very low birth weight.

  13. Rules and economic features connected with adoption and medical assisted reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hemion Braho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this brief study is to analyze the phenomenon of adoption and the assisted reproductive technologies, not from a social point of view as experts often do, but on an economic point of view. This could be possible analyzing first of all the laws regulating these “markets” and the influence of this regulation on the economic aspects. Although it could seem immoral to study this social aspects connected with filiation, we know that the social desire of some parents or some individuals ...

  14. Epigenetic risks related to assisted reproductive technologies: epigenetics, imprinting, ART and icebergs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Eamonn R; Afnan, Masoud; Barratt, Christopher L

    2003-12-01

    Recently, a series of case reports and small studies has suggested that births involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) may have an increased risk of imprinting disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. Herein, the significance and implications of these findings are discussed. It is speculated that, although such imprinting disorders may be shown to be only rare complications of ART, epigenetic errors might account for a much wider spectrum of ART-related complications than is recognized currently. Addressing these questions should be a priority for research on cohorts of ART children.

  15. Low birth weight: Is it related to assisted reproductive technology or underlying infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Laxmi A.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, we have witnessed a successful evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), with improvement of the pregnancy rates and a growing demand. However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding its safety due to the potential health impact on its infants. The raise of the developmental origins of adult disease has positioned low birth weight (LBW) as a significant health issue. Despite multiple studies have associated ART with LBW, the etiology of this association remains largely unknown. This paper reviews the potential association between different components of ART and infertility with LBW, while acknowledging the limitations to interpretation of the existing literature. PMID:23375144

  16. The Role of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Razavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA is known to contribute one half of the genomic material to the offspring. The integrity of sperm DNA is important in fertilization, embryonic and fetal development, and postnatal child well being. The nature has created multiple barriers that allow only the fittest sperm to reach and fertilize an oocyte. However, assisted reproductive techniques (ART, like IVF and ICSI, may allow sperms with abnormal genomic material to enter the oocyte with minimal effort. This article describes structure of sperm DNA and different mechanism involved in sperm chromatin anomalies and DNA damage. Furthermore, this study elaborates possible sperm selection methods that may improve the outcome of ART.

  17. Risk disparities in the globalisation of assisted reproductive technology: the case of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the disparities in risks associated with biomedical technology focusing on the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART among biomedical technologies transferred to Asia is a representative case that reveals in its clinical use and related scientific research the global politics of technology. This study notes the global politics at work in the recognition of and reaction to such risks. While many Asian countries aggressively pursue technological development, weak legislative and administrative regulations have created various problems and controversial cases. This study asserts that risks associated with technology are characterised as social facts not natural ones or mere 'side effects', since technological development and risk are closely intertwined.

  18. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.

  19. Chromothripsis: how does such a catastrophic event impact human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellestor, Franck

    2014-03-01

    The recent discovery of a new kind of massive chromosomal rearrangement, baptized chromothripsis (chromo for chromosomes, thripsis for shattering into pieces), greatly modifies our understanding of molecular mechanisms implicated in the repair of DNA damage and the genesis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Initially described in cancers, and then in constitutional rearrangements, chromothripsis is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome(s) segments followed by a chaotic reassembly of the chromosomal fragments, occurring during one unique cellular event. The diversity and the high complexity of chromothripsis events raise questions about their origin, their ties to chromosome instability and their impact in pathology. Several causative mechanisms, involving abortive apoptosis, telomere erosion, mitotic errors, micronuclei formation and p53 inactivation, have been proposed. The remarkable point is that all these mechanisms have been identified in the field of human reproduction as causal factors for reproductive failures and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, it seems important to consider this unexpected catastrophic phenomenon in the context of fertilization and early embryonic development in order to discuss its potential impact on human reproduction.

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Within the Male Reproductive System: Implications for Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by "priming" the woman's immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta during pregnancy has been well described. Highly variable amounts of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in seminal plasma from different men have been reported, and the concentration of sHLA-G is associated with HLA-G genotype. A first pilot study indicates that the level of sHLA-G in seminal plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings.

  1. Are there optimal numbers of oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milachich, Tanya; Shterev, Atanas

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this overview is to discuss the current information about the search for the optimum yield of gametes in assisted reproduction, as one of the major pillars of IVF success. The first topic is focused on the number of male gametes and the possible impact of some genetic traits on these parameters. The number of spermatozoa did not seem to be crucial when there is no severe male factor of infertility. Genetic testing prior to using those sperm cells is very important. Different methods were applied in order to elect the "best" spermatozoa according to specific indications. The next problem discussed is the importance of the number of oocytes collected. Several studies have agreed that "15 oocytes is the perfect number," as the number of mature oocytes is more important. However, if elective single embryo transfer is performed, the optimal number of oocytes will enable a proper embryo selection. The third problem discussed concerns fertility preservation. Many educational programs promote and encourage procreation at maternal ages between 20-35 years, since assisted reproduction is unable to fully overcome the effects of female aging and fertility loss after that age. It is also strongly recommended to ensure a reasonable number of cryopreserved mature oocytes, preferably in younger ages (<35), for which an average of two stimulation cycles are likely required. For embryo cryopreservation, the "freeze all" strategy suggests the vitrification of good embryos, therefore quality is prior to number and patient recruitment for this strategy should be performed cautiously.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Chiles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Kelly A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  4. The construction of meaning by experts and would-be parents in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Machado, Helena

    2011-09-01

    This article explores the construction of meaning regarding assisted reproductive technology by legal framers, medical practitioners and would-be parents, through the concept of ecology of knowledge. It is argued that these inter-relationships between experts and lay people can be understood in terms of the formation of a social structure of ecology of knowledge, which depends on local and emotional knowledge co-produced by medical doctors, jurists and lay people in dynamic ways without compromising the autonomy of medical, legal and lay knowledge and skills. The assessment of the benefits and risks of assisted reproductive technology partially represents negotiations of knowledge between these social and professional groups, aiming to reproduce existing relations and practices, particularly the social power of medicine and technology, the dominant perceptions about women's and men's bodies and the geneticisation of genealogy. These negotiations of knowledge generate new rights, new social actors, new scientific fields and new ways of thinking and talking about individual and institutional responsibilities. Ecology of knowledge comes imbued with hope, trust, power, credibility of institutions and moralisation whereby some citizens' rights may be weakened.

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Iranian Infertile Males who are Candidates for Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Salahshourifar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study offers our contribution on the topic by a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in a population of Iranian infertile men attending assisted reproduction programs.Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis was performed according to standard methods on cultured cells obtained from the patient peripheral blood. In all, 874 files belonging to male partner of each couple were classified as follows: azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality in respect of morphology and motility.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 136(15.5% individuals of the whole population studied including 12.0 %, 1.2 % and 2.0% of azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality, respectively. Of those, 116 (13.2% had sex chromosome abnormalities and 20(2.3% had autosomal chromosome abnormalities.Conclusion: We observed high frequency of aneuploidy and sex chromosomal mosaicism in azoospermic men and high structural aberrations in males with low sperm quality. We suggested that type of chromosomal abnormalities had an inverse relation to sperm count. So that, high chromosomal aneuploidy was detected in males with lower sperm count and high structural aberration was detected in males with low sperm quality. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of male infertility. Consequently, Genetic testing and counselling is indicated for infertile men with abnormal semen parameters with either abnormal karyotype or normal karyotype before applying assisted reproductive techniques.

  6. The role of varicocele repair in the new era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 10-15% of couples who are trying to conceive, and half of the cases are due to male infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is increasingly being used to overcome multiple sperm deficiencies. Due to its effectiveness, some have proposed ICSI as a solution for all cases of male infertility, regardless of the cause. Hence, even men with potentially treatable causes of infertility have sought the aid of assisted reproductive technology, rather than undergo specific therapies to treat their infertility. Varicoceles are the most frequent physical finding in infertile men; indeed, they may be responsible for nearly one-third of cases of male infertility. Varicocele management, however, has always been a controversial issue because very few randomized, controlled studies have been performed to examine varicocelectomy as an infertility treatment. Significant evidence suggests that varicoceles have a harmful effect on the testis and that varicocelectomy can not only prevent progressive decline in testicular function but also reverse the damage. However, the degree to which varicocele repair improves pregnancy rates and the success of assisted reproductive technology remains controversial.

  7. Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxiang; Wu, Shiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhengyao; Wu, Ruiyun; Cai, Junfeng; Luo, Xiangmin; Huang, Suzhen; You, Liuxia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of zinc on hydrogen peroxide-induced sperm damage in assisted reproduction techniques. First, sperms were selected from semen samples of 20 healthy men prepared by density gradient centrifugation. Selected sperm were treated with either 0.001% H(2)O(2), 12.5 nM ZnCL(2), 0.001% H(2)O(2) + 12.5 nM ZnCL(2) or 0.9% NaCl(2) (control). After this treatment, the motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation of sperms in each group were analysed by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay. Poorer motility, vitality, membrane integrity and more DNA damage were found in sperms treated by H(2)O(2), compared with control. When sperms were treated with both H(2)O(2) and zinc, however, all indicators were improved compared with H(2)O(2) alone. There was a close association between oxidative stimulation and sperm injury; zinc could inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of sperm in assisted reproductive technology. However, the presence of zinc in culture medium can decrease the sperm quality without addition of peroxide.

  8. Clinically relevant known and candidate genes for obesity and their overlap with human infertility and reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    ... reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility...

  9. The impact of endometriosis on the outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Comadran, Mireia; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Souza, Maria do Carmo B; Carreras, Ramon; Checa, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-24

    Endometriosis has been described to impair fertility through various mechanisms. However, studies evaluating the reproductive outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies show controversial results. The aim of this study is to assess whether the reproductive outcome is impaired among women with endometriosis-associated infertility undergoing IVF. A retrospective cohort study was performed, including women undergoing IVF reported by the Red Latinoamericana de Reproduccion Asistida (Redlara) registry, between January 2010 and December 2012. The study group included women with endometriosis-associated infertility, and the control group women with tubal factor, endocrine disorders or unexplained infertility. Women above 40 years, severe male factor and premature ovarian failure were excluded. The reproductive outcomes of between both groups were compared. The primary outcome was live birth. Secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, number of oocytes retrieved and number of fertilized oocytes. Outcomes were assessed after the first fresh IVF cycle, and were adjusted for age and number of embryos transferred. A total of 22.416 women were included (3.583 with endometriosis and 18.833 in the control group). Mean age of patients in the endometriosis group and control group was 34.86 (3.47) and 34.61 (3.91) respectively, p = 0.000. The mean number of oocytes retrieved were 8.89 (6.23) and 9.86 (7.02) respectively, p = 0.000. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of live birth (odds ratio (OR) 1.032, p = 0.556), clinical pregnancy (OR 1.044, p = 0.428) and miscarriage rates (OR 1.049, p = 0.623). Women with endometriosis had significantly lower number of oocytes retrieved (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.917, 95% CI 0.895-0.940), however, the number of fertilized oocytes did not differ among the two groups when adjusting for the number of oocytes retrieved (IRR 1.003, p = 0.794). An age

  10. Is there a role for vitamin D in human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Anindita; Sinha, Nandita; Ong, Erwyn; Sonmez, Halis; Poretsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with canonical roles in calcium metabolism and bone modeling. However, in recent years there has been a growing body of literature presenting associations between vitamin D levels and a variety of disease processes, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes and prediabetes and autoimmune conditions such as thyroid disease. This review focuses on the potential role of vitamin D in both male and female reproductive function. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed throughout central and peripheral organs of reproduction. VDR is often co-localized with its metabolizing enzymes, suggesting the importance of tissue specific modulation of active vitamin D levels. Both animal and human studies in males links vitamin D deficiency with hypogonadism and decreased fertility. In females, there is evidence for its role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, leiomyomas, in-vitro fertilization, and pregnancy outcomes. Studies evaluating the effects of replacing vitamin D have shown variable results. There remains some concern that the effects of vitamin D on reproduction are not direct, but rather secondary to the accompanying hypocalcemia or estrogen dysregulation.

  11. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perinatal outcomes among singletons after assisted reproductive technology with single-embryo or double-embryo transfer versus no assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela S; Chang, Jeani; Zhang, Yujia; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Boulet, Sheree L; McKane, Patricia; Bernson, Dana; Kissin, Dmitry M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-04-01

    To examine outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived without assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) compared with singletons conceived with ART by elective single-embryo transfer (eSET), nonelective single-embryo transfer (non-eSET), and double-embryo transfer with the establishment of 1 (DET -1) or ≥2 (DET ≥2) early fetal heartbeats. Retrospective cohort using linked ART surveillance data and vital records from Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Connecticut. Not applicable. Singleton live-born infants. None. Preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks), very preterm birth (VPTB <32 weeks), small for gestational age birth weight (<10th percentile), low birth weight (LBW <2,500 g), very low birth weight (VLBW <1,500 g), 5-minute Apgar score <7, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. After controlling for maternal characteristics and employing a weighted propensity score approach, we found that singletons conceived after eSET were less likely to have a 5-minute Apgar <7 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.69) compared with non-ART singletons. There were no differences among outcomes between non-ART and non-eSET infants. We found that PTB, VPTB, LBW, and VLBW were more likely among DET -1 and DET ≥2 compared with non-ART infants, with the odds being higher for DET ≥2 (PTB aOR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.09-2.29; VPTB aOR 2.46; 95% CI, 1.20-5.04; LBW aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.79; VLBW aOR 3.67; 95% CI, 1.38-9.77). Compared with non-ART singletons, singletons born after eSET and non-eSET did not have increased risks whereas DET -1 and DET ≥2 singletons were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven...... were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottomup procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis...

  14. THE CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM OF CHILDREN HEALTH BORN IN RESULT OF THE ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Mansimova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief historical background of development of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART is presented. The works of russian and foreign authors about the neonatal period, the health of babies born in result of different methods of ART (in vitro fertilization using ICSI were analyzed. After discussion there were indicated new approaches for prevention of perinatal morbidity and ensuring harmonious development and quality of life for these children. The necessity of a national multicenter study of the status of children born in result of induced pregnancy was proved.Key words: assisted reproductive technologies, IVF, ICSI technique, newborns, health.

  15. New Reproductive Assemblages: Understanding, Managing and ‘Using’ Human In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, E.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835196

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the body and in vitro fertilization (IVF), also known as assisted reproduction or technologically enhanced reproduction. With help of empirical research on Dutch and Polish IVF-couples, Edyta Just puts into question the meaning of

  16. New Reproductive Assemblages: Understanding, Managing and ‘Using’ Human In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the body and in vitro fertilization (IVF), also known as assisted reproduction or technologically enhanced reproduction. With help of empirical research on Dutch and Polish IVF-couples, Edyta Just puts into question the meaning of I

  17. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population......STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups...

  18. Assisted reproduction with gametes and embryos: what research is needed and fundable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, George E

    2016-01-01

    Principles for selecting future research projects include interests of investigators, fundability, potential applications, ethical considerations, being able to formulate testable hypotheses and choosing the best models, including selection of the most appropriate species. The following 10 areas of assisted reproduction seem especially appropriate for further research: efficacious capacitation of bovine spermatozoa in vitro; improved in vitro bovine oocyte maturation; decreasing variability and increasing efficacy of bovine superovulation; improved fertility of sexed semen; improving equine IVF; improving cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa; understanding differences between males in success of sperm cryopreservation and reasons for success in competitive fertilisation; mechanisms of reprogramming somatic cell nuclei after nuclear transfer; regulation of differentiation of ovarian primordial follicles; and means by which spermatozoa maintain fertility during storage in the epididymis. Issues are species specific for several of these topics, in most cases because the biology is species specific.

  19. Rules and economic features connected with adoption and medical assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemion Braho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this brief study is to analyze the phenomenon of adoption and the assisted reproductive technologies, not from a social point of view as experts often do, but on an economic point of view. This could be possible analyzing first of all the laws regulating these “markets” and the influence of this regulation on the economic aspects. Although it could seem immoral to study this social aspects connected with filiation, we know that the social desire of some parents or some individuals to have children and their possibility is oriented by laws, economic possibilities and economy in general. This study is based on an empirical methodology, taking as study-case Italy and trying not to give any ethic orientation.

  20. Assisted reproductive technology in India: A 3 year retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology (ART has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India has one of the highest growths in the ART centers and the number of ART cycles performed every year. Very soon India will be the leader in the world of ART in terms of a number of cycles. With the advances of technology and availability of techniques even in tier II and tier III cities our country, the results still vary dramatically. There is no standardization of protocols and reporting is very inadequate. Furthermore, there are only ART guidelines and no law still exists. Our first and the biggest challenge is to document the tremendous work being done in India and on the basis of analysis of this work, a proper registry can be made and guidance given to all on standardization and improvement. This is the 8 th edition of National ART Registry of India being presented and analyzed.

  1. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART.

  2. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  3. Oxidative Stress and its Role in Female Infertility and Assisted Reproduction: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in physiological functions and act as mediators invarious signaling processes. Elevated or sustained generation of free radicals and non radicalspecies derived from free radicals can lead to an imbalance in the intracellular redox homeostasis.Normally, any excess levels of reactive radical and nonradical species generated are interceptedby antioxidants. An excess of the free radicals however, can precipitate pathologies in thefemale reproductive tract. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in various pathological conditionssuch as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal teratogenecity, preterm labor andintrauterine growth retardation, all of which lead to an immense burden of maternal and fetal,morbidity and mortality. In addition evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in theproinflammatory changes seen with polycystic ovarian disease and also in the pathogenesisof endometriosis and tubal factor infertility. Our review captures the role of OS in assistedreproduction specifically in in vitro fertilization (IVF/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI and in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM. We also examine the role antioxidants playin modifying the fertility outcomes with assisted reproductive techniques. Finally in vivo andin vitro strategies to modulate the influence of ROS and establish an optimal redox state arealso discussed.

  4. The German IVF Register as an Instrument to Document Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, S.; Wiesing, U.

    2016-01-01

    The German IVF Register (Deutsches IVF-Register [D.I.R]) has been collecting and publishing data on the use of IVF and related methods in Germany since 1982. It is the only institution which provides information for all of Germany on procedures and their success rates. For this reason it plays an important role in the provision of information to the public, to patients, political decision-makers and the scientific community. However, the register does not have the data of all centers offering treatment in Germany nor does it have complete datasets on all reported treatments. The register accepts retrospective data entries, it does not publish the success rates of individual centers and up until 2015 it did not provide a summary of information which was suitable for non-specialists. The D.I.R has been the focus of criticism in the past. Even today, the information it provides to the scientific community, the public, political decision-makers and potential patients on the outcomes of assisted reproduction is insufficient. The documentation of reproductive medicine procedures in other countries is much more meaningful. PMID:27365538

  5. Marital stability and quality in families created by assisted reproduction techniques: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, L; Casey, P; Jadva, V; Golombok, S

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of children are being born with the use of assisted reproduction techniques such as donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy. There have been concerns that the use of these third-party reproduction techniques may have a negative effect on the quality of the relationship between the mother and father. Marital stability and quality was examined in a UK sample of donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy families and families in which children were naturally conceived. Interview and questionnaire assessments of marital stability and quality were collected from mothers and fathers over five time points, when the children in the families were aged 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. Of those families who participated when children were 10years old, a minority of couples in each family type had divorced/separated and few differences emerged between the different family types in terms of mothers' or fathers' marital quality. Despite concerns, couples in families created by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy were found to be functioning well.

  6. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  7. HLA-G profile of infertile couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Nardi, Fabiola Silva; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; da Graça Bicalho, Maria

    2016-12-01

    HLA-G codes for a non-classical class I (Ib) protein which is mainly expressed in trophoblast cells. Many pieces of evidence pointed out its essential role conferring immunological tolerance to the fetus. Some HLA-G alleles have been linked to enhanced or reduced HLA-G protein levels expression, which have been associated with reproductive failure. In this study 33 couples undergoing ART (assisted reproduction treatment; n=66) and 120 couples who conceived naturally (controls; n=240) were enrolled in the study. Genotyping was performed by SBT and tagged an 1837bp at 5'URR as well as exons 2, 3 and4 of HLA-G. Alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were compared between infertile and control groups using Fisher Exact Test. The haplotype HLA-G(∗)010101b/HLA-G(∗)01:01:01 showed statistically significant higher frequency in control groups. The immunogenetics of infertility is complex and might be dependent on different genes involved in the establishment of a successful pregnancy. A better understanding of HLA-G alleles and haplotypes structure and how the genetic diversity at their regulatory sites could impact on their level of expression and build up the susceptibility or protection conditions may shed light on the comprehension of immunogenetics mechanisms acting at the fetus-maternal interface.

  8. Cryopreservation and delayed embryo transfer-assisted reproductive technology registry and reporting implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Kevin J

    2014-07-01

    Clinics performing assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures have collected data via registry and publicly reported pregnancy outcomes for more than 25 years. During this time, the practice of ART has changed considerably with frozen embryo transfer (FET) procedures contributing an increasing proportion of live births. Cycles initiated with the intent of embryo banking for the purpose of fertility preservation have been excluded from these public reports, because pregnancy outcomes are not immediately available. An unintended consequence of the common sense handling of fertility preservation has been that cycles performed with intentional short-term cryopreservation of all embryos for other indications have also been excluded from the report. Over the last few years, cryopreservation with short-term delayed transfer increasingly has been performed for reasons other than fertility preservation. The pregnancy outcomes of these cycles are expected within a reasonable time frame and should be transparently reported. The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology has collaborated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to "recapture" these cycles for the public reports. This recapture is done by linking the FET cycles to the stimulation cycles from which the embryos were derived and by changing the labels of the outcome success metrics. Stimulations using ART, initiated for the purpose of transferring embryos within 1 year will be included in the report despite any prospective intent to freeze all eggs or embryos. A positive outcome will be reported when a live birth results from the first embryo transfer following stimulation ("primary transfer"). Linkage of ovarian stimulation and egg-retrieval procedures to FET will also allow development of other success metrics to further benefit fertility patients.

  9. 75 FR 76995 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in 1998 (63 FR 68782) to... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); NTP Workshop: Role of Environmental Chemicals in the Development of Diabetes and...

  10. The evolution of human reproduction: a primatological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Successful reconstruction of any aspect of human evolution ideally requires broad-based comparisons with other primates, as recognition of general principles provides a more reliable foundation for inference. Indeed, in many cases it is necessary to conduct comparisons with other placental mammals to test interpretations. This review considers comparative evidence with respect to the following topics relating to human reproduction: (1) size of the testes, sperm, and baculum; (2) ovarian processes and mating cyclicity; (3) placentation and embryonic membranes; (4) gestation period and neonatal condition; (5) brain development in relation to reproduction; and (6) suckling and age at weaning. Relative testis size, the size of the sperm midpiece, and perhaps the absence of a baculum indicate that humans are adapted for a mating system in which sperm competition was not a major factor. Because sizes of mammalian gametes do not increase with body size, they are increasingly dwarfed by the size of the female reproductive tract as body size increases. The implications of this have yet to be explored. Primates have long ovarian cycles and humans show an average pattern. Menstruation is completely lacking in strepsirrhine primates, possibly weakly present in tarsiers and variably expressed in simians. The only other mammals reliably reported to show menstruation are bats. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of menstruation (eliminating sperm-borne pathogens; reducing the metabolic cost of a prepared uterine lining; occurrence as a side-effect of physiological changes), but no consensus has emerged. Copulation at times other than the periovulatory period is not unique to humans, and its occurrence during pregnancy is widespread among mammals. Although the human condition is extreme, extended copulation during the ovarian cycle is the norm among simian primates, in stark contrast to prosimians, in which mating is typically restricted to a few days when

  11. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. METHODS: Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF...

  12. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  13. Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Tove; Juul Hansen, Katrine; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization...

  14. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  15. Results and unsolved problems following the amendment to the Italian Law on assisted reproduction brought about by the Constitutional Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Andrea; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Darretta, Valeria; Anserini, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Since the approval of Law N° 40/2004, Italian specialists have been applying assisted reproductive techniques in compliance with a number of restrictions. Several attempts were made to find a solution to the practical and ethical issues brought about by this restrictive legislation. Finally, in May 2009, the Italian Constitutional Court banned most of the limitations. In the last year the authors worked together to study the impact of the Italian Constitutional Court modifications on assisted reproduction from both a gynecological and medico-legal point of view. Despite the clinically positive impact of the ruling, a lot of technical and legal unsolved issues still exist. Analyzing these problems, the authors stress the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve adequate legislation in order to improve patients' outcome and avoid "reproductive migration" from Italy to other European Countries. New regulation could also be important for practitioners by keeping the risk of legal troubles to the minimum.

  16. [Polarized light microscopy for evaluation of oocytes as a prognostic factor in the evolution of a cycle in assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, C; Cancino-Villarreal, P; Alonzo-Torres, V E; Martínez-Robles, I; Pérez-Peña, E; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, A M

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the best embryos to transfer is a key element for success in assisted reproduction. In the last decade, several morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos were evaluated with regard to their potential for predicting embryo viability. The introduction of polarization light microscopy systems has allowed the visualization of the meiotic spindle and the different layers of the zona pellucida in human oocytes on the basis of birefringence in a non-destructive way. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the predictive value in ICSI cycles. To assess the predictive ability of meiotic spindle and zona pellucida of human oocytes to implant by polarized microscopy in ICSI cycles. Prospective and observational clinical study. 903 oocytes from 94 ICSI cycles were analyzed with polarized microscopy. Meiotic spindle visualization and zona pellucida birefringence values by polarized microscopy were correlated with ICSI cycles results. Meiotic spindle visualization and birefringence values of zona pellucida decreased in a direct basis with increasing age. In patients aged over the 35 years, the percentage of a visible spindle and mean zona pellucida birefringence was lower than in younger patients. Fertilization rate were higher in oocytes with visible meiotic spindle (81.3% vs. 64%; p Polarized light microscopy improves oocyte selection, which significantly impacts in the development of embryos with greater implantation potential. The use of polarized light microscopy with sperm selection methods, blastocyst culture and deferred embryo transfers will contribute to transfer fewer embryos without diminishing rates of live birth and single embryo transfer will be more feasible.

  17. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  18. [Role of leptin in human reproduction (anorexia, bulimia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, L; Rumpík, D; Pilka, R

    2012-12-01

    Leptin may act as the critical link between adipose tissue and the reproductive system, indicating whether adequate energy reserves are presenting for normal reproductive functions. Future interventional studies involving leptin administration are excepted to further clarify this role of leptin and may provide new therapeutic options for the reproductive dysfunctions associated with states of relative leptin deficiency or resistance.

  19. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  20. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  1. Distribution of male infertility specialists in relation to the male population and assisted reproductive technology centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Ajay K; Likosky, Donald S; Wang, Dongmei

    2010-07-01

    To describe the spatial distribution of assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers and male infertility specialists by location, driving distance from ART center, and potential male population in need of these resources. Cross-sectional study. Male population in the reproductive years (20-49 years old) based on U.S. Census Bureau data in 2000. Urology male infertility specialists as defined by 2005 specialty society membership directories. ART centers registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in 2005. Male population and male infertility specialists within the service area served by in-state and neighboring-state ART centers, as defined by a 60-minute travel time. One hundred ninety-seven male infertility specialists and 390 ART centers were identified. On a state level, the highest male population in the reproductive years was seen in California, Texas, and Florida. The highest male populations per male specialist were found in Oregon, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. The highest number of ART centers per male specialist was found in Tennessee. The highest proximities of male specialists within the 60-minute driving service area of different ART centers were found in the North East and Southern California. The Midwest to Northwest had the least. A disparity of urology male infertility specialists exists in the United States, with large areas of the country being underserved and overserved based on the location of ART centers. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Study of Seventh-Graders Comprehensions of Human Reproduction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd Harley

    1977-01-01

    Study of an Iowa junior high school revealed that: (1) seventh grade pupils' knowledge levels were raised after studying human reproduction concepts and that (2) the pupils were of the opinion that human reproduction studies should be included in life science classes. (MB)

  3. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  4. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-08

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  5. From ‘Mung Ming’ to ‘Baby Gammy’: a local history of assisted reproduction in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Whittaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the rapidly changing history of IVF in Thailand since the birth of the first IVF conceived child there in 1987. The paper is based upon extensive Thai and English media material as well as interviews with leading reproductive specialists and is informed by long-term ethnographic research on IVF in Thailand. Assisted reproduction was quickly accepted in Thai society and associated with modernity and nationalist pride in Thai scientific progress. From its early beginnings in state-owned teaching hospitals, assisted reproduction rapidly expanded into the Thai private sector. Although Thai Medical Council guidelines were introduced in 1997, the loose regulatory regime saw the growth of an international trade in assisted reproductive technology services and medical facilitation companies brokering commercial surrogacies. From 2011, various controversies brought the industry into disrepute. These included: the trafficking of Vietnamese women as surrogates; non-medical sex selection and commercial ova donation and commercial surrogacy in breach of Thai Medical Council guidelines; the highly publicised case of a Japanese man commissioning 15 children with multiple surrogates; and the ‘Baby Gammy’ case involving the abandonment of a twin born with Down Syndrome. These cases exposed the exploitative downside of an assisted reproductive technology market that takes advantage of countries with little or no regulation in place and led Thai society to question the benefits of these technologies, their practitioners and the industry it has created. Since 2015, new legislation restricts clinical practices, limits eligibility for services and bans all commercial ova donation or surrogacy or its facilitation.

  6. Prevent Abusing of Assisted Reproductive Technology: Respect for Women's Demands%防范辅助生殖技术滥用之道——尊重女权诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜婕; 田清华

    2011-01-01

    辅助生殖技术冲击和挑战了人类传统的伦理观念,它的滥用还可能给人类造成灾难.阐述当前捐卵、代孕、PGD、多胎妊娠存在的问题,探讨滥用辅助生殖技术的原因,提倡辅助生殖技术女性角色伦理,提出尊重女权诉求是防范辅助生殖技术滥用的解决办法.%Assisted reproductive technology has had an impact and challenged the ethics of human tradition and its abuse can also give the abuse of human-caused disasters. This paper describes the problems of egg donation, surrogacy, PGD,and multiple pregnancies, explore the reasons for the abuse of assisted reproductive technology, assisted reproductive technology to promote ethical role of women, respect for women's demands are the solution to preventing the abuse of assisted reproductive technology.

  7. Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Associated With Assisted Reproductive Technology in the United States, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kiran M.; Boulet, Sheree L.; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess national trends in ectopic pregnancy incidence among assisted reproductive technology users and identify risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy. METHODS We identified 553,577 pregnancies reported to the National ART Surveillance System between 2001 and 2011. Of those, 9,480 were ectopic, of which 485 were heterotopic. As a result of small numbers, ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies were combined for analysis. We assessed temporal trends in annual ectopic pregnancy rates using Poisson regression. We used log-binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations for correlated outcomes within clinics to calculate unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios for the association between ectopic pregnancy and selected patient characteristics and treatment factors. RESULTS The rate of ectopic pregnancy declined from 2.0% (n5735, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–2.2) in 2001 to 1.6% (n=968, 95% CI 1.5–1.7) in 2011 (P for trend ,.001). The ectopic pregnancy rate ranged from 2.0% (n=7,469, 95% CI 1.9–2.0) for fresh, nondonor cycles to 1.0% (n=641, 95% CI 0.9–1.1) for fresh, donor cycles. Among fresh, nondonor cycles, the rate of ectopic pregnancy was 1.6% (95% CI 1.4–1.7) when one embryo was transferred compared with 1.7% (95% CI 1.7–1.8), 2.2% (95% CI 2.1–2.3), and 2.5% (95% CI 2.4–2.6) when two, three, or four or more embryos were transferred, respectively (adjusted risk ratios 1.11, 95% CI 0.94–0.30; 1.33, 95% CI 1.12–1.56; and 1.49, 95% CI 1.25–1.78). CONCLUSION Ectopic pregnancy incidence after assisted reproductive technology has decreased over time, but factors such as multiple embryo transfer increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:25560107

  8. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  9. Outcomes and Recommendations of an Indian Expert Panel for Improved Practice in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahemmed, Baiju; Sundarapandian, Vani; Gutgutia, Rohit; Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Jagtap, Richa; Biliangady, Reeta; Gupta, Priti; Jadhav, Sachin; Satwik, Ruma; Thakor, Priti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)? Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated? Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield? Should “freeze-all” policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration? Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART. Results. Strong association existed between retrieved oocytes number (RON) and LBRs. RON impacted likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Embryo euploidy decreased with age, not with cohort size. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/dL did not impair cycle outcomes in patients with high cohorts and showed disparate results on day of hCG administration. Conclusions. Ovarian stimulation should be designed to retrieve 10–15 oocytes/treatment. Accurate dosage, gonadotropin type, should be selected as per prediction markers of ovarian response. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist based protocols are advised to avoid OHSS. Cumulative pregnancy rate was most relevant pregnancy endpoint in ART. Cycles with serum progesterone ≥1.5 ng/dL on day of hCG administration should not adopt “freeze-all” policy. Further research is needed due to lack of data availability on progesterone threshold or index. PMID:28246628

  10. Direct-to-consumer advertising of success rates for medically assisted reproduction: a review of national clinic websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Andy; Roberts, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish how medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics report success rates on their websites. Setting Websites of private and NHS clinics offering in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the UK. Participants We identified clinics offering IVF using the Choose a Fertility Clinic facility on the website of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Of 81 clinics identified, a website could not be found for 2, leaving 79 for inclusion in the analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Outcome measures reported by clinic websites. The numerator and denominator included in the outcome measure were of interest. Results 53 (67%) websites reported their performance using 51 different outcome measures. It was most common to report pregnancy (83% of these clinics) or live birth rates (51%). 31 different ways of reporting pregnancy and 9 different ways of reporting live birth were identified. 11 (21%) reported multiple birth or pregnancy rates. 1 clinic provided information on adverse events. It was usual for clinics to present results without relevant contextual information such as sample size, reporting period, the characteristics of patients and particular details of treatments. Conclusions Many combinations of numerator and denominator are available for the purpose of reporting success rates for MAR. The range of reporting options available to clinics is further increased by the possibility of presenting results for subgroups of patients and for different time periods. Given the status of these websites as advertisements to patients, the risk of selective reporting is considerable. Binding guidance is required to ensure consistent, informative reporting. PMID:28082363

  11. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Supplementation in Culture Media for Subfertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Technologies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Siristatidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. We performed a systematic review, and six studies that were performed in humans undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART were located. We wanted to evaluate if embryo culture media supplementation with GM-CSF could improve success rates. As the type of studies and the outcome parameters investigated were heterogeneous, we decided not to perform a meta-analysis. Most of them had a trend favoring the supplementation with GM-CSF, when outcomes were measured in terms of increased percentage of good-quality embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, improved hatching initiation and number of cells in the blastocyst, and reduction of cell death. However, no statistically significant differences were found in implantation and pregnancy rates in all apart from one large multicenter trial, which reported favorable outcomes, in terms of implantation and live birth rates. We propose properly conducted and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs to further validate and extrapolate the current findings with the live birth rate to be the primary outcome measure.

  12. Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy-related hypertensive complications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, C; Tsioufis, C; Michalopoulou, H; Makris, T; Papademetriou, V; Stefanadis, C

    2013-03-01

    Hypertensive complications in pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal morbidity, at least in the developed countries. In recent years, infertility issues are managed with ever growing therapeutic options namely assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which improve the ratio of successful induction of pregnancy. It is still debated whether various ART modalities are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertensive complications, particularly with higher incidence of preeclampsia. The main source of controversy stems from the diversity of effect modifiers modulating the association between ART-oriented pregnancy and hypertensive disorders. Indeed, women undergoing an ART procedure are affected by diverse causes of infertility, are frequently characterized by different genetic patterns with respect to their artificially conceived embryo and experienced multiple gestations. In order to investigate whether ART modalities are associated with increased incidence of hypertensive complications in pregnancy, we reviewed all published studies carried out before the end of 2010 and identified in the PubMed database. Among the 47 studies finally selected and by acknowledging the potential of shortcomings related to the different study design and populations, the overall evidence suggests that ART-oriented pregnancies-especially the in-vitro fertilization techniques-are accompanied by increased risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as compared with non-ART pregnancies, even after adjustment for confounders. Multiple gestations, advanced age and underlying polycystic ovary syndrome resulted in constant confounders of the questioned association. Reducing multiple gestations by implementing single embryo techniques might be the therapeutic limiting step to lower the rate of hypertensive complications in assisted pregnancies.

  13. Exploring the world of human development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red-Horse, Kristy; Drake, Penelope M; Fisher, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Susan Fisher has spent her career studying human development, proteomics, and the intersection between the two. When she began studying human placentation, there had been extensive descriptive studies of this fascinating organ that intertwines with the mother's vasculature during pregnancy. Susan can be credited with numerous major findings on the mechanisms that regulate placental cytotrophoblast invasion. These include the discovery that cytotrophoblasts undergo vascular mimicry to insert themselves into uterine arteries, the finding that oxygen tension greatly effects placentation, and identifying how these responses go awry in pregnancy complications such as preeclamsia. Other important work has focused on the effect of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation on bacterial adhesion and reproduction. Susan has also forayed into the world of proteomics to identify cancer biomarkers. Because her work is truly groundbreaking, many of these findings inspire research in other laboratories around the world resulting in numerous follow up papers. Likewise, her mentoring and support inspires young scientists to go on and make their own important discoveries. In this interview, Susan shares what drove her science, how she continued to do important research while balancing other aspects of life, and provides insights for the next generation.

  14. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  15. Use of assisted reproductive technologies in the propagation of rhesus macaque offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D P; Thormahlen, S; Ramsey, C; Yeoman, R R; Fanton, J; Mitalipov, S

    2004-08-01

    The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) as tailored to the production of rhesus monkeys at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) are described. Efficient fertilization of mature oocytes recovered by aspiration from females subjected to follicular stimulation was achieved with fresh or frozen sperm by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryo development to the early cleavage stage occurred at high frequency. Cryopreserved embryos showed high postthaw survival and were also transferred in efforts to establish pregnancies. Three methods of transfer were evaluated, two involving embryo placement into the oviduct, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy, and a nonsurgical, transcervical approach that resulted in uterine deposition. Early cleaving embryos (Days 1-4) were transferred into the oviducts of synchronized recipients with optimal results and pregnancy rates of up to 36%. Pregnancy rates were similar when two fresh or frozen embryos were transferred (28- 30%), although more than two embryos had to be thawed to compensate for embryo loss during freeze-thawing. Normal gestational lengths, birth weights, and growth curves were seen with ART-produced infants compared with infants produced by natural mating in the timed mated breeding (TMB) colony at the ONPRC. In 72 singleton pregnancies established following the transfer of ART-produced embryos, the live-birth rate, at 87.5%, was statistically identical to that for the TMB colony. Further development of the ARTs should result in increasing use of these techniques to augment conventional approaches to propagating monkeys, especially those of defined genotypes.

  16. The Chromosomal Constitution of Embryos Arising from Monopronuclear Oocytes in Programmes of Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Rosenbusch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of oocytes showing only one pronucleus during assisted reproduction is associated with uncertainty. A compilation of data on the genetic constitution of different developmental stages shows that affected oocytes are able to develop into haploid, diploid, and mosaic embryos with more or less complex chromosomal compositions. In the majority of cases (~80%, haploidy appears to be caused by gynogenesis, whereas parthenogenesis or androgenesis is less common. Most of the diploid embryos result from a fertilization event involving asynchronous formation of the two pronuclei or pronuclear fusion at a very early stage. Uniparental diploidy may sometimes occur if one pronucleus fails to develop and the other pronucleus already contains a diploid genome or alternatively a haploid genome undergoes endoreduplication. In general, the chance of obtaining a biparental diploid embryo appears higher after conventional in vitro fertilization than after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. If a transfer of embryos obtained from monopronuclear oocytes is envisaged, it should be tried to culture them up to the blastocyst since most haploid embryos are not able to reach this stage. Comprehensive counselling of patients on potential risks is advisable before transfer and a preimplantation genetic diagnosis could be offered if available.

  17. Racial and ethnic differences in assisted reproduction treatment outcomes: the benefit of racial admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Setti, Amanda S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Taitson, Paulo Franco; Borges, Edson

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether racial and ethnic differences affect the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology in the Brazilian population. 1497 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were split into groups according to the patient's ethnicity: Caucasian (n = 2131), Mestizo (n = 358), Asian (n = 174), Black (n = 115) and Indian (n = 260). ICSI outcomes were compared among the groups. Body mass index was highest in the Black group, followed by the Mestizo, Indian, Caucasian and Asian groups (p > 0.001). The FSH dose (p > 0.001) was highest among Indians, followed by Asians and Caucasians, and the dose was lowest among Blacks and Mestizos. In contrast, the oocyte yield was highest among Mestizos, followed by Indians, Blacks and Caucasians, and lowest among Asians (p = 0.005). The fertilisation rate was highest among Mestizos, followed by Blacks, Indians and Caucasians, whereas Asians had the lowest fertilisation rate (p = 0.004). Pregnancy and implantation rates were also highest among Mestizos, followed by Blacks, Indians and Caucasians, whereas the Asian patients had the lowest rates (p = 0.008 and p > 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, our evidence suggests a possible beneficial effect of racial admixture on ICSI outcomes.

  18. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate.

  19. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2012: results generated from European registers by ESHREaEuro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Kupka, M. S.; de Mouzon, J.

    2016-01-01

    The 16th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the data of the treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) initiated in Europe during 2012: are there any changes compared with previous years? Despite some fluctuations in the number...... of countries reporting data, the overall number of ART cycles has continued to increase year by year, the pregnancy rates (PRs) in 2012 remained stable compared with those reported in 2011, and the number of transfers with multiple embryos (3+) and the multiple delivery rates were lower than ever before. Since......). In FER cycles, the PR per thawing/warming increased to 23.1% (21.3% in 2011). In ED cycles, the PR per fresh transfer increased to 48.4% (45.8% in 2011) and to 35.9% (33.6% in 2011) per thawed transfer, while it was 45.1% for transfers after FOR. The delivery rate after IUI remained stable, at 8.5% (8...

  20. Below population replacement fertility rates:Can assisted reproductive technology (ART) help reverse the trend?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Blyth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper considers the potential contribution that assisted reproductive technology (ART) may make to population replenishment in countries that have experienced extended periods of below-population-replacement Total Fertility Rates (TFR), by focusing on the specific situation of Singapore, which has recorded ‘ultra-low’ TFRs for many years. Methods: The factors contributing to ultra-low TFRs in Singapore, the economic and social consequences of endemic below-population-replacement fertility rates and remedial measures initiated by the government are critically analysed, focussing specifically on the government’s subsided ART provisions of the ‘Marriage and Parenthood’ package. In addition the paper provides a close analysis of available contemporary data regarding ART and ART outcomes both in Singapore and internationally. Results: Despite limited public accessibility to data concerning ART outcomes in Singapore, it is possible to make some assessment of the potential contribution of publicly-funded ART provision and the possible extension of access to elective oocyte preservation to population replenishment. Conclusions: Subsidised ART can-at best-make a marginal contribution to government population policy.

  1. Blastocyst transfer for patients with multiple assisted reproduction treatment failures: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, D; Percival, G; D'Arcy, Y; Lenton, W; Sharif, K; Afnan, M

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study reports the results obtained from a patient group in which blastocyst culture and transfer were performed, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of introducing blastocyst transfer in a clinic. Twenty-six patients who had failed to achieve a pregnancy in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments were offered the choice of a fresh cycle with culture to the blastocyst stage. Of the 26 patients who elected to attempt blastocyst culture, 11 opted to have transfer on day 2 or day 3 due to low numbers of embryos. Of the 15 patients who proceeded to blastocyst culture, 46.2% of the embryos cultured reached the blastocyst stage or later and eight of the patients achieved a clinical pregnancy. More oocytes were collected in this patient group, hence the chances of obtaining blastocysts were higher. Offering blastocyst culture to patients with a reasonable chance of success who have had previous multiple assisted reproduction failures is an acceptable way of introducing blastocyst culture into practice.

  2. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment.

  3. Obstetric outcomes of monochorionic pregnancies conceived following assisted reproductive technology: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The overwhelming numbers of twins following assisted reproductive technology (ART are dichorionic twins, but monochorionic twins account for around 0.9% of post ART pregnancies. The data for post ART-monochorionic pregnancy outcomes are scarce due to the rarity of this condition. Hence, we evaluated the obstetric outcomes of monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies conceived on ART. Settings : University teaching hospital. Study Design : A case-control study of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA pregnancies conceived following ART treatment. Charts of all women who conceived following ART from 2008 to 2013 were screened. Among them, the monochorionic twins diagnosed in the first trimester were included and their obstetric outcome was followed-up. For comparison, an equal number of dichorionic twin pregnancies from age and body mass index matched mothers was selected. Results : The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. MCDA group had a higher miscarriage rate (50% than the DCDA group (10%, with three seconds trimester miscarriages in the MCDA group. The live birth rates were lower in the MCDA versus DCDA group (40% vs. 90%. Among triplet pregnancies with a monochorionic component, the live birth rate was only 25%. Conclusions : Monochorionic pregnancies following ART have poorer obstetric outcomes when compared to dichorionic pregnancies. For monochorionic pregnancies following ART, intensive antenatal surveillance at a tertiary level obstetric and neonatal center may help optimize the outcome.

  4. States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative: data collection, linkage, dissemination, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Allison S; Boulet, Sheree L; Sunderam, Saswati; Zhang, Yujia; Jamieson, Denise J; Crawford, Sara; McKane, Patricia; Copeland, Glenn; Mersol-Barg, Michael; Grigorescu, Violanda; Cohen, Bruce; Steele, JoAnn; Sappenfield, William; Diop, Hafsatou; Kirby, Russell S; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2013-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) refers to fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled outside the body. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) oversees the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), which collects data on all ART procedures performed in the United States. The NASS, while a comprehensive source of data on ART patient demographics and clinical procedures, includes limited information on outcomes related to women's and children's health. To examine ART-related health outcomes, CDC and three states (Massachusetts, Florida, and Michigan) established the States Monitoring ART (SMART) Collaborative to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes of ART and improve state-based ART surveillance. To date, NASS data have been linked with states' vital records, disease registries, and hospital discharge data with a linkage rate of 90.2%. The probabilistic linkage methodology used in the SMART Collaborative has been validated and found to be both accurate and efficient. A wide breadth of applied research within the Collaborative is planned or ongoing, including examinations of the impact of insurance mandates on ART use as well as the relationships between ART and birth defects and cancer, among others. The SMART Collaborative is working to improve state-based ART surveillance by developing state surveillance plans, establishing partnerships, and conducting data analyses. The SMART Collaborative has been instrumental in creating linked datasets and strengthening epidemiologic and research capacity for improving maternal and infant health programs and evaluating the public health impact of ART.

  5. Electre Tri-C, a multiple criteria decision aiding sorting model applied to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, J R; Almeida-Dias, J; Matias, S; Roy, B; Carvalho, M J; Plancha, C E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply an informatics tool for dealing with a medical decision aiding problem to help infertile couples to become parents, when using assisted reproduction. A multiple criteria decision aiding method for sorting or ordinal classification problems, called Electre Tri-C, was chosen in order to assign each couple to an embryo-transfer category. The set of categories puts in evidence a way for increasing the single pregnancy rate, while minimizing multiple pregnancies. The decision aiding sorting model was co-constructed through an interaction process between the decision aiding analysts and the medical experts. According to the sample used in this study, the Electre Tri-C method provides a unique category in 86% of the cases and it achieves a sorting accuracy of 61%. Retrospectively, the medical experts do agree that some of their judgments concerning the number of embryos to transfer back to the uterus of the woman could be different according to these results. The current ART methodology achieves a single pregnancy rate of 47% and a twin pregnancy rate of 14%. Thus, this informatics tools may play an important role for supporting ART medical decisions, aiming to increase the single pregnancy rate, while minimizing multiple pregnancies. Building the set of criteria comprises a part of arbitrariness and imperfect knowledge, which require time and expertise to be refined. Among them, three criteria are modeled by means of a holistic classification procedure by the medical experts. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The association of placenta previa and assisted reproductive techniques: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Manoochehr; Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Fereidooni, Bita

    2017-06-06

    Several epidemiological studies have determined that assisted reproductive techniques (ART) can increase the risk of placenta previa. To date, only a meta-analysis has been performed for assessing the relationship between placenta previa and ART. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between placenta previa and ART in singleton and twin pregnancies. A literature search was performed in major databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to April 2017. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I(2) statistic. The publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) estimates with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 1529 publications until September 2016 with 1,388,592 participants. The overall estimate of OR was 2.67 (95%CI: 2.01, 3.34) and RR was 3.62 (95%CI: 0.21, 7.03) based on singleton pregnancies. The overall estimate of OR was 1.50 (95%CI: 1.26, 1.74) based on twin pregnancies. We showed based on odds ratio reports in observational studies that ART procedures are a risk factor for placenta previa.

  7. Short and long term outcomes of children conceived with assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkgeldi, Engin; Yagmur, Hande; Seyhan, Ayse; Urman, Bulent; Ata, Baris

    2016-12-01

    Despite their wide and global use, possible short and long-term effects of fertility treatments on children is not well-established. In this review, birth defects and perinatal complications and their relationship with assisted reproductive technology (ART), along with long-term effects of ART on cardiovascular system, metabolism, behavior, cognitive skills, and childhood cancers are discussed. Children conceived through ART are at increased risk for birth defects and perinatal complications such as preterm delivery, low birth weight and small for gestational age. Parental characteristics, underlying infertility etiology and ART procedures themselves may contribute to this. The long-term effects of ART are difficult to establish. Studies so far report that ART children have normal social, emotional, cognitive, and motor functions. Likewise, despite some minor inconsistencies in some studies, they do not seem to be at increased risk for childhood cancers. However, there are a number of studies that imply vascular system may be adversely affected by ART and its possible consequences should be further investigated with follow up studies. Large scale studies with long-term follow up periods are required to determine the effects of ART on conceived children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homocysteine in embryo culture media as a predictor of pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyama, Burcu Aydin; Cepni, Ismail; Imamoglu, Metehan; Oncul, Mahmut; Tuten, Abdullah; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Kervancioglu, Mehmet Ertan; Kaleli, Semih; Ocal, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether homocysteine (hcy) concentrations in embryo culture media correlate with pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Forty patients who underwent single embryo transfer at the infertility clinic of a tertiary care center were recruited for this case-control study. Spent embryo culture media from all patients were collected after single embryo transfer on day 3 (n = 40). Hcy concentrations in embryo culture media were analyzed by enzyme cycling method. Patients were grouped according to the diagnosis of a clinical pregnancy. Sixteen patients were pregnant while 24 patients failed to achieve conception. Mean Hcy levels in the culture media were significantly different between the groups (p pregnant group and 3.37 ± 0.92 μmol/l in the pregnant group. Receiver operator curve analysis for determining the diagnostic potential of Hcy for pregnancy revealed an area under the curve of 0.792 (confidence interval: 0.65-0.94; p < 0.05). A cut-off value of 3.53 μmol/l was determined with a sensitivity of 83.3%, and a specificity of 68.8%. Lower hcy levels were associated with a better chance of pregnancy and better embryo grades. Hcy may be introduced as an individual metabolomic profiling marker for embryos.

  9. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  10. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun-Zhen; Pang, Li-Hong; Li, Min-Qing; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77). ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  11. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and subsequent self-reported life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivasaari-Pirinen, Paula; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    To compare life satisfaction between women with successful or unsuccessful outcome after assisted reproductive treatment (ART) by taking into account the time since the last ART. Cohort study. Tertiary hospital. A total of 987 consecutive women who had undergone ART during 1996-2007 were invited and altogether 505 women participated in the study. A postal enquiry with a life satisfaction scale. Self-reported life satisfaction in respect to the time since the last ART. In general, women who achieved a live birth after ART had a significantly higher life satisfaction than those who had unsuccessful ART, especially when compared in the first three years. The difference disappeared in the time period of 6-9 years after ART. The unsuccessfully treated women who had a child by some other means before or after the unsuccessful ART had comparable life satisfaction with successfully treated women even earlier. Even if unsuccessful ART outcome is associated with subsequent lower level of life satisfaction, it does not seem to threaten the long-term wellbeing.

  12. Boundaries and risk: Media framing of assisted reproductive technologies and older mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have historically been sites of heated public controversy. However, with widespread use, the boundary-challenging risks surrounding ARTs have become less newsworthy. One exception includes their use by "older mothers," particularly postmenopausal mothers. In this paper, I review the social science literature related to the risks of ARTs and the conceptualizations of "older mothers". Next, I move to analyze the specific case of 60-year-old Ranjit Hayer, who gave birth to twins in Calgary, Canada, through the context of the Canadian media coverage the week following the birth, using concepts from cultural approaches to risk perception, constructivist studies of technology, and risk communication theory. I argue that risk discourses emerge when technologies and users expose and challenge the contingent stability of the sociotechnical discourses surrounding them. This leads to a public re-opening of a "closed" technology and user and a reconstruction of the risks associated with them. This case demonstrates how an apparently "settled" sociotechnical network becomes reframed in terms of risk, and how the negotiation of this risk reveals, constructs, and interweaves various boundary discourses.

  13. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  15. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo.

  16. Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk...... of unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050......). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed...

  17. Reproductive cloning and human health: an ethical, international, and nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sweatman, L R

    2000-03-01

    Human reproductive cloning came to the public's attention when Dolly, a sheep, was cloned in Scotland in 1997. This news quickly spread around the world causing both excitement at the possibilities that cloning techniques could offer, as well as apprehension about the ethical, social and legal implications should human reproductive cloning become possible. Many international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Council of Nurses, and governments were concerned about the impact of human reproductive cloning on human health, dignity and human rights. To this end, many institutions have drafted resolutions, protocols and position statements outlining their concerns. This paper will outline some of the major ethical issues surrounding human reproductive cloning, the position of various international organizations and governments, and specifically the position of the International Council of Nurses.

  18. A survey of the attitudes of infertile and parous women towards the availability of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Katri; Länsimies, Esko; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Heinonen, Seppo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in attitudes towards aspects of assisted reproduction technology between infertile and parous women. Case-control study. University-based tertiary care clinic. Three hundred and ninety-two women with fertility problems and 200 parous controls. A questionnaire was sent out to 392 the members of Childless Support Association and 200 parous women who had at least three infants and had given birth at Kuopio University Hospital. The questionnaire consisted of 46 questions: demographic information, fertility history, different aspects of assisted reproduction technology and prioritisation issues. Attitudes towards assisted reproduction technology. The overall response rate was 46%. Infertile women were highly educated (P 2 or surrogate mothers (30.6% vs 15.2%) and limitations in the number of infertility treatment cycles (28.4% vs 61.4%). For 11 questions, we recorded minor, but statistically significant, differences. In the prioritisation questions, the women set the order according to their own interests, probably because the women were at fertile age and they had or would like to have a child. Maternity services and screening for cancer in women (Papanicolaou's test and mammography) were at the top of the list. These results reflect a split attitude that was influenced by the wish of infertile women to help childless couples and to be able to recruit suitable sperm/oocyte donors. Parous women were motivated by their concern for children's rights.

  19. The application of Nursing ethics to the Assisted Reproductive Technology Center%护理伦理学应用于辅助生殖技术中心的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露

    2013-01-01

    人类辅助生殖技术的应用与发展带来了一系列伦理问题,护理人员作为医疗服务的执行者在辅助生殖技术的实施过程中,应树立护理伦理意识,将护理伦理融入临床实践,加强监督管理。同时不断思考和探讨,制定相应对策,规范和促进辅助生殖技术的健康发展。%With the application and the development of the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology, a series of ethical problems has been brought up. As the executors of the medical services, nurses should maintain a sense of nursing ethics, apply nursing ethics into clinical practice, and reinforce the ethics supervision and management in the process of Assisted Reproductive Technology implementation. Keep thinking and exploring to the Assisted Reproductive Technology implementation, and develop appropriate ethics countermeasures to promote the development of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

  20. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  1. Generation of human female reproductive tract epithelium from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD, the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; GFP-hESC (ENVY. We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1(+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT.

  2. Refractive Error and Fixation Conditions of Infants Born by Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the refractive error and oculomotor conditions of infants born by assisted reproductive techniques (ART in patients referring to Royan Institute as well as Child Health and Development Center.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 ART-exposed infants aged less than 9 months were tested by retinoscopy, fixation conditions, Hirschberg and Doll's eye maneuver.Results: The average refractive error of these infants shows hyperopic Shift +0.9±1.1 D. The average astigmatism recorded in these infants is -0.6±0.6D. The prevalence of refractive errors in these infants is myopia 6%, hyperopia 85% and emmetropia 9%. Impairment of fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll's eye maneuver was respectively observed in 20.4, 1.4 and 3.7% of the studied infants.Conclusion Given the sensitivities in the visual system development process and critical period which is important for every infant in the very first months of birth, it seems that visual-ocular studies are more important in ART-exposed infants who were exposed to different factors until their birth. The results of refractive errors, fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll’s head maneuver which was conducted in this study for these infants reveal that, it is likely that visual impairment in these infants is higher than the results of foreign studies. However, lack of access to population studies in infants below 1 year of age in Iran necessitates more extensive studies and follow-ups of vision of ART-exposed infants more seriously.

  3. Psychological vulnerability of singleton children after the 'vanishing' of a co-twin following assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Leonardo; Monti, Fiorella; Agostini, Francesca; Fagandini, Piergiuseppina; La Sala, Giovanni B; Blickstein, Isaac

    2008-02-01

    We test the hypothesis that parents who conceived twins by assisted reproduction technology (ART), but experienced loss of one twin, have a different parental-child relationship compared with ART parents following a singleton pregnancy. We used the 1994-2005 ART database of the Centre for Infertility of the Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova in Reggio Emilia, Italy to identify families of 53 singleton births after the 'vanishing' twin syndrome. The controls comprised 106 families who conceived and delivered singletons, matched for gestational age (>or= 28 or= 32 or= 37 weeks), maternal age (or= 35 40 years), child's age (1-3, 4-6, and 7-11 years) and child's gender. We completed 3 tests: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the QUIT - Italian Questionnaires of Temperament - motor scale, and the Child Vulnerability Scale. We found that children in the study had significantly more difficulties at the beginning of nursery school (p = .002) and kindergarten (p = .0005), with more frequent anxiety of separation from the parents (nursery school, p = .009; kindergarten, p = .001). We found a lower mean QUIT motor score for the 7- to 11-year-old children when compared to the general Italian normative values, suggesting that parents perceived their children as having more motor difficulties. In contrast, analysis of the Child Vulnerability Scale showed that significantly more parents (15.1%) from the controls perceived their child as vulnerable compared to those from the study group (3.8%), p = .034. We conclude that despite the perceived motor difficulties and the difficulties in the process of individuation-separation that appear at the beginning of the different educational circumstances, parents of singletons following the 'vanishing' twin syndrome perceive their children as 'invincible', and thus less vulnerable compared to controls.

  4. [Living the birth process in a humanized assistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa Mandarano; Barbieri, Márcia; Fustinoni, Suzete Maria

    2011-01-01

    That was a qualitative study with phenomenological approach that aimed at understanding women's post-partum experiences in a humanized assistance. Data were collected in a hospital from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Eight women in post-partum period were interviewed. From data analysis two themes were extracted: Bearing the labor and Having the opportunity rescuing autonomy, being disclosed the phenomenon: "Living the ambiguity on the birth process in a humanized assistance model". The reports show feelings like pain, fear and anxiety, however, it allowed a participation and rescuing autonomy. Although the study have been realized in a humanized assistance, the women's experiences reveals that they are far from an effective humanization, according to its principles. This study can be used to guide educative actions target to humanization and to generate managerial changes.

  5. ESHRE guideline: routine psychosocial care in infertility and medically assisted reproduction-a guide for fertility staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, S; Boivin, J; Dancet, E; de Klerk, C; Emery, M; Lewis-Jones, C; Thorn, P; Van den Broeck, U; Venetis, C; Verhaak, C M; Wischmann, T; Vermeulen, N

    2015-11-01

    Based on the best available evidence in the literature, what is the optimal management of routine psychosocial care at infertility and medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics? Using the structured methodology of the Manual for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Guideline Development, 120 recommendations were formulated that answered the 12 key questions on optimal management of routine psychosocial care by all fertility staff. The 2002 ESHRE Guidelines for counselling in infertility has been a reference point for best psychosocial care in infertility for years, but this guideline needed updating and did not focus on routine psychosocial care that can be delivered by all fertility staff. This guideline was produced by a group of experts in the field according to the 12-step process described in the ESHRE Manual for Guideline Development. After scoping the guideline and listing a set of 12 key questions in PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) format, thorough systematic searches of the literature were conducted; evidence from papers published until April 2014 was collected, evaluated for quality and analysed. A summary of evidence was written in a reply to each of the key questions and used as the basis for recommendations, which were defined by consensus within the guideline development group (GDG). Patient and additional clinical input was collected during the scoping and the review phase of the guideline development. The guideline group, comprising psychologists, two medical doctors, a midwife, a patient representative and a methodological expert, met three times to discuss evidence and reach consensus on the recommendations. 120 recommendations that aim at guiding fertility clinic staff in providing optimal evidence-based routine psychosocial care to patients dealing with infertility and MAR. The guideline is written in two sections. The first section describes patients' preferences regarding the psychosocial

  6. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  7. How old is too old? A contribution to the discussion on age limits for assisted reproduction technique access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourková, Jiřina; Konečná, Hana; Burcin, Boris; Kučera, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, the Czech Republic established the women's age limit for access to assisted reproduction techniques at age 49 years. In this paper, the acceptability of this age limit from the children's perspective in the Czech Republic is assessed. Although the necessity of balancing the interests of parents and children is acknowledged, little research has taken children's interests into account. We have attempted to map out 'children's interests', asking older children and adolescents (aged 11-25 years) how old they would prefer their parents to be: Czech respondents would prefer to have younger parents. This finding is consistent with the optimal biological childbearing age rather than with the current postponement to a later age. So far, assisted reproduction techniques have been largely regarded as a medical treatment justifying the current women's age limit of 49 years. Had the children's perspective been taken into account, this age limit might have been lower than 49 years. We propose that reproductive health policy should adequately reflect multiple perspectives as an integral part of a multi-layered support system of a society.

  8. Introduction: MicroRNAs in human reproduction: small molecules with crucial regulatory roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbar, Tal; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio; Laufer, Neri

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. In this issue's Views and Reviews, the authors present the current knowledge regarding the involvement of microRNAs in several aspects of human reproduction and discuss its future implications for clinical practice.

  9. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed.

  10. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  11. Spacecraft Rendevouz and Docking. An Autonomy assisted Human Operator Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1999-01-01

    The phenomena and problems encountered when a rendezvous maneuver, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies and details of a variety of scenarios has been analyzed. So far, all solutions that have been brought into realization have been...... based entirely on direct human supervision and control.This paper describes a vision based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation procedures...... information to assist the human operator during the docking phase.The closed loop and operator assistance performance of the system have been assessed using a test bench including human operator, navigation module and high fidelity visualization module.The tests performed verified the general accuracy, real...

  12. Congenital hypothyroidism after assisted reproductive technology in Japan: comparison between multiples and singletons, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki Syuichi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between congenital hypothyroidism (CH and multiple pregnancy has not been fully studied in Japan. Methods Complete nationwide data of assisted reproductive technology (ART in Japan from 2005 to 2009 presented by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which include information on CH and birth defects were used for analyses. Diseases were reclassified according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10, 2003 version. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the incidence rate for CH was calculated with singletons as the reference group. Additional birth defects with CH were examined. The probandwise concordance rate of multiples and recurrence risk ratio were calculated. Results There were 18 patients with CH, consisting of 12 singletons and 6 multiples. The incidence rates of CH per 1,000 live births in singletons and multiples are 0.14 (=12/87,145 and 0.31 (=6/19,533, respectively. The incidence rate was more than twofold higher in multiple births than in singleton births, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR=2.2, 95% CI 0.8–5.9. Additional birth defects were present in three patients with CH (17%=3/18. The multiples were affected by other birth defects more frequently (33%=2/6 than the singletons (8%=1/12. The six multiple-births patients were derived from one concordant twin pair, which consisted of two twin patients; three discordant twin pairs, which consisted of three twin patients; and one discordant triplets set, which consisted of one triplet patient. Thus, the probandwise concordance rate was 33.3% (=2/(2+4. The estimated recurrence risk ratio was 1976 (for the total ART population or 609 (for the Japanese general population. Conclusions CH was more frequent in multiples compared to singletons. A higher percentage of additional birth defects was also observed in multiples compared to singletons. The familial aggregation of CH

  13. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Newborn Size in Singletons Resulting from Fresh and Cryopreserved Embryos Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Claudia; Zhang, Yujia; Talge, Nicole M.; Li, Chenxi; Todem, David; Boulet, Sheree L.; McKane, Patricia; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Copeland, Glenn; Bernson, Dana; Diamond, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives and Study Design The aim of this study was two-fold: to investigate the association of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and small newborn size, using standardized measures; and to examine within strata of fresh and cryopreserved embryos transfer, whether this association is influenced by parental infertility diagnoses. We used a population-based retrospective cohort from Michigan (2000–2009), Florida and Massachusetts (2000–2010). Our sample included 28,946 ART singletons conceived with non-donor oocytes and 4,263,846 non-ART singletons. Methods Regression models were used to examine the association of ART and newborn size, measured as small for gestational age (SGA) and birth-weight-z-score, among four mutually exclusive infertility groups: female infertility only, male infertility only, combined female and male infertility, and unexplained infertility, stratified by fresh and cryopreserved embryos transfer. Results We found increased SGA odds among ART singletons from fresh embryos transfer compared with non-ART singletons, with little difference by infertility source [adjusted odds-ratio for SGA among female infertility only: 1.18 (95% CI 1.10, 1.26), male infertility only: 1.20 (95% CI 1.10, 1.32), male and female infertility: 1.18 (95% CI 1.06, 1.31) and unexplained infertility: 1.24 (95% CI 1.10, 1.38)]. Conversely, ART singletons, born following cryopreserved embryos transfer, had lower SGA odds compared with non-ART singletons, with mild variation by infertility source [adjusted odds-ratio for SGA among female infertility only: 0.56 (95% CI 0.45, 0.71), male infertility only: 0.64 (95% CI 0.47, 0.86), male and female infertility: 0.52 (95% CI 0.36, 0.77) and unexplained infertility: 0.71 (95% CI 0.47, 1.06)]. Birth-weight-z-score was significantly lower for ART singletons born following fresh embryos transfer than non-ART singletons, regardless of infertility diagnoses. PMID:28114395

  14. 75 FR 2545 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); Availability of the Final Expert Panel Report on Soy... whether exposure to soy infant formula is a hazard to human development. The expert panel also...

  15. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  16. [Ruling of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Case of Artavia Murillo et al (in vitro fertilization) v. Costa Rica; new hopes for the reproductive freedom in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Modern reproductive technology has not been completely accepted and, especially in-vitro fertilization, IVF has generated serious social, political and legal controversies in Latin America. We may distinguish two trends that show us the oppositions; on one hand, the primacy of the embryo's live and its protection during artificial reproductive process and on the other, the primacy of liberal access to assisted reproduction techniques. The debate came to the fore, after a ruling by the Costa Rica's Constitutional Chamber who banned de IVF in 2000. The damaged couples after fulfilling the process toward the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, present a petition to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The Court's sentence and its arguments will be the subject of these comments as well that will allow to considered that both of them should be considered as a very important step towards the construction of a secular liberal vision over the assisted reproduction in Latin America.

  17. Immunohistochemical features of progesterone receptors expression of placental barrier in women with multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Zadorozhna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders are one of the main known causes of miscarriage and preterm birth in multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART. Progesterone and the number of its receptors play an important role in the preservation and prolongation of pregnancy and it is the pressing issue of our time. The study of placentas, as the main site of synthesis of progesterone, has high informative potential and it is the most important diagnostic object, and information received by its research is essential for the full conclusion on the causes, mechanisms, close and long-term effects of multiple pregnancy pathology. Aim. The aim of our study was to investigate immunohistochemical features of placentas from women with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies in spontaneous fertilization and after use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Methods and results. According to this goal we examined 94 women, 44 of whom had multiple pregnancies due to ART, 42 with separate multiple pregnancy and 38 women with a singleton pregnancy. We carried out clinical and statistical analysis of the course of pregnancy and childbirth in the studied groups. During the study it was found that multiple pregnancies due to assisted reproduction belong to the high risk of gestation, at which premature births occur much more frequently than in singleton pregnancies. We were the first to carry out the immunohistochemical study of placentas in which the highest expression of progesterone receptors in the nuclei of cells of decidua (45% related to the parent structure of the placenta from women with multiple pregnancies caused by ART is found. It is also found that with increasing gestational age, there has been a significant decrease in the expression of the activity of progesterone receptors (from 45 to 2.5%, regardless of the method of conception and the number of fetuses. Conclusions. The results of the study point to the definitive link of structures of

  18. 21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 884.6180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6180... used for assisted reproduction procedures. Media include liquid and powder versions of...

  19. Environmental Hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  20. Prenatal testing among women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques in Denmark 1995-2000: a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are generally older than women with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and are consequently more likely to carry a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Furthermore, a significantly increased rate of chromosomal...... abnormalities after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the use and results of prenatal invasive diagnostic testing in a national Danish cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ICSI pregnancies. Additionally, we examined to what extent second...

  1. Sexual and reproductive rights and the human rights agenda: controversial and contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Wanda

    2011-11-01

    In this paper I share some of my experience and observations, as an advocate for women's rights, of the last 20 years of struggles for sexual and reproductive health and rights, carried out in many key places where these issues have been debated and decided. I do not aspire to be comprehensive about the current status of human rights related to sexuality and reproduction. Given that my expertise is of a practical (rather than theoretical) nature, the complexity of the topic and contradictory events with regard to it, which take place almost everyday, I will highlight some selected achievements and setbacks in this area, particularly regarding abortion rights. I will provide examples of how human rights related to sexual and reproductive health have been addressed in UN policy-setting bodies, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and Commission on Population and Development, as well as in the UN human rights system such as Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Human Rights Council. Given my work with European institutions, I provide examples of important decisions by the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights. Lastly, I discuss growing opposition to a progressive human rights agenda and the universality of human rights. Despite significant successes, sexual and reproductive rights will long remain controversial and contested. Hence, it is crucial to try to find new ways to engage and new partners to work with. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Grasp Assist Device With Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon B. J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove, actuator assembly, and controller. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. Phalange rings are positioned with respect to the digit. A flexible tendon is connected at one end to one of the rings and is routed through the remaining rings. An exoskeleton positioned with respect to the digit includes hinged interconnecting members each connected to a corresponding ring, and/or a single piece of slotted material. The actuator assembly is connected to another end of the tendon. The controller calculates a tensile force in response to the measured grasping force, and commands the tensile force from the actuator assembly to thereby pull on the tendon. The exoskeleton offloads some of the tensile force from the operator's finger to the glove.

  3. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary.

  4. Expression of Attractin in male reproductive tract of human and mice and its correlation with male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Ming, Yu; Li, Jie; Chi, Yan; Li, Hong-Gang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2014-10-01

    The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis and semen of human and male mice was investigated. Human testis and semen samples were all collected from Reproductive Center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University in December, 2012. Testis samples were collected from 7 cases of obstructive azoospermias when they were subjected to diagnosed testis biopsy, and 30 normal human semen samples were obtained from those cases of semen analysis. Adult mice testis tissues were obtained from 10 2-month-old male BALB/c mice, and 60 male mice at different ages were classified into 10 groups (day 1, 5, 10, 15, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, and 120 respectively, n=6 each). The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Human semen samples were centrifuged into sperm plasma (SP) and sperm extract (SE), and mice sperm samples were collected from the epididymis of 10 adult male BALB/c mice. Western blotting was used to determine the Attractin protein expression level. Attractin mRNA and protein were expressed in the testis of both patients with obstructive azoospermias and adult Bcl/B mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that no Attractin mRNA was detectable in day 1 male BALB/c mice group. The Attractin mRNA and protein levels were low on the day 10, and increased with age until day 56. On the day 120, the expression levels of Attractin were decreased. As for human semen samples, Attractin protein was expressed in both SP and SE, but didn't exist in samples from the epididymis of male BALB/c mice. It was suggested that Attractin acted as a novel active substance and was involved in male reproduction in both human and BALB/c mice, but it exerted a different expression profile in different mammal species.

  5. Intelligence for Human-Assistant Planetary Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey; Tyree, Kimberly; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The central premise in developing effective human-assistant planetary surface robots is that robotic intelligence is needed. The exact type, method, forms and/or quantity of intelligence is an open issue being explored on the ERA project, as well as others. In addition to field testing, theoretical research into this area can help provide answers on how to design future planetary robots. Many fundamental intelligence issues are discussed by Murphy [2], including (a) learning, (b) planning, (c) reasoning, (d) problem solving, (e) knowledge representation, and (f) computer vision (stereo tracking, gestures). The new "social interaction/emotional" form of intelligence that some consider critical to Human Robot Interaction (HRI) can also be addressed by human assistant planetary surface robots, as human operators feel more comfortable working with a robot when the robot is verbally (or even physically) interacting with them. Arkin [3] and Murphy are both proponents of the hybrid deliberative-reasoning/reactive-execution architecture as the best general architecture for fully realizing robot potential, and the robots discussed herein implement a design continuously progressing toward this hybrid philosophy. The remainder of this chapter will describe the challenges associated with robotic assistance to astronauts, our general research approach, the intelligence incorporated into our robots, and the results and lessons learned from over six years of testing human-assistant mobile robots in field settings relevant to planetary exploration. The chapter concludes with some key considerations for future work in this area.

  6. Environmental endocrine disruptors: Effects on the human male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, M F; Hasan, N; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C

    2015-12-01

    Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically "endocrine disruptors," that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward.

  7. Reproductive factors associated to human papillomavirus infection in Iranian woman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freshteh Jahdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humman papilomaviruses (HPV infection is the most common type of sexual trasmitted diseases (STD in majority of countries. It's a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we aimed to compare the history of reproductive disease between two groups of Iranian women with and without HPV infection through colposcopy precedure.This case -control study included 210 women reffered to a training gynecology hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science in Tehran. Case group was composed of 70 women with diagnosis of HPV infection, while control group was composed of 140 women with no sign of mentioned-infectious diseases of the control group. Reproductive history was prepared using the standard questionnaire, and obtianed data were analized by SPSS 20.OUR FINDINGS SHOWED THAT THE RISK FACTORS FOR HPV INFECTION WERE AS FOLLOWS: low parity (p = 0.000, reduction of number of weekly sexual intercourse (p = 0.000, no consumption of oral contraceptive pill (OCP (p = 0.006, and history of withdrawal contraceptive method (p = 0.001.Improvement of our knowledge about reproductive factors associated with HPV may help us to identify women at risk and to develope different methods of preventive interventions.

  8. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility.

  9. 2017 in-training initiative of the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics: the JARG Young Investigator Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Kara N; Patrizio, Pasquale; Albertini, David

    2017-01-01

    The Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics introduces the JARG Young Investigator Forum, an in-training initiative aimed to expand opportunities for young investigators. The JARG Young Investigator Forum has three primary goals: first, to increase opportunities for trainees and young investigators to contribute as researchers and writers. Trainees will be invited to publish mini-reviews based on their area of research interest/expertise and will have the opportunity to indicate "in-training" when submitting manuscripts as first author Educational research pertaining to reproductive medicine training will be added to the purview of the journal. Second, the Young Investigator Forum will increase opportunities for trainees to serve as journal reviewers and will provide mentorship throughout the peer review process. Third, trainees will have the unique opportunity to gain editorial experience by serving as a "guest editor" of the Young Investigator Forum, overseeing all editorial aspects of their assigned particular issue. Through authorship, peer review, and editorial experience, we seek to nurture the academic skills that are critical to a well-rounded career. The JARG Young Investigator Forum aims to foster career development for a generation of trainees who represent the future of reproductive medicine, and here, we outline the primary goals and objectives of the initiative.

  10. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified......-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits....

  11. What's the message? A content analysis of newspaper articles about assisted reproductive technology from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L; Tulandi, T; Whitley, R; Constantinescu, T; Ells, C; Zelkowitz, P

    2014-06-01

    Infertility and its treatment is the subject of considerable media coverage. In order to evaluate the representation of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the popular media, we conducted a content analysis of North American newspaper articles. We also explored whether different themes emerged in relation to the implementation of public funding for ART in Quebec, Canada. Print and online newspaper articles from 2005 to 2011 were retrieved using the terms "in-vitro fertilization", "infertility treatment", "assisted reproductive technology", and "IVF treatment". Totally, 719 newspaper articles met inclusion criteria and were coded according to predetermined categories. Risks (63%) and ethical issues (61%) related to ART were most commonly featured. Quebec-based articles were mostly concerned with the politics and financial issues governing ART, and were less likely to report the risks and emotional impact of ART than other North American press. Newspapers tended to emphasize extreme scenarios as well as controversial cases that may not represent the everyday realities of ART. Changes in public policy may also engender shifts in the tone and content of media reports. It is important to establish resources that can inform the public as well as prospective infertility patients about their condition and potential treatment options.

  12. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  13. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; De Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Van Der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; De Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; De Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrikke; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; De Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Roy Thurik, A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlyi

  14. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; Vlaming, de Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Laan, van der Sander W.; Perry, John R.B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S.F.W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Most, van der Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Duijn, van Cornelia M.; Geus, de Eco J.C.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Haan, de Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; Bianca, la Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; Mutsert, de Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A.R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Hoed, den Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior—age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)—has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlyi

  15. Genetic factors in human reproduction : a trade off between procreation and longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunné, Frédérique Margo van

    2006-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in the regulation of human life span but the exact pathways remain to be elucidated, however they may be interrelated with the regulation of human reproduction. It is argued that an innate cytokine profile supportive of Th1-type T cells favors survival of infec

  16. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Illa M.; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R. B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tonu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen-A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Toenjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Dania V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkila, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe', Vincent W. V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Kahonen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Paivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellstrom, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renee; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Porn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stockl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlyi

  17. Human-Centered Design for the Personal Satellite Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Gawdiak, Yuri; Thomas, Hans; Greaves, Mark; Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) is a softball-sized flying robot designed to operate autonomously onboard manned spacecraft in pressurized micro-gravity environments. We describe how the Brahms multi-agent modeling and simulation environment in conjunction with a KAoS agent teamwork approach can be used to support human-centered design for the PSA.

  18. Efficacy of Highly Purified Urinary FSH versus Recombinant FSH in Chinese Women over 37 Years Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles: i. group A (n=254 were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254 were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M П oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade І embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos. Results: Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade І embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two

  19. The regulation of science and the Charter of Rights: would a ban on non-reproductive human cloning unjustifiably violate freedom of expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Barbara; Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Non-Reproductive Human Cloning (NRHC) allows researchers to develop and clone cells, including non-reproductive cells, and to research the etiology and transmission of disease. The ability to clone specific stem cells may also allow researchers to clone cells with genetic defects and analyze those cells with more precisions. Despite those potential benefits, Parliament has banned such cloning due to a myriad of social and ethical concerns. In May 2002, the Canadian Government introduced Bill C-13 on assisted human reproductive technologies. Bill C-13 deals with both the scientific and the clinical use of human reproductive materials, and it prohibits a number of other activities, including NRHC. Although the Supreme Court of Canada has never ruled on whether scientific experiments area form of expression, academic support exists for this notion. The authors go through the legal analysis that would be required to find that scientific experiments are expression, focusing in part on whether NRHC could be considered violent and thus fall outside the protection of section 2(b). The latter question is complicated by the ongoing policy debate over whether an "embryonic cell" is property of human life. The authors then consider whether a ban on NRHC could be justified under section 1 of the Charter. They conclude that both the breadth of the legislative purpose and the proportionality of the measure are problematic. Proportionality is a specific concern because the ban could be viewed as an outright denial of scientific freedom of expression. Although consistent with current jurisprudence on freedom of expression, this paper runs against the flow of government policy in the areas of regulation and prohibition of non-reproductive human cloning. As there has been no Charter litigation to date on whether scientific research is a form of expression, the authors introduce a new way of looking at the legality of the regulation of new reproductive technologies.

  20. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  1. Developmental and reproductive outcomes in humans and animals after glyphosate exposure: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy Lavin; Watson, Rebecca E; DeSesso, John M

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an analysis of the available literature was conducted. Epidemiological and animal reports, as well as studies on mechanisms of action related to possible developmental and reproductive effects of glyphosate, were reviewed. An evaluation of this database found no consistent effects of glyphosate exposure on reproductive health or the developing offspring. Furthermore, no plausible mechanisms of action for such effects were elucidated. Although toxicity was observed in studies that used glyphosate-based formulations, the data strongly suggest that such effects were due to surfactants present in the formulations and not the direct result of glyphosate exposure. To estimate potential human exposure concentrations to glyphosate as a result of working directly with the herbicide, available biomonitoring data were examined. These data demonstrated extremely low human exposures as a result of normal application practices. Furthermore, the estimated exposure concentrations in humans are >500-fold less than the oral reference dose for glyphosate of 2 mg/kg/d set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA 1993). In conclusion, the available literature shows no solid evidence linking glyphosate exposure to adverse developmental or reproductive effects at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

  2. Using human rights for sexual and reproductive health: improving legal and regulatory frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismodi, Eszter; Hilber, Adriane Martin; Lincetto, Ornella; Stahlhofer, Marcus; Gruskin, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the development of a tool that uses human rights concepts and methods to improve relevant laws, regulations and policies related to sexual and reproductive health. This tool aims to improve awareness and understanding of States’ human rights obligations. It includes a method for systematically examining the status of vulnerable groups, involving non-health sectors, fostering a genuine process of civil society participation and developing recommendations to address regulatory and policy barriers to sexual and reproductive health with a clear assignment of responsibility. Strong leadership from the ministry of health, with support from the World Health Organization or other international partners, and the serious engagement of all involved in this process can strengthen the links between human rights and sexual and reproductive health, and contribute to national achievement of the highest attainable standard of health. PMID:20616975

  3. An ancient founder mutation in PROKR2 impairs human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Jeanpierre, Marc; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Young, Jacques; Quinton, Richard; Abreu, Ana Paula; Plummer, Lacey; Au, Margaret G; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew A; Florez, Jose C; Cheetham, Timothy; Pearce, Simon H; Purushothaman, Radhika; Schinzel, Albert; Pugeat, Michel; Jacobson-Dickman, Elka E; Ten, Svetlana; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Gusella, James F; Dode, Catherine; Crowley, William F; Pitteloud, Nelly

    2012-10-01

    Congenital gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency manifests as absent or incomplete sexual maturation and infertility. Although the disease exhibits marked locus and allelic heterogeneity, with the causal mutations being both rare and private, one causal mutation in the prokineticin receptor, PROKR2 L173R, appears unusually prevalent among GnRH-deficient patients of diverse geographic and ethnic origins. To track the genetic ancestry of PROKR2 L173R, haplotype mapping was performed in 22 unrelated patients with GnRH deficiency carrying L173R and their 30 first-degree relatives. The mutation's age was estimated using a haplotype-decay model. Thirteen subjects were informative and in all of them the mutation was present on the same ~123 kb haplotype whose population frequency is ≤10%. Thus, PROKR2 L173R represents a founder mutation whose age is estimated at approximately 9000 years. Inheritance of PROKR2 L173R-associated GnRH deficiency was complex with highly variable penetrance among carriers, influenced by additional mutations in the other PROKR2 allele (recessive inheritance) or another gene (digenicity). The paradoxical identification of an ancient founder mutation that impairs reproduction has intriguing implications for the inheritance mechanisms of PROKR2 L173R-associated GnRH deficiency and for the relevant processes of evolutionary selection, including potential selective advantages of mutation carriers in genes affecting reproduction.

  4. Coste de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en un hospital público Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Navarro Espigares

    2006-10-01

    . Methods: Data from the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada (Spain from 1998 and 2003 were analyzed. Since the total costs of the unit were known, the cost of the distinct ART procedures performed in the hospital was calculated by means of a methodology for cost distribution. Results: Between 1998 and 2003, the activity and costs of the Human Reproduction Unit analyzed evolved differently. Analysis of activity showed that some techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, were consolidated while others, such as stimulation without assisted reproduction or intracervical insemination were abandoned. In all procedures, unit costs per cycle and per delivery decreased in the period analyzed. Conclusions: Important changes took place in the structure of costs of ART in the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital between 1998 and 2003. Some techniques were discontinued, while others gained importance. Technological advances and structural innovations, together with a «learning effect», modified the structure of ART-related costs.

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies in Portuguese law--commentary to the Judgment no. 101/2009, of March the 3rd of the Portuguese Constitutional Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia; Vale e Reis, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Recently the Portuguese Constitutional Court was asked to analyze the constitutionality of the law on assisted reproduction, Law nr 32/2006. The request was presented by a conservative group, arguing, basically, that the law disregarded the juridical protection due to the embryo and to the participants in reproductive techniques. The main critics pointed out were related with the legitimacy of using reproductive techniques, the absence of a maximum age for beneficiaries, the authorization of embryo experimentation, the decision of not criminalizing every contract of surrogate motherhood, among some other critics. However, the Court concluded that none of the pointed norms went against Constitutional rules and principles.

  6. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R

    2011-03-16

    The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

  7. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah S French

    Full Text Available The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources. Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

  8. Risk and safety management in infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART): from the doctor's office to the ART procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Gambone, Joseph C; Meldrum, David R; Chapron, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Risk and safety management (RSM) is receiving increasing attention in medicine, with the goals of reducing medical error and increasing quality of care. The principles and tools of RSM can and should be applied to assisted reproductive technology (ART), a field that has already made significant progress in reducing the undesirable and sometimes dangerous consequences of treatment. ART is a prime area of medicine to contribute and help to lead the application of RSM and patient safety because it has been ahead of many other fields of medicine in standardizing treatment, certifying and auditing practitioners, and reporting standardized outcomes, and because treatments are applied to otherwise healthy individuals where exposure to risk may be less acceptable.

  9. Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very preterm birth in assisted reproductive technology twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Ortoft, G; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    and cervical conization are both risk factors for PTB. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this national population-based controlled cohort study, we included all ART singletons and twin deliveries from 1995 to 2009 in Denmark by cross-linkage of maternal and child data from the National IVF register......STUDY QUESTION: Does cervical conization add an additional risk of preterm birth (PTB) in assisted reproduction technology (ART) singleton and twin pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very PTB in ART twin pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART......, respectively, with an aOR 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.77), and the risk of VPTB was also doubled. Furthermore, previous dysplasia (without conization) increased the risk of VPTB in ART twins (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04-2.94). Cervical dysplasia did not increase the risk of any of the other adverse outcomes in ART...

  10. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT......-test counseling. Results: In total of 565 cases, NIPT had a failure rate of 0.9% (5/565). Four cases of T21 were identified by NIPT and confirmed by karyotyping, resulting in 100% (95%CI 39.8%-100%) positive predictive value. Among 556 cases with NIPT negative results, 506 cases (91.0%) were confirmed by follow......-up of postnatal phenotypes, while 33 cases (5.9%) had adverse pregnant outcomes with unconfirmed reasons because of the lack of cytogenetic samples. The remaining 17 cases (3.1%) refused follow-up. No false negative result was reported. Conclusion: With apparently high positive predictive value and low false...

  11. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsagkas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS. On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS; she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques- IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental.

  12. Evidence-based management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome using surgery or assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Ledger, William L

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been managed surgically since the development of wedge resection in the 1930s. Second-line surgical interventions for anovulation associated with PCOS include laparoscopic ovarian diathermy, which is as effective as medical induction of ovulation with gonadotropins, with a much reduced risk of multiple pregnancy. Bariatric surgery may be considered for morbidly obese patients with PCOS, although further research assessing such surgery specifically in PCOS patients is needed. Assisted reproduction, in the form of IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection, is usually indicated as third-line medical treatment or in the presence of other infertility factors. There is an ongoing debate concerning the relative merits of IVF and ovulation induction in PCOS, comparing the higher multiple pregnancy rate of ovulation induction with the greater cost and psychological stress of IVF.

  13. First trimester β-hCG and estradiol levels in singleton and twin pregnancies after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoa, Ana; Xavier, Pedro; Matias, Alexandra; Blicksttein, Isaac

    2017-07-28

    To compare levels of β-hCG and estradiol collected during the first trimester in singleton and twin pregnancies following assisted reproduction technologies (ART). We prospectively evaluated 50 singleton and 47 dichorionic twin pregnancies that eventually ended in live births. Patients were recruited from a single ART center with standard treatment protocols followed by fresh embryo transfers. Hormone measurements were performed within a narrow gestational age range and analyzed in a single laboratory thus minimizing inter- and intra-assay variability. We measured serum β-hCG at 13 days after embryo transfer as well as samples of β-hCG and estradiol at 8-9 weeks+6 days. No significant differences existed between singletons and twins in respect to demographic and cycle characteristics. β-hCG and estradiol were all significantly higher in twins (PhCG and estradiol in twins, pointing to the potential role of these placental hormones in early support of a twin pregnancy.

  14. Risk of stillbirth and infant deaths after assisted reproductive technology: a Nordic study from the CoNARTaS group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Wennerholm, U. B.; Gissler, M.

    2014-01-01

    restricting the analysis to opposite-sex twins and excluding all monozygotic twins, there was no significant difference between the groups. Singletons conceived by ART had an overall increased risk of early neonatal death (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% CI 1.28-1.85) and death within the first year after birth...... (1.45, 1.26-1.68). No difference regarding these two parameters was found when further adjusting for the gestational age [(0.97, 0.80-1.18) and (0.99, 0.85-1.16), respectively]. ART twins had a lower risk of early neonatal and infant deaths than SC twins, but no difference was found when restricting......STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of stillbirth and perinatal deaths increased after assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared with pregnancies established by spontaneous conception (SC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A significantly increased risk of stillbirth in ART singletons was only observed before 28 + 0...

  15. Psychosocial adjustment during the transition to parenthood of Portuguese couples who conceived spontaneously or through assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel

    2010-06-01

    We examined the psychosocial adjustment of 35 Portuguese couples who conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and 31 couples with a spontaneous conception during their transition to parenthood (pregnancy and 4 months postpartum). Couples completed self-report questionnaires regarding their perceptions of pregnancy and parenthood, psychological distress, quality of life, marital relationship, and parenting stress. Compared with parents who conceived spontaneously, parents who conceived through ART perceived pregnancy as being more risky and demanding, reported a decrease in their psychological quality of life, and ART fathers only perceived themselves as being more competent than fathers who conceived spontaneously. Healthcare professionals should be aware of need of couples in their efforts to adapt to the individual and relational challenges associated with the transition to parenthood.

  16. New Zealand University students' knowledge of fertility decline in women via natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nathanael; Rosario, Roseanne; Shelling, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Female fertility declines with age. University students are the group of people most likely to postpone parenthood, yet several international studies have shown that they overestimate their fertility. We designed a questionnaire based on a previous study in Israel, where university students were asked to answer questions related to their awareness of fertility decline in spontaneous and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) pregnancies, and methods they considered would prolong their reproductive lifespan. Our study has shown that New Zealand University students overestimated the rates of pregnancy for both spontaneous natural and IVF pregnancies. Students are mainly aware of the availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), but overestimate their effectiveness. Few students mentioned non-medical or well-being initiatives as measures to prolong parenthood. It is important that university students are aware of the rate of fertility decline in women, as although ARTs can be effective at times, they are not a guaranteed solution to an ageing woman's fertility. New Zealand University students, like other cohorts, overestimated the chances of a woman getting pregnant and predicted the fertility decline to occur much later than it does in reality.

  17. EC assisted start-up experiments reproduction in FTU and AUG for simulations of the ITER case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granucci, G.; Ricci, D.; Farina, D.; Figini, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cavinato, M. [F4E C/Josep Pla2, Torres Diagonal Litoral - Building 83 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mattei, M. [CREATE via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tudisco, O. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The breakdown and plasma start-up in ITER are well known issues studied in the last few years in many tokamaks with the aid of calculation based on simplified modeling. The thickness of ITER metallic wall and the voltage limits of the Central Solenoid Power Supply strongly limit the maximum toroidal electric field achievable (0.3 V/m), well below the level used in the present generation of tokamaks. In order to have a safe and robust breakdown, the use of Electron Cyclotron Power to assist plasma formation and current rump up has been foreseen. This has raised attention on plasma formation phase in presence of EC wave, especially in order to predict the required power for a robust breakdown in ITER. Few detailed theory studies have been performed up to nowadays, due to the complexity of the problems. A simplified approach, extended from that proposed in ref[1] has been developed including a impurity multispecies distribution and an EC wave propagation and absorption based on GRAY code. This integrated model (BK0D) has been benchmarked on ohmic and EC assisted experiments on FTU and AUG, finding the key aspects for a good reproduction of data. On the basis of this, the simulation has been devoted to understand the best configuration for ITER case. The dependency of impurity distribution content and neutral gas pressure limits has been considered. As results of the analysis a reasonable amount of power (1 - 2 MW) seems to be enough to extend in a significant way the breakdown and current start up capability of ITER. The work reports the FTU data reproduction and the ITER case simulations.

  18. Does infertility history affect the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproduction? the mediating role of the importance of parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Gameiro, Sofia; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel; Almeida-Santos, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments has been widely studied; however, it remains unclear whether infertility history contributes to couples' adjustment. This study examined the impact of infertility history (duration of infertility and number of previous ART treatment cycles) on the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing an ART cycle and the mediating effect of importance of parenthood on that association. In this cross-sectional study, 70 infertile couples (70 women and 70 men) completed self-report questionnaires assessing emotional adjustment and infertility stress during the hormonal stimulation phase of an ART cycle. Path models accounting for the dyadic nature of the data examined the direct and indirect effects (by affecting representations about parenthood and childlessness) of infertility history on emotional adjustment. The number of previous cycles affected men's, but not women's, emotional adjustment by affecting the representations on the importance of parenthood and of childlessness. Duration of infertility had the opposite effect, as couples with longer infertility reported heightened importance of parenthood, which negatively affected their emotional adjustment. Infertility history was associated with emotional adjustment in men and women, although these associations were complex. The results suggest that progression through treatment is harder for those men and women who attribute higher importance to being parents, which is aggravated by longer infertility. What is already known about the subject? Infertility is an unexpected and stressful life event Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are emotionally demanding What does this study add? The influence of infertility history on adjustment is mediated by the importance of parenthood Men and women are affected by their past history of infertility differently. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John

  19. Difficult embryo transfers or blood on catheter and assisted reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A S; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether a difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter affects assisted reproduction outcomes. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). We aimed to determine the risk ratio (RR) associated with difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter for the following outcomes: live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage. We identified 3066 papers, of which 194 were reviewed and nine were included. The outcome of live birth was not reported in any of the included studies and the effect on miscarriage was too imprecise for any conclusions. Pooled analysis of five studies demonstrated lower clinical pregnancy rates following a non-easy embryo transfer (RR=0.75; 95% CI=0.66-0.86). This included three studies showing subjectively difficult transfers reducing clinical pregnancies (RR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.87) and two studies in which the need for additional manoeuvers reduced clinical pregnancies (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.67-0.91). The presence of blood on the transfer catheter did not affect clinical pregnancy rates (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.82-1.14) in five studies. We concluded that low quality evidence suggests that a difficult embryo transfer but not a bloody catheter reduces the chance of achieving a clinical pregnancy. More good quality studies are needed to evaluate the effect of difficult embryo transfer and the presence of blood on the catheter on the main outcomes of assisted reproduction.

  20. The impact of unilateral oophorectomy on ovarian reserve in assisted reproduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, J S; Naoum, I; Salem, N; Perlitz, Y; Izhaki, I

    2017-09-05

    Women following unilateral oophorectomy (UO) are occasionally encountered during assisted reproduction treatment. To explore the impact of UO on ovarian reserve in assisted reproduction. An electronic database search was performed using PubMed, EBSCO, ISI, Trip, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane library followed by a manual search to identify published research between January 1978 and December 2015. Controlled studies that compared infertile women following UO undergoing IVF-ET treatment with women with two intact ovaries. Two reviewers independently extracted the data concerning the impact of UO on ovarian reserve tests, ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and clinical pregnancy rate. Meta-analysis was performed using these measures. Twenty-one studies were eligible for quantitative analysis. They included 1045 and 18 172 IVF cycles in women with one and two intact ovaries, respectively. Basal FSH weighted mean difference (WMD) was significant (2.01 IU/l; 95% CI: 0.24-3.79, P = 0.026). Similarly, the WMD of serum E2 level on the day of hCG administration was significant (WMD: -431 pg/ml; 95% CI: -616 to -246, P < 0.001). However, the weighted overall odds ratio (OR) of clinical pregnancy between women with a single ovary and women with two ovaries was comparable (overall OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57-1.00, P = 0.054). All eligible studies were retrospectively conducted and the heterogeneity among ovarian response measures was high. Available pooled data supports an adverse effect of UO on ovarian reserve involving the quantity but not the quality of the ovarian pool. Review finds women with one ovary removed have less IVF capacity but the same pregnancy rate as women with two ovaries. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Use of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology in non-obese young infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøtrød, S B; Carlsen, S M; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  2. Effects of the Hormone Kisspeptin on Reproductive Hormone Release in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Calley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides which act as upstream stimulators of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. Kisspeptin signalling is prerequisite to establishing the normal human reproductive phenotype; loss of function mutations in the KISS1 or KISS1R gene produces normosmic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans and mice, whilst increased activation of KISS1R causes precocious puberty. Administration of exogenous kisspeptin to human subjects stimulates an acute gonadotrophin rise. Serum kisspeptin levels also markedly increase during pregnancy. The identification of kisspeptin has been one of the biggest discoveries in the field of reproductive endocrinology, since the isolation and sequencing of GnRH in 1977, and has generated a novel research avenue which has received much attention over the past decade. This research has delineated many properties of the KISS1-KISS1R system, but there is still further work to do. Understanding kisspeptin’s role throughout our reproductive lifetime should help us better understand—and therefore treat—disorders of reproductive function. Promisingly, the current data supports the potential to develop kisspeptin based therapies. As an outlook article this paper focusses predominantly on our groups recent investigations into the effects of kisspeptin administration to humans and the potential therapeutic role of kisspeptin.

  3. Review: MicroRNAs in assisted reproduction and their potential role in IVF failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Brachnis, Nikos; Liassidou, Aspasia; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bettocchi, Stefano; Chrelias, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression stability. In the endometrium, miRNAs are involved in the dynamic changes associated with the menstrual cycle, implicated in implantation and in reproductive disorders. We performed a review in an attempt to assess the potential biological pathways linking altered miRNAs profiles with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failure. Crucially, as miRNAs appear to have a significant role in the course of reproduction, they are excellent research candidates with the potential to enable a better understanding over the underlying molecular activities that prevent implantation and further progression of the embryo. Further steps include in-depth pathway mapping of the implantation process and the characterization of the respective miRNAs and associated links. The efficiency of any intervention should determine whether miRNA profiling could possibly be adopted in routine practice to substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy and, in parallel, the directed treatment of the next-generation IVF.

  4. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  5. The Efficacy of Assisted Reproduction in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Impact of Surgery-A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, S; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Fedder, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we analyze the chance of a live birth and the impact of inflammatory bowel disease surgery in women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study based...

  6. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  7. Sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques inherit deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome and the DAZ gene copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, C; Juul, A; McElreavey, K

    2008-01-01

    number, supplemented with haplogroup typing in deleted patients, were performed, in combination with clinical assessments in 264 fathers and their sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART), and in 168 fertile men with normal sperm concentration. RESULTS: In the ART fathers group...

  8. Does Autism Diagnosis Age or Symptom Severity Differ among Children According to Whether Assisted Reproductive Technology Was Used to Achieve Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Fountain, Christine; Boulet, Sheree L.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rice, Catherine; Bearman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report associations between conception with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and autism. Whether these associations reflect an ascertainment or biologic effect is undetermined. We assessed diagnosis age and initial autism symptom severity among >30,000 children with autism from a linkage study of California Department of…

  9. Authors' reply to comment on "Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S.; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not. He...

  10. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  11. Does Autism Diagnosis Age or Symptom Severity Differ among Children According to Whether Assisted Reproductive Technology Was Used to Achieve Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Fountain, Christine; Boulet, Sheree L.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rice, Catherine; Bearman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report associations between conception with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and autism. Whether these associations reflect an ascertainment or biologic effect is undetermined. We assessed diagnosis age and initial autism symptom severity among >30,000 children with autism from a linkage study of California Department of…

  12. The epigenetic basis of adaptation and responses to environmental change: perspective on human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Agustín F; Toraño, Estela García; Urdinguio, Rocío González; Lana, Abel Gayo; Fernández, Ignacio Arnott; Fraga, Mario F

    2014-01-01

    Not only genetic but also epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression, cellular differentiation and development processes. Additionally, "environmental epigenetics" studies the interaction between the environment and the epigenome, and its potential role in the regulation of gene activity. Several studies have shown that the impact of environmental exposures on the epigenome takes on more importance during early fertilization and embryonic development, given that during these periods epigenetic reprogramming occurs and the new epigenetic profile of the offspring is established. Epigenetic alterations in the germline are especially relevant since they can be transmitted trans-generationally and could be associated with a wide range of diseases including several reproductive disorders. In this chapter we review some epigenetic mechanisms, focusing mainly on DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are related to reproductive aspects, and we discuss the controversies in the literature surrounding how environmental conditions, such as exposure to toxic substances or treatment with assisted reproductive techniques (ART), may be involved in epigenetic alterations that affect reproductive success.

  13. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing.

  14. Human-Assisted Graph Search: It's Okay to Ask Questions

    CERN Document Server

    Parameswaran, Aditya; Garcia-Molina, Hector; Polyzotis, Neoklis; Widom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of human-assisted graph search: given a directed acyclic graph with some (unknown) target node(s), we consider the problem of finding the target node(s) by asking an omniscient human questions of the form "Is there a target node that is reachable from the current node?". This general problem has applications in many domains that can utilize human intelligence, including curation of hierarchies, debugging workflows, image segmentation and categorization, interactive search and filter synthesis. To our knowledge, this work provides the first formal algorithmic study of the optimization of human computation for this problem. We study various dimensions of the problem space, providing algorithms and complexity results. Our framework and algorithms can be used in the design of an optimizer for crowd-sourcing platforms such as Mechanical Turk.

  15. Comparison of semen quality and outcome of assisted reproductive techniques in Chinese men with and without hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Ping Zhou; Xiao-ling Hu; Yi-Min Zhu; Fan Qu; Sai-Jun Sun; Yu-Li Qian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 916 men (457 HBV-positive and 459 HBV-negative) seeking fertility assistance from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Women's Hospital in the School of Medicine at Zhejiang University were analysed for semen parameters. Couples in which the men were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seropositive were categorized as HBV-positive and included 587 in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and 325 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles from January 2004 to December 2009; negative controls were matched for female age, date of ova retrieval, ART approach used (IVF or ICSI) and randomized in a ratio of 1:1 according to the ART treatment cycles (587 for IVF and 325 for ICSI). HBV-infected men exhibited lower semen volume, lower total sperm count as well as poor sperm motility and morphology (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that HBV infection independently contributed to increased rates of asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia/azoospermia (P<0.05) as well as decreased rates of implantation and clinical pregnancy in ICSI cycles (P<0.05). Our results suggest that HBV infection in men is associated with poor sperm quality and worse ICSI and embryo transfer outcomes but does not affect the outcome of IVF and embryo transfer.

  16. Human rights and the politics of risk and blame: lessons from the international reproductive health movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, L P

    1997-01-01

    Recent debates about the "politicization" of public health obscure the ways in which epidemiological concepts of risk are routinely used in the legal and political systems to apportion blame and responsibility for poor health. This article uses the example of reproductive health and rights to argue that new understandings of the connection between socioeconomic conditions and poor health will only generate change when they are reframed into political claims and pressed by social movements. In this connection, human rights language, principles, and practice hold great potential for the US reproductive rights movement, which has sometimes been constrained by the narrow scope of court rulings.

  17. Clinically relevant known and candidate genes for obesity and their overlap with human infertility and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern now reaching epidemic status worldwide for children and adults due to multiple problems impacting on energy intake and expenditure with influences on human reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility. Recent advances in genetic technology have led to discoveries of new susceptibility genes for obesity and causation of infertility. The goal of our study was to provide an update of clinically relevant candidate and known genes for obesity and infertility using high resolution chromosome ideograms with gene symbols and tabular form. We used computer-based internet websites including PubMed to search for combinations of key words such as obesity, body mass index, infertility, reproduction, azoospermia, endometriosis, diminished ovarian reserve, estrogen along with genetics, gene mutations or variants to identify evidence for development of a master list of recognized obesity genes in humans and those involved with infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols for known and candidate genes for obesity were plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms at the 850 band level. Both infertility and obesity genes were listed separately in alphabetical order in tabular form and those highlighted when involved with both conditions. By searching the medical literature and computer generated websites for key words, we found documented evidence for 370 genes playing a role in obesity and 153 genes for human reproduction or infertility. The obesity genes primarily affected common pathways in lipid metabolism, deposition or transport, eating behavior and food selection, physical activity or energy expenditure. Twenty-one of the obesity genes were also associated with human infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols were plotted on high resolution

  18. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  19. Scientific and medical aspects of human reproductive cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Science

    2002-01-01

    ...), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). It is a result of work done by the Panel on Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Cloning, a joint panel of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and the Board on Life Sciences (BLS). The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard ...

  20. The contribution of lower vertebrate animal models in human reproduction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Cacciola, Giovanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda

    2011-03-01

    Many advances have been carried out on the estrogens, GnRH and endocannabinoid system that have impact in the reproductive field. Indeed, estrogens, the generally accepted female hormones, have performed an unsuspected role in male sexual functions thanks to studies on non-mammalian vertebrates. Similarly, these animal models have provided important contributions to the identification of several GnRH ligand and receptor variants and their possible involvement in sexual behavior and gonadal function regulation. Moreover, the use of non-mammalian animal models has contributed to a better comprehension about the endocannabinoid system action in several mammalian reproductive events. We wish to highlight here how non-mammalian vertebrate animal model research contributes to advancements with implications on human health as well as providing a phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of reproductive systems in vertebrates.

  1. Variable NK cell receptors and their MHC class I ligands in immunity, reproduction and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Peter; Moffett, Ashley

    2013-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have roles in immunity and reproduction that are controlled by variable receptors that recognize MHC class I molecules. The variable NK cell receptors found in humans are specific to simian primates, in which they have progressively co-evolved with MHC class I molecules. The emergence of the MHC-C gene in hominids drove the evolution of a system of NK cell receptors for MHC-C molecules that is most elaborate in chimpanzees. By contrast, the human system of MHC-C receptors seems to have been subject to different selection pressures that have acted in competition on the immunological and reproductive functions of MHC class I molecules. We suggest that this compromise facilitated the development of the bigger brains that enabled archaic and modern humans to migrate out of Africa and populate other continents.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B

    2011-01-01

    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining......One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre...... was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic...

  3. Luteal-phase support in assisted reproduction treatment: real-life practices reported worldwide by an updated website-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisbuch, Edi; de Ziegler, Dominique; Leong, Milton; Weissman, Ariel; Shoham, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    An updated worldwide web-based survey assessed the real-life clinical practices regarding luteal-phase supplementation (LPS) in assisted reproduction. This survey looked for changes since a former survey conducted nearly 3years earlier. The survey questions were: If you support the luteal phase, when do you start the regimen you are using?; Which agent/route is your treatment of choice to support the luteal phase?; If you use vaginal progesterone, which formulation do you use?; and How long you continue progesterone supplementation if the patient conceived? Data were obtained from 408 centres (82 countries) representing 284,600 IVF cycles/year. The findings were: (i) most practitioners (80% of cycles) start LPS on the day of egg collection; (ii) in >90%, a vaginal progesterone product is used (77% as a single agent and 17% in combination with i.m. progesterone), while human chorionic gonadotrophin as a single agent for LPS is not being used at all; and (iii) in 72% of cycles, LPS is administered until 8-10weeks' gestation or beyond. When compared with the initial survey, the results of this survey are encouraging as there is a clear shift towards a more unified and evidence-based approach to LPS in IVF cycles. This updated worldwide web-based survey assessed the actual real-life clinical practices regarding luteal-phase supplementation (LPS) in assisted reproduction. Specifically, this survey looked for changes since an initial survey conducted nearly 3years earlier. The survey included the following questions: If you support the luteal phase, when do you start the regimen you are using?; Which agent/route is your treatment of choice to support the luteal phase?; If you use vaginal progesterone, which formulation do you use?; and How long you continue progesterone supplementation if the patient conceived? Data from 408 centres in 82 countries representing a total of 284,600 IVF cycles/year were included. Most practitioners (80% of cycles) start LPS on the day of

  4. e-Therapy to reduce emotional distress in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART): a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Angelique J C M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; IntHout, Joanna; Kremer, Jan A M; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2016-05-01

    Is it feasible to evaluate a personalized e-therapy program (Internet based) for women during fertility treatment aimed to reduce the chance of having clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and/or depression after unsuccessful assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment within a randomized controlled trial (RCT)? The evaluation of a personalized e-therapy program is feasible, reflected by good acceptability and integration within current guidelines, but adjustments to the e-therapy program and study design of the RCT have to be made to enhance demand, practicality and efficacy. Internet-based interventions are promising in reducing psychological distress, especially when treatment is personalized to specific risk profiles of patients. However in fertility care, the beneficial effects of personalized e-therapy on psychological distress and its implementation in daily clinical care still have to be evaluated. To evaluate the feasibility of a personalized e-therapy program, we conducted a two-arm, parallel group, single-blind feasibility randomized controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation. Feasibility was assessed in terms of demand, acceptability, practicality, implementation, integration and limited efficacy. Women were included between 1 February 2011 and 1 June 2013. Women in the control group received care as usual, whereas women in the intervention group received in addition to their usual care access to a personalized e-therapy program. Women were monitored until 3 months after the start of their first ART cycle. In a university hospital in the Netherlands women who were screened as at risk for emotional adjustment problems and intended to start their first ART cycle were invited, and of them 120 were randomized. Of these women, 48% in the intervention group were compliant to the intervention. Outcome measures associated with the feasibility to analyse this e-therapy program within an RCT were assessed. It is feasible to evaluate a personalized e

  5. The biology and methodology of assisted reproduction in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Monika; Duselis, Amanda R; Graft, Audrey; Pryor, William; Crossland, Janet; Vrana, Paul B; Szalai, Gabor

    2012-01-15

    Although laboratory-reared species of the genus Peromyscus-including deer mice-are used as model animals in a wide range of research, routine manipulation of Peromyscus embryogenesis and reproduction has been lagging. The objective of the present study was to optimize conditions for oocyte and/or embryo retrieval and for in vitro culturing. On average, 6.4 oocytes per mouse were recovered when two doses of 15 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were given 24 h apart, followed by 15 IU of hCG 48 h later. Following this hormone priming, females mated overnight with a fertile male yielded an average of 9.1 two-cell stage embryos. Although two-cell stage embryos developed to 8-cell stage in Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM; Millipore-Chemicon, Billerica, MA, USA) in vitro, but not further, embryos recovered at the 8- to 16-cell stages developed into fully expanded blastocysts when cultured in M16 media in vitro. These blastocysts had full potential to develop into late stage fetuses and possibly into live pups. As a result of the present work, all stages of Peromyscus preimplantation development are now obtainable in numbers sufficient for molecular or other analyses. These advances provide the opportunity for routine studies involving embryo transfer (e.g., chimeras, transgenics), and preservation of genetic lines by cryopreservation.

  6. Dilemas de la reproducción asistida Dilemmas in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zegers-Hochschild

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La Fecundación In Vitro (FIV y la Transferencia de Gametos a la Trompa de Falopio (GIFT han hecho posible el nacimiento de cientos de miles de niños. Estas tecnologías han puesto al hombre frente a frente a la posibilidad de intervenir en los inicios de su propia existencia. La pregunta es si aquello que es científica y técnicamente factible es bueno para el hombre. La respuesta requiere de una reflexión multidisciplinaria. La filosofía, la bioética y las distintas corrientes religiosas tienen un grano de arena que aportar a este gran desafío.Modern reproductive technologies, particularly in vitro fertilization (IVF and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT, have made possible the establishment of new families through the birth of hundreds of thousands of children worldwide. Meanwhile, these technologies have compelled men to face the possibility of intervening at the very origins of their own biological existence, hence creating doubts and questions beyond the domain of medical science. Society is now asking itself whether all that is scientifically and technically possible is necessarily beneficial to mankind. The answer to this question is not to be found in biological science alone, but instead requires multidisciplinary reflection including all forms of knowledge: philosophical, bioethical, and religious, all contributing to the unavoidable adventure that we are endowed with in the search for a better life.

  7. The Role of Human Web Assistants in E-Commerce: An Analysis and a Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Johan; Shahmehri, Nahid

    2000-01-01

    Discusses electronic commerce and presents the concept of Web assistants, human assistants working in an electronic Web shop. Presents results of a usability study of a prototype adaptive Web assistant system that show users were enthusiastic about the concept of Web assistants and its implications. (Author/LRW)

  8. The Role of Human Web Assistants in E-Commerce: An Analysis and a Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Johan; Shahmehri, Nahid

    2000-01-01

    Discusses electronic commerce and presents the concept of Web assistants, human assistants working in an electronic Web shop. Presents results of a usability study of a prototype adaptive Web assistant system that show users were enthusiastic about the concept of Web assistants and its implications. (Author/LRW)

  9. Female Obesity and Clinical Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART: an Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidar Heidari Khoei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART has been developed to be used for reproductive-age women with primary and secondary infertilities. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic for both women and men and a major global health concern. The direct effect of Body Mass Index (BMI increase on the outcomes of ART is still unclear. This study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the available scientific evidence to assess the effects of obesity on the clinical outcome of ART treatment. Numerous studies have shown failure in ART due to increased BMIs in infertile women; however, the impact of increased BMI on clinical effectiveness of ART still remains inconclusive. Using results from 44 studies (831616 subjects we conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to highlight this subject (clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and live-birth rate. Compared to the women with BMIs of 25 kg/m2 or less, women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 have a lower chance of pregnancy [risk ratio 0.91, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94] as well as lower live-birth rates [risk ratio 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.94], and show increased miscarriage rates [risk ratio 1.35, 95% CI: 1.28-1.46]. Our findings indicate that elevated BMI and obesity requires more recognition as a potential contributor to negative pregnancy outcomes and reduced live-birth following ART. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that weight loss should be considered in overweight and obese women before the initiation of infertility treatment.

  10. Perinatal Outcomes of Newborn Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Dadashloo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcomes of such pregnancies have been rarely evaluated in our country. Adescriptive study was planned to assess the health and condition of neonates conceived with assistedtechniques in a one year period.Materials and Methods: At Royan Institute, Tehran, 443 women who became pregnant by oneof the assisted techniques in vitro fertilization (IVF, intrauterine insemination (IUI andintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI enrolled in a descriptive study during 16 month periodbeginning on September, 2007. The sampling method used was non-incidental, consecutive.Questionnaires regarding the contents of the baby birth card were completed after interviews withthe mothers. The time from fertilization of the ovum until delivery was considered as the gestational(conception age. Pregnant mothers were under periodic evaluation until delivery. Women withstillborn babies were followed via phone contact.Results: From a total of 443 conceptions, there were 13 (2.9% pregnancies demised in utero(stillbirths and 10 (2.6% who died during the neonatal period. Additionally, 133 (43% infantswere born after multifetal pregnancies and 96 (31% infants were prematurely born. There were 106(34.3% infants with low birth weight (LBW; less than 2500 g, of which 83 (78.3% LBW infantswere multiplets. After completion of the study, 71 women were still passing their pregnancy periodand no assessed.Conclusion: The most important factor for untoward perinatal events was multifetal pregnancy. Suchpregnancies were more frequently complicated and higher risk. Low birth weight and prematuritywere more frequent in singletons conceived by assisted techniques in respect to control singletons.

  11. Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

    2013-06-14

    States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights.

  12. Pheromones in sex and reproduction: Do they have a role in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are found throughout the living world and are a primal form of communication. These chemical messengers are transported outside the body and have a direct developmental effect on hormone levels and/or behaviour. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones in sex and reproduction. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and the Scopus engine. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations, were; olfaction; sex; pheromones; libido; behaviour; reproduction; humans; and smell. Although there are studies to support this phenomenon, they are weak because they were not controlled; others have proposed that human olfactory communication is able to perceive certain pheromones that may play a role in behavioural as well as reproductive biology. Unfolding the mysteries of smells and the way they are perceived requires more time and effort as humans are not systems that instinctively fall into a behaviour in response to an odour, they are thinking individuals that exercise judgment and subjected to different motivations.

  13. Personality and reproductive success in a high-fertility human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Jokela, Markus; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-06-29

    The existence of interindividual differences in personality traits poses a challenge to evolutionary thinking. Although research on the ultimate consequences of personality differences in nonhuman animals has recently undergone a surge of interest, our understanding of whether and how personality influences reproductive decisions in humans has remained limited and informed primarily by modern societies with low mortality-fertility schedules. Taking an evolutionary approach, we use data from a contemporary polygynous high-fertility human population living in rural Senegal to investigate whether personality dimensions are associated with key life-history traits in humans, i.e., quantity and quality of offspring. We show that personality dimensions predict reproductive success differently in men and women in such societies and, in women, are associated with a trade-off between offspring quantity and quality. In women, neuroticism positively predicts the number of children, both between and within polygynous families. Furthermore, within the low social class, offspring quality (i.e., child nutritional status) decreases with a woman's neuroticism, indicating a reproductive trade-off between offspring quantity and quality. Consistent with this, maximal fitness is achieved by women at an intermediate neuroticism level. In men, extraversion was found to be a strong predictor of high social class and polygyny, with extraverted men producing more offspring than their introverted counterparts. These results have implications for the consideration of alternative adaptive hypotheses in the current debate on the maintenance of personality differences and the role of individual factors in fertility patterns in contemporary humans.

  14. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  15. Assisted reproductive technology with donor gametes: the need for patient preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlstedt, P P; Greenfeld, D A

    1989-12-01

    There are certainly no definitive answers to the questions raised by the use of donor gametes in reproduction, as there are no definitive answers to any of life's most difficult questions. The loss of fertility is usually an unexpected, invisible, deeply painful wound for those couples who are considering the use of donor gametes. As they address the psychological issues of these techniques, they must also heal the wounds created by infertility. This type of grieving and examination of feelings takes time and information. The medical community needs to encourage each couple to resolve the issues around infertility and to use available personal, professional, and written resources to address the dilemmas raised by the use of donor gametes prior to embarking on this type of treatment. In so doing, the couple will reduce the likelihood that the means of conceiving their children will become a source of major conflict in their family. In 1932 Aldous Huxley prophesied the destructive consequences of scientific accomplishment without social involvement and psychological guidance. He said: "The sciences of matter can be applied in such a way that they will destroy life or make the living of it impossibly complex and uncomfortable...unless used as instruments by biologists and psychologists." It is our concern that the procedures for enabling infertile couples to become parents may, if not accompanied by acknowledgment of the unique challenges which they create for all participants in the process, make the living of life "impossibly complex and uncomfortable" for the very families we are trying to help.

  16. Analysis of Gene Impriting during Assisted Reproductive Technology%辅助生殖技术中基因印迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪彩珠(综述); 冯贵雪(审校); 张波(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data of human assisted reproduction have shown that the assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with spontaneous abortion,premature birth , perinatal death and low birth weight children,as well as some diseases related to imprinting genes. During gamete and pre-implantation embryo development, any mistakes of genomic imprinting, including erasure, re -establishment and maintenance, would lead defects of embryonic development, even embryonic death. ART manipulation is just in the process of imprinting genes. So, those abnormal outcomes of ART could be related with abnormal expression of imprinted genes. The main manipulation of ART, including ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic spern injection (ICSI), cell biopsy for PGD, and in vitro culture, could influence the gene expression and phenotype, thus affect the growth and development potential of offspring by disturbing the reconstruction and maintenance of genomic imprinting.%人类辅助生殖临床数据已经显示,辅助生殖技术(ART)与自发流产、早产和围生期死亡、低体质量儿以及一些印迹疾病有关。在配子及胚胎早期发育过程中,基因印迹需经历印迹擦除、重建和维持过程,其中任何一个环节出错都可能导致胚胎发育缺陷,甚至死亡。ART恰施于这一表观遗传重编程的关键时期。因此,这些异常结局可能与ART导致的印迹基因的异常表达有关。而ART中主要的治疗手段有促排卵、体外受精、胞浆内单精子注射(ICSI)和体外培养。这些操作通过干扰基因印迹的重建和维持,影响基因表达和表型,进而影响配子和早期胚胎的发育,从而影响子代的生长发育潜能。

  17. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Sialakouma

    2011-03-01

    in the provision of human resources, equipment, supplies and working environment and the resolution of organisational problems. This article deals with the planning and the implementation of a Quality Management System, in accordance with ISO 15189 (2007, in the Assisted Reproduction Laboratory in one of the biggest Maternity Clinics in Greece. The benefits resulted; both for medical laboratory service and patients are also presented and discussed.

  18. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation A moralidade da reprodução assistida e da manipulação genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and sufferingO autor se propõe a analisar os argumentos pró e contra as várias formas de reprodução assistida, inclusive aquela dependente da assim chamada manipulação genética. Mostra como os únicos argumentos com chance de chegar ao consenso, ou, pelo menos, a um acordo, sejam os argumentos racionais, embasados em princípios éticos (universalmente aceitáveis, ou corroborados por fatos empíricos e experiências de vida (como ponto de partida para identificar os problemas que requerem análise. Após uma parte desconstrutiva, na qual aponta a incoerência e a inconsistência dos argumentos contrários, o autor defende o direito dos humanos em decidir autonomamente acerca das formas mais saudáveis de procriação, inclusive aquelas que envolvem manipulações genéticas. Para tanto, baseia-se no princípio moral segundo o qual é moralmente preferível interferir nos processos naturais que não intervir quando isso implica prevenir e reduzir doenças e sofrimento.

  19. Reducing the trigger dose of recombinant hCG in high-responder patients attending an assisted reproductive technology program: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Colangelo, Enrica Concetta; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) used to trigger final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology programs is regarded as a useful intervention in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but the minimal effective dose has not been yet identified. In this study, the capacity of a reduced dose of recombinant hCG (r-hCG) to provide adequate oocyte maturation was tested for the first time. Thirty-five high-responder patients received a dose of 125 µg (half of the standard dose) of r-hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation. The number of oocytes retrieved per patient and the proportion of mature oocytes were evaluated. As a result, a mean number of 14 oocytes were retrieved, of which 85% were found to be mature (MII). There was only one patient developing a moderate form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and not requiring hospitalization. It is suggested that r-hCG at 125 µg can be effective in triggering final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients. Additional properly powered and controlled studies are needed to support this contention.

  20. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  1. Always follow your nose: the functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Pause, Bettina M

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction" Across phyla, chemosensory communication is crucial for mediating a variety of social behaviors, which form the basis for ontogenetic and phylogenetic survival. In the present paper, evidence on chemosensory communication in humans, with special reference to reproduction and survival, will be presented. First, the impact of chemosignals on human reproduction will be reviewed. Work will be presented, showing how chemosensory signals are involved in mate choice and partnership formation by communicating attractiveness and facilitating a partner selection, which is of evolutionary advantage, and furthermore providing information about the level of sexual hormones. In addition to direct effects on phylogenetic survival, chemosignals indirectly aid reproductive success by fostering harm protection. Results will be presented, showing that chemosensory communication aids the emotional bond between mother and child, which in turn motivates parental caretaking and protection, leading to infant survival. Moreover, the likelihood of group survival can be increased through the use of stress-related chemosignals. Stress-related chemosignals induce a stress-related physiology in the perceiver, thereby priming a fight-flight-response, which is necessary for an optimum adaption to environmental harm. Finally, effects of sexual orientation on chemosensory communication will be discussed in terms of their putative role in stabilizing social groups, which might indirectly provide harm protection and foster survival. An integrative model of the presented data will be introduced. In conclusion, an outlook, focusing on the involvement of chemosensory communication in human social behavior and illustrating a novel approach to the significance of chemosensory signals in human survival, will be given.

  2. Personality and reproductive success in a high-fertility human population

    OpenAIRE

    Alvergne, A.; JOKELA, M; Lummaa, V

    2010-01-01

    The existence of interindividual differences in personality traits poses a challenge to evolutionary thinking. Although research on the ultimate consequences of personality differences in nonhuman animals has recently undergone a surge of interest, our understanding of whether and how personality influences reproductive decisions in humans has remained limited and informed primarily by modern societies with low mortality–fertility schedules. Taking an evolutionary approach, we use data from a...

  3. Pheromones in sex and reproduction: Do they have a role in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pheromones are found throughout the living world and are a primal form of communication. These chemical messengers are transported outside the body and have a direct developmental effect on hormone levels and/or behaviour. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones in sex and reproduction. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH) databases and the Scopus engine. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates...

  4. The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Skorupskaite, Karolina; George, Jyothis T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The discovery of kisspeptin as key central regulator of GnRH secretion has led to a new level of understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human reproduction. The related discovery of the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) pathway in the last decade has further strengthened our understanding of the modulation of GnRH secretion by endocrine, metabolic and environmental inputs. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the physiological roles of these novel ...

  5. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  6. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  7. Evolution in a Contemporary Human Population: Intersexual Constraints and Costs of Reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Stephen [Yale University

    2012-03-14

    In this talk I will use an analysis of the population described in the Framingham Heart Study to make three points: (1) Contemporary humans are still evolving, and we can in part predict how they are responding to selection. (2) Selection on males and females differs, and its interaction with intersexual genetic correlations constrains the responses of each sex to selection. In other words, males are constrained by processes occurring in females, and females are constrained by processes occurring in males. (3) There are costs of reproduction in humans that are paid in lifespan, but it is likely that these costs were deferred to a point at which our ancestors would already have died for other reasons. When we detect those costs today, we find evidence that the versions of some genes that make us susceptible to cancer also increase reproductive success early in life. This confirms in humans a central assumption of the evolutionary theory of aging – the existence of genes that mediate a tradeoff between reproduction and survival - that had previously only been confirmed in model organisms like fruit flies and worms.

  8. [Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens: From diagnosis to assisted reproductive techniques - the experience of three centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvillard, D; Perrin, A; Drapier, H; Ravel, C; Fréour, T; Férec, C; De Braekeleer, M; Amice, V

    2015-05-01

    To review the management with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) of men with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD), associated with cystic fibrosis or not, after surgical retrieval [epididymal aspiration (MESA) or testicular biopsy (TESE)]. Multicenter retrospective study made of 2 groups: CBAVD and cystic fibrosis (CF) or CBAVD only (CF-RD). Two centers performed MESA (Brest and Nantes) and one TESE (Rennes). Sperm numeration, motility, vitality, morphology and nuclear maturity were measured in both centers performing MESA. Fertilization rate (TF) and cumulated progressive pregnancy rate by retrieved oocyte (TGC) were compared between centers following ART. Ninety patients underwent surgical retrieval between January 1996 and March 2013, 30 in the CF group and 60 in the CF-RD group. Semen parameters were comparable between groups and centers. Fifty-eight (22 in the CF group and 36 in the CF-RD group) patients received ART between April 1996 and October 2014. TF was 50% and 52% and TGC 26% and 32% in the CF group and CF-RD groups, respectively. The results did not differ between groups but TGC was higher in Rennes than in the other two centers. Both semen parameters and ART results are comparable and similar to those reported in the literature. As shown by the results obtained in Rennes, TESE seems to be more effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Costs of achieving live birth from assisted reproductive technology: a comparison of sequential single and double embryo transfer approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sara; Boulet, Sheree L; Mneimneh, Allison S; Perkins, Kiran M; Jamieson, Denise J; Zhang, Yujia; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2016-02-01

    To assess treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs and birth outcomes for assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles in a subset of patients using elective double embryo (ET) and to project the difference in costs and outcomes had the cycles instead been sequential single ETs (fresh followed by frozen if the fresh ET did not result in live birth). Retrospective cohort study using 2012 and 2013 data from the National ART Surveillance System. Infertility treatment centers. Fresh, autologous double ETs performed in 2012 among ART patients younger than 35 years of age with no prior ART use who cryopreserved at least one embryo. Sequential single and double ETs. Actual live birth rates and estimated ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs for double ET cycles started in 2012 and projected ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs if the double ET cycles had been performed as sequential single ETs. The estimated total ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs were $580.9 million for 10,001 double ETs started in 2012. If performed as sequential single ETs, estimated costs would have decreased by $195.0 million to $386.0 million, and live birth rates would have increased from 57.7%-68.0%. Sequential single ETs, when clinically appropriate, can reduce total ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs by reducing multiple births without lowering live birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and growth in children born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kai, Claudia Mau; Main, Katharina M; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Concern has been raised about the safety of assisted reproduction techniques for the offspring. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate postnatal growth and growth factors in children born after intra-cytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF...... differences between ICSI and IVF children and controls in either cohort. However, singleton ICSI girls [3.4 (0.6) kg, P = 0.008] had a slightly lower birth weight than IVF [3.5 (0.5) kg] and NC girls [3.5 (0.5) kg]. Birth weights of singleton boys [3.6 (0.5) kg], twin boys [2.6 (0.6) kg], and twin girls [2.......4 (0.5) kg] did not differ between types of conception. In the infant cohort in 3-month-old singletons, serum IGF-I was lower in ICSI [78 (26) ng/ml] than NC boys [94 (27) ng/ml, P girls [93 (43) ng/ml, P = 0.011]. ICSI children were also smaller than...

  11. Live birth and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease receiving assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J

    2016-01-01

    was live births per ART treatment cycle. We controlled for multiple covariates in the analyses. Our secondary outcomes were adverse birth outcomes. RESULTS: The chance of a live birth for each embryo transfer was significantly reduced in ART treatments in women with UC (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0......OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide.......92), but not significantly reduced in the full model of ART treatments in women with CD (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.14). Surgery for CD before ART treatment significantly reduced the chance of live birth for each embryo transfer (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.91). In children conceived through ART treatment by women with UC...

  12. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR, involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF, and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach.

  13. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption.

  14. The cumulative effect of assisted reproduction procedures on placental development and epigenetic perturbations in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Eric; Vrooman, Lisa A; Fischer, Erin; Ord, Teri; Mainigi, Monica A; Coutifaris, Christos; Schultz, Richard M; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2015-12-15

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are associated with several complications including low birth weight, abnormal placentation and increased risk for rare imprinting disorders. Indeed, experimental studies demonstrate ART procedures independent of existing infertility induce epigenetic perturbations in the embryo and extraembryonic tissues. To test the hypothesis that these epigenetic perturbations persist and result in adverse outcomes at term, we assessed placental morphology and methylation profiles in E18.5 mouse concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in two different genetic backgrounds. We also examined embryo transfer (ET) and superovulation procedures to ascertain if they contribute to developmental and epigenetic effects. Increased placental weight and reduced fetal-to-placental weight ratio were observed in all ART groups when compared with naturally conceived controls, demonstrating that non-surgical embryo transfer alone can impact placental development. Furthermore, superovulation further induced overgrowth of the placental junctional zone. Embryo transfer and superovulation defects were limited to these morphological changes, as we did not observe any differences in epigenetic profiles. IVF placentae, however, displayed hypomethylation of imprinting control regions of select imprinted genes and a global reduction in DNA methylation levels. Although we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation in fetal brain or liver samples, rare IVF concepti displayed very low methylation and abnormal gene expression from the normally repressed allele. Our findings suggest that individual ART procedures cumulatively increase placental morphological abnormalities and epigenetic perturbations, potentially causing adverse neonatal and long-term health outcomes in offspring.

  15. Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramón; Brassesco, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant.

  16. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in men with treated and untreated varicocele: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele affects approximately 35%-40% of men presenting for an infertility evaluation. There is fair evidence indicating that surgical repair of clinical varicocele improves semen parameters, decreases seminal oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation, and increases the chances of natural conception. However, it is unclear whether performing varicocelectomy in men with clinical varicocele prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART improve treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of varicocelectomy on ART pregnancy outcomes in nonazoospermic infertile men with clinical varicocele. An electronic search was performed to collect all evidence that fitted our eligibility criteria using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until April 2015. Four retrospective studies were included, all of which involved intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and accounted for 870 cycles (438 subjected to ICSI with prior varicocelectomy, and 432 without prior varicocelectomy. There was a significant increase in the clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19-2.12, I 2 = 25% and live birth rates (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55-3.06, I 2 = 0% in the varicocelectomy group compared to the group subjected to ICSI without previous varicocelectomy. Our results indicate that performing varicocelectomy in patients with clinical varicocele prior to ICSI is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramón; Brassesco, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant. PMID:23912311

  18. Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-12-07

    The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution.

  19. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  20. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Eduardo González; Zarricueta, Ernesto Fredes; Cheein, Fernando Auat

    2015-02-01

    The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. The proposed sound-based system is very efficient