WorldWideScience

Sample records for human assisted conception

  1. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'.

  2. Ambient Assisted Living Systems in the Context of Human Centric Sensing and IoT Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, Nicola; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of Human Centric Sensing in the context of Internet of Things and Ambient Assisted Living. The paper uses a case study to present and analyze the proposed idea, and identifies the main challenges and open issues that require research and policy attention....

  3. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.

  4. Fetal habituation in assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jolly; McClure, Neil; Hepper, Peter G; Cooke, Inez

    2012-06-01

    Neurodevelopment outcomes of children conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)have been the subject of much recent attention. To date there are no reports of neurodevelopmental performance before birth in this group. To compare habituation (a measure of brain function) in fetuses conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART) with naturally conceived (NC) fetuses. Case control study. Women with singleton pregnancies matched for maternal age, parity and smoking were recruited in 2 groups: ART (n=20) and NC (n=20). Sound stimuli (250 Hz, 110 dB) at 10 second intervals lasting 2 s were administered to the fetus. The end point was habituation (cessation of movement for five consecutive stimuli) or a maximum of 30 stimuli. Responses of the fetus were observed with ultrasound at 28, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation, video-recorded and anonymised for analysis. At 28 weeks' gestation significantly more ART fetuses responded to sound of 250 Hz, 110 dB (p=0.02) but this difference did not persist at 32 and 36 weeks'. There was a significant increase in nonresponders as gestation advanced in the ART group. There was no difference in habituation or mean number of trials to habituate at all three gestations. ART fetuses demonstrated no differences in habituation suggesting that there is no neurodevelopment delay. However, a decrease in response to sound as gestation advances might be a harbinger for poor perinatal outcomes and needs exploration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA methyltransferase 3A promoter polymorphism is associated with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques and natural conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudong; Zheng, Haiyan; Guo, Pingping; Feng, Shuxian; Zhou, Xingyu; Ye, Desheng; Chen, Xin; Chen, Shiling

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of the DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT)-3A and DNMT3B promoter polymorphisms with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) and natural conception. We collected tissues from women who underwent abortion procedures: (a) chorionic villus samples (CVS) and muscle samples (MS) from spontaneous abortions conceived by ART and natural cycle (study group), n = 152; and (b) CVS and MS from normal early pregnancy and second trimester (control group), n = 155. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -448A > G in the DNMT3A promoter region and -149C/T polymorphism of DNMT3B were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by sequencing. The allele frequency of -448A among pregnancy loss group and control group was 34.2 % vs. 16.5 %, respectively. Compared with GG carriers, the DNMT3A -448AA homozygotes had an about 16-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion [odds ratio (OR) = 16.130, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 3.665-70.984], and AG heterozygotes had an OR of 2.027 (95 % CI, 1.247-3.293). However, the distribution of -448A > G in individuals derived from ART pregnancies was not statistically significantly compared with those derived from spontaneous pregnancies (P = 0.661). For DNMT3B, we observed genotype frequencies of 100 % (TT) in the study group and the control group. The DNMT3A -448A > G polymorphism may be a novel functional SNP and contribute to its genetic susceptibility to spontaneous abortion in Chinese women, and ART may not affect the distribution of -448A > G in pregnancy loss and normal pregnancy. The observed TT genotype of DMNT3B suggests that this is the predominant genotype of this population. The findings provide new insights into the etiology of human spontaneous abortion.

  6. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  7. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  8. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  9. Concept of Educational Assistance to Health Protection of the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Kokorina, Olga Rafailovna; Nikitin, Yuriy Vladimirovich; Perepelkina, Tatiyna Vladislavovna; Segodina, Polina Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the theoretical and practical need for the development of the concept of assistance to health protection of the individual in order to address the problem of health protection of students and teachers in the conditions of a higher pedagogical education. The problem of studying human health, its entirety, systemacity and connection with the environment attracts particular attention in recent years. This was one of the reasons to study the problem of “healthy lifestyle” as the qualitative characteristic of a human life aimed at health, due to the fact that a healthy lifestyle is one of the determinants of health. This is made possible with the use of specific health-protecting technologies aimed at searching for ways and means of protection and conservation of health of students and teachers in the conditions of the educational process and using educational tools, which is currently included into the priorities of education. PMID:26493439

  10. The Role of Human Web Assistants in E-Commerce: An Analysis and a Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Johan; Shahmehri, Nahid

    2000-01-01

    Discusses electronic commerce and presents the concept of Web assistants, human assistants working in an electronic Web shop. Presents results of a usability study of a prototype adaptive Web assistant system that show users were enthusiastic about the concept of Web assistants and its implications. (Author/LRW)

  11. [Basic concept in computer assisted surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merloz, Philippe; Wu, Hao

    2006-03-01

    To investigate application of medical digital imaging systems and computer technologies in orthopedics. The main computer-assisted surgery systems comprise the four following subcategories. (1) A collection and recording process for digital data on each patient, including preoperative images (CT scans, MRI, standard X-rays), intraoperative visualization (fluoroscopy, ultrasound), and intraoperative position and orientation of surgical instruments or bone sections (using 3D localises). Data merging based on the matching of preoperative imaging (CT scans, MRI, standard X-rays) and intraoperative visualization (anatomical landmarks, or bone surfaces digitized intraoperatively via 3D localiser; intraoperative ultrasound images processed for delineation of bone contours). (2) In cases where only intraoperative images are used for computer-assisted surgical navigation, the calibration of the intraoperative imaging system replaces the merged data system, which is then no longer necessary. (3) A system that provides aid in decision-making, so that the surgical approach is planned on basis of multimodal information: the interactive positioning of surgical instruments or bone sections transmitted via pre- or intraoperative images, display of elements to guide surgical navigation (direction, axis, orientation, length and diameter of a surgical instrument, impingement, etc. ). And (4) A system that monitors the surgical procedure, thereby ensuring that the optimal strategy defined at the preoperative stage is taken into account. It is possible that computer-assisted orthopedic surgery systems will enable surgeons to better assess the accuracy and reliability of the various operative techniques, an indispensable stage in the optimization of surgery.

  12. Developmental plasticity and its relevance to assisted human reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2018-01-01

    The advent of assisted reproduction has allowed the conception of millions of individuals who otherwise would not have existed. Although most ART children are born healthy, there is increasing awareness of the plasticity of the human embryo causing concerns about potential long-term consequences of

  13. Parents' contributions to the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie

    2003-12-01

    Donated sperm, eggs, and embryos are an increasing feature of assisted reproduction; people conceived in this way have different genetic and social histories. Although most offspring of donor-assisted conception are ignorant of their genetic history, recipient parents must negotiate increasing demand for full disclosure to offspring. This paper illustrates some of the reasons parents give for not telling their children, underlines the experience of many parents of being uncertain of how to go about telling, presents information from some parents who have endeavoured to be open with their children about conception from very early childhood, and discusses implications for the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception. Recipient parents (n=55) and offspring (12) from Australia; Canada, US, England, and Argentina were interviewed and subsequently consulted about the development of their narrative accounts and the way in which these have been interpreted. Parental narratives were found to be located along a continuum, broadly encompassing: (1). Parents who intend to exclude donor-assisted conception from the narratives they construct for their children, (2). parents who are uncertain about what they want to do, or confused about the best way to disclose and discuss donor conception with their children and (3). those have incorporated the donor in their children's narratives from the beginning. From interviews with offspring and on the basis of human rights issues and the increasing salience of genetic knowledge, it is concluded that disclosure to offspring before adolescence should be encouraged.

  14. Strategy-oriented display concept to assist severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwangsub; Ha, Jaejoo

    2000-01-01

    The Critical Function Monitoring System (CFMS) is a typical Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) to assist the operation of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants during normal and emergency operation, and SPDS for severe accident is being developed in Korea. When the existing CFMS is used under a severe accident situation, some problems are expected from: (1) different design basis, i.e. prevention of core melt vs. protection of radiation release to environment, (2) different parameters for decision-making, and (3) different domain and depth of information to restore the plant. To resolve the above problems, a concept, 'Strategy-Oriented Information Display' concept, for displaying information for severe accident management is developed in this paper. Whereas the existing SPDS structure is based on the critical safety function, the developed concept is based on the severe accident management strategy. The display for each strategy includes the plant parameters to check the status of plant and component with the logical or graphical views necessary for executing the strategy. As the application of the proposed concept, KAERI is developing a display system, the prototype severe accident SPDS, Severe Accident Management Display System (SAMDIS), to assist plant personnel for executing Korean Severe Accident Management Guidelines. CFMS is developed for a general display suitable to all situations with various displays. On the contrary, SAMDIS provides all the relevant information on one screen based on the proposed concept. The SAMDIS screen shows more extensive area than CFMS and thus plant personnel can recognize the overall plant status at a glance. This concept is quite effective when used with severe accident management guidelines because of the relatively macroscopic characteristics of a severe accident management strategy. (author)

  15. Human Security Concept in the UN Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Alexandrovna Bokeriya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the theme, scientific actuality and practical relevance of which is not in doubt, and is caused by a new wave of interest in human security. The human security concept has been the subject of active discussions on national and international security forums for the past 10 years. This article is focused on the human security concept evolution in the framework of the UN in conditions of the growing challenges and threats as well as polycentric world and international relations transformation. The author turned to the analysis of human security issues in the UN human rights dimension, as this organization performs a key role in the application and implementation of the concept on a global scale. The detailed periodization of human security development within the UN is presented for the first time. The analysis of the situation with Syrian refugees in Lebanon is carried out in the format of a case study. Author has made an attempt to undertake not a comprehensive analysis of the concept within the UN, but re-evaluation of new trends and dominant problems in practical application of human security idea and its impact on the effectiveness of international organizations.

  16. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models and finishing on strategic human resources models (orthodox model and human resources architecture, proposed by R.G. Klimecki S. A. Litz and D.P. Lepak S.A. Snell.

  17. Antenatal mood and fetal attachment after assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane R W; Hammarberg, Karin; Baker, Gordon H W

    2008-05-01

    Australian women conceiving with ART are at fourfold risk of admission to early parenting treatment programs compared with those conceiving spontaneously. This study aimed to identify prevalence and determinants of antenatal mood disturbance and other risks for early parenting difficulties after assisted conception. A prospective longitudinal investigation from conception to 18 months postpartum using telephone interviews and self-report questionnaires. Melbourne IVF and Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Victoria, Australia. A consecutive cohort of English-speaking women with ultrasound-confirmed ART-conceived pregnancies. Standardized psychometric measures of mood, quality of marital relationship, mother-to-fetus emotional attachment, and personality. None. Of the 288 women with confirmed pregnancies, 239 were contactable, and 183 (77%) were recruited, 95% of whom completed both early and late pregnancy assessments. Participants were socioeconomically advantaged, had very good pregnancy health, exceptional marital relationships, normal personality styles, and intense affectionate attachment to the fetus. Very few (<5%) had clinically significant mood disturbance in late pregnancy. There were low rates of antenatal mood disturbance and other risk factors for postpartum depression. Pregnancy and motherhood might be idealized after ART conception, and preparation for the realities of infant care might then be insufficient.

  18. Assistant Personal Robot (APR: Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Clotet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot.

  19. Method to assist conception of collimators in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantet, P.; Esquerre, J.P.; Danet, B.; Roux, G.; Guiraud, R.

    1990-01-01

    Designing a collimator should begin by an accurate computation of its performances in order to minimize the usual expensive and time consuming phase of trial and error. The authors briefly describe several methods currently used, and present a method of simulation of the percussional response of collimators. The computation takes into account the attenuation of photons by the collimator septas. An other benefit is its ability to be used whatever the geometric specifications of the collimator. The program computes spatial resolution, geometric efficiency, septal penetration, as well as slice thickness when the collimator is used with a SPECT device. The study presents the results concerning two collimators: a general purpose parallel hole commercially available and a focused parallel one dedicated to a single slice SPECT system. In conclusion, this deterministic method which takes attenuation into account for collimators performances computation should be useful tool to assist conception of new collimators in nuclear medicine [fr

  20. Application of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for occupational therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical models provide a framework for describing practice and integrating evidence into systematic research. There are few models that relate specifically to the provision of assistive technology in occupational therapy practice. The Human Activity Assistive Technology model is an enduring example that has continued to develop by integrating a social model of disability, concepts from occupational therapy theory and principles of assistive technology adoption and abandonment. This study first describes the core concepts of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model and reviews its development over three successive published versions. A review of the research literature reflects application of the model to clinical practice, study design, outcome measure selection and interpretation of results, particularly among occupational therapists. An evaluative framework is used to critique the adequacy of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for practice and research, exploring attributes of clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility and importance. Finally, recommendations are proposed for continued development of the model and research applications. Most of the existing research literature employs the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for background and study design; there is emerging evidence to support the core concepts as predictive factors. Although the concepts are generally simple, clear and applicable to occupational therapy practice and research, evolving terminology and outcomes become more complex with the conflation of integrated theories. The development of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model offers enhanced access and application for occupational therapists, but poses challenges to clarity among concepts. Suggestions are made for further development and applications of the model. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Challenges of human resource capacity building assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noro, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    At the first Nuclear Security Summit in Washington DC in 2010, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency was established based on Japan's National Statement which expressed Japan's strong commitment to contribute to the strengthening of nuclear security in Asian region. ISCN began its activities from JFY 2011. One of the main activities of ISCN is human resource capacity building support. Since JFY 2011, ISCN has offered various nuclear security training courses, seminars and workshops and total number of the participants to the ISCN's event reached more than 700. For the past three years, ISCN has been facing variety of challenges of nuclear security human resource assistance. This paper will briefly illustrate ISCN's achievement in the past years and introduce challenges and measures of ISCN in nuclear security human resource capacity building assistance. (author)

  2. Multiplicity and early gestational age contribute to an increased risk of cerebral palsy from assisted conception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper assesses the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in children born after assisted conception compared with children born after natural conception (NC). METHODS: This population based follow-up study included all 588,967 children born in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. Assisted conception...

  3. Concept development of the human reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories initiated a three-phased research program in 1981 to develop a plan for a human reliability data bank. This research initiative was in response to the data needs of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community. The three phases are: (1) develop the data bank concept; (2) develop an implementation plan and conduct a feasibility test; and (3) assist the sponsor in implementing the data bank. This paper briefly describes some of the results of the work performed during Phase A and outlines the program elements schedules for Phase B

  4. Post-partum depressive symptoms and medically assisted conception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, F; Letranchant, A; Cazas, O; Sutter-Dallay, A L; Falissard, B; Hardy, P

    2015-11-01

    Does medically assisted conception increase the risk of post-partum depressive symptoms? Our literature review and meta-analysis showed no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted conception. Women who conceive with medically assisted conception, which can be considered as a stressful life event, could face an increased risk of depressive symptoms. However, no previous meta-analysis has been performed on the association between medically assisted conception and post-partum depressive symptoms. A systematic review with electronic searches of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases up to December 2014 was conducted to identify articles evaluating post-partum depressive symptoms in women who had benefited from medically assisted conception compared with those with a spontaneous pregnancy. Meta-analyses were also performed on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms according to PRISMA guidelines. From 569 references, 492 were excluded on title, 42 on abstract and 17 others on full-text. Therefore, 18 studies were included in the review and 8 in the meta-analysis (2451 women) on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception compared with a spontaneous pregnancy. A sensitivity meta-analysis on assisted reproductive technologies and spontaneous pregnancy (6 studies, 1773 women) was also performed. The quality of the studies included in the meta-analyses was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement for observational research. The data were pooled using RevMan software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed from the results of the χ(2) and I(2) statistics. Biases were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's test. A fixed effects model was used for the meta-analyses because of the low level of heterogeneity between the studies. The systematic review of studies examining

  5. Exotendons for assistance of human locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bogert Antonie J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered robotic exoskeletons for assistance of human locomotion are currently under development for military and medical applications. The energy requirements for such devices are excessive, and this has become a major obstacle for practical applications. Legged locomotion in many animals, however, is very energy efficient. We propose that poly-articular elastic mechanisms are a major contributor to the economy of locomotion in such specialized animals. Consequently, it should be possible to design unpowered assistive devices that make effective use of similar mechanisms. Methods A passive assistive technology is presented, based on long elastic cords attached to an exoskeleton and guided by pulleys placed at the joints. A general optimization procedure is described for finding the best geometrical arrangement of such "exotendons" for assisting a specific movement. Optimality is defined either as minimal residual joint moment or as minimal residual joint power. Four specific exotendon systems with increasing complexity are considered. Representative human gait data were used to optimize each of these four systems to achieve maximal assistance for normal walking. Results The most complex exotendon system, with twelve pulleys per limb, was able to reduce the joint moments required for normal walking by 71% and joint power by 74%. A simpler system, with only three pulleys per limb, could reduce joint moments by 46% and joint power by 47%. Conclusion It is concluded that unpowered passive elastic devices can substantially reduce the muscle forces and the metabolic energy needed for walking, without requiring a change in movement. When optimally designed, such devices may allow independent locomotion in patients with large deficits in muscle function.

  6. Human dignity in concept and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Clark, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dignity seems to be something that virtually all people want. It is a seminal expression of the human experience that gains authority through the convergent demands of people worldwide. Even so, the human dignity concept is in unhelpful disarray. Dignity is variously viewed as an antecedent, a consequence, a value, a principle, and an experience, from philosophical, legal, pragmatic, psychological, behavioral, and cultural perspectives. We ask which if any of these human dignity concepts will likely serve our global common interests best, as both common ground and policy diagnostic? We examine four broad themes: dignity as (1) a metaphysical justification for human rights and duties, (2) virtuous comportment or behavior, (3) a perspective of "other," and (4) a subjective experience of the individual, contingent on a broad and equitable sharing of values. We recommend viewing dignity as a commonwealth of individually assessed well-being, shaped by relationships with others, affected by the physical world, and framed in terms of values. Viewed this way, the idea of dignity accommodates the priorities of both individualistic and communitarian cultures. Conceiving of human dignity as a commonwealth of subjectively experienced value production and enjoyment has many practical policy implications. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  7. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    To review the effect of assisted human reproduction (AHR) on perinatal outcomes, to identify areas requiring further research with regard to birth outcomes and AHR, and to provide guidelines to optimize obstetrical management and counselling of prospective Canadian parents. This document compares perinatal outcomes of different types of AHR pregnancies with each other and with those of spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Clinicians will be better informed about the adverse outcomes that have been documented in association with AHR, including obstetrical complications, adverse perinatal outcomes, multiple gestations, structural congenital abnormalities, chromosomal abnormalities, and imprinting disorders. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from January 2005 to December 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (assisted reproduction, assisted reproductive technology, ovulation induction, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization). Results were not restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies; studies of all designs published in English from January 2005 to December 2012 were reviewed, and additional publications were identified from the bibliographies of these articles. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to August 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. There is increasing evidence that infertility or subfertility is an

  8. Heterotopic pregnancy in an assisted reproduction conception; case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility management by assisted reproduction techniques has had rapid increase. While there is robust evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of assisted reproduction technique (ART), complications are encountered. Heterotopic pregnancy, defined as the presence of both an intrauterine and an ectopic gestation, ...

  9. Interaction design concepts for a mobile personal assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.; Oostendorp, H. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Personal Assistant for onLine Services (PALS) project aims to develop an intelligent interface that facilitates efficient user interaction through personalization and context awareness with commerce web sites on a handheld device. The types of assistance services and interaction support

  10. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  11. Human spermatozoa: revelations on the road to conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, R John

    2013-10-01

    Human spermatozoa are highly complex specialized cells designed to survive a long and perilous journey from the site of insemination to the upper reaches of the female reproductive tract where fertilization occurs. During this journey, these cells have to run the gauntlet laid down by the female immune system and time their physiological maturation so that as soon as an egg appears in the Fallopian tube, they are equipped to recognize this cell and participate in a remarkable cascade of cellular interactions culminating in fertilization. Despite their high level of specialization, human spermatozoa are notoriously inadequate and appear to be major contributors to the poor fertility that characterizes our species. Defective spermatozoa are also known to have a major impact on the progress of pregnancy and the health trajectory of the offspring, resulting in paternally mediated increases in miscarriage rate and a range of diseases in the progeny, including dominant genetic diseases and cancer. The causes of defective sperm function are complex and involve both genetic and environmental impacts, as well as paternal age. Where genetic factors are involved, there is a concern that the widespread use of assisted conception technologies will serve to enhance the retention of poor fertility genes in the population such that the more we use assisted reproductive technologies in one generation the more we shall need them in the next. These observations may have important implications for the health and well-being of children and for the provision of reproductive healthcare services for future generations.

  12. Perinatal outcome of monochorionic and dichorionic twins after spontaneous and assisted conception: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Karien E A; Vereycken, Marijn E M S; Torrance, Helen L; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Derks, Jan B

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in twin pregnancies after assisted conception and spontaneous conception, according to chorionicity. Retrospective cohort study of 1305 twin pregnancies between 1995 and 2015. All spontaneous (n = 731) and assisted conception conceived (n = 574) twin pregnancies with antenatal care and delivery in University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, a tertiary obstetric care center were studied according to chorionicity. Maternal age and incidence of nulliparity were higher among the assisted conception twins. Hypertensive disorders also appeared to be more frequent in assisted conception pregnancies, which could largely be explained by the higher proportion of elderly nulliparous women in this group. Spontaneously conceived twins were born earlier than twins after assisted conception, with subsequent lower birthweights and more admissions to a neonatal intensive care unit with increased neonatal morbidity. Monochorionic twins had worse pregnancy outcomes compared with dichorionic twins, irrespective of mode of conception; monochorionic twins conceived by assisted reproduction had more neonatal morbidity (mainly respiratory distress syndrome and necrotizing enterocolitis) and late neonatal deaths compared with spontaneously conceived monochorionic twins. Spontaneously conceived twins have worse pregnancy outcome compared with twins after assisted conception, probably due to a lower incidence of monochorionicity in the assisted conception group. The already increased perinatal risks in monochorionic twins are even higher in monochorionic twins conceived after infertility treatments compared with spontaneously conceived monochorionic twins, which warrants extra attention to these high-risk pregnancies. © 2018 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  13. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  14. Human-Assisted AI: an Intelligence Augmentation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Bradly

    2018-01-01

    As a flavor of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), Human-Assisted AI can serve to both augment both human performance and artificial systems. This talk will feature a discussion of Human-assisted AI as an instance of Intelligence Augmentation (IA). We will discuss instances of weak and strong IA, in addition to contemporary examples of and paths forward for such systems. In the variety of models presented, data plays a critical role in the structure of interactions between human and artificial ...

  15. An international view of surgically assisted conception and surrogacy tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine, specifically assisted reproductive technology (ART), has overtaken the law in many jurisdictions around the world. New technologies and practices open a Pandora's Box of ethical, religious, social and legal questions, and may present a variety of significant legal problems to the courts and legislators. Surrogate motherhood and pregnancy through ART have both attracted controversy. Some groups condemn ART and want it banned while its supporters acknowledge there is a need for legislative guidelines and regulations. A proposed statute, the Assisted Reproductive Technique Services Act, aimed at regulating reproductive technologies, including surrogacy arrangements, will be introduced in the Malaysian parliament, probably in 2012, and the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill 2010 is already before the Indian parliament. This paper will discuss several of the potential socio-legal issues surrounding ART in the light of the complex situation, with a comparative analysis of the Malaysian, USA, UK and Indian positions.

  16. Students' conceptions of learning: using the ASSIST instrument ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the study has been on students' conceptions of learning in three South African Technikons amidst the changing circumstances of teaching and learning from subject-based to outcomes-based education. First-year students face a particular measure of unpreparedness as they graduate from a conventional high ...

  17. Down syndrome screening in assisted conception twins: an iatrogenic medical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ido; Maymon, Ron; Svirsky, Ran; Cuckle, Howard; Jauniaux, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a critical analysis of the impact of assisted conception on prenatal screening for Down syndrome (DS) in twin pregnancies and the value of various screening modalities for early detection of anomalies. The literature was searched using PubMed and the Cochrane Library focusing on prenatal screening and antenatal care of assisted-conception twin pregnancies. Serum screening alone is of limited value in detecting aneuploid twins, because the unaffected cotwin can "mask" the abnormal serum results of an affected one. In addition, this test can designate the pregnancy as at high risk but not identify the affected fetus. Nuchal translucency (NT) screening is the best available modality and a highly effective screening method for twin pregnancies. Among twins, NT alone has a 69% DS detection rate, first-trimester combined NT and serum biochemistry has a 72% DS detection rate, and an integrated screen will have an 80% DS detection rate at a 5% FPR. The data in the literature concerning the effect of assisted conception on maternal serum screening markers in twin pregnancies are scarce. Down syndrome screening in assisted-conception twins presents clinical and technical challenges. Therefore, assisted-conception twins need close monitoring from conception to delivery, by a practitioner familiar with the available screening modalities and their relative accuracy.

  18. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  19. Human implantation: the last barrier in assisted reproduction technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Robert G

    2006-12-01

    Implantation processes are highly complex involving the actions of numerous hormones, immunoglobulins, cytokines and other factors in the endometrium. They are also essential matters for the success of assisted reproduction. The nature of early embryonic development is of equal significance. It involves ovarian follicle growth, ovulation, fertilization and preimplantation growth. These processes are affected by imbalanced chromosomal constitutions or slow developmental periods. Post-implantation death is also a significant factor in cases of placental insufficiency or recurrent abortion. Clearly, many of these matters can significantly affect birth rates. This review is concerned primarily with the oocyte, the early embryo and its chromosomal anomalies, and the nature of factors involved in implantation. These are clearly among the most important features in determining successful embryonic and fetal growth. Successive sections cover the endocrine stimulation of follicle growth in mice and humans, growth of human embryos in vitro, their apposition and attachment to the uterus, factors involved in embryo attachment to uterine epithelium and later stages of implantation, and understanding the gene control of polarities and other aspects of preimplantation embryo differentiation. New aspects of knowledge include the use of human oocyte maturation in vitro as an approach to simpler forms of IVF, and new concepts in developmental genetics.

  20. HUMANIZATION OF THE NURSING ASSISTANCE IN THE SURGICAL UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bedin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study consisted in a bibliographic review, which goal was a survey of the main national literature that approaches the humanization in the surgical unit, identifying and demonstrating the needs and the importance of the nursing staff daily activities. The search was made selecting the key words and the period between 1985 and 2002, where 31 articles were selected. Analyzing them we discussed about the theme, classifying it in four stages that made sense to the humanization for the nursing assistance in the surgical unit, describing aspects of the nursing graduation releasing for humanization, making ethics considerations to the assistance and demonstrating the needs of the humanized care in the presence of the technological development. We concluded that the humanization of the nursing assistance in the surgical units is a challenge, however, the humanized care is possible and essential to the nursing practice, mainly in a technological environment like the surgical unit. KEYWORDS: Operating Room Nursing; Assistance; Ethics.

  1. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures

  2. Assisted human reproduction: psychological and ethical dilemmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Dani; Hunter, Myra

    2003-01-01

    ... Psychological therapy and counselling with individuals and families after donor conception Sharon A Pettle Chapter 9 182 Policy development in third party reproduction: an international perspective...

  3. Robot assistant versus human or another robot assistant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Fusai, Giuseppe; Davidson, Brian R

    2012-09-12

    The role of a robotic assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is controversial. While some trials have shown distinct advantages of a robotic assistant over a human assistant others have not, and it is unclear which robotic assistant is best. The aims of this review are to assess the benefits and harms of a robot assistant versus human assistant or versus another robot assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and to assess whether the robot can substitute the human assistant. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (until February 2012) for identifying the randomised clinical trials. Only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing robot assistants versus human assistants in laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. Randomised clinical trials comparing different types of robot assistants were also considered for the review. Two authors independently identified the trials for inclusion and independently extracted the data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed-effect and the random-effects models based on intention-to-treat analysis, when possible, using Review Manager 5. We included six trials with 560 patients. One trial involving 129 patients did not state the number of patients randomised to the two groups. In the remaining five trials 431 patients were randomised, 212 to the robot assistant group and 219 to the human assistant group. All the trials were at high risk of bias. Mortality and morbidity were reported in only one trial with 40 patients. There was no mortality or morbidity in either group. Mortality and morbidity were not reported in the remaining trials. Quality of life or the proportion of patients who were discharged as day-patient laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients were not reported in any

  4. Virtual assistant: Enhancing content acquisition by eliciting information from humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ozeki, Motoyuki; Maeda, Shunichi; Obata, Kanako; Nakamura, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the "Virtual Assistant, " a novel framework for supporting knowledge capturing in videos. The Virtual Assistant is an artificial agent that simulates a human assistant shown in TV programs and prompts users to provide feedback by asking questions. This framework ensures that sufficient information is provided in the captured content while users interact in a natural and enjoyable way with the agent. We developed a prototype agent based on a chatbot-like approach and ...

  5. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  6. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  7. Emotion-Aware Assistive System for Humanistic Care Based on the Orange Computing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhing-Fa Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental care has become crucial with the rapid growth of economy and technology. However, recent movements, such as green technologies, place more emphasis on environmental issues than on mental care. Therefore, this study presents an emerging technology called orange computing for mental care applications. Orange computing refers to health, happiness, and physiopsychological care computing, which focuses on designing algorithms and systems for enhancing body and mind balance. The representative color of orange computing originates from a harmonic fusion of passion, love, happiness, and warmth. A case study on a human-machine interactive and assistive system for emotion care was conducted in this study to demonstrate the concept of orange computing. The system can detect emotional states of users by analyzing their facial expressions, emotional speech, and laughter in a ubiquitous environment. In addition, the system can provide corresponding feedback to users according to the results. Experimental results show that the system can achieve an accurate audiovisual recognition rate of 81.8% on average, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the system. Compared with traditional questionnaire-based approaches, the proposed system can offer real-time analysis of emotional status more efficiently.

  8. [Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal).

  9. Human Grasp Assist Device With Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon B. J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove, actuator assembly, and controller. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. Phalange rings are positioned with respect to the digit. A flexible tendon is connected at one end to one of the rings and is routed through the remaining rings. An exoskeleton positioned with respect to the digit includes hinged interconnecting members each connected to a corresponding ring, and/or a single piece of slotted material. The actuator assembly is connected to another end of the tendon. The controller calculates a tensile force in response to the measured grasping force, and commands the tensile force from the actuator assembly to thereby pull on the tendon. The exoskeleton offloads some of the tensile force from the operator's finger to the glove.

  10. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  11. Evolution of the Concept of "Human Capital" in Economic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, Vyacheslav A.; Perepelkina, Elena V.; Morozova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is determined by transformation of the human capital into the key economic resource of development of the postindustrial society. The purpose of the article is to disclose the content of evolution of the human capital as a scientific concept and phenomenon of the economic life. The leading approach to the…

  12. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet

  13. Human Factors Consideration for the Design of Collaborative Machine Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    Recent improvements in technology have facilitated the use of robots and virtual humans not only in entertainment and engineering but also in the military (Hill et al., 2003), healthcare (Pollack et al., 2002), and education domains (Johnson, Rickel, & Lester, 2000). As active partners of humans, such machine assistants can take the form of a robot or a graphical representation and serve the role of a financial assistant, a health manager, or even a social partner. As a result, interactive technologies are becoming an integral component of people's everyday lives.

  14. Molecular concept in human oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.

  15. Intelligence for Human-Assistant Planetary Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey; Tyree, Kimberly; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The central premise in developing effective human-assistant planetary surface robots is that robotic intelligence is needed. The exact type, method, forms and/or quantity of intelligence is an open issue being explored on the ERA project, as well as others. In addition to field testing, theoretical research into this area can help provide answers on how to design future planetary robots. Many fundamental intelligence issues are discussed by Murphy [2], including (a) learning, (b) planning, (c) reasoning, (d) problem solving, (e) knowledge representation, and (f) computer vision (stereo tracking, gestures). The new "social interaction/emotional" form of intelligence that some consider critical to Human Robot Interaction (HRI) can also be addressed by human assistant planetary surface robots, as human operators feel more comfortable working with a robot when the robot is verbally (or even physically) interacting with them. Arkin [3] and Murphy are both proponents of the hybrid deliberative-reasoning/reactive-execution architecture as the best general architecture for fully realizing robot potential, and the robots discussed herein implement a design continuously progressing toward this hybrid philosophy. The remainder of this chapter will describe the challenges associated with robotic assistance to astronauts, our general research approach, the intelligence incorporated into our robots, and the results and lessons learned from over six years of testing human-assistant mobile robots in field settings relevant to planetary exploration. The chapter concludes with some key considerations for future work in this area.

  16. Multiple births associated with assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jocelynn L; Geran, Leslie; Rotermann, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    Assisted human reproduction has been associated with increased rates of multiple births. Data suggest that twins and higher order multiple pregnancies are at risk for pre- and postnatal health complications that contribute to stress on both the family and the Canadian health care system. No published Canadian data estimate the contribution of assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates. This study was designed to determine the contributions of age and assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates in Canada. We performed analyses of existing Canadian databases, using a mathematical model from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More specifically, data from the Canadian Vital Statistics: Births and Stillbirths database were combined with data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technologies Register collected by the Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society. Datasets were standardized to age distributions of mothers in 1978. RESULTS suggest that in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction, and age each contribute more to the rates of triplets than to twins. As expected, the contribution of natural factors was higher to twins than to triplets. These are the first Canadian data analyzed to separate and measure the contributions of age and assisted reproductive technologies to multiple birth rates. Our findings are important for guiding physician and patient education and informing the development of treatment protocols that will result in lower-risk pregnancies and improved long-term health for women and their offspring.

  17. Human-Centered Design for the Personal Satellite Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Gawdiak, Yuri; Thomas, Hans; Greaves, Mark; Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) is a softball-sized flying robot designed to operate autonomously onboard manned spacecraft in pressurized micro-gravity environments. We describe how the Brahms multi-agent modeling and simulation environment in conjunction with a KAoS agent teamwork approach can be used to support human-centered design for the PSA.

  18. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  19. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  20. The Organization as Client: Broadening the Concept of Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googins, Bradley; Davidson, Bruce N.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that many employee assistance programs (EAPs) are broadening their function to address rapidly changing human and social issues of environments in which they operate, refocusing practice to include organization as the client. Discusses traditional EAP practice, evolution of EAPs, changes confronting corporations, and alternative model in…

  1. Interpretation of basic concepts in theories of human motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.

  2. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage…

  3. AMBIVALENCE OF THE ENTROPY CONCEPT IN THE HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Andrei V. Matyushko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with various views on the concept of entropy. The author gives examples of entropy actualization from different spheres of existence and comes to conclusion about the ambiguity of the treatment of this term in the Humanities.

  4. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  5. The Concept of Human Dignity in German and Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the concept of human dignity in German and Kenyan constitutional law. We base our analysis on decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, in particular its take on life imprisonment and its 2006 decision concerning the shooting of hijacked airplanes, and on a close reading of the Constitution of Kenya.

  6. The Usefulness of the Legal Concept of Human Dignity in the Human Rights Discourse: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Fernandez Burgueño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the convenience of using the legal concept of human dignity in the human rights discourse and its effectiveness to address injustice in a twenty-first century democratic society. This article will argue that the difficulty of defining human dignity does not diminish its merits and allows it to be both solid and adaptable to new challenges. Then, this paper will argue that human dignity is a powerful concept due to its capacity to bring change and modernise society and will conclude that there is a strong relationship between time, human dignity, human rights and democracy.

  7. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, R H M; Willemsen, H

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005, a master thesis project was carried out in the Delft University of Technology, following a similar human-centered design approach.2, 3 In that design project we also addressed the noise level insid...

  8. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  9. Concept of an immersive assistance system with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eursch, Andreas A.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis on an immersive assistance system concept with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments covers the following topics: analysis of the situation: production and use of radioactive materials, problem analysis of the work in the production facilities, necessity of manual activities, automation, prediction in hot cells; status of research and development; assistance system concept, immersive camera system; augmented reality support in hot cells; economic evaluation and generalization.

  10. Ontological And Anthropological Aspects of the Concept of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asha Nimali Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology is the study of the origin of the man. It is basically concern with the concept of Homo sapiens, and it is scientifically questioning what are human physical traits as well how do men behave and the variation among different groups of  human with his social and cultural dimensions. Ontology is a subfield in traditional philosophy which is mainly focuses on the nature of being, existence or reality as such. There are some similarities and differences among these two areas. However when we deeply study the philosophical basis of the anthropology it is proof that it was derived from ontology.Anthropology discusses the social and cultural world or the physical entity of human nature. Ontology focuses the invisible aspect of human nature along with the ultimate reality. Therefore, it has a metaphysical aspect of human being; this philosophical notion has in fact, contributed to the development of the subject of anthropology. The present modern day has given very little attention to this philosophical combination of  ontolog y to anthropology, rendering further investigation into the philosophical roots of anthropology.This research paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between ontology and anthropology by paying attention to the ontological arguments about the concept of man and human nature within Greek and modern western thoughts, in comparing with modern anthropological arguments.

  11. Marketing of Assisted Human Reproduction and the Indian State

    OpenAIRE

    Shree Mulay; Emily Gibson

    2006-01-01

    Shree Mulay and Emily Gibson examine the factors responsible for the phenomenal growth of the private fee-for-service health sector in India and the industry related to Assisted Human Reproduction, its negative effect on the public health sector as well as the feeble attempts by the Indian state to regulate this industry, and its implications for women's reproductive rights and health. Development (2006) 49, 84–93. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100311

  12. Trends in 'poor responder' research: lessons learned from RCTs in assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Searle, Belinda J; King, Nicole M A; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-04-01

    A substantial minority of women undergoing IVF will under-respond to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. These women-so-called 'poor responders'-suffer persistently reduced success rates after IVF. Currently, no single intervention is unanimously accepted as beneficial in overcoming poor ovarian response (POR). This has been supported by the available research on POR, which consists mainly of randomized controlled trials (RCTs ) with an inherent high-risk of bias. The aim of this review was to critically appraise the available experimental trials on POR and provide guidance towards more useful-less wasteful-future research. A comprehensive review was undertaken of RCTs on 'poor responders' published in the last 15 years. Data on various methodological traits as well as important clinical characteristics were extracted from the included studies and summarized, with a view to identifying deficiencies from which lessons can be learned. Based on this analysis, recommendations were provided for further research in this field of assisted conception. We selected and analysed 75 RCTs. A valid, 'low-risk' randomization method was reported in three out of four RCTs. An improving trend in reporting concealment of patient allocation was also evident over the 15-year period. In contrast, methodological quality were more likely to have been published in a high-impact journal. Overall, the majority of published trials on POR suffer from methodological flaws and are, thus, regarded as being high-risk for bias. The same trials have used a variety of definitions for their poor responders and a variety of interventions for their head-to-head comparisons. Not surprisingly, discrepancies are also evident in the findings of trials comparing similar interventions. Based on the identified deficiencies, this novel type of 'methodology and clinical' review has introduced custom recommendations on how to improve future experimental research in the 'poor responder' population. © The Author

  13. Analysis of a human phenomenon: self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMone, P

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of self-concept includes an examination of definitions, historical perspectives, theoretical basis, and closely related terms. Antecedents, consequences, defining attributes, and a definition were formulated based on the analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to provide support for the use of the label "self-concept" as a broad category that encompasses the self-esteem, identity, and body-image nursing diagnoses within Taxonomy I. This classification could allow the use of a broad diagnostic label to better describe conditions that necessitate nursing care. It may also further explain the relationships between and among those diagnoses that describe human responses to disturbance of any component of the self-concept.

  14. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  15. Concepts of mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis of expert evidence presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Annabel; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Wiseman, Theresa; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-04-22

    In May 2013 a new Assisted Dying Bill was tabled in the House of Lords and is currently scheduled for a second reading in May 2014. The Bill was informed by the report of the Commission on Assisted Dying which itself was informed by evidence presented by invited experts.This study aims to explore how the experts presenting evidence to the Commission on Assisted Dying conceptualised mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide and examine these concepts particularly in relation to the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. This study was a secondary qualitative analysis of 36 transcripts of oral evidence and 12 pieces of written evidence submitted by invited experts to the Commission on Assisted Dying using a framework approach. There was agreement on the importance of mental capacity as a central safeguard in proposed assisted dying legislation. Concepts of mental capacity, however, were inconsistent. There was a tendency towards a conceptual and clinical shift toward a presumption of incapacity. This appeared to be based on the belief that assisted suicide should only be open to those with a high degree of mental capacity to make the decision.The 'boundaries' around the definition of mental capacity appeared to be on a continuum between a circumscribed legal 'cognitive' definition of capacity (in which most applicants would be found to have capacity unless significantly cognitively impaired) and a more inclusive definition which would take into account wider concepts such as autonomy, rationality, voluntariness and decision specific factors such as motivation for decision making. Ideas presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying about mental capacity as it relates to assisted suicide were inconsistent and in a number of cases at variance with the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Further work needs to be done to establish a consensus as to what constitutes capacity for this decision and whether current legal frameworks are able to

  16. In vitro maturation of human oocytes for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurema, Marcus W; Nogueira, Daniela

    2006-11-01

    To describe and evaluate the current practice of in vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction. Review of the available and relevant literature regarding in vitro maturation of oocytes. In vitro maturation of human oocytes retrieved from antral ovarian follicles is an emerging procedure quickly being incorporated into the realm of assisted reproductive technologies. This new technology has several potential advantages over traditional controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF, such as reduction of costs by minimizing gonadotropin and GnRH analogue use, elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and simplicity of protocol. In vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction in human beings still is undergoing refinement but currently is providing efficacy and safety outcome comparable to that of traditional IVF in recent selected studies. Implementing in vitro maturation into an established IVF practice is feasible and requires only a few simple adjustments. Crucial to the advancement and optimization of the technology is a better understanding of how to maximize immature oocyte developmental competence and endometrial receptivity.

  17. Concept of waste and its impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Impact of the environment on human health is increasingly being paid attention both at the international level and at the level of individual countries. Among the factors that anyhow can affect it negatively, various objects are distinguished and waste is not of the last consequence. It has different nature of origin, ways of further utilization and a degree of impact on human health and the environment. Its generation, utilization and neutralization are determined by the relevant processes; their research allows continuous improvement and reduction of their negative impact on human health and the environment. To analyze provisions of the international legislation concerning the concept of waste and its classification, as well as its potential impacts on human health and the environment. The study analyzes and uses international legal documents, data of international organizations and scientists' deductions. Furthermore, the study integrates information from scientific journals with scientific methods from the medical and legal point of view. Within the framework of the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis, the concept of waste, its classification and impact on human health and the environment have been researched. In consequence of the conducted study, it has been found that at the European level, considerable attention is paid to waste in the context of its possible negative impact on human health and the environment. Solution of this problem is carried out with the integrated approach, which is expressed both in enacting statutory acts and amending existing ones, as well as elucidating various aspects at the scientific, methodological, statistical and other levels. Waste in itself has different nature of origin, negative impact, ways of its further utilization. Some kinds of it can be used further in order to achieve other goals and needs that are not related to their generation, others can no longer be used for human benefits taking into account

  18. Human ovarian reserve from conception to the menopause.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Hamish B Wallace

    Full Text Available The human ovary contains a fixed number of non-growing follicles (NGFs established before birth that decline with increasing age culminating in the menopause at 50-51 years. The objective of this study is to model the age-related population of NGFs in the human ovary from conception to menopause. Data were taken from eight separate quantitative histological studies (n = 325 in which NGF populations at known ages from seven weeks post conception to 51 years (median 32 years were calculated. The data set was fitted to 20 peak function models, with the results ranked by obtained r2 correlation coefficient. The highest ranked model was chosen. Our model matches the log-adjusted NGF population from conception to menopause to a five-parameter asymmetric double Gaussian cumulative (ADC curve (r2 = 0.81. When restricted to ages up to 25 years, the ADC curve has r2 = 0.95. We estimate that for 95% of women by the age of 30 years only 12% of their maximum pre-birth NGF population is present and by the age of 40 years only 3% remains. Furthermore, we found that the rate of NGF recruitment towards maturation for most women increases from birth until approximately age 14 years then decreases towards the menopause. To our knowledge, this is the first model of ovarian reserve from conception to menopause. This model allows us to estimate the number of NGFs present in the ovary at any given age, suggests that 81% of the variance in NGF populations is due to age alone, and shows for the first time, to our knowledge, that the rate of NGF recruitment increases from birth to age 14 years then declines with age until menopause. An increased understanding of the dynamics of human ovarian reserve will provide a more scientific basis for fertility counselling for both healthy women and those who have survived gonadotoxic cancer treatments.

  19. Human-geographical concept of the regional geodemographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Sehida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergetic analysis of geodemographic researches indicates that they can be solved with use of modern technologies of management. according to the theory of a sotsioaktogenez, for this purpose it is necessary to define and formulate accurately the purpose of future phase transition, to construct consistent system of the purposes taking into account own and provided resources, to create executive system, effective from the point of view of optimum use of the available methods (technologies and means of activity, and to control and analyze obtaining result. The analysis of results of social management demands the quantitative description and comparison of real result with his expected model (purpose. The offered concept of geodemographic system of the region on the basis of dissipative structures which treats people, groups of people, society is aimed at the development and functioning of the studied system where the special role belongs to implementation of administrative decisions. In article it is covered the generalized structure of the concept, it is revealed her the purpose, an object subject area. It is defined public and spatial localization of a research, in particular within regional, region and local communities. It is identified geodemographic process as composite human and geographical process as sotsioaktogenez (with determination of stages of motivation, system of the purposes, executive system and result from a line item of society and a family as self-development and self-organization (with determination of the internal and external factors supporting and evolutionary resources, mechanisms as process (information exchange, external and internal adaptation. Methodological approaches (geographical, system, synergy, information, historical, research techniques (the analysis of system indices, simulation of a path of development, the component analysis and evaluation and prognostic simulation are opened. Technological procedures

  20. Democracy and Human Rights: Concepts, Measures, and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Landman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The empirical literature on democracy and human rights has made great strides over the last 30 years in explaining (1 the variation in the transition to, consolidation of, and quality of democracy; (2 the proliferation and effectiveness of human rights law; and (3 the causes and consequences of human rights across many of their categories and dimensions. This work has in many ways overcome the ‘essentially contested’ nature of the concepts of democracy and human rights conceptually, established different measures of both empirically, and developed increasingly sophisticated statistical and other analytical techniques to provide stronger inferences for the academic and policy community. This article argues that despite these many achievements, there remain tensions between conceptualisations of democracy and human rights over the degree to which one includes the other, the temporal and spatial empirical relationships between them, and the measures that have been developed to operationalize them. These tensions, in turn, affect the kinds of analyses that are carried out, including model specification, methods of estimation, and findings. Drawing on extant theories and measures of both, the article argues that there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights, greater care in the development and use of measures, and greater attention to the kinds of inferences that are made possible by them.

  1. Political Concepts for the Ethical Debate on Dilemmas on Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Israel Rodríguez Soriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on some of the political elements embedded in the ethical problems of medically assisted suicide and euthanasia. The thesis work is that political theoretical founda­tions of modern nations are aimed to protect the lives of people, a fact that responds to a series of historical processes of the very development of modern political theory. These fundamentals directly affect the cultural and political positions for the refusal to accept the legalization or regulation of the two practices in question, thus denying the right of self-determination in human decision making on the own life and death.

  2. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nietzsche and Human Enhancement. On the Concept of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina García-Granero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the dialogue between Nietzsche and the Darwinian school, highlighting the contrast between two different concepts of «life»: the Darwinian struggle for life or life as will to power. In opposition to the natural selection, which according to nietzsche doesn’t favor the strong and powerful but the mediocre and the many, the German philosopher conceives a breeding (Züchtung, a formation that is physiological as well as moral, and aspires to a true elevation of the human being, through the overcoming of nihilism and the transvaluation of all values from a vitalist perspective.

  4. Human-Machine Systems concepts applied to Control Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé , Pascale; Gellot , François; Riera , Bernard

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we interest us to Human-Machine Systems (HMS) concepts applied to Education. It is shown how the HMS framework enables to propose original solution in matter of education in the field of control engineering. We focus on practical courses on control of manufacturing systems. The proposed solution is based on an original use of real and large-scale systems instead of simulation. The main idea is to enable the student, whatever his/her level to control the ...

  5. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  6. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  7. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  8. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  9. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  10. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  11. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  12. The Concept of Human Error and the Design of Reliable Human-Machine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The concept of human error is unreliable as a basis for design of reliable human-machine systems. Humans are basically highly adaptive and 'errors' are closely related to the process of adaptation and learning. Therefore, reliability of system operation depends on an interface that is not designed...... so as to support a pre-conceived operating procedure, but, instead, makes visible the deep, functional structure of the system together with the boundaries of acceptable operation in away that allows operators to 'touch' the boundaries and to learn to cope with the effects of errors in a reversible...... way. The concepts behind such 'ecological' interfaces are discussed, an it is argued that a 'typology' of visualization concepts is a pressing research need....

  13. Defending the indefensible? Psychiatry, assisted suicide and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The siege guns of the forces for change to euthanasia and assisted suicide laws have been pounding for decades, but the longstanding proscription on these practices has held out in all but a few jurisdictions. A few psychiatrists have enlisted with the challengers, but many remain on the battlements, defending the impermissibility of active assistance in dying. Given the long history of the separation of church and state and the significant secularisation of society; the recognition by the law of both acts and omissions as legal causes; lenient sentences for mercy killers; critiques of the "psychiatriatisation" of different aspects of life; and the consistency of public opinion, this recalcitrant stand bespeaks undercurrents and positions that are often by rationalised or camouflaged, and which call for exploration. In this paper, I examine connections between psychiatry and conceptualisations of harm, suffering and natural death; medicalisation, psychiatrisation and medical paternalism; decision-making capacity, rationality and diagnosis; recent legal developments; social pluralism; and religious intuitionism. I conclude that psychiatrists and the psychiatry profession, concerned as they are with enlarging the province of human freedom, should begin a more transparent rapprochement with those they would repel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inverse biomimetics: how robots can help to verify concepts concerning sensorimotor control of human arm and leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Seyfarth, André

    2009-01-01

    Simulation test, hardware test and behavioral comparison test are proposed to experimentally verify whether a technical control concept for limb movements is logically precise, physically sound, and biologically relevant. Thereby, robot test-beds may play an integral part by mimicking functional limb movements. The procedure is exemplarily demonstrated for human aiming movements with the forearm: when comparing competitive control concepts, these movements are described best by a spring-like operating muscular-skeletal device which is assisted by feedforward control through an inverse internal model of the limb--without regress to a forward model of the limb. In a perspective on hopping, the concept of exploitive control is addressed, and its comparison to concepts derived from classical control theory advised.

  15. CSR concept implementation vs. political hedonism driven by human action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Hoppe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of CSR is a big challenge for organisations striving for business excellence. Nevertheless, a question should be asked whether achieving excellence is possible? I s it possible to become an excellent organisation in contemporary economic, social and political circumstances? Or the efforts to build an excellent organisation are only a PR trick. Unfortunately, nowadays many facts seem to confirm that, while operating in a very unfavourable environment, the majority of organisations which implement – to the full extent – the CSR concept in their strategies and adopt the model of socially responsible business risk business failure. Such a conclusion derives from two key facts. First of all, the legal environment is not ready for the development of socially responsible companies which results from political hedonism being an innate feature of democratic systems. Secondly, the level of customer social responsibility is not satisfactory and hardly any changes are expected in the short-term perspective, which is the consequence of hedonistic nature of human actions.

  16. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  17. Clinical and molecular analyses of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Comparison between spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Jair; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Fernández, García-Moya; Segovia, Mabel; Perandones, Claudia; Pérez Jurado, Luis A; Esteller, Manel; Fraga, Mario; Arias, Pedro; Gordo, Gema; Dapía, Irene; Mena, Rocío; Palomares, María; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Nevado, Julián; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Vallespín, Elena; Monk, David; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by an excessive prenatal and postnatal growth, macrosomia, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The molecular basis of this syndrome is complex and heterogeneous, involving genes located at 11p15.5. BWS is correlated with assisted reproductive techniques. BWS in individuals born following assisted reproductive techniques has been found to occur four to nine times higher compared to children with to BWS born after spontaneous conception. Here, we report a series of 187 patients with to BWS born either after assisted reproductive techniques or conceived naturally. Eighty-eight percent of BWS patients born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in comparison with 49% for patients with BWS conceived naturally. None of the patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypermethylation of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR, neither CDKN1 C mutations nor patUPD11. We did not find differences in the frequency of multi-locus imprinting disturbances between groups. Patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had an increased frequency of advanced bone age, congenital heart disease, and decreased frequency of earlobe anomalies but these differences may be explained by the different molecular background compared to those with BWS and spontaneous fertilization. We conclude there is a correlation of the molecular etiology of BWS with the type of conception. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Conflicting modes of reasoning in the Assisted Migration debate: a concept mapping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, N. L.; Larson, B.

    2011-12-01

    A growing body of literature in biodiversity conservation and forestry has developed around the risks and benefits of the Assisted Migration (AM) of species, including recommendations for planning and management. However, despite years of academic debate, general consensus has yet to be reached between the proponents and the opponents of AM as a policy option. We hypothesize that the continued impasse arises out of fundamentally conflicting value judgments. Using a concept mapping technique, we analyzed reasons for and against AM, including the use of scientific evidence and the nature of the values and ethical norms that shape the modes of reasoning in the debate. Our results indicate the presence of a diversity of ethical arguments in addition to the standard precautionary argument and pragmatic reasoning. We further discovered that different kinds of scientific arguments are used by proponents versus opponents of AM: the former rely mostly on detailed biological and ecological facts about species most-at-risk under climate change, while the latter focus on broader ecological theories. Our analysis suggests little dispute over the scientific foundations of the debate. Instead, we suggest that the main barrier to consensus is the advocacy of fundamental values, which are a matter of personal choice, and thus not likely to be changed. One way out of this impasse is a pragmatic mode of reasoning, which eschews the debate on fundamental values and evaluates the means and ends of AM in a case-by-case approach.

  19. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  20. Computer-assisted generation of individual training concepts for advanced education in manufacturing metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Teresa; Weckenmann, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing requirements on the accuracy and reproducibility of measurement results together with a rapid development of novel technologies for the execution of measurements, there is a high demand for adequately qualified metrologists. Accordingly, a variety of training offers are provided by machine manufacturers, universities and other institutions. Yet, for an interested learner it is very difficult to define an optimal training schedule for his/her individual demands. Therefore, a computer-based assistance tool is developed to support a demand-responsive scheduling of training. Based on the difference between the actual and intended competence profile and under consideration of amending requirements, an optimally customized qualification concept is derived. For this, available training offers are categorized according to different dimensions: regarding contents of the course, but also intended target groups, focus of the imparted competences, implemented methods of learning and teaching, expected constraints for learning and necessary preknowledge. After completing a course, the achieved competences and the transferability of gathered knowledge are evaluated. Based on the results, recommendations for amending measures of learning are provided. Thus, a customized qualification for manufacturing metrology is facilitated, adapted to the specific needs and constraints of each individual learner

  1. A human-oriented framework for developing assistive service robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Conor; Cullinan, Michael F; Culleton, Mark; Kelly, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Multipurpose robots that can perform a range of useful tasks have the potential to increase the quality of life for many people living with disabilities. Owing to factors such as high system complexity, as-yet unresolved research questions and current technology limitations, there is a need for effective strategies to coordinate the development process. Integrating established methodologies based on human-centred design and universal design, a framework was formulated to coordinate the robot design process over successive iterations of prototype development. An account is given of how the framework was practically applied to the problem of developing a personal service robot. Application of the framework led to the formation of several design goals which addressed a wide range of identified user needs. The resultant prototype solution, which consisted of several component elements, succeeded in demonstrating the performance stipulated by all of the proposed metrics. Application of the framework resulted in the development of a complex prototype that addressed many aspects of the functional and usability requirements of a personal service robot. Following the process led to several important insights which directly benefit the development of subsequent prototypes. Implications for Rehabilitation This research shows how universal design might be used to formulate usability requirements for assistive service robots. A framework is presented that guides the process of designing service robots in a human-centred way. Through practical application of the framework, a prototype robot system that addressed a range of identified user needs was developed.

  2. Watson’s Human Caring Theory: Pertinent Transpersonal and Humanities Concepts for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey S. Clark

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and the caring moment are based in part in the concepts of transpersonal psychology. This paper will provide a historical background around transpersonal psychology and how it relates to Watson’s human caring moment. The purpose of explicating these humanities-based concepts is to support nurses and nurse educators in creating a deeper understanding of Watson’s caring-healing moment as a time-space continuum, where the nurse’s caring supports a mutually created environment for healing. The article provides useful background information, as well as outlining simple steps to revising nursing curricula so that they become supportive of nursing students’ growth as transpersonal-caring beings.

  3. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  4. Concept Representation Analysis in the Context of Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    an inductive machine learning paradigm). The results will support figuring out the most significant key points for constructing a conceptual linkage between a human learning theory and a machine learning paradigm. Accordingly, I will construct a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts......This article attempts to make a conceptual and epistemological junction between human learning and machine learning. I will be concerned with specifying and analysing the structure of concepts in the common ground between a concept-based human learning theory and a concept-based machine learning...... in the common ground of human and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....

  5. On Logical Characterisation of Human Concept Learning based on Terminological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems and ...... and analysis of actual human inductive reasoning (and learning). This research connects with the topics 'logic & learning', 'cognitive modelling' and 'terminological knowledge representation'.......The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems...

  6. Coming To Know: The Role of the Concept Map--Mirror, Assistant, Master?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleese, Ray

    This paper explains the process of creating and managing concept maps, using reflection as a focus for its argument. Section 1, What is a Concept Map?, highlights the background and definition of concept mapping, explains how maps signify virtual conceptual structures, looks at structural knowledge, provides an example of a concept map, and…

  7. Use of the Human Centered Design concept when designing ergonomic NPP control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrehot, Petr A.; Houser, Frantisek; Riha, Radek; Tuma, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Human-Centered Design is a concept aimed at reconciling human needs on the one hand and limitations posed by the design disposition of the room being designed on the other hand. This paper describes the main aspects of application of the Human-Centered Design concept to the design of nuclear power plant control rooms. (orig.)

  8. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) in humans: facts and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménézo, Y J; Veiga, A; Pouly, J L

    2000-01-15

    Since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, the number of patients using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) has increased tremendously. ART technologies have increased in number and their spectrum has also widened. The first IVF babies are now more than 20 years old. All the retrospective analyses have demonstrated that the obstetrical and pediatrical impact has not really affected single births. The main problems observed occur with multiple pregnancies, including high costs for the couples and for society. The decrease in the number of embryos transferred has improved the situation and moreover does not impair the final results. IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a more debatable and questionable technique with a real negative genetic impact. The main problem is chromosome abnormalities more specifically related to the sex chromosomes. The question of a systematic genetic work-up on the patients entering ICSI programs is discussed. No negative impact of cryopreservation has been demonstrated even though some controversy arises from time to time. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is now a interesting tool for patients carrying genetic defects. Blastocyst biopsy now has a future role in reproductive medicine. Gender selection through sperm sorting is also now a reality. As with the other developing bio-technologies related to reproduction, there are ethical questions. The decisions concerning these technologies do not belong solely to scientists but are rather a matter for society to decide.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

  10. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-01-01

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over ∼2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters

  11. The concept of laparoscopy-assisted pancreatobiliary EUS (LAP-EUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Jayapal; Christein, John; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2013-05-01

    While laparoscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can be performed for the diagnosis and management of pancreaticobiliary diseases in patients with Roux-en-Y (RY) anatomy; the technical feasibility of performing laparoscopy-assisted endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is unknown. In this report, we describe the technique for performing laparoscopy-assisted EUS in two patients with RY gastric bypass anatomy who presented with obstructive jaundice, abnormal liver function tests, and dilated biliary tree. While the examination was normal in one patient, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic head mass revealed adenocarcinoma in the other. Laparoscopic assisted EUS examination including FNA is feasible in Roux-en-Y surgical anatomy.

  12. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  13. Technical progress, the concept of individualized cancer treatment and the innovation of computer-assisted radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.; Tanneberger, S.; Matschke, S.

    1985-01-01

    After a first step of cancerogenesis, the further development of the tumor is an individual process. At the end of this process the tumor is formed as an individual in the individual. The individuality of cancer exists on the level of organs, tissues and cells and includes an individual tumor-host relationship. Today, optimized cancer treatment requires a most precise biological characterization possible of the tumor and of the tumor-host relationship, which will provide objective information about the individual character of every tumor. Routine analysis and strict therapeutic consideration of the clinical and biological individuality of human cancer can offer real chances for the improvement of cancer treatment. A routine acquisition of individual tumor characteristics will be possible only if methods and equipment are available for the registration of suitable parameters. In this context technical innovations have an essential influence on the realization of the concept of individualized cancer treatment. With the method of flow cytophotometry and other techniques examples are given in how far the ideas of individual cancer management can be realized by introduction of new technical solutions into medical research and clinical practice. Unfortunately there is still a lack of methodology in individualizing cancer treatment. The individualization of radiotherapy is connected to an extremely high degree of technical innovations. Particularly this refers to the topometrical description of the target volume in relation to the adjacent anatomical structures and the body contour as well as the fitting of isodoses to the shape and size of the target volume. As an example of innovation of a technical solution for individual radiotherapy planning the computer-assisted radiotherapy planning system DOPSY is described. (author)

  14. Human-Centred Computing for Assisting Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoke, I.

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid evolution of enabling hardware and software, technologies including 3D simulation, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), advanced user interfaces (UI), and geographical information systems (GIS) are increasingly employed in many aspects of modern life. In line with this, the nuclear industry is rapidly adopting emerging technologies to improve efficiency and safety by supporting planning and optimization of maintenance and decommissioning work, as well as for knowledge management, surveillance, training and briefing field operatives, education, etc. For many years, the authors have been involved in research and development (R&D) into the application of 3D simulation, VR, and AR, for mobile, desktop, and immersive 3D systems, to provide a greater sense of presence and situation awareness, for training, briefing, and in situ work by field operators. This work has resulted in a unique software base and experience (documented in numerous reports) from evaluating the effects of the design of training programmes and briefing sessions on human performance and training efficiency when applying various emerging technologies. In addition, the authors are involved in R&D into the use of 3D simulation, advanced UIs, mobile computing, and GIS systems to support realistic visualization of the combined radiological and geographical environment, as well as acquisition, analyzes, visualization and sharing of radiological and other data, within nuclear installations and their surroundings. The toolkit developed by the authors, and the associated knowledge base, has been successfully applied to various aspects of the nuclear industry, and has great potential within the safeguards domain. It can be used to train safeguards inspectors, brief inspectors before inspections, assist inspectors in situ (data registration, analyzes, and communication), support the design and verification of safeguards systems, conserve data and experience, educate future safeguards

  15. Parental disclosure of assisted reproductive technology (ART) conception to their children: a systematic and meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallandini, Maria Anna; Zanchettin, Liviana; Gronchi, Giorgio; Morsan, Valentina

    2016-06-01

    Does a genetic link and/or a child's age influence a parent's willingness to talk to a child about how they were conceived? The presence/absence of a biological link and the child's age clearly influences the disclosure process. The research published to date has yielded diverse findings on autologous and donor assisted reproductive technology (ART) parents' disclosure of the conception method to their children and on the ages at which the children are informed, if told. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search of MEDLINE and PUBMED was run for English-language studies published from January 1996 through January 2015. A total of 26 studies were included in the systematic review, 19 of which were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 2814 parent responses were included in the systematic review. Two authors independently assessed the studies for review inclusion. Selection criteria were: peer-reviewed studies, quantitative studies only, research conducted after the birth of ART-conceived children, number of parent responses on disclosure status reported in terms of Told, Plan to tell, Uncertain, Plan to not tell. Thirty-two (32) study-level effect size statistics were included in the meta-analysis. Three authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Among parents who responded, 23% of the total number of parent responses indicated that they had already Told; 44% were Planning to tell; 13% were Uncertain and 20% were Planning to not tell their children about their ART conception. Meta-analysis gave no statistically significant differences between autologous and donor ART in the children ≥10 years was quite limited; and lastly, most of the data examined were not collected longitudinally. The high number of non-disclosing parents treated by donor ART points to an underestimation of the medical risks for the offspring (the presence of genetic illnesses, inadvertent consanguinity) and suggests that these children's rights may not be given

  16. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Rdiation Protection with regard to serious cases of prevention of nuclear hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    For the defence against the threats through radioactive substances, a general concept is presently being elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards through radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For serious cases of prevention of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. This concept is presented in the following. (author)

  17. A method based on temporal concept analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Hamza, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking and forced prostitution are a serious problem for the Amsterdam-Amstelland police (the Netherlands). In this paper, we present a method based on Temporal Concept Analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects. Using traditional Formal Concept Analysis, we first

  18. Seasonal variation in assisted conception cycles and the influence of photoperiodism on outcome in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon; Quinn, Alison; Troupe, Stephen; Kingsland, Charles; Lewis-Jones, Iwan

    2006-12-01

    The effect of seasonality and daylight length on mammalian reproduction leading to spring births has been well established, and is known as photoperiodism. In assisted reproduction there is much greater uncertainty as to the effect of seasonality. This was a 4-year retrospective analysis of 2709 standardised cycles of IVF/ICSI. Data was analysed with regard to the 1642 cycles occurring during the months of extended daylight (Apr-Sept) and those 1067 cycles during winter months of restricted light length (Oct-Mar). The results showed that there was significant improvement in assisted conception outcomes in cycles performed in summer (lighter) months with more efficient ovarian stimulation 766iu v880iu/per oocyte retrieved (p=0.006). There was similarly a significantly improved implantation rate per embryo transferred 11.42% vs 9.35% (p=0.011) and greater clinical pregnancy rate 20% vs 15% (p=0.0033) during summer cycles. This study appears to demonstrate a significant benefit of increased daylight length on outcomes of IVF/ICSI cycles. Whilst the exact mechanism of this is unclear, it would seem probable that melatonin may have actions at multiple sites and on multiple levels of the reproductive tract, and may exert a more profound effect on outcomes of assisted conception cycles than has been previously considered.

  19. Concept Representation Analysis in the Context of Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to make a conceptual and epistemological junction between human learning and machine learning. I will be concerned with specifying and analysing the structure of concepts in the common ground between a concept-based human learning theory and a concept-based machine learning...... paradigm. I will focus on (i) humans’ conceptual representations in the framework of constructivism (as an educational theory of learning and model of knowing) and constructionism (as a theory for conceptualising learning) and (ii) concept representations in the framework of inductive concept learning (as...... an inductive machine learning paradigm). The results will support figuring out the most significant key points for constructing a conceptual linkage between a human learning theory and a machine learning paradigm. Accordingly, I will construct a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts...

  20. [Soft tissue-cutting law, i.e. the career concept of an autopsy assistant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Timea; Csatai, Tamás; Jäckel, Márta

    2015-03-08

    Practical experience shows that the autopsy assistant society is fairly divided. There are some people who would have needed a thorough basic training, and there are those who - due to their diligence and the close cooperation with physician colleagues - would deserve an opportunity for further progress due to their extensive knowlegde. As regards the autopsy assistant profession the training, and the training system as well has changed significantly, and it requires further changes. Examining the issue in a wide spectrum, the aim of the authors is, as much as possible, to promote the formation of an "Autopsy assistant career," in which they want to create a predictable way for the members of the profession from the phase of becoming a student (competency, training, exams, vocational training, single note) to obtaining the master's degree. The authors would like to provide a summary about their experience and plans regarding this issue.

  1. Perinatal outcome of singleton siblings born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: Danish national sibling-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Pinborg, Anja; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Vestergaard, Christina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2011-03-01

    To compare the perinatal outcome of singleton siblings conceived differently. National population-based registry study. Denmark, from 1994 to 2008. Pairs of siblings (13,692 pairs; n = 27,384 children) conceived after IVF, intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo replacement (FER), or spontaneous conception subcategorized into five groups according to succession: [1] IVF-ICSI vs. spontaneous conception (n = 7,758), [2] IVF-ICSI vs. FER (n = 716), [3] FER vs. FER (n = 34), [4] IVF-ICSI vs. IVF-ICSI (n = 2,876), and [5] spontaneous conception vs. spontaneous conception (n = 16,000). Observations were obtained from national registries. Birth weight, gestational age, low birth weight (children compared with their spontaneously conceived siblings. FER children were 167 g (95% CI, 90-244] heavier than siblings born after replacement of fresh embryos. The difference in birth weight between firstborn and second born sibling depended on order of conception method. Higher risk of low birth weight with (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95%CI, 1.1-1.7] and preterm birth (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6] was observed in IVF/ICSI compared with spontaneous conception. When differentiating between order and mode of conception, it seems that assisted reproductive technology plays a role in mean birth weight and risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. Birth weight was higher in siblings born after FER compared with fresh embryos replacement. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Augmented Reality Based Navigation for Computer Assisted Hip Resurfacing: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Auvinet, Edouard; Giles, Joshua; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2018-05-23

    Implantation accuracy has a great impact on the outcomes of hip resurfacing such as recovery of hip function. Computer assisted orthopedic surgery has demonstrated clear advantages for the patients, with improved placement accuracy and fewer outliers, but the intrusiveness, cost, and added complexity have limited its widespread adoption. To provide seamless computer assistance with improved immersion and a more natural surgical workflow, we propose an augmented-reality (AR) based navigation system for hip resurfacing. The operative femur is registered by processing depth information from the surgical site with a commercial depth camera. By coupling depth data with robotic assistance, obstacles that may obstruct the femur can be tracked and avoided automatically to reduce the chance of disruption to the surgical workflow. Using the registration result and the pre-operative plan, intra-operative surgical guidance is provided through a commercial AR headset so that the user can perform the operation without additional physical guides. To assess the accuracy of the navigation system, experiments of guide hole drilling were performed on femur phantoms. The position and orientation of the drilled holes were compared with the pre-operative plan, and the mean errors were found to be approximately 2 mm and 2°, results which are in line with commercial computer assisted orthopedic systems today.

  3. The phenomenon of social assistance in the humanities: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Lazarenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of social assistance in humanitarian schools. Such as: 1 Philosophy; 2 Cultural Studies; 3 Law; 3 Socio-pedagogical science. Retrospective analysis allowed revealing the research principles of social assistance analysis, functional features and differences of this phenomenon. Established that the theoretical basis of social assistance study incorporated in works of ancient philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Analyzed influence on the formation of social assistance scientific research by religious philosophers of the Middle Ages (F. Aquinas, A. Blessed. Deals the transformation of social assistance understanding from a part of society moral to forms of social interaction. Civilizational approach outlined in the cultural mainstream schools (B. Malinowski, C. Polanyi. It was determined that the cultural research traditions of social assistance understood this phenomena as a repeater of cultural heritage through the traditions of the community. Outlined scientific approach to social assistance in Law sciences. It was found that representatives of Socio-pedagogical and Political Science have used theoretical developments sociologists (M. Weber, J. Mead, H. Blumer, T. Parsons, R. Merton, E Giddens. Demonstrated that in Political Science social assistance acts as a functional tool for implementation of social policy. Characterized the role of social assistance within different models of social policy and its positions in state and international organization. Deals with the fundamental difference between the concepts of «social assistance» and «social work». Outlined limits the use of these concepts in humanitarian studies. The analysis allows us to formulate research strategies study the phenomenon of social assistance in modern society. In particular sociological perspective updated study of the phenomenon of social assistance. Actually, applied achievements of classic theory of social capital in the

  4. Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van Trigt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.

  5. Is Innovation a Useful Concept for Arts and Humanities Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Aanstad, Siri

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that innovation may constitute a useful perspective on the link between society and arts and humanities research. Innovation is here seen as "something new put into practical use", and there are two reasons why it can be relevant for humanities. First, there has been an expansion of what innovation refers to; it is…

  6. Risk Management and the Concept of Human Error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    by a stochastic coincidence of faults and human errors, but by a systemic erosion of the defenses due to decision making under competitive pressure in a dynamic environment. The presentation will discuss the nature of human error and the risk management problems found in a dynamic, competitive society facing...

  7. Primitive Concepts of Number and the Developing Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    Counting is an evolutionarily recent cultural invention of the human species. In order for humans to have conceived of counting in the first place, certain representational and logical abilities must have already been in place. The focus of this article is the origins and nature of those fundamental mechanisms that promoted the emergence of the…

  8. On the Concept of Fundamental Human Right to Favourable Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150/1, č. 12/3 TLQ (2011), s. 170-180 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : European Court of Human Right * the human rights idea and the right to environment * constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  9. NEW APPROACHES OF THE CONCEPTS OF HUMAN RESOURCES, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU ANCA-IOANA

    2013-07-01

    M. Porter highlights the important role of human resources within an organization, considering that in any business there are potential sources for obtaining competitive advantage. It comes from the ability of firms to master better than its rivals competitive forces. Any subdivision organizational structure and any employee of the organization, no matter how far away lies the strategy development process, contributing to gaining and maintaining competitive advantage.

  10. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  11. The concept of human dignity in the ethics of genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David K

    2015-05-01

    Despite criticism that dignity is a vague and slippery concept, a number of international guidelines on bioethics have cautioned against research that is contrary to human dignity, with reference specifically to genetic technology. What is the connection between genetic research and human dignity? In this article, I investigate the concept of human dignity in its various historical forms, and examine its status as a moral concept. Unlike Kant's ideal concept of human dignity, the empirical or relational concept takes human dignity as something that is affected by one's circumstances and what others do. I argue that the dignity objection to some forms of genetic research rests on a view of human nature that gives humans a special status in nature - one that is threatened by the potential of genetic research to reduce individuals to their genetic endowment. I distinguish two main philosophical accounts of human nature. One of these, the Aristotelian view, is compatible with the use of genetic technology to help humans realize their inherent potential to a fuller extent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Image-guided neurosurgery. Global concept of a surgical tele-assistance using obstacle detection robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgeorges, M.; Bellegou, N.; Faillot, Th.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutertre, G.; Blondet, E.; Soultrait, F. de; Boissy, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Surgical tele-assistance significantly increases accuracy of surgical gestures, especially in the case of brain tumor neurosurgery. The robotic device is tele-operated through a microscope and the surgeon's gestures are guided by real-time overlaying of the X-ray imagery in the microscope. During the device's progression inside the brain, the focus is ensured by the microscope auto-focus feature. The surgeon can thus constantly check his position on the field workstation. Obstacles to avoid or dangerous areas can be previewed in the operation field. This system is routinely used for 5 years in the neurosurgery division of the Val de Grace hospital. More than 400 brain surgery operations have been done using it. An adaptation is used for rachis surgery. Other military hospitals begin to be equipped with similar systems. It will be possible to link them for data transfer. When it will be operational, such a network it will show what could be, in the future, a medical/surgical remote-assistance system designed to take care of wounded/critical conditions people, including assistance to surgical gestures. (authors)

  13. Encoding of Physics Concepts: Concreteness and Presentation Modality Reflected by Human Brain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kevin; She, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentati...

  14. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  15. Concept Mapping in the Humanities to Facilitate Reflection: Externalizing the Relationship between Public and Personal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiko, Camille; Hay, David; Weller, Saranne

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how mapping techniques were used in university teaching in a humanities subject. The use of concept mapping was expanded as a pedagogical tool, with a focus on reflective learning processes. Data were collected through a longitudinal study of concept mapping in a university-level Classics course. This was used to explore how…

  16. A new concept of assistive virtual keyboards based on a systematic review of text entry optimization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Sousa Gomide

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Due to the increasing popularization of computers and the internet expansion, Alternative and Augmentative Communication technologies have been employed to restore the ability to communicate of people with aphasia and tetraplegia. Virtual keyboards are one of the most primitive mechanisms for alternatively entering text and play a very important role in accomplishing this task. However, the text entry for this kind of keyboard is much slower than entering information through their physical counterparts. Many techniques and layouts have been proposed to improve the typing performance of virtual keyboards, each one concerning a different issue or solving a specific problem. However, not all of them are suitable to assist seriously people with motor impairment. Methods: In order to develop an assistive virtual keyboard with improved typing performance, we performed a systematic review on scientific databases. Results: We found 250 related papers and 52 of them were selected to compose. After that, we identified eight essentials virtual keyboard features, five methods to optimize data entry performance and five metrics to assess typing performance. Conclusion: Based on this review, we introduce a concept of an assistive, optimized, compact and adaptive virtual keyboard that gathers a set of suitable techniques such as: a new ambiguous keyboard layout, disambiguation algorithms, dynamic scan techniques, static text prediction of letters and words and, finally, the use of phonetic and similarity algorithms to reduce the user's typing error rate.

  17. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  18. Modification of self-concept in patients with a left-ventricular assist device: an initial exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Linda; Casida, Jesus; Peters, Rosalind M

    2013-09-01

    To explore how patients with left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD) meet the health-deviation requisite of modifying self-concept to accept this form of treatment and restore normalcy. LVAD are becoming a standard option to improve the quality of life for patients with advanced heart failure. Past research focused on technology issues and survival rates, but limited research has addressed the effect of LVADs on patients' perceptions of self. Orem's theory of self-care provides a framework to investigate how patients manage threats to self-concept to safely live with such a device. Hermeneutic phenomenology based on van Manen's method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Data saturation was achieved with nine participants (seven men; two women), 31-70 years of age who lived with a LVAD at home for at least three months. Thematic analysis was ongoing, and final themes were consensually validated. Two themes constructed from the data were consistent with the requisite of modifying self-concept. First, Having a LVAD means living. Participants described they 'feel alive again', and they 'had the rest of [their] lives that they didn't have before'. The second theme: A desire to be 'normal' in public, arose from participants descriptions of how the LVAD brought unwanted attention to them and that their appearance was 'shocking' to others. Participants accepted the LVAD as necessary to live making it easier for them to modify their self-concept and accept the changes to their bodies and daily lives. Attaining a sense of normalcy was more difficult in public and required additional lifestyle modifications. Findings advance self-care knowledge in LVAD management and can heighten nurses' awareness about self-concept as a vital component for maintenance of health and well-being. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. 3D printing-assisted interphase engineering of polymer composites: Concept and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szebenyi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduced a general concept to create smart, (multifunctional interphases in polymer composites with layered reinforcements, making use of 3D printing. The concept can be adapted for both thermoplastic and thermoset matrix-based composites with either thermoplastic- or thermoset-enriched interphases. We showed feasibility using an example of a composite containing a thermoset matrix/thermoplastic interphase. Carbon fiber unidirectional reinforcing layers were patterned with poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL through 3D printing, then infiltrated with an amine-cured epoxy (EP. The corresponding composites were subjected to static and dynamic flexure tests. The PCL-rich interphase markedly improved the ductility in static tests without deteriorating the flexural properties. Its effect was marginal in Charpy impact tests, which can be explained with effects of specimen and PCL pattern sizes. The PCL-rich interphase ensured self-healing when triggered by heat treatment above the melting temperature of PCL.

  20. Human-assisted sound event recognition for home service robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ha Manh; Sheng, Weihua; Liu, Meiqin

    This paper proposes and implements an open framework of active auditory learning for a home service robot to serve the elderly living alone at home. The framework was developed to realize the various auditory perception capabilities while enabling a remote human operator to involve in the sound event recognition process for elderly care. The home service robot is able to estimate the sound source position and collaborate with the human operator in sound event recognition while protecting the privacy of the elderly. Our experimental results validated the proposed framework and evaluated auditory perception capabilities and human-robot collaboration in sound event recognition.

  1. Complementary Machine Intelligence and Human Intelligence in Virtual Teaching Assistant for Tutoring Program Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Huang, Bau-Hung; Lin, Chi-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a virtual teaching assistant (VTA) to share teacher tutoring tasks in helping students practice program tracing and proposes two mechanisms of complementing machine intelligence and human intelligence to develop the VTA. The first mechanism applies machine intelligence to extend human intelligence (teacher answers) to evaluate…

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 604 - Listing of Human Service Federal Financial Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Listing of Human Service Federal Financial... (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Listing of Human Service Federal Financial Assistance Programs Federal Programs...

  3. MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. CONCEPT AND COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRIŢESCU DOREL DUMITRU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Management is more than just driving the process of production. This science requires the existence and coordination of a complex of human notions and facts, to serve the labor and production process improvements so the result is the optimal use of all factors of production to achieve higher production yields.

  4. Applications of Human Performance Reliability Evaluation Concepts and Demonstration Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    ship stops dead in the water and the AN/SQS-26 operator recommends a new heading (000°). At T + 14 minutes, the target ship begins a hard turn to...Various Simulated Conditions 82 9 Hunan Reliability for Each Simulated Operator (Baseline Run) 83 10 Human and Equipment Availabilit / under

  5. DECA -- The design change assistant: An application of expert systems concepts to procedure automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Proceduralized engineering reviews required for nuclear power stations result in significant O ampersand M cost's. A method of streamlining procedural reviews (while improving their quality) is to computerize the procedures and associated checklists. DECA, the Design Change Assistant, is an expert system based program that is specifically designed for computerizing procedures. This program improves the effectiveness of engineers in performing engineering design reviews. DECA is a development shell, which allows the computerization of most types of engineering reviews. In addition to computerizing the decision making process, DECA makes it possible to call on electronic information, such as databases or text files, and makes them available to the user to assist in a review. DECA clearly demonstrates the benefits that can accrue by applying expert system technologies to engineering reviews. It results in the following: a well defined process, reduced user training in the use of procedures, improved quality of reviews, a streamlining of the review process through elimination of questions that are not applicable, and high quality documentation of reviews. DECA has been successfully applied to Commonwealth Edison's engineering design review checklists, and is currently in use by Commonwealth Edison

  6. The Pluralistic Water Research Concept: A New Human-Water System Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Evers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use and management of water systems is influenced by a number of factors, such as economic growth, global change (e.g., urbanization, hydrological-climatic changes, politics, history and culture. Despite noteworthy efforts to develop integrative approaches to analyze water-related problems, human-water research remains a major challenge for scholars and decision makers due to the increasing complexity of human and water systems interactions. Although existing concepts try to integrate the social and water dimensions, they usually have a disciplinary starting point and perspective, which can represent an obstacle to true integration in human-water research. Hence, a pluralistic approach is required to better understand the interactions between human and water systems. This paper discusses prominent human-water concepts (Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM, socio-hydrology, and political ecology/hydrosocial approach and presents a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR. This is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach which aims to coherently and comprehensively integrate human-water dimensions. The different concepts are illustrated in a synopsis, and diverse framing of research questions are exemplified. The PWR concept integrates physical and social sciences, which enables a comprehensive analysis of human-water interactions and relations. This can lead to a better understanding of water-related issues and potentially sustainable trajectories.

  7. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Human spermatozoa: revelations on the road to conception

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, R. John

    2013-01-01

    Human spermatozoa are highly complex specialized cells designed to survive a long and perilous journey from the site of insemination to the upper reaches of the female reproductive tract where fertilization occurs. During this journey, these cells have to run the gauntlet laid down by the female immune system and time their physiological maturation so that as soon as an egg appears in the Fallopian tube, they are equipped to recognize this cell and participate in a remarkable cascade of cellu...

  9. The concept of exploitation in international human trafficking law

    OpenAIRE

    von der Pütten, Tuija Kaarina

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is commonly known as a criminal practice that takes place in the framework of sex trade: women and children are trafficked within a state, or from one state to another, for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Similarly, the early 20th century international conventions aimed to tackle ‘white slave traffic’, trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. However, it is misleading to see trafficking only within this context. People are trafficked so that they can be...

  10. Criminal law aspects of assisted human reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous shortcomings of the Law on Infertility Treatment by Biomedically Assisted Fertilization culminate in provisions defining criminal offences. A question is raised regarding the possibility and results of the application of such criminal provisions due to the legislative technique used in the process of their creation, language, qualified forms of the offences, span of criminal sanctions, as well as having in mind the overlapping of such criminal offences with some of the misdemeanors punishable by the same Law. A possibility to provide for a criminal law protection in this highly sensitive area is put into question due to a very courageous action of the legislator reflected in the attempt to introduce criminal offences, punishable by long prison sentences.

  11. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with regard to prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.E. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    For the defence against the threats caused by radioactive substances, a general concept was elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards caused by radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For the prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety, and waste management - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. The field of prevention of nuclear hazards ranges from combatting illegal trade with radioactive test sources up to the defence of nuclear fuels with the possibility to construct critical assemblies or the threatening by the distribution of airborne material which might enter the lungs. The latter are considered as serious cases of nuclear hazards. Since the expenditures for devices and personal to be trained would be inadequately high, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is prepared to support the Federal States if it becomes necessary. The concept includes a stand-by service, the search for radioactive material by helicopter or a ground team, analysis of the activity and the type of nuclides, risk assessment, and also measures to steam the risk. This concept will be presented. (author)

  12. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with regard to prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    For the defence against the threats caused by radioactive substances, a general concept was elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards caused by radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For the prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety, and waste management - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. The field of prevention of nuclear hazards ranges from combatting illegal trade with radioactive test sources up to the defence of nuclear fuels with the possibility to construct critical assemblies or the threatening by the distribution of airborne material which might enter the lungs. The latter are considered as serious cases of nuclear hazards. Since the expenditures for devices and personal to be trained would be inadequately high, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is prepared to support the Federal States if it becomes necessary. The concept includes a stand-by service, the search for radioactive material by helicopter or a ground team, analysis of the activity and the type of nuclides, risk assessment, and also measures to steam the risk. This concept will be presented. (author)

  13. Human activity understanding for robot-assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated the problem of understanding human activities, at different levels of granularity and taking into account both the variability in activities and annotator disagreement. To be able to capture the large variations within each of the action classes, we propose a model that uses

  14. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  15. R Ebert and RMJ Oduor The Concept of Human Dignity in German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R Ebert and RMJ Oduor

    concept of human dignity in the two constitutions, each one of us from his ... We shall try to approach and circumscribe this ... Human dignity was introduced as the fundamental value of a new Germany when ..... involve] the degradation of the person to a thing, which can, in its entirety, be ..... The struggle for women's rights,.

  16. Template model inspired leg force feedback based control can assist human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping; Sharbafi, Maziar; Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Seyfarth, Andre

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel control approach for assistive lower-extremity exoskeletons. In particular, we implement a virtual pivot point (VPP) template model inspired leg force feedback based controller on a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton (LOPES II) and demonstrate that it can effectively assist humans during walking. It has been shown that the VPP template model is capable of stabilizing the trunk and reproduce a human-like hip torque during the stance phase of walking. With leg force and joint angle feedback inspired by the VPP template model, our controller provides hip and knee torque assistance during the stance phase. A pilot experiment was conducted with four healthy subjects. Joint kinematics, leg muscle electromyography (EMG), and metabolic cost were measured during walking with and without assistance. Results show that, for 0.6 m/s walking, our controller can reduce leg muscle activations, especially for the medial gastrocnemius (about 16.0%), while hip and knee joint kinematics remain similar to the condition without the controller. Besides, the controller also reduces 10% of the net metabolic cost during walking. This paper demonstrates walking assistance benefits of the VPP template model for the first time. The support of human walking is achieved by a force feedback of leg force applied to the control of hip and knee joints. It can help us to provide a framework for investigating walking assistance control in the future.

  17. A Conceptual Framework over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning within Human-Machine Interplays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    This research provides a contextual description concerning existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (ii......) a well-structured machine concept learning framework. Accordingly, I will, semantically and epistemologically, focus on linking those two frameworks for logical analysis of concept learning in the context of human-machine interrelationships. It will be demonstrated that the proposed framework provides...

  18. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations from Human into Machine relying on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...

  19. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  20. The STAR concept, systems to assist the operator during abnormal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1984-01-01

    Man-machine-communication in electrical power plants is increasingly based on the capabilities of minicomputers. Rather than just displaying raw process data more complex processing is done to aid operators by improving information quality. Advanced operator aids for nuclear power plants are e.g. alarm reduction, disturbance analysis and expert systems. Operator aids use complex combinations and computations of plant signals, which have to be described in a formal and homogeneous way. The design of such computer-based information systems requires extensive software and engineering efforts. The STAR software concept described in this paper, however, reduces the software effort to a minimum by providing an advanced program package which facilitates specification and implementation of engineering know-how necessary for sophisticated operator aids. (orig.)

  1. Empowering and Assisting Natural Empowering and Assisting Natural Human Mobility: The Simbiosis Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Frizera-Neto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete development of the Simbiosis Smart Walker. The device is equipped with a set of sensor subsystems to acquire user-machine interaction forces and the temporal evolution of user's feet during gait. The authors present an adaptive filtering technique used for the identification and separation of different components found on the human-machine interaction forces. This technique allowed isolating the components related with the navigational commands and developing a Fuzzy logic controller to guide the device. The Smart Walker was clinically validated at the Spinal Cord Injury Hospital of Toledo - Spain, presenting great acceptability by spinal chord injury patients and clinical staff.

  2. A prospective controlled study of the effect of intramural uterine fibroids on the outcome of assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R; Khalaf, Y; Yeong, C T; Seed, P; Taylor, A; Braude, P

    2001-11-01

    Although uterine fibroids occur in 30% of women and are associated with a degree of subfertility, the effect of intramural fibroids on the outcome of IVF or ICSI treatment has not been prospectively studied. Data were prospectively collected on 434 women undergoing IVF/ICSI in the assisted conception unit of an inner London teaching hospital. Patients were assessed for the presence of fibroids by transvaginal ultrasound and hysterosonography or hysteroscopy where appropriate. During the study period, 112 women with (study), and 322 women without (controls), intramural fibroids were treated. Patients were similar regarding the cause and duration of their infertility, number of previous treatments, and basal serum FSH concentration. Women in the study group were on average 2 years older (36.4 versus 34.6 years; P size (n = 106) pregnancy, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates were significantly reduced: 23.3, 11.9 and 15.1 respectively compared with 34.1, 20.2 and 28.3% in the control group (P = 0.016, P = 0.018 and P = 0.003). The mean size of the largest fibroids was 2.3 cm (90% range 2.1-2.5 cm). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of intramural fibroids was one of the significant variables affecting the chance of an ongoing pregnancy, even after controlling for the number of embryos available for replacement and increasing age, particularly age > or =40 years, odds ratio 0.46 (CI 0.24-0.88; P = 0.019). This study demonstrated that an intramural fibroid halves the chances of an ongoing pregnancy following assisted conception.

  3. Software Assisted Profiling of Dentition in Human Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Mehrotra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic odontology is the integral part of forensic science that utilizes unique characteristics of human dentition. Dental remains withstand degradation bet­ter than other human remains. This study was aimed to determine the human identity by using the various predetermined parameters of dental morphology us­ing their digital smile photographs and confirming by means of Adobe Photoshop CC software. The study also aimed to compare and identify the most used pa­rameter of the dental morphology in the human iden­tification process.  This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Mi­crobiology and Forensic Odontology, I.T.S Dental College Hospital & Research Centre, Greater Noida, UP, India. A sample of 50 subjects (25 males and 25 females aged between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. Two sequential techniques were followed. Dental casts and pictures were analyzed by 3 blind observers by comparison of dental traits and then were confirmed by superimposition using Adobe Photoshop CC. Positive identification was achieved by application of the 2 techniques. ICC Multiple Raters and ICC Two Raters were applied to analyze the stratum of agreement between the observers. By analyzing the parameters specified by three blind observers, the combination of Central and Lateral Incisor morphology was the most used parameter in the identification process. When the records are unavailable, dental comparison of postmortem findings with antemortem photographs of people displaying uncommon dental features visible in smiles taken from photographs may increase the probability of identification.  Keywords: Forensic Science, Forensic Odontology, Smile, Photograph, Antemortem, Postmortem.

  4. Development of human resource capacity building assistance for nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yo; Noro, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been providing nuclear security human resource development projects targeting at nuclear emerging countries in Asia in cooperation with the authorities concerned including the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the aftermath of the attacks of Sept. 11, the threat of terrorism was internationally recognized and thus the human resource capacity building is underway as an urgent task. In order to responding to emerging threats, the human resource capacity building that ISCN has implemented thus far needs to be multilaterally analyzed in order to develop more effective training programs. This paper studies ISCN's future direction by analyzing its achievements, as well as introduces the collaborative relationships with SNL that contributes to the reflection and maintenance of international trends for the contents of nuclear security training, the nuclear security enhancement support with which Japan is to provide nuclear emerging countries in Asia, and the achievements of the nuclear security training program that ISCN implemented. (author)

  5. A HUMAN AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONCEPT FOR A SMALL MODULAR REACTOR CONTROL ROOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Spielman, Zach; Hill, Rachael

    2017-06-01

    Many advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) designs incorporate higher degrees of automation than the existing fleet of NPPs. Automation is being introduced or proposed in NPPs through a wide variety of systems and technologies, such as advanced displays, computer-based procedures, advanced alarm systems, and computerized operator support systems. Additionally, many new reactor concepts, both full scale and small modular reactors, are proposing increased automation and reduced staffing as part of their concept of operations. However, research consistently finds that there is a fundamental tradeoff between system performance with increased automation and reduced human performance. There is a need to address the question of how to achieve high performance and efficiency of high levels of automation without degrading human performance. One example of a new NPP concept that will utilize greater degrees of automation is the SMR concept from NuScale Power. The NuScale Power design requires 12 modular units to be operated in one single control room, which leads to a need for higher degrees of automation in the control room. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers and NuScale Power human factors and operations staff are working on a collaborative project to address the human performance challenges of increased automation and to determine the principles that lead to optimal performance in highly automated systems. This paper will describe this concept in detail and will describe an experimental test of the concept. The benefits and challenges of the approach will be discussed.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

  7. Hierarchical Spatial Concept Formation Based on Multimodal Information for Human Support Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Taniguchi, Tadahiro

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatial concept formation method based on the Bayesian generative model with multimodal information e.g., vision, position and word information. Since humans have the ability to select an appropriate level of abstraction according to the situation and describe their position linguistically, e.g., "I am in my home" and "I am in front of the table," a hierarchical structure of spatial concepts is necessary in order for human support robots to communicate smoothly with users. The proposed method enables a robot to form hierarchical spatial concepts by categorizing multimodal information using hierarchical multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (hMLDA). Object recognition results using convolutional neural network (CNN), hierarchical k-means clustering result of self-position estimated by Monte Carlo localization (MCL), and a set of location names are used, respectively, as features in vision, position, and word information. Experiments in forming hierarchical spatial concepts and evaluating how the proposed method can predict unobserved location names and position categories are performed using a robot in the real world. Results verify that, relative to comparable baseline methods, the proposed method enables a robot to predict location names and position categories closer to predictions made by humans. As an application example of the proposed method in a home environment, a demonstration in which a human support robot moves to an instructed place based on human speech instructions is achieved based on the formed hierarchical spatial concept.

  8. Hierarchical Spatial Concept Formation Based on Multimodal Information for Human Support Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Hagiwara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatial concept formation method based on the Bayesian generative model with multimodal information e.g., vision, position and word information. Since humans have the ability to select an appropriate level of abstraction according to the situation and describe their position linguistically, e.g., “I am in my home” and “I am in front of the table,” a hierarchical structure of spatial concepts is necessary in order for human support robots to communicate smoothly with users. The proposed method enables a robot to form hierarchical spatial concepts by categorizing multimodal information using hierarchical multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (hMLDA. Object recognition results using convolutional neural network (CNN, hierarchical k-means clustering result of self-position estimated by Monte Carlo localization (MCL, and a set of location names are used, respectively, as features in vision, position, and word information. Experiments in forming hierarchical spatial concepts and evaluating how the proposed method can predict unobserved location names and position categories are performed using a robot in the real world. Results verify that, relative to comparable baseline methods, the proposed method enables a robot to predict location names and position categories closer to predictions made by humans. As an application example of the proposed method in a home environment, a demonstration in which a human support robot moves to an instructed place based on human speech instructions is achieved based on the formed hierarchical spatial concept.

  9. assistance to the industrial process supervision: toward a methodology of conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkhannouche, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodological approach to the design of computerized assistance for operators in control industrial processes. We are particularly interested in how to find the solutions which best suit their needs. Our preferred approach is focused on the operator: the main factors influencing his performance are reviewed and we make a synthesis which consists of a categorized list, or typology, of the extents of the operators' activities, tasks and errors. This typology is then used to classify the possible improvements as well as associated computer aids. The DIAPASON held system for fault diagnosis is integrated in this structure. This typology is our chosen basis for defining a specification method which enables the quality of the designed system to be guarantee. We propose a phased approach, the first phase of which involves analysing needs and thus identifying the objectives of the project. The second phase is the preparation of a performance specification which serves as a reference system for the project. In the third phase technical solutions are proposed to meet the requirements set out in the performance specification. The following phases involve studying the technical feasibility of the proposed solutions and the actual development of the system. Together with the feasibility study comes the step of making up a knowledge bank. The usual method of systems analysis are included in the typology of the aids. Furthermore, the SAGACE method uses a new approach to systems analysis based on its description which unites various points of view ; the evaluation of its possibilities forms a part of the construction of a reference system which gathers up the information needed to put the DIAPASON diagnosis system into action. (author)

  10. Robot-assisted arm assessments in spinal cord injured patients: a consideration of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Keller

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance is increasingly used in neurological rehabilitation for enhanced training. Furthermore, therapy robots have the potential for accurate assessment of motor function in order to diagnose the patient status, to measure therapy progress or to feedback the movement performance to the patient and therapist in real time. We investigated whether a set of robot-based assessments that encompasses kinematic, kinetic and timing metrics is applicable, safe, reliable and comparable to clinical metrics for measurement of arm motor function. Twenty-four healthy subjects and five patients after spinal cord injury underwent robot-based assessments using the exoskeleton robot ARMin. Five different tasks were performed with aid of a visual display. Ten kinematic, kinetic and timing assessment parameters were extracted on joint- and end-effector level (active and passive range of motion, cubic reaching volume, movement time, distance-path ratio, precision, smoothness, reaction time, joint torques and joint stiffness. For cubic volume, joint torques and the range of motion for most joints, good inter- and intra-rater reliability were found whereas precision, movement time, distance-path ratio and smoothness showed weak to moderate reliability. A comparison with clinical scores revealed good correlations between robot-based joint torques and the Manual Muscle Test. Reaction time and distance-path ratio showed good correlation with the "Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension" (GRASSP and the Van Lieshout Test (VLT for movements towards a predefined position in the center of the frontal plane. In conclusion, the therapy robot ARMin provides a comprehensive set of assessments that are applicable and safe. The first results with spinal cord injured patients and healthy subjects suggest that the measurements are widely reliable and comparable to clinical scales for arm motor function. The methods applied and results can

  11. Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Pommy, Jessica A; Wilcox, Claire E; Barbosa, P C R; Strassman, Rick J

    2015-03-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that classic (5HT2A agonist) hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects in alcohol and drug addiction. Although recent studies have investigated the effects of psilocybin in various populations, there have been no studies on the efficacy of psilocybin for alcohol dependence. We conducted a single-group proof-of-concept study to quantify acute effects of psilocybin in alcohol-dependent participants and to provide preliminary outcome and safety data. Ten volunteers with DSM-IV alcohol dependence received orally administered psilocybin in one or two supervised sessions in addition to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and therapy sessions devoted to preparation for and debriefing from the psilocybin sessions. Participants' responses to psilocybin were qualitatively similar to those described in other populations. Abstinence did not increase significantly in the first 4 weeks of treatment (when participants had not yet received psilocybin), but increased significantly following psilocybin administration (p psilocybin session (at week 4) strongly predicted change in drinking during weeks 5-8 (r = 0.76 to r = 0.89) and also predicted decreases in craving and increases in abstinence self-efficacy during week 5. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events. These preliminary findings provide a strong rationale for controlled trials with larger samples to investigate efficacy and mechanisms. NCT02061293. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The concept of ageing in evolutionary algorithms: Discussion and inspirations for human ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Christos; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Boustras, George; Efstathiades, Christodoulos

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the concept of ageing as this applies to the operation of Evolutionary Algorithms, and examines its relationship to the concept of ageing as this is understood for human beings. Evolutionary Algorithms constitute a family of search algorithms which base their operation on an analogy from the evolution of species in nature. The paper initially provides the necessary knowledge on the operation of Evolutionary Algorithms, focusing on the use of ageing strategies during the implementation of the evolutionary process. Background knowledge on the concept of ageing, as this is defined scientifically for biological systems, is subsequently presented. Based on this information, the paper provides a comparison between the two ageing concepts, and discusses the philosophical inspirations which can be drawn for human ageing based on the operation of Evolutionary Algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human capital gains associated with robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in children compared to open pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, James W; Kim, Steve S; Dorey, Frederick; De Filippo, Roger E; Chang, Andy Y; Hardy, Brian E; Koh, Chester J

    2011-10-01

    Robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an emerging, minimally invasive alternative to open pyeloplasty in children for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The procedure is associated with smaller incisions and shorter hospital stays. To our knowledge previous outcome analyses have not included human capital calculations, especially regarding loss of parental workdays. We compared perioperative factors in patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty at a single institution, especially in regard to human capital changes, in an institutional cost analysis. A total of 44 patients 2 years old or older from a single institution underwent robotic assisted (37) or open (7) pyeloplasty from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the charts to collect demographic and perioperative data. The human capital approach was used to calculate parental productivity losses. Patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty had a significantly shorter average hospital length of stay (1.6 vs 2.8 days, p human capital gains, eg decreased lost parental wages, and lower hospitalization expenses. Future comparative outcome analyses in children should include financial factors such as human capital loss, which can be especially important for families with young children. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Becoming physics people: Development of physics identity in self-concept and practice through the Learning Assistant experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor

    2016-03-01

    The physics department at Texas State University has implemented a Learning Assistant (LA) program with reform-based instructional changes in our introductory course sequences. We are interested in how participation in the LA program influences LAs' identity both as physics students and as physics teachers; in particular, how being part of the LA community changes participants' self-concepts and their day-to-day practice. We analyze video of weekly LA preparation sessions and interviews with LAs as well as written artifacts from program applications, pedagogy course reflections, and evaluations. Our analysis of self-concepts is informed by the identity framework developed by Hazari et al., and our analysis of practice is informed by Lave and Wenger's theory of Communities of Practice. Regression models from quantitative studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics; the goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger ``physics student'' identity and stronger ``physics instructor'' identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. In addition to becoming more confident and competent in physics, LAs perceive themselves to have increased competence in communication and a stronger sense of belonging to a supportive and collaborative community; participation in the LA program also changes their ways of learning and of being students, both within and beyond physics. This research and the TXST LA program are supported by NSF DUE-1240036, NSF DUE-1431578, and the Halliburton Foundation.

  15. Role of ultrasonography in infertility management : ovulation monitoring and assisted conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.U.; Manzur, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Farooq, A.

    2010-01-01

    Infertility causes great stress to many couples. Most of those presenting with childlessness have reduced fertility, rather than absolute sterility, and many are likely to conceive spontaneously. In this 'ultrasonographic monitoring of growing follicles, in ovaries to determine the day of ovulation and its coordination with time of intercourse' has a well established role in the management of 'unexplained infertility'. This study was conducted to find out its efficacy in our setup. 86 female.s patients of unexplained infertility, with different post-marital time period, underwent ultrasonographic ovulation monitoring each with follow up for minimum of four menstrual cycles. Average follicular growth rate was 2 mm a day, which increased to 3 mm a day, two days prior to ovulation. Follicular diameter at the time of ovulation ranged from 22 mm to 27 mm with a mean of 24 mm. We observed ovulation in 79.2% of our patients. In 8.1% patient.s dominant follicle ceased to grow beyond 18 mm size and gradually become atretic. Leutinized un ruptured follicle was documented in 12.7% of our patients in whom follicular size reached to periovulatory range but did not rupture. Uterine endometrial thickness at the time of ovulation varied from 7 mm to 13 mm and multilayered appearance (triple line sign) was observed in 57.3% of patients. Overall conception rate was 16.3% whereas it was much more encouraging to see in 23.5% of patients who were in less than 5 years of their marriage. Keeping in view of easy to workup as out patient basis in large numbers of patient, less time consuming, promising results, cost effectiveness and non invasive nature of technique; ultrasonographic monitoring of ovulation is recommended as a part of management in all patients of unexplained infertility. (author)

  16. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  17. Book Review: The Architecture of Concepts: The Historical Formation of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How do concepts come to be? And, in particular, how current conceptions of international human rights are built upon a particular conceptual architecture? Peter de Bolla, author of The Architecture of Concepts: The Historical Formation of Human Rights, addresses these questions in incremental steps, building on what scholars currently understand when it comes to concepts more generally. The methodology is based on the use of the Eighteenth Century Collection Online (ECCO digital archives predominantly, with the aim of constructing data-dependent descriptions of conceptual architectures. The author, thus, looks at conceptual networks and the extensive relationships found within them so as to direct researchers in conducting future plotting of connectivities within networks. The opening chapter looks at concepts as a way of thinking. Concepts are treated as a metaphorical “subway or tube maps project into multiple dimensions.” The author then focuses on the eighteenth century and its printed materials. The use of large data allows the author to extrapolate matters of language spanning large communities. The following chapters combine the issue of creating conceptual dispositions with poignant debates about rights that pervaded the First Continental Congress during the 1770s, while repositioning the items of inquiry, mentioned previously, by challenging the assumption of the origin(s of human rights.

  18. Effect of air quality on assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Sauer, Mark V; Mottla, Gilbert L; Richter, Kevin S; Li, Xian; Dodson, William C; Liao, Duanping

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has been associated with reproductive complications. We hypothesized that declining air quality during in vitro fertilization (IVF) would adversely affect live birth rates. Data from US Environmental Protection Agency air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of criteria pollutants at addresses of 7403 females undergoing their first IVF cycle and at the their IVF labs from 2000 to 2007 in the Northeastern USA. These data were related to pregnancy outcomes. Increases in nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentration both at the patient's address and at the IVF lab were significantly associated with a lower chance of pregnancy and live birth during all phases of an IVF cycle from medication start to pregnancy test [most significantly after embryo transfer, odds ratio (OR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.86, per 0.01 ppm increase]. Increasing ozone (O(3)) concentration at the patient's address was significantly associated with an increased chance of live birth during ovulation induction (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10-1.44, per 0.02 ppm increase), but with decreased odds of live birth when exposed from embryo transfer to live birth (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48-0.81, per 0.02 ppm increase). After modeling for interactions of NO(2) and O(3) at the IVF lab, NO(2) remained negatively and significantly associated with live birth (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.96), whereas O(3) was non-significant. Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the IVF lab during embryo culture was associated with decreased conception rates (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99, per 8 microg/m(3) increase), but not with live birth rates. No associations were noted with sulfur dioxide or larger particulate matter (PM(10)). The effects of declining air quality on reproductive outcomes after IVF are variable, cycle-dependent and complex, though increased NO(2) is consistently associated with lower live birth rates. Our

  19. The mission execution crew assistant : Improving human-machine team resilience for long duration missions

    OpenAIRE

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Grant, T.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars set high operational, human factors and technical demands for a distributed support system, which enhances human-machine teams' capabilities to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. Based on a situated Cognitive Engineering (sCE) method, we specified a theoretical and empirical founded Requirements Baseline (RB) for such a system (called Mission Execution Crew Assistant; MECA), and its rational consi...

  20. Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt-Van der Zalm, J.P.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were

  1. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  2. Enhancing human-animal relationships through veterinary medical instruction in animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman

    2008-01-01

    Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.

  3. An Approach to Sensorless Detection of Human Input Torque and Its Application to Power Assist Motion in Electric Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Yukiko; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    A wheelchair is an important apparatus of mobility for people with disability. Power-assist motion in an electric wheelchair is to expand the operator's field of activities. This paper describes force sensorless detection of human input torque. Reaction torque estimation observer calculates the total disturbance torque first. Then, the human input torque is extracted from the estimated disturbance. In power-assist motion, assist torque is synthesized according to the product of assist gain and the average torque of the right and left input torque. Finally, the proposed method is verified through the experiments of power-assist motion.

  4. Singularity now: using the ventricular assist device as a model for future human-robotic physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Archer K

    2016-04-01

    In our 21 st century world, human-robotic interactions are far more complicated than Asimov predicted in 1942. The future of human-robotic interactions includes human-robotic machine hybrids with an integrated physiology, working together to achieve an enhanced level of baseline human physiological performance. This achievement can be described as a biological Singularity. I argue that this time of Singularity cannot be met by current biological technologies, and that human-robotic physiology must be integrated for the Singularity to occur. In order to conquer the challenges we face regarding human-robotic physiology, we first need to identify a working model in today's world. Once identified, this model can form the basis for the study, creation, expansion, and optimization of human-robotic hybrid physiology. In this paper, I present and defend the line of argument that currently this kind of model (proposed to be named "IshBot") can best be studied in ventricular assist devices - VAD.

  5. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Alexei V; Lippi, Vittorio; Mergner, Thomas; Frolov, Alexander A; Hettich, Georg; Husek, Dusan

    2017-01-01

    Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM) control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free , scalar equations. This paper investigates whether the EM alternative shows "real-world robustness" against noisy and inaccurate sensors, mechanical non-linearities such as dead zones, and human-like feedback time delays when controlling hip-ankle movements of a balancing humanoid robot. The EM concept and the EM controller are introduced, the robot's dynamics are identified using a biomechanical approach, and robot tests are performed in a human posture control laboratory. The tests show that the EM controller provides stable control of the robot with proactive ("voluntary") movements and reactive balancing of stance during support surface tilts and translations. Although a preliminary robot-human comparison reveals similarities and differences, we conclude (i) the Eigenmovement concept is a valid candidate when different concepts of human sensorimotor control are considered, and (ii) that human-inspired robot experiments may help to decide in future the choice among the candidates and to improve the design of humanoid robots and robotic rehabilitation devices.

  6. What is needed to implement a computer-assisted health risk assessment tool? An exploratory concept mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging eHealth tools could facilitate the delivery of comprehensive care in time-constrained clinical settings. One such tool is interactive computer-assisted health-risk assessments (HRA, which may improve provider-patient communication at the point of care, particularly for psychosocial health concerns, which remain under-detected in clinical encounters. The research team explored the perspectives of healthcare providers representing a variety of disciplines (physicians, nurses, social workers, allied staff regarding the factors required for implementation of an interactive HRA on psychosocial health. Methods The research team employed a semi-qualitative participatory method known as Concept Mapping, which involved three distinct phases. First, in face-to-face and online brainstorming sessions, participants responded to an open-ended central question: “What factors should be in place within your clinical setting to support an effective computer-assisted screening tool for psychosocial risks?” The brainstormed items were consolidated by the research team. Then, in face-to-face and online sorting sessions, participants grouped the items thematically as ‘it made sense to them’. Participants also rated each item on a 5-point scale for its ‘importance’ and ‘action feasibility’ over the ensuing six month period. The sorted and rated data was analyzed using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses which produced visual maps. In the third and final phase, the face-to-face Interpretation sessions, the concept maps were discussed and illuminated by participants collectively. Results Overall, 54 providers participated (emergency care 48%; primary care 52%. Participants brainstormed 196 items thought to be necessary for the implementation of an interactive HRA emphasizing psychosocial health. These were consolidated by the research team into 85 items. After sorting and rating, cluster analysis

  7. Biofeedback effect of hybrid assistive limb in stroke rehabilitation: A proof of concept study using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Saita

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted rehabilitation has been increasingly drawing attention in the field of neurorehabilitation. The hybrid assistive limb (HAL is an exoskeleton robot developed based on the "interactive biofeedback" theory, and several studies have shown its efficacy for patients with stroke. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the facilitative effect of neurorehabilitation using a single-joint HAL (HAL-SJ and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.Subacute stroke patients admitted to our hospital were assessed in this study for HAL eligibility. We evaluated motor-related cortical activity using an fNIRS system at baseline and immediately after HAL-SJ treatment on the same day. Cortical activity was determined through the relative changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. For statistical analysis, we compared the number of flexion/extension movements before and immediately after HAL-SJ treatment using paired t-test. fNIRS used both the methods of statistical parametric mapping and random effect analysis.We finally included 10 patients (eight men, two women; mean age: 66.8 ± 12.0 years. The mean number of flexion/extension movements within 15 s increased significantly from 4.2 ± 3.1 to 5.3 ± 4.1 immediately after training. fNIRS showed increased cortical activation in the primary motor cortex of the ipsilesional hemisphere immediately after HAL-SJ treatment compared to the baseline condition.This study is the first to support the concept of the biofeedback effect from the perspective of changes in cortical activity measured with an fNIRS system. The biofeedback effect of HAL immediately increased the task-related cortical activity, and this may address the functional recovery. Further studies are warranted to support our findings.

  8. Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: unravelling the concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human

  9. Altered DNA methylation and expression of PLAGL1 in cord blood from assisted reproductive technology pregnancies compared with natural conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Rebecca N; Gooding, Luke D; Louie, Kenny; Chan Wong, Edgar; Ma, Sai

    2016-09-01

    To investigate DNA methylation and expression of imprinted genes and an imprinted gene network (IGN) in neonates conceived via assisted reproductive technology (ART). Case control. Research institution. Two hundred sixty-four cases of cord blood and/or placental villi from neonates (101 IVF, 81 ICSI, 82 naturally conceived). Placentas were obtained at birth for biopsy and cord blood extraction. DNA methylation and expression of imprinted genes. DNA methylation at the PLAGL1 differentially methylated region (DMR) was significantly higher in IVF cord blood (48.0%) compared with controls (46.0%). No differences were found in DNA methylation between conception modes for KvDMR1 and LINE-1 in cord blood and placenta as well as PLAGL1 and PEG10 in placenta villi. PLAGL1 expression was lower in both IVF and ICSI cord blood groups than in controls (relative quantification of 0.65, 0.74, 0.89, respectively). Analyzing the expression of 3 genes in a PLAGL1 regulated IGN revealed different expression between conception modes and a significant correlation to PLAGL1 expression in only one (KCNQ1OT1). Our results suggest a stability of DNA methylation at imprinted DMRs; however, we show PLAGL1 methylation/expression to be altered after ART. As PLAGL1 expression correlated with only one of the three IGN genes in cord blood, we propose there is a more complex mechanism of regulating the IGN that may involve other genes and epigenetic modifications in this tissue. Further research investigating IGN-implicated genes in various neonatal tissues is warranted to elucidate the full effects ART-induced alterations to PLAGL1 and the IGN may have on fetal growth/development. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression following pregnancies conceived through fertility treatments : the effects of medically assisted conception on postpartum well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J Catja; Stramrood, Claire A I; Paarlberg, K Marieke; Haisma, Hinke H; Vingerhoets, A J J M; Schultz, Willibrord C M Weijmar; van Pampus, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the postpartum prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in women who conceived via medically assisted conception (MAC) and women who conceived naturally. STUDY DESIGN: All women (n = 907) who delivered under supervision of four independent

  11. The prebiotic concept and human health: a changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, R E; Sadaghian Sadabad, M; Harmsen, H J M; Weber, P

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of prebiotics, as introduced by Gibson and Roberfroid in the 1990s, emphasized the importance of diet in the modulation of the gut microbiota and its relationships to human health. Increasing knowledge of the intestinal microbiota now suggests a more comprehensive definition. This paper briefly reviews the basics of the prebiotic concept with a discussion of recent attempts to refine the concept to open the door for novel prebiotic food ingredients, such as polyphenols, minerals and vitamins.

  12. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. genetic determinism to justify intellectual likeness between individuals such as twins) or in relation to groups of humans (e.g. genetic determinism to justify gender differences or the superiority of some human ethnic groups). A between-factor analysis discriminates between countries, showing very significant differences. There is more innatism among teachers' conceptions in African countries and Lebanon than in European countries, Brazil and Australia. Among the other controlled parameters, only two are significantly independent of the country: the level of training and the level of knowledge of biology. A co-inertia analysis shows a strong correlation between non-citizen attitudes towards and innatist conceptions of genetic determinism regarding human groups. We discuss these findings and their implications for education.

  13. The prebiotic concept and human health : a changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinert, R. E.; Sadaghian, Mehdi; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Weber, P.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of

  14. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  15. The quest for human development and the concept of quota system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that Nigeria as a nation, in the quest to achieve human development has adopted the concept of quota system. Quota system in the tertiary education ensures that all the federating units that make up Nigeria are represented in the admission process. This is necessitated by the multi-ethnic and multi-religious ...

  16. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  17. The devil we know: the implications of bill C-38 for assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana; Cohen, Sara R

    2013-07-01

    In June 2012, the Canadian House of Commons passed the so-called omnibus budget bill, making several important changes to the governance of assisted reproduction in Canada. The bill (Bill C-38) was widely criticized for its unwieldy size and rapid passage through Parliament, preventing adequate parliamentary debate and public scrutiny. Given the substantive nature of the amendments to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act made by Bill C-38, and the lack of relevant discussion about these changes both before and following its passage, this commentary is intended to identify how Bill C-38 may alter the governance of reproductive technologies in Canada. In this commentary, we address some of the more significant changes made by Bill C-38 to the regulation of reproductive medicine in Canada. We identify the benefits and challenges of closing Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, noting that doing so eliminates a much-needed forum for stakeholder consultation in this field. Further, we explore the implications of moving the regulation of donor semen from the Food and Drugs Act to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act; these include increased liability for physicians, and opportunities to expand the existing regulations to account for the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer Canadians using donor gametes and recent advances in reproductive technologies. Overall, we argue that although the implementation of a policy framework in this field remains highly dependent on yet-to-be written regulations, the changes to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act enabled by Bill C-38 may significantly alter how Canadians interact with reproductive technologies.

  18. Concept and Design of a 3D Printed Support to Assist Hand Scanning for the Realization of Customized Orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Gabriele; Volonghi, Paola; Signoroni, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. In this work, we present the concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning of such patients. The device, realized with FDM additive manufacturing techniques in ABS material, allows palmar acquisitions, and its design and test are motivated by the following needs: (1) immobilizing the hand of patients during the palmar scanning to reduce involuntary movements affecting the scanning quality and (2) keeping hands open and in a correct position, especially to contrast the high degree of hypertonicity of spastic subjects. The resulting device can be used indifferently for the right and the left hand; it is provided in four-dimensional sizes and may be also suitable as a palmar support for the acquisition of the dorsal side of the hand.

  19. Concept and Design of a 3D Printed Support to Assist Hand Scanning for the Realization of Customized Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. In this work, we present the concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning of such patients. The device, realized with FDM additive manufacturing techniques in ABS material, allows palmar acquisitions, and its design and test are motivated by the following needs: (1 immobilizing the hand of patients during the palmar scanning to reduce involuntary movements affecting the scanning quality and (2 keeping hands open and in a correct position, especially to contrast the high degree of hypertonicity of spastic subjects. The resulting device can be used indifferently for the right and the left hand; it is provided in four-dimensional sizes and may be also suitable as a palmar support for the acquisition of the dorsal side of the hand.

  20. Normality and naturalness: a comparison of the meanings of concepts used within veterinary medicine and human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2011-12-01

    This article analyses the different connotations of "normality" and "being natural," bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of "natural" are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide ranging conceptions of "normal" in human medicine may enrich conceptions in veterinary medicine, where the discussions seem to be sparse. We do not argue that conceptions from veterinary medicine should be used in human medicine and vice versa, but only that it could be done and that it may well be fruitful. Moreover, there are overlaps between some notions of normal and natural, and further conceptual analysis on this overlap is needed.

  1. Individuality as expression of human emancipation. Reflection on the conception of Jan Szczepański

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Leszniewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue of “the individual factor” in the sociological reflection on social reality. Referring to Jan Szczepański's concept of individuality it analyzes the problem of human nature and the inner world as a source of resistance to the negative consequences of collective mechanisms. The paper presents the thesis that individuality is the culmination of the process of human development. However, in the context of socio-cultural category of individuality, it is an attempt to transcend the current data and the tension between individual- ism and collectivism. Human Individuality is a potential criticism regarding the public order and social change.

  2. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  3. Assistive technology use and human rights enjoyment: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Johan; Larsson, Stig; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Rahman, Asm Atiqur; Bari, Nazmul; Khan, Ahm Noman

    2012-09-19

    About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measures to ensure provision of such technologies. To guide implementation of these measures there is a need for understanding health outcomes from a human rights perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the relation between assistive technology use and enjoyment of human rights in a low-income country. Data was collected in eight districts of Bangladesh through interviews of people with hearing impairments using and not using hearings aids, and people with ambulatory impairments using and not using manual wheelchairs (N = 583). Using logistic regression, self-reported outcomes on standard of living, health, education, work, receiving information and movement were analyzed. The adjusted likelihood of reporting greater enjoyment of human rights was significantly higher among people using hearing aids compared to non-users for all outcomes except working status. Compared to non-users, users of wheelchairs reported a significantly higher adjusted likelihood of good ambulatory performance and a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of reporting a positive working status. Further analyses indicated that physical accessibility to working places and duration of wheelchair use had a statistically significant impact on the likelihood of reporting positive work outcomes. The findings support the notion that assistive technology use increases the likelihood of human rights enjoyment, particularly hearing aid use. Physical accessibility should always be addressed in wheelchair provision.

  4. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  5. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lai

    Full Text Available Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  6. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kevin; She, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  7. Anthropology from a Kantian point of view: toward a cosmopolitan conception of human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Robert B

    2008-12-01

    Anthropology was a new field of study when Kant first began lecturing on it in 1772, and Kant himself was the first academic to teach regular courses in this area. As is well known, his own approach to anthropology is self-described as 'pragmatic', and Kant's pragmatic anthropology differs markedly from the anthropologies that other early contributors to the new discipline were advocating. In this essay I focus on a fundamental feature of Kant's anthropology that has been under-appreciated in previous discussions; namely, the particular conception of human nature that he believes anthropology, when pursued properly, leads to. I call this conception a cosmopolitan conception of human nature. In addition to establishing the central importance of this idea for Kant's project in anthropology, I also try in this essay to unravel some of its ambiguities and tensions as well as to highlight its underlying moral motives. The cosmopolitan conception of human nature that is central to Kant's anthropology is a further indication of the significance of his anthropology for ethics.

  8. Issues of biomedically assisted fertilization before the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomedicine has led to the birth of the first test-tube baby in 1978, and that event gave enormous impetus for further development of biomedically assisted fertilization, but also for the development of supporting legislation. Biomedically assisted fertilization and its application raises sensitive social and moral issues, so states retain their sovereign rights in this area and enact rules and regulations that reflect their national legislative policy. Comparative studies across Europe show that national legal acts are in force in many countries, but differences exist and states persist on them. Legal regulation of biomedically assisted fertilization provides legal security for individuals who are subjected to it, making easier the legal protection in cases where individual rights are violated. This paper presents two recent judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, the subject matter of which are issues of biomedically assisted fertilization, where legal remedy is sought under Article 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Both judgments are in favor of the states against which complaints are filed by individuals: the Court ruled that national regulations have not violated the right to respect for the individual's private life.

  9. Affective and Engagement Issues in the Conception and Assessment of a Robot-Assisted Psychomotor Therapy for Persons with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Rouaix

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in robot-assisted therapies (RAT for dementia care has grown steadily in recent years. However, RAT using humanoid robots is still a novel practice for which the adhesion mechanisms, indications and benefits remain unclear. Also, little is known about how the robot's behavioral and affective style might promote engagement of persons with dementia (PwD in RAT. The present study sought to investigate the use of a humanoid robot in a psychomotor therapy for PwD. We examined the robot's potential to engage participants in the intervention and its effect on their emotional state. A brief psychomotor therapy program involving the robot as the therapist's assistant was created. For this purpose, a corpus of social and physical behaviors for the robot and a “control software” for customizing the program and operating the robot were also designed. Particular attention was given to components of the RAT that could promote participant's engagement (robot's interaction style, personalization of contents. In the pilot assessment of the intervention nine PwD (7 women and 2 men, M age = 86 y/o hospitalized in a geriatrics unit participated in four individual therapy sessions: one classic therapy (CT session (patient- therapist and three RAT sessions (patient-therapist-robot. Outcome criteria for the evaluation of the intervention included: participant's engagement, emotional state and well-being; satisfaction of the intervention, appreciation of the robot, and empathy-related behaviors in human-robot interaction (HRI. Results showed a high constructive engagement in both CT and RAT sessions. More positive emotional responses in participants were observed in RAT compared to CT. RAT sessions were better appreciated than CT sessions. The use of a social robot as a mediating tool appeared to promote the involvement of PwD in the therapeutic intervention increasing their immediate wellbeing and satisfaction.

  10. Social LCA of maritime gardens and the concept of human capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2014-01-01

    for the families involved; and also a sense of community and belonging develops in the process. In terms of human capital development, aquaculture - in particular under experimental conditions - requires a high level of managerial skills. However, according to Sen, this will be included in his broader concept......, the actual specification of relevant capabilities and how measure these must – in accordance with Sen’s concept – be performed by those involved on the basis of what they consider as valuable functionings. Thus, as suggested by several authors, e.g. by Syndhia Mathe (Mathe 2014), some form of participatory...

  11. Beyond the VAD: Human Factors Engineering for Mechanically Assisted Circulation in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Patel-Raman, Sonna M; Fox, Carson S; Bass, Ellen J

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of ventricular assist devices (VADs) currently provide circulatory support to patients worldwide, and dozens of heart pump designs for adults and pediatric patients are under various stages of development in preparation for translation to clinical use. The successful bench-to-bedside development of a VAD involves a structured evaluation of possible system states, including human interaction with the device and auxiliary component usage in the hospital or home environment. In this study, we review the literature and present the current landscape of preclinical design and assessment, decision support tools and procedures, and patient-centered therapy. Gaps of knowledge are identified. The study findings support the need for more attention to user-centered design approaches for medical devices, such as mechanical circulatory assist systems, that specifically involve detailed qualitative and quantitative assessments of human-device interaction to mitigate risk and failure. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Legislative technique and human rights: the sad case of assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Richard H S

    2003-01-01

    Ths article reviews the issues raised by the case of Diane Pretty and argues that contrary to the views of the English Courts and the European Court of Human Rights, section 2 of the Suicide Act 1961 is incompatible with the Convention. Failing legislative reform, the DPP should formulate and publicise criteria for the exercise of its consent to prosecution in cases of assisted suicide.

  13. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mergner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free, scalar equations. This paper investigates whether the EM alternative shows “real-world robustness” against noisy and inaccurate sensors, mechanical non-linearities such as dead zones, and human-like feedback time delays when controlling hip-ankle movements of a balancing humanoid robot. The EM concept and the EM controller are introduced, the robot's dynamics are identified using a biomechanical approach, and robot tests are performed in a human posture control laboratory. The tests show that the EM controller provides stable control of the robot with proactive (“voluntary” movements and reactive balancing of stance during support surface tilts and translations. Although a preliminary robot-human comparison reveals similarities and differences, we conclude (i the Eigenmovement concept is a valid candidate when different concepts of human sensorimotor control are considered, and (ii that human-inspired robot experiments may help to decide in future the choice among the candidates and to improve the design of humanoid robots and robotic rehabilitation devices.

  14. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Lind, Morten [Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Djibouti); Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tsuruga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP.

  15. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad; Lind, Morten; Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP

  16. Gold nanoparticle-assisted primer walking for closing the human chromosomal gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H; Shi, B; Li, X

    2013-01-01

    The finished sequence of the human genome still contains 260 euchromatic gaps. All the PCR-based genome walking techniques used to close gaps have common limitations, such as low efficiency and low specificity. We herein describe a strategy to solve this problem by employing gold nanoparticles (Au......NPs) to improve the efficiency in primer walking amplification. We used this strategy to close a gap in human chromosome 5 containing a DNA stretch composed of the 12SAT repeat. The obtained gap sequence is highly conserved among several mammalian genomes. The demonstrated AuNP-assisted primer walking strategy...

  17. Análise do discurso oficial sobre a humanização da assistência hospitalar Analysis of the official speech about humanization of the hospital assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely F. Deslandes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo "humanização" tem sido empregado constantemente no âmbito da saúde. É a base de um amplo conjunto de iniciativas, mas não possui uma definição mais clara, geralmente designando a forma de assistência que valoriza a qualidade do cuidado do ponto de vista técnico, associada ao reconhecimento dos direitos do paciente, de sua subjetividade e cultura, além do reconhecimento do profissional. Tal conceito pretende-se norteador de uma nova práxis na produção do cuidado em saúde. Este artigo, de cunho exploratório, visa analisar o discurso do Ministério da Saúde sobre a humanização da assistência. Investigamos os sentidos e expectativas associados à idéia de humanização a partir da análise dos textos oficiais, retomando um diálogo crítico com os autores da área de saúde pública e das ciências sociais. Discutimos as idéias centrais da humanização como oposição à violência; oferta de atendimento de qualidade, articulando os avanços tecnológicos com acolhimento, melhoria das condições de trabalho do profissional, e ampliação do processo comunicacional, eixo central dos textos.The term "humanization" has been employed constantly in the health field. It is the base of a wide set of initiatives, even though the concept does not have a clear definition. Generally, it refers to a kind of assistance that gives importance to the technical quality of care, associated with recognition of patients' rights, subjectivity and culture. Such concept intends to guide a new praxis in the care production in health. This article, of exploratory mark, aims analyze the speech of the Health Department on the assistance humanization. We investigate the meanings and expectations associates to the humanization idea from the analysis of the official texts, retaking a critical dialog with the authors of the area of public health and of the social sciences. We argue the central ideas of the humanization as opposition to the violence

  18. Congenital Malformations in Singleton Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Singleton Infants by Natural Conception in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mozafari Kermani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies occur more frequently in assisted reproductive technology (ART compared to normal conception (NC. It is known that the risk of congenital malformations in a multiple pregnancy are higher than single pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare congenital malformations in singleton infants conceived by ART to singleton infants conceived naturally. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, we performed a historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM in 820 singleton births from January 2012 to December 2014. The data for this analysis were derived from Tehran’s ART linked data file. The risk of congenital malformations was compared in 164 ART infants and 656 NC infants. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for the independent association of ART on each outcome. Results: We found 40 infants with MCM 29 (4.4% NC infants and 14 (8.3% ART infants. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 2-fold increased risk of MCM (P=0.046. After adjusting individually for maternal age, infant gender, prior stillbirth, mother’s history of spontaneous abortion, and type of delivery, we did not find any difference in risk. In this study the majority (95.1% of all infants were normal but 4.9% of infants had at least one MCM. We found a difference in risk of MCMs between in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. We excluded the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Conclusion: This study reported a higher risk of MCMs in ART singleton infants than in NC singleton infants. Congenital heart disease, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and urogenital malformations were the most reported major malformations in singleton ART infants according to organ and system classification.

  19. Sperm selection in natural conception: what can we learn from Mother Nature to improve assisted reproduction outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Denny; Ramalingam, Mythili; Garrido, Nicolas; Barratt, Christopher L.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In natural conception only a few sperm cells reach the ampulla or the site of fertilization. This population is a selected group of cells since only motile cells can pass through cervical mucus and gain initial entry into the female reproductive tract. In animals, some studies indicate that the sperm selected by the reproductive tract and recovered from the uterus and the oviducts have higher fertilization rates but this is not a universal finding. Some species show less discrimination in sperm selection and abnormal sperm do arrive at the oviduct. In contrast, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) utilize a more random sperm population. In this review we contrast the journey of the spermatozoon in vivo and in vitro and discuss this in the context of developing new sperm preparation and selection techniques for ART. METHODS A review of the literature examining characteristics of the spermatozoa selected in vivo is compared with recent developments in in vitro selection and preparation methods. Contrasts and similarities are presented. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS New technologies are being developed to aid in the diagnosis, preparation and selection of spermatozoa in ART. To date progress has been frustrating and these methods have provided variable benefits in improving outcomes after ART. It is more likely that examining the mechanisms enforced by nature will provide valuable information in regard to sperm selection and preparation techniques in vitro. Identifying the properties of those spermatozoa which do reach the oviduct will also be important for the development of more effective tests of semen quality. In this review we examine the value of sperm selection to see how much guidance for ART can be gleaned from the natural selection processes in vivo. PMID:26386468

  20. Human health considerations in the assessment of Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baweja, A.S.; Tracy, B.L.; Ahier, B.; Bartlett, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1978, AECL was mandated by the government of Ontario and the federal government to find a permanent disposal solution for spent nuclear fuels. Canada opted for disposal in plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield. The Canadian concept calls for disposal in crystalline rocks at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface. The spent fuel would be contained in a canister, the canister would be emplaced in a vault containing clay-based buffer materials, and the cavity would be backfilled and sealed with natural materials. A Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel was formed in 1992 to assess the concept for disposal of the spent fuel. In this paper a brief discussion of the human health impacts of the proposed concept is presented. Our assessment is based on the information provided by AECL, namely, the main EIS document, a summary and nine other supporting documents

  1. Biomedical research with human embryos: changes in the legislation on assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Martínez, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with issues of research with human embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization in the context of the Spanish Law. The paper focuses on Act 14/2006 on techniques of human assisted reproduction, which replaces the previous Act from 1988. The author claims that the main goals of Act 14/2006 are, on the one hand, to eliminate the restrictions affecting research with human embryos put in place by Act 45/2003 and, on the other, to pave the way for a future legislation on biomedical research. This paper argues for the need of an effective and adequate juridical protection of human embryos obtained in vitro according to responsibility and precautionary principles.

  2. Towards quantifying dynamic human-human physical interactions for robot assisted stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mayumi; Mendonca, Rochelle; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    Human-Robot Interaction is a prominent field of robotics today. Knowledge of human-human physical interaction can prove vital in creating dynamic physical interactions between human and robots. Most of the current work in studying this interaction has been from a haptic perspective. Through this paper, we present metrics that can be used to identify if a physical interaction occurred between two people using kinematics. We present a simple Activity of Daily Living (ADL) task which involves a simple interaction. We show that we can use these metrics to successfully identify interactions.

  3. Physical interface dynamics alter how robotic exosuits augment human movement: implications for optimizing wearable assistive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, Matthew B; Quinlivan, Brendan T; Popov, Dmitry; Walsh, Conor; Zelik, Karl E

    2017-05-18

    Wearable assistive devices have demonstrated the potential to improve mobility outcomes for individuals with disabilities, and to augment healthy human performance; however, these benefits depend on how effectively power is transmitted from the device to the human user. Quantifying and understanding this power transmission is challenging due to complex human-device interface dynamics that occur as biological tissues and physical interface materials deform and displace under load, absorbing and returning power. Here we introduce a new methodology for quickly estimating interface power dynamics during movement tasks using common motion capture and force measurements, and then apply this method to quantify how a soft robotic ankle exosuit interacts with and transfers power to the human body during walking. We partition exosuit end-effector power (i.e., power output from the device) into power that augments ankle plantarflexion (termed augmentation power) vs. power that goes into deformation and motion of interface materials and underlying soft tissues (termed interface power). We provide empirical evidence of how human-exosuit interfaces absorb and return energy, reshaping exosuit-to-human power flow and resulting in three key consequences: (i) During exosuit loading (as applied forces increased), about 55% of exosuit end-effector power was absorbed into the interfaces. (ii) However, during subsequent exosuit unloading (as applied forces decreased) most of the absorbed interface power was returned viscoelastically. Consequently, the majority (about 75%) of exosuit end-effector work over each stride contributed to augmenting ankle plantarflexion. (iii) Ankle augmentation power (and work) was delayed relative to exosuit end-effector power, due to these interface energy absorption and return dynamics. Our findings elucidate the complexities of human-exosuit interface dynamics during transmission of power from assistive devices to the human body, and provide insight into

  4. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented......) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R&D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium...... as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...

  5. Bartonella spp. - a chance to establish One Health concepts in veterinary and human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Yvonne; O Rourke, Fiona; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2016-05-10

    Infectious diseases remain a remarkable health threat for humans and animals. In the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. However, it is evident, that combined approaches are needed to understand geographical distribution, transmission and infection biology of "zoonotic agents". The genus Bartonella represents a congenial example of the synergistic benefits that can arise from such combined approaches: Bartonella spp. infect a broad variety of animals, are linked with a constantly increasing number of human diseases and are transmitted via arthropod vectors. As a result, the genus Bartonella is predestined to play a pivotal role in establishing a One Health concept combining veterinary and human medicine.

  6. Cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkasheva, Anastasiya G; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Romanov, Andrey Yu; Burmenskaya, Olga V; Makarova, Nataliya P; Ibragimova, Espet O; Kalinina, Elena A; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) of hatching due to zona pellucida (ZP) thickness, oocyte and sperm quality, embryo quality and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes in blastocysts was determined. From 62 blastocysts included in the study, 47 (75.8%) were unable to hatch spontaneously. The ZP thickening, and oocyte and sperm quality did not affect human blastocyst ability to hatch, except the combination of cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic oocyte dysmorphisms (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 1.45). Hatching-capable blastocysts had higher Gardner scale grade and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes than hatching-incapable blastocysts. The human blastocyst hatching success depends on the blastocyst Gardner grade, but not on ZP and gamete quality. Blastocyst development was regulated by CTSV, GATA3 and CGB gene expression.

  7. Acceptance and Attitudes Toward a Human-like Socially Assistive Robot by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Wing-Yue Geoffrey; McColl, Derek; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cognitive and social interventions are crucial to the overall health of older adults including their psychological, cognitive, and physical well-being. However, due to the rapidly growing elderly population of the world, the resources and people to provide these interventions is lacking. Our work focuses on the use of social robotic technologies to provide person-centered cognitive interventions. In this article, we investigate the acceptance and attitudes of older adults toward the human-like expressive socially assistive robot Brian 2.1 in order to determine if the robot's human-like assistive and social characteristics would promote the use of the robot as a cognitive and social interaction tool to aid with activities of daily living. The results of a robot acceptance questionnaire administered during a robot demonstration session with a group of 46 elderly adults showed that the majority of the individuals had positive attitudes toward the socially assistive robot and its intended applications.

  8. Human Assisted Robotic Vehicle Studies - A conceptual end-to-end mission architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, B. A. E.; Mazzotta, D. G.; Teeney, L.; Spina, F.; Filosa, A.; Pou, A. Canals; Schlechten, J.; Campbell, S.; Soriano, P. López

    2017-11-01

    With current space exploration roadmaps indicating the Moon as a proving ground on the way to human exploration of Mars, it is clear that human-robotic partnerships will play a key role for successful future human space missions. This paper details a conceptual end-to-end architecture for an exploration mission in cis-lunar space with a focus on human-robot interactions, called Human Assisted Robotic Vehicle Studies (HARVeSt). HARVeSt will build on knowledge of plant growth in space gained from experiments on-board the ISS and test the first growth of plants on the Moon. A planned deep space habitat will be utilised as the base of operations for human-robotic elements of the mission. The mission will serve as a technology demonstrator not only for autonomous tele-operations in cis-lunar space but also for key enabling technologies for future human surface missions. The successful approach of the ISS will be built on in this mission with international cooperation. Mission assets such as a modular rover will allow for an extendable mission and to scout and prepare the area for the start of an international Moon Village.

  9. Humane Letters: Notes on the Concept of Integrity and the Meanings of Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for an analysis of integrity and contends that attempting to describe wholeness precisely and incisively is not necessarily a contradiction in terms. The author makes some distinctions about integrity using two moves, one inspired by Plato, and one by Aristotle. The author uses the phrase "humane letters" to name…

  10. The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eBernacer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, its philosophical inspiration and the problems that arise from it, mostly centered on the sharp distinction between goal-directed actions and habitual behavior. We then introduce the Aristotelian view and we compare it with that of William James. For Aristotle, a habit is an acquired disposition to perform certain types of action. If this disposition involves an enhanced cognitive control of actions, it can be considered a habit-as-learning. The current view of habit in neuroscience, which lacks cognitive control and we term habit-as-routine, is also covered by the Aristotelian conception. He classifies habits into three categories: 1 theoretical, or the retention of learning understood as knowing that x is so; 2 behavioral, through which the agent achieves a rational control of emotion-permeated behavior (knowing how to behave; and 3 technical or learned skills (knowing how to make or to do. Finally, we propose new areas of research where this novel conception of habit could serve as a framework concept, from the cognitive enrichment of actions to the role of habits in pathological conditions. In all, this contribution may shed light on the understanding of habits as an important feature of human action. Habits, viewed as cognitively controlled behaviors that in turn improve cognitive control of behavior, are a crucial resource for enhancing human learning and behavioral plasticity.

  11. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a very minor role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant......Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture...... of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due...

  12. The pluralistic water research concept - a new human-water system research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda; Garcia-Santos, Glenda

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management has been and still is a main challenge for decision makers even though for the past number of decades integrative approaches and concepts (e.g. Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) have been developed to address problems on floods, droughts, water quality, water quantity, environment and ecology. Although somehow these approaches are aiming to address water related problems in an integrative approach and to some extent include or involve society in the planning and management, they still lack some of the vital components in including the social dimensions and their interaction with water. Understanding these dynamics in a holistic way and how they are shaped by time and space may tackle these shortcomings and provide more effective and sustainable management solutions with respect to a set of potential present social actions and values as well as possible futures. This paper aims to discuss challenges to coherently and comprehensively integrate the social dimensions of different human-water concepts like IWRM, socio-hydrology and waterscape. Against this background it will develop criteria for an integrative approach and present a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR) concept. PWR is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to acknowledge the social and water dimensions and their interaction and dynamics by considering more than one perspective of a water-related issue, hereby providing a set of multiple (future) developments. Our PWR concept will be illustrated by a case study application of the Canary island La Gomera. Furthermore an outlook on further possible developments of the PWR concept will be presented and discussed.

  13. A novel approach for computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3d designed/printed surgical tooling. An ex vivo proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anssari Moin, D.; Derksen, W.; Verweij, J.P.; van Merkesteyn, R.; Wismeijer, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method for accurate autotransplantation with computer-assisted guided templates and assembled custom-designed surgical tooling and to test the feasibility and accuracy of this method ex vivo. Materials and Methods: A partially edentulous human

  14. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  15. Benefits from a geographers' perspective on human-water systems - the waterscape concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Recently a couple of theoretical foundations and concepts were developed such as hydro-sociology, hydro-economics and integrated water resources management in order to structure and process parameterizations of hydrological research and reflect human-water-interrelations. However, a remaining challenge in human-water-system research is that approaches like socio-hydrology still struggle to formalize hypotheses which are capable to capture the basic driving mechanisms of the dynamic human-water system beyond optimizing algorithms or the principle of optimality or entropy as the societal values and experiences may unfold diverging policy and society responses (cf. Troy et al. 2015). Another challenge that we see is the integration of physical and social sciences with regard to the different epistemologies and perspectives: positivist thinking common in natural sciences and engineering and constructivist conceptualisation common in the social sciences. Here, geographic research seeks to acknowledge multi-spatial perspectives of the different actors and entities and their integration into the physical system that needs mutual recognition of natural and social sciences concepts, theories and methods. We suggest for human-water system research a more geographic perspective, which we call waterscape concept. Water can be regarded as a key structuring element for landscape and its management and, hence, from our perspective, the dynamics in water resources and interrelation of actors and entities in its management also helps to better understand current landscape patterns, their developments and interrelations, respectively. By our definition, a waterscape includes sources and users of water, their interactions, feedbacks and external influencing factors. It is therefore not only the physical space but rather includes the arena of actors and entities interacting. Against this understanding, waterscapes are defined by reciprocal boundary conditions which allow integrating

  16. Cation exchange assisted binding-elution strategy for enzymatic synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hailiang; Wu, Zhigang; Gadi, Madhusudhan Reddy; Wang, Shuaishuai; Guo, Yuxi; Edmunds, Garrett; Guan, Wanyi; Fang, Junqiang

    2017-09-15

    A cation exchange assisted binding-elution (BE) strategy for enzymatic synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) was developed. An amino linker was used to provide the cation ion under acidic condition which can be readily bound to cation exchange resin and then eluted off by saturated ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium bicarbonate in the collections was easily removed by vacuum evaporation. This strategy circumvented the incompatible issue between glycosyltransferases and solid support or large polymers, and no purification was needed for intermediate products. With current approach, polyLacNAc backbones of HMOs and fucosylated HMOs were synthesized smoothly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the penis during the human fetal period (13 to 36 weeks after conception).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Carla B M; Costa, Waldemar S; Furriel, Angelica; Bastos, Ana L; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the development of the area of the penis and erectile structures (corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum) and the thickness of the tunica albuginea during the fetal period (13 to 36 weeks after conception) in humans to establish normative patterns of growth. We studied 56 male human fetuses at 13 to 36 weeks after conception. We used histochemical and morphometric techniques to analyze the parameters of total penile area, area of corpora cavernosa, area of corpus spongiosum, and thickness of tunica albuginea in the dorsal and ventral regions using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland). Between 13 and 36 weeks after conception the area of the penis varies from 0.95 to 24.25 mm2. The area of the corpora cavernosa varies from 0.28 to 9.12 mm2, and the area of the corpus spongiosum varies from 0.14 to 3.99 mm2. The thickness of the tunica albuginea varies from 0.029 to 0.296 mm in the dorsal region and from 0.014 to 0.113 mm in the ventral region of the corpora cavernosa. We found a strong correlation between the total penile area, corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum with fetal age (weeks following conception). The growth rate was more intense during the second trimester (13 to 24 weeks of gestation) compared to the third trimester (25 to 36 weeks). Tunica albuginea thickness also was strongly correlated with fetal age and this structure was thicker in the dorsal vs ventral region. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomechanics and muscle coordination of human walking. Part I: introduction to concepts, power transfer, dynamics and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Felix E; Neptune, Richard R; Kautz, Steven A

    2002-12-01

    Current understanding of how muscles coordinate walking in humans is derived from analyses of body motion, ground reaction force and EMG measurements. This is Part I of a two-part review that emphasizes how muscle-driven dynamics-based simulations assist in the understanding of individual muscle function in walking, especially the causal relationships between muscle force generation and walking kinematics and kinetics. Part I reviews the strengths and limitations of Newton-Euler inverse dynamics and dynamical simulations, including the ability of each to find the contributions of individual muscles to the acceleration/deceleration of the body segments. We caution against using the concept of biarticular muscles transferring power from one joint to another to infer muscle coordination principles because energy flow among segments, even the adjacent segments associated with the joints, cannot be inferred from computation of joint powers and segmental angular velocities alone. Rather, we encourage the use of dynamical simulations to perform muscle-induced segmental acceleration and power analyses. Such analyses have shown that the exchange of segmental energy caused by the forces or accelerations induced by a muscle can be fundamentally invariant to whether the muscle is shortening, lengthening, or neither. How simulation analyses lead to understanding the coordination of seated pedaling, rather than walking, is discussed in this first part because the dynamics of pedaling are much simpler, allowing important concepts to be revealed. We elucidate how energy produced by muscles is delivered to the crank through the synergistic action of other non-energy producing muscles; specifically, that a major function performed by a muscle arises from the instantaneous segmental accelerations and redistribution of segmental energy throughout the body caused by its force generation. Part II reviews how dynamical simulations provide insight into muscle coordination of walking.

  19. Self-Organizing Wearable Device Platform for Assisting and Reminding Humans in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most older persons would prefer “aging in my place,” that is, to remain in good health and live independently in their own home as long as possible. For assisting the independent living of older people, the ability to gather and analyze a user’s daily activity data would constitute a significant technical advance, enhancing their quality of life. However, the general approach based on centralized server has several problems such as the usage complexity, the high price of deployment and expansion, and the difficulty in identifying an individual person. To address these problems, we propose a wearable device platform for the life assistance of older persons that automatically records and analyzes their daily activity without intentional human intervention or a centralized server (i.e., cloud server. The proposed platform contains self-organizing protocols, Delay-Tolerant Messaging system, knowledge-based analysis and alerting for daily activities, and a hardware platform that provides low power consumption. We implemented a prototype smart watch, called Personal Activity Assisting and Reminding (PAAR, as a testbed for the proposed platform, and evaluated the power consumption and the service time of example scenarios.

  20. Use of Technology-Assisted Techniques of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping in Science Education: A Constructivist Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balim, Ali Günay

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade science…

  1. Is there a human right to be assisted in dying? [Temos um direito humano a ser assistido na morte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Tonetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the issue of whether it is plausible to think about a human right to be assisted in dying. The right to be assisted in dying cannot be considered just a right of non-interference. It is better understood as a claim right because it demands assistance and positive actions. I will argue that the principles of individual autonomy and Kant’s notion of dignity taken independently cannot be considered plausible justification for the human right to be assisted in dying. Griffin’s personhood account points out that principles of liberty, minimum provision and autonomy must be taken together to justify human rights. Based on his theory, I will argue that a person with a terminal disease who was aware of her imminent death or who suffered from an intractable, incurable, irreversible disease may waive the right to life and choose death. Therefore, the right to life would not restrict the human right to be assisted in dying and a state that allowed the practice of assisted dying would not be disrespecting the human right to life. This article will defend that the personhood account is able to protect vulnerable people from making decisions under pressure and avoid the slippery slope objection.

  2. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  3. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  4. How food is processed in the human body or children's concepts of how the digestive system works

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerová, Adriana; Dalajková, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on the concepts of preschool children about the human digestive system. The author presents the analysis of a research implemented in a group of 18 five to six-year-old children. The study is based on qualitative research. It analyses children's drawings and interviews, during which children expressed their concepts regarding the digestive system. Importantly, the study identifies the possibilities of working with children's concepts from the position of a preschool teacher....

  5. Progress in understanding human ovarian folliculogenesis and its implications in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Zi; Yang, Wan; Li, Yu; He, Zuanyu

    2013-02-01

    To highlight recent progress in understanding the pattern of follicular wave emergence of human menstrual cycle, providing a brief overview of the new options for human ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval by making full use of follicular physiological waves of the patients either with normal or abnormal ovarian reserve. Literature review and editorial commentary. There has been increasing evidence to suggest that multiple (two or three) antral follicular waves are recruited during human menstrual cycle. The treatment regimens designed based on the theory of follicular waves, to promote increased success with assisted reproduction technology (ART) and fertility preservation have been reported. These new options for human ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval by making full use of follicular waves of the patients either with normal or abnormal ovarian reserve lead to new thinking about the standard protocols in ART and challenge the traditional theory that a single wave of antral follicles grows only during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The understanding of human ovarian folliculogenesis may have profound implications in ART and fertility preservation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal regimens in ART based on the theory of follicular waves and to identify non-invasive markers for predicting the outcome and the potential utilities of follicles obtained from anovulatory follicular waves in ART.

  6. Clinical evaluation of lumbar CT assisted discography in comparison with human cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko

    1988-04-01

    In order to estimate the clinical value of lumbar CT assisted discography (CTD), results obtained by this method were compared with histological findings of the cross section of the spine in fresh human cadavera. Based on these findings, preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation was investigated. In the discs of human cadavera, the contrast medium mainly invaded the fissures of nucleus pulposus and the ruptures of annulus fibrosus and then diffused to the surrounding tissues. These ruptures were classified into two categories: radial and circumferential. This indentification was possible only in CTD and was obscure in the usual discogram. Not all the ruptures could be dyed in a severe degenerative disc, and a rupture which was not communicated with nucleus pulposus was not dyed in a mild degenerative disc. In the preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation, the posterior radial ruptures representing the route of herniated nuclei were characteristic and the circumferential ruptures were found complicated.

  7. A prototype case-based reasoning human assistant for space crew assessment and mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert B.; Holland, Albert W.; Wood, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    We present a prototype human assistant system for space crew assessment and mission management. Our system is based on case episodes from American and Russian space missions and analog environments such as polar stations and undersea habitats. The general domain of small groups in isolated and confined environments represents a near ideal application area for case-based reasoning (CBR) - there are few reliable rules to follow, and most domain knowledge is in the form of cases. We define the problem domain and outline a unique knowledge representation system driven by conflict and communication triggers. The prototype system is able to represent, index, and retrieve case studies of human performance. We index by social, behavioral, and environmental factors. We present the problem domain, our current implementation, our research approach for an operational system, and prototype performance and results.

  8. Human-animal relationships: from daily life to animal-assisted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of human animal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used.

  9. Kant's 'formula of humanity' and assisted reproductive technology: a case for duties to future children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The paper asks the question whether Kant's ethical theory can be applied to issues in assisted reproductive technology (ART). It argues against three objections to applying Kant's ethics to ART: (i) the non-identity objection, (ii) the gen-ethics objection, and (iii) the care-ethics objection. After showing that neither of the three objections is sufficiently persuasive the paper proposes a reading of Kant's 'formula of humanity,' and especially its negative clause (i.e., the 'merely as means' clause), that can be of some guidance in ART. The paper conclude that although Kant's 'formula of humanity' cannot be used as a simple litmus test for determining whether an ART practice is morally permissible or not, it nonetheless can supply us with some guidance in our moral deliberation.

  10. Admittance Control for Robot Assisted Retinal Vein Micro-Cannulation under Human-Robot Collaborative Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonenc, Berk; Iordachita, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is one of the most common retinovascular diseases. Retinal vein cannulation is a potentially effective treatment method for this condition that currently lies, however, at the limits of human capabilities. In this work, the aim is to use robotic systems and advanced instrumentation to alleviate these challenges, and assist the procedure via a human-robot collaborative mode based on our earlier work on the Steady-Hand Eye Robot and force-sensing instruments. An admittance control method is employed to stabilize the cannula relative to the vein and maintain it inside the lumen during the injection process. A pre-stress strategy is used to prevent the tip of microneedle from getting out of vein in in prolonged infusions, and the performance is verified through simulations. PMID:29607442

  11. Admittance Control for Robot Assisted Retinal Vein Micro-Cannulation under Human-Robot Collaborative Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Gonenc, Berk; Iordachita, Iulian

    2017-10-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is one of the most common retinovascular diseases. Retinal vein cannulation is a potentially effective treatment method for this condition that currently lies, however, at the limits of human capabilities. In this work, the aim is to use robotic systems and advanced instrumentation to alleviate these challenges, and assist the procedure via a human-robot collaborative mode based on our earlier work on the Steady-Hand Eye Robot and force-sensing instruments. An admittance control method is employed to stabilize the cannula relative to the vein and maintain it inside the lumen during the injection process. A pre-stress strategy is used to prevent the tip of microneedle from getting out of vein in in prolonged infusions, and the performance is verified through simulations.

  12. The Quasi-Human Child: How Normative Conceptions of Childhood Enabled Neoliberal School Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie; Benson, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault's concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a…

  13. A Comparison of Concept Development and Human Figure Drawings of Children Who Receive Preschool Education vs Those Who Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Gulden Uyanik

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated from a developmental point of view the basic concept knowledge and human figure drawings of children who did and did not attend preschool. A total of 118 children who received preschool education and 147 children who did not do so participated in the study. The mean age of children was 75.4 months. Their concept knowledge was…

  14. Fake it till you make it: Policymaking and assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave

    2014-06-01

    The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.

  15. Robotic Assistance of Human Motion Using Active-Backdrivability on a Geared Electromagnetic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jorge Claros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we describe an actuation and control system designed for geared electromagnetic motors, which is characterized by its simple implementation, fast response to external input loads, reliable human-machine interaction features, no need for previous set-up or calibration from user to user and high portability due to the reduction of weight and space used. By the implementation of the proposed system, an electromagnetic motor can become a multitasking, wearable actuation system capable of: detecting the user's intentions regarding motion, tracking the limbs with minimal force interaction within a wide bandwidth and also providing controllable assistance and resistance forces to the user's movements, without the use of any biological signal. Validation of the proposed approach is shown by the construction of a powered orthosis for the knee, used to test the system's performance under real human motion conditions. The proposed system was tested on one healthy subject by measuring electromyographic levels both with and without the orthosis, under controlled flexion and extension cycles. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in detecting the user's intentions regarding motion, reducing and increasing muscular activity when configured for assistance and resistance, respectively, and also increasing the transparency of the actuation system when perfect tracking of the limbs is needed.

  16. Rapid Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in Human Serum by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yulin; Müller, Miriam; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2018-04-01

    LC-MS/MS is widely utilized today for quantification of vitamin D in biological fluids. Mass spectrometric assays for vitamin D require very careful method optimization for precise and interference-free, accurate analyses however. Here, we explore chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as a rapid alternative for quantitative measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum, and compare it to results from LC-MS/MS. The method implemented an automated imaging step of each MALDI spot, to locate areas of high intensity, avoid sweet spot phenomena, and thus improve precision. There was no statistically significant difference in vitamin D quantification between the MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS: mean ± standard deviation for MALDI-MS—29.4 ± 10.3 ng/mL—versus LC-MS/MS—30.3 ± 11.2 ng/mL (P = 0.128)—for the sum of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D epimers. The MALDI-based assay avoided time-consuming chromatographic separation steps and was thus much faster than the LC-MS/MS assay. It also consumed less sample, required no organic solvents, and was readily automated. In this proof-of-concept study, MALDI-MS readily demonstrated its potential for mass spectrometric quantification of vitamin D compounds in biological fluids.

  17. Concept of an upright wearable positron emission tomography imager in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christopher E; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Marano, Gary; Mandich, Mary-Beth; Stolin, Alexander; Martone, Peter; Lewis, James W; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar; Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan

    2016-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is traditionally used to image patients in restrictive positions, with few devices allowing for upright, brain-dedicated imaging. Our team has explored the concept of wearable PET imagers which could provide functional brain imaging of freely moving subjects. To test feasibility and determine future considerations for development, we built a rudimentary proof-of-concept prototype (Helmet_PET) and conducted tests in phantoms and four human volunteers. Twelve Silicon Photomultiplier-based detectors were assembled in a ring with exterior weight support and an interior mechanism that could be adjustably fitted to the head. We conducted brain phantom tests as well as scanned four patients scheduled for diagnostic F(18-) FDG PET/CT imaging. For human subjects the imager was angled such that field of view included basal ganglia and visual cortex to test for typical resting-state pattern. Imaging in two subjects was performed ~4 hr after PET/CT imaging to simulate lower injected F(18-) FDG dose by taking advantage of the natural radioactive decay of the tracer (F(18) half-life of 110 min), with an estimated imaging dosage of 25% of the standard. We found that imaging with a simple lightweight ring of detectors was feasible using a fraction of the standard radioligand dose. Activity levels in the human participants were quantitatively similar to standard PET in a set of anatomical ROIs. Typical resting-state brain pattern activation was demonstrated even in a 1 min scan of active head rotation. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of imaging a human subject with a novel wearable PET imager that moves with robust head movements. We discuss potential research and clinical applications that will drive the design of a fully functional device. Designs will need to consider trade-offs between a low weight device with high mobility and a heavier device with greater sensitivity and larger field of view.

  18. 1st Workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living: Recognise2Interact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casale, P.; Houben, S.; Amft, O.D.

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware systems have the potential to revolutionize the way humans interact with information technology. The first workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living (Recognise2Interact) aims to enable researchers and practitioners from both,

  19. A Human-Robot Interaction Perspective on Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerle, Philipp; Salvietti, Gionata; Unal, Ramazan; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Rossi, Simone; Castellini, Claudio; Hirche, Sandra; Endo, Satoshi; Amor, Heni Ben; Ciocarlie, Matei; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Argall, Brenna D; Bianchi, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Assistive and rehabilitation devices are a promising and challenging field of recent robotics research. Motivated by societal needs such as aging populations, such devices can support motor functionality and subject training. The design, control, sensing, and assessment of the devices become more sophisticated due to a human in the loop. This paper gives a human-robot interaction perspective on current issues and opportunities in the field. On the topic of control and machine learning, approaches that support but do not distract subjects are reviewed. Options to provide sensory user feedback that are currently missing from robotic devices are outlined. Parallels between device acceptance and affective computing are made. Furthermore, requirements for functional assessment protocols that relate to real-world tasks are discussed. In all topic areas, the design of human-oriented frameworks and methods is dominated by challenges related to the close interaction between the human and robotic device. This paper discusses the aforementioned aspects in order to open up new perspectives for future robotic solutions.

  20. The concepts of representation and information in explanatory theories of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T. Ramos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Focusing in experimental study of human behavior, this article discusses the concepts of information and mental representation aiming the integration of their biological, computational, and semantic aspects. Assuming that the objective of any communication process is ultimately to modify the receiver’s state, the term correlational information is proposed as a measure of how changes occurring in external world correlate with changes occurring inside an individual. Mental representations are conceptualized as a special case of information processing in which correlational information is received, recorded, but also modified by a complex emergent process of associating new elements. In humans, the acquisition of information and creation of mental representations occurs in a two-step process. First, a sufficiently complex brain structure is necessary to establishing internal states capable to co-vary with external events. Second, the validity or meaning of these representations must be gradually achieved by confronting them with the environment. This contextualization can be considered as part of the process of ascribing meaning to information and representations. The hypothesis introduced here is that the sophisticated psychological constructs classically associated with the concept of mental representation are essentially of the same nature of simple interactive behaviors. The capacity of generating elaborated mental phenomena like beliefs and desires emerges gradually during evolution and, in a given individual, by learning and social interaction.

  1. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties...... crack propagation. This resulted in threshold curves that can be used for assessment of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking as a function of operating pressure and hydrogen content - having the flaw size as discrete parameter. The results are to be used mainly on a conceptual basis......, but it was indicated that the requirements for crack propagation include an overprotective CP-condition, a severe sulphate-reducing environment, as well as a large flaw (8 mm or a leak in the present case). A 1 mm flaw (which may be the maximum realistic flaw size) is believed to be unable to provoke crack propagation...

  2. Practical applications of safety culture concepts in human performance advances on Russian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.; Volkov, E.V.; Gordienko, O.V.; Melnitskaya, T.B.; Volkova, I.V.; Alexeev, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes, many from negative external factors can be compensated by human psychological readiness of worker. However there would be main worse to come: some cases of personnel activity and organisational factors, some person's peculiarities (attitudes, responsibility, etc.) add considerable number of the events at NPPs. A lot of aspects of Human Factor Reliability are united in Safety Culture concept. This paper presents some results of our recently research in that area. In 'proactive approach': Unique methods for measuring maturity and satisfaction of personnel motivation: comparative analysis of the labour and safety culture motivation from attitude; organization of the socio-psychological climate and safety attitude examining monitoring at all of Russia's NPPs; working-out recommendations for managers on improving human performance are presented. Besides, ergonomic research concerning work conditions at the NPP is displayed. In 'reactive approach': Analysis of the incorrect activity cases, which led to the breaches of work of the Russian NPPs, is shown. The special method to work-up is used. It was issue, that events caused by a human error, depends not only on the worker's professional competence, but on the attitude and motivation, some professionally important psychological and psycho-physiological quality data, the functional state, the group's socio-psychological climate, etc. (author)

  3. Human values and social assistance: a study of municipal council representatives / Valores humanos e assistência social: um estudo com representantes em conselhos municipais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusimar Cardoso Alves Almeida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyze the motivational types of human values prioritized by representatives of Municipal Social Assistance Councils in the municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, in an attempt to establish the axiological profiles of study participants. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The study is based on Schwartz's (1992 theory of human values, applying its contributions to understand a reality yet unexplored in research of values, namely the Social Assistance Councils in Brazil, notwithstanding the recent transformations aimed at changing their conception as public policy. Key methodological aspects: Data were collected applying the PQ-21 questionnaire to a sample of 204 respondents. Descriptive analyses, the Anova test and cluster analyses were used. Summary of key results: The motivational types most emphasized by the respondents were Benevolence and Universalism, followed by Self-direction, Tradition and Security, revealing the recognition of interests of social groups and the community, in addition to the need to affirm one's own ideas and preserve traditional and safe practices. Five axiological profiles were identified from cluster analyses, and in four out of these, Self-transcendence was the key characteristic. Key considerations/conclusions: The relevance attributed to Self-transcendence and Conservation, in that order, indicates a certain concern with social well-being and political participation, though with a tendency to accept and maintain traditional practices, which may hinder the transformation processes in the context under study. Future studies may clarify these relations, benefitting from the complementary use of a qualitative survey. Objetivo: Analisar os tipos motivacionais de valores humanos priorizados pelos representantes de Conselhos Municipais de Assistência Social nos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais, buscando delimitar perfis axiológicos entre os participantes do estudo. Originalidade

  4. The Goal of Evolutionary and Neoclassical Economics as a Consequence of the Changes in Concepts of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horodecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economics depends on the concept of human nature very strongly. The concepts of human nature can be understood as a set of assumptions made about the individual (on different levels: behavior, motives, meaning and his interactions with other people, with groups and diverse institutions. It corresponds with the image of world people have. The concept of human nature together with an image of the world builds the basis of thinking about the economics and about such fundamental element of it as its goal. Therefore if those images of men change, the way of thinking about economics and their elements adjust to those changes as well. The goal of the paper is to present the impact of these alterations of image of man on the economics. This impact will be illustrated on the example of the evolutionary economics, which is contrasted with the orthodox concept of human nature persisting in the neoclassical economics – homo economicus. The method applied to this research is, among others, a content analysis of the most important texts developed within neoclassical and evolutionary economics. To reach this goal, the following steps will be conducted: firstly, the concepts of human nature will be defined in regards of their particularity depending on the discipline by which they are defined; secondly, the main differences between concepts of human nature in neoclassical and evolutionary economics will be analyzed, and thirdly the differences in understanding of the goal and field between those two schools will be explained as resulting from the diverse concepts of human nature. The analysis proved that the main differences in those economic schools might be explained by the changed assumptions about the human nature and the image of the world.

  5. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenius, Aino

    2007-08-01

    work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  7. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  8. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  9. Human Gait Feature Extraction Including a Kinematic Analysis toward Robotic Power Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Chacon-Murguia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs' angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.

  10. Application of computer-assisted imaging technology in human musculoskeletal joint research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted imaging analysis technology has been widely used in the musculoskeletal joint biomechanics research in recent years. Imaging techniques can accurately reconstruct the anatomic features of the target joint and reproduce its in vivo motion characters. The data has greatly improved our understanding of normal joint function, joint injury mechanism, and surgical treatment, and can provide foundations for using reverse-engineering methods to develop biomimetic artificial joints. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the investigation of in vivo kinematics of the human knee, shoulder, lumber spine, and ankle using advanced imaging technologies, especially those using a dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS. We also briefly discuss future development of imaging analysis technology in musculoskeletal joint research.

  11. Concept of Human Capital in the Context of Transition to the Wisdom Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovk Volodymyr A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to study factors that determine a necessity of expansion of the essence of the “human capital” notion in the context of changing priorities of economic growth and transition to the “wisdom society”. The article reveals, in the result of the analysis, that wisdom becomes the priority at the modern stage of social and economic development and the main challenge – leaving the limits of the “knowledge society” and developing into the “wisdom society”. Consequently, the humanitarian economy (“wisdom economy” is shown as the main direction of development of the economic science. Moreover, the article shows that the concept of human capital should be expanded with consideration of specific features of the wisdom society. The article offers to understand the human capital as an aggregate of knowledge, skills, motivations (according to Becker plus wisdom (happiness, imperative of values and subjectness. Prospects of further studies are connected with the search for methods of measurement of such a difficult to measure property as “happiness”, comparison of the heuristic potential of the existing indices and, possibly, their specification or development of new ones.

  12. Assistance to the industrial process supervision: toward a methodology of conception; Aide a la supervision des processus industriels: vers une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhannouche, S

    1996-05-31

    This thesis presents a methodological approach to the design of computerized assistance for operators in control industrial processes. We are particularly interested in how to find the solutions which best suit their needs. Our preferred approach is focused on the operator: the main factors influencing his performance are reviewed and we make a synthesis which consists of a categorized list, or typology, of the extents of the operators` activities, tasks and errors. This typology is then used to classify the possible improvements as well as associated computer aids. The DIAPASON held system for fault diagnosis is integrated in this structure. This typology is our chosen basis for defining a specification method which enables the quality of the designed system to be guarantee. We propose a phased approach, the first phase of which involves analysing needs and thus identifying the objectives of the project. The second phase is the preparation of a performance specification which serves as a reference system for the project. In the third phase technical solutions are proposed to meet the requirements set out in the performance specification. The following phases involve studying the technical feasibility of the proposed solutions and the actual development of the system. Together with the feasibility study comes the step of making up a knowledge bank. The usual method of systems analysis are included in the typology of the aids. Furthermore, the SAGACE method uses a new approach to systems analysis based on its description which unites various points of view ; the evaluation of its possibilities forms a part of the construction of a reference system which gathers up the information needed to put the DIAPASON diagnosis system into action. (author).

  13. The Effectiveness of Interactive Computer Assisted Modeling in Teaching Study Strategies and Concept Mapping of College Textbook Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Larry

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of print materials and interactive computer-guided study programs designed to lead undergraduate students to apply basic textbook reading and concept mapping strategies to the study of science and social science textbooks. Following field testing with 25 learning skills students, 50 freshman biology…

  14. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  15. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  16. Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  17. Religious education in holistic concept of education as a possible answer to global challenges of humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2013-01-01

    on all of our values and tradition by which we are recognised in the world. That means that we will wonder around and seek new identity with small chances of finding it. Well known is the message that when people are no longer capable of passing ideals to their youths, the community is dying. We can guide our Serbian damaged ship through dark caves, between Scylla (sacrificing yourself to the great dragon - 'golden ox' or 'Trojan horse' , Charybdis (loneliness and separation like Noah from incoming flood, if we truly and honestly go back to our religion, our roots, our beginnings, our orthodoxy. Religious education in holistic concept whose accent is on humane and not technical education (knowledge=verity should be given an important place.

  18. [epiDRB--a new minimally invasive concept for referencing in the field of computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnsorge, J A K; Weisskopf, M; Siebert, C H

    2005-01-01

    Optoelectronic navigation for computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) is based on a firm connection of bone with passive reflectors or active light-emitting diodes in a specific three-dimensional pattern. Even a so-called "minimally-invasive" dynamic reference base (DRB) requires fixation with screws or clamps via incision of the skin. Consequently an originally percutaneous intervention would unnecessarily be extended to an open procedure. Thus, computer-assisted navigation is rarely applied. Due to their tree-like design most DRB's interfere with the surgeon's actions and therefore are at permanent risk to be accidentally dislocated. Accordingly, the optic communication between the camera and the operative site may repeatedly be interrupted. The aim of the research was the development of a less bulky, more comfortable, stable and safely trackable device that can be fixed truly percutaneously. With engineering support of the industrial partner the radiolucent epiDRB was developed. It can be fixed with two or more pins and gains additional stability from its epicutaneous position. The intraoperative applicability and reliability was experimentally tested. Its low centre of gravity and its flat design allow the device to be located directly in the area of interest. Thanks to its epicutaneous position and its particular shape the epiDRB may perpetually be tracked by the navigation system without hindering the surgeon's actions. Hence, the risk of being displaced by accident is minimised and the line of sight remains unaffected. With the newly developed epiDRB computer-assisted navigation becomes easier and safer to handle even in punctures and other percutaneous procedures at the spine as much as at the extremities without an unproportionate amount of additional trauma. Due to the special design referencing of more than one vertebral body is possible at one time, thus decreasing radiation exposure and increasing efficiency.

  19. Comparison of the external physical damages between laser-assisted and mechanical immobilized human sperm using scanning electronic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y L Chan

    Full Text Available We aim to visualize the external physical damages and distinct external phenotypic effects between mechanical and laser-assisted immobilized human spermatozoa using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Human spermatozoa were immobilized mechanically or with laser assistance for SEM examination and the membrane integrities were checked on both types of immobilized spermatozoa. We found evidence of external damages at SEM level on mechanically kinked sperm, but not on laser-assisted immobilized sperm. Although no external damage was found on laser-assist immobilized sperm, there were two distinct types of morphological changes when spermatozoa were stricken by infra-red laser. Coiled tails were immediately formed when Laser pulse was applied to the sperm end piece area, whereas laser applied to the sperm principal piece area resulted in a sharp bend of sperm tails. Sperm immobilized by laser did not exhibit any morphological change if the laser did not hit within the on-screen central target zone or if the laser hit the sperm mid piece or head. Our modified membrane integrity assay revealed that the external membrane of more than half of the laser-assisted immobilized sperm remained intact. In conclusion, mechanical immobilization produced membrane damages whilst laser-assisted immobilization did not result in any external membrane damages besides morphological changes at SEM level.

  20. Conception & validation d’une assistance numerique domiciliaire pour la personne âgee en perte d’autonomie

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy , Lucile

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of life expectancy, aging in place is today a major concern for developed and emerging countries. Among the key solutions to explore, gerontechnologies are seen as the most promising. However, their evidence-based efficacy remains to be demonstrated for independent living or even for their usability and acceptance by the targeted old users.In this context, a user-centered conception methodology has been implemented for designing a multi-task and multi-domain (supporting ever...

  1. Semi-manual mastoidectomy assisted by human-robot collaborative control - A temporal bone replica study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Cho, Byunghyun; Hong, Jaesung; Yamashita, Makoto; Hashizume, Makoto; Yi, Byung-Ju

    2016-04-01

    To develop an otological robot that can protect important organs from being injured. We developed a five degree-of-freedom robot for otological surgery. Unlike the other robots that were reported previously, our robot does not replace surgeon's procedures, but instead utilizes human-robot collaborative control. The robot basically releases all of the actuators so that the surgeon can manipulate the drill within the robot's working area with minimal restriction. When the drill reaches a forbidden area, the surgeon feels as if the drill hits a wall. When an engineer performed mastoidectomy using the robot for assistance, the facial nerve in the segmented region was always protected with a more than 2.5mm margin, which was almost the same as the pre-set safety margin of 3mm. Semi-manual drilling using human-robot collaborative control was feasible, and may hold a realistic prospect of clinical use in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Robot-assisted surgery: an emerging platform for human neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Michael Jarc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies in human sensorimotor control use simplified tasks to uncover fundamental control strategies employed by the nervous system. Such simple tasks are critical for isolating specific features of motor, sensory, or cognitive processes, and for inferring causality between these features and observed behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how these theories translate to complex sensorimotor tasks or to natural behaviors. Part of the difficulty in performing such experiments has been the lack of appropriate tools for measuring complex motor skills in real-world contexts. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges by enabling unobtrusive measurements of user behavior. In addition, a continuum of tasks with varying complexity – from simple tasks such as those in classic studies to highly complex tasks such as a surgical procedure – can be studied using RAS platforms. Finally, RAS includes a diverse participant population of inexperienced users all the way to expert surgeons. In this perspective, we illustrate how the characteristics of RAS systems make them compelling platforms to extend many theories in human neuroscience, as well as, to develop new theories altogether.

  3. Sobre o conceito de "capital humano" On the concept of "human capital"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanilda Paiva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a retomada do conceito de capital humano nas últimas décadas no contexto da hegemonia de organismos multilaterais mais diretamente vinculados ao pensamento e aos interesses norte-americanos na área educacional, e de demandas que resultam da reestruturação produtiva e sociocultural na Nova Era Capitalista. Ressalta a amplitude das noções metafóricas dele derivadas (Bourdieu e outros e indica o trecho dos Grundrisse em que Marx refere-se ao homem como sendo o próprio capital fixo criado pelo desenvolvimento de suas capacidades no tempo livre.The article treats the retaking of the concept of human capital in recent decades in the context of the hegemony of the multilateral organizations more directly linked to the North American thinking and interests in the educational area and the demands which have resulted from the productive, social and cultural restructuring of the New Age of Capitalism. It highlights the breadth of the metaphorical notions derived from it (Bourdieu and others and cites the excerpt from the Grundrisse in which Marx refers to humans as fixed assets created by the development of their abilities in their free time.

  4. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  5. Aptamer-Assisted Detection of the Altered Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Human Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ahirwar

    Full Text Available An increase in the expression of estrogen receptors (ER and the expanded population of ER-positive cells are two common phenotypes of breast cancer. Detection of the aberrantly expressed ERα in breast cancer is carried out using ERα-antibodies and radiolabelled ligands to make decisions about cancer treatment and targeted therapy. Capitalizing on the beneficial advantages of aptamer over the conventional antibody or radiolabelled ligand, we have identified a DNA aptamer that selectively binds and facilitates the detection of ERα in human breast cancer tissue sections. The aptamer is identified using the high throughput sequencing assisted SELEX screening. Biophysical characterization confirms the binding and formation of a thermodynamically stable complex between the identified DNA aptamer (ERaptD4 and ERα (Ka = 1.55±0.298×108 M(-1; ΔH = 4.32×104±801.1 cal/mol; ΔS = -108 cal/mol/deg. Interestingly, the specificity measurements suggest that the ERaptD4 internalizes into ERα-positive breast cancer cells in a target-selective manner and localizes specifically in the nuclear region. To harness these characteristics of ERaptD4 for detection of ERα expression in breast cancer samples, we performed the aptamer-assisted histochemical analysis of ERα in tissue samples from breast cancer patients. The results were validated by performing the immunohistochemistry on same samples with an ERα-antibody. We found that the two methods agree strongly in assay output (kappa value = 0.930, p-value <0.05 for strong ERα positive and the ERα negative samples; kappa value = 0.823, p-value <0.05 for the weak/moderate ER+ve samples, n = 20. Further, the aptamer stain the ERα-positive cells in breast tissues without cross-reacting to ERα-deficient fibroblasts, adipocytes, or the inflammatory cells. Our results demonstrate a significant consistency in the aptamer-assisted detection of ERα in strong ERα positive, moderate ERα positive and ERα negative

  6. Simulation-assisted technology assessment of an industrial X-ray source concept up to 1 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheis, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    A novel concept for a new generation of industrial X-ray sources up to 1MV is presented. A ceramic DC acceleration tube is directly connected to the high-voltage cascade within an SF6 pressure tank. Monte-Carlo simulations for specific applications reveal the relevant performance figures which are compared with measurements of a prototype. Design parameters and their mutual dependencies as well as technological performance limits can be investigated enabling efficient design optimizations. Thus, development projects can be advanced faster and much more focused. (orig.)

  7. On the Origin of Hobbes’s Conception of Language: The Literary Culture of English Renaissance Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hobbes' education in the literary culture of English Renaissance humanism has been overlooked as an important tradition in understanding his position in Early Modern Philosophy. Against the traditional readings of Hobbes' conception of language as a sequel to Medieval nominalism, I will argue that Hobbes' education in the literary culture of Renaissance humanism and his subsequent developments in this tradition would have allowed him to consider philosophical problems raised by new science in an original way and, thus, to introduce his innovative conception of language as the core of his solution to the problem of social and natural orders.

  8. Identifying Functional Requirements for Flexible Airspace Management Concept Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Bender, Kim; Pagan, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) is a mid- term Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept that allows dynamic changes to airspace configurations to meet the changes in the traffic demand. A series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) studies have identified procedures and decision support requirements needed to implement FAM. This paper outlines a suggested FAM procedure and associated decision support functionality based on these HITL studies. A description of both the tools used to support the HITLs and the planned NextGen technologies available in the mid-term are presented and compared. The mid-term implementation of several NextGen capabilities, specifically, upgrades to the Traffic Management Unit (TMU), the initial release of an en route automation system, the deployment of a digital data communication system, a more flexible voice communications network, and the introduction of a tool envisioned to manage and coordinate networked ground systems can support the implementation of the FAM concept. Because of the variability in the overall deployment schedule of the mid-term NextGen capabilities, the dependency of the individual NextGen capabilities are examined to determine their impact on a mid-term implementation of FAM. A cursory review of the different technologies suggests that new functionality slated for the new en route automation system is a critical enabling technology for FAM, as well as the functionality to manage and coordinate networked ground systems. Upgrades to the TMU are less critical but important nonetheless for FAM to be fully realized. Flexible voice communications network and digital data communication system could allow more flexible FAM operations but they are not as essential.

  9. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos; Coomarasamy, Arri; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2016-05-20

    Subfertility affects 15% of couples and represents the inability to conceive naturally following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction refers to procedures involving the in vitro handling of both human gametes and represents a key option for many subfertile couples. Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET) but the proportion of embryos that successfully implant following ET has remained small since the mid-1990s. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone synthesised and released by the syncytiotrophoblast and has a fundamental role in embryo implantation and the early stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine administration of synthetic or natural hCG via an ET catheter during a mock procedure around the time of ET is a novel approach that has recently been suggested to improve the outcomes of assisted reproduction. To investigate whether the intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET improves the clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We performed a comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, registers of ongoing trials andreference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews (from inception to 10 November 2015), in consultation with the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET in this review irrespective of language and country of origin. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data from studies and attempted to contact the authors where data were missing. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager 5 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

  10. Barcode tagging of human oocytes and embryos to prevent mix-ups in assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Sergi; Nogués, Carme; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Santaló, Josep; Gómez-Martínez, Rodrigo; Esteve, Jaume; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Lluïsa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of human oocytes and embryos during assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs)? The direct tagging system based on lectin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes of micrometric dimensions is simple, safe and highly efficient, allowing the identification of human oocytes and embryos during the various procedures typically conducted during an assisted reproduction cycle. Measures to prevent mismatching errors (mix-ups) of the reproductive samples are currently in place in fertility clinics, but none of them are totally effective and several mix-up cases have been reported worldwide. Using a mouse model, our group has previously developed an effective direct embryo tagging system which does not interfere with the in vitro and in vivo development of the tagged embryos. This system has now been tested in human oocytes and embryos. Fresh immature and mature fertilization-failed oocytes (n = 21) and cryopreserved day 1 embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (n = 205) were donated by patients (n = 76) undergoing ARTs. In vitro development rates, embryo quality and post-vitrification survival were compared between tagged (n = 106) and non-tagged (control) embryos (n = 99). Barcode retention and identification rates were also calculated, both for embryos and for oocytes subjected to a simulated ICSI and parthenogenetic activation. Experiments were conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Barcodes were fabricated in polysilicon and biofunctionalizated with wheat germ agglutinin lectin. Embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and cultured in vitro until the blastocyst stage, when they were either differentially stained with propidium iodide and Hoechst or vitrified using the Cryotop method. Embryo quality was also analyzed by embryo grading and time

  11. Scaffold-assisted cartilage tissue engineering using infant chondrocytes from human hip cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, P C; Gentili, C; Samans, B; Martinelli, D; Krüger, J P; Mittelmeier, W; Endres, M; Cancedda, R; Kaps, C

    2013-12-01

    Studies about cartilage repair in the hip and infant chondrocytes are rare. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of infant articular hip chondrocytes for tissue engineering of scaffold-assisted cartilage grafts. Hip cartilage was obtained from five human donors (age 1-10 years). Expanded chondrocytes were cultured in polyglycolic acid (PGA)-fibrin scaffolds. De- and re-differentiation of chondrocytes were assessed by histological staining and gene expression analysis of typical chondrocytic marker genes. In vivo, cartilage matrix formation was assessed by histology after subcutaneous transplantation of chondrocyte-seeded PGA-fibrin scaffolds in immunocompromised mice. The donor tissue was heterogenous showing differentiated articular cartilage and non-differentiated tissue and considerable expression of type I and II collagens. Gene expression analysis showed repression of typical chondrocyte and/or mesenchymal marker genes during cell expansion, while markers were re-induced when expanded cells were cultured in PGA-fibrin scaffolds. Cartilage formation after subcutaneous transplantation of chondrocyte loaded PGA-fibrin scaffolds in nude mice was variable, with grafts showing resorption and host cell infiltration or formation of hyaline cartilage rich in type II collagen. Addition of human platelet rich plasma (PRP) to cartilage grafts resulted robustly in formation of hyaline-like cartilage that showed type II collagen and regions with type X collagen. These results suggest that culture of expanded and/or de-differentiated infant hip cartilage cells in PGA-fibrin scaffolds initiates chondrocyte re-differentiation. The heterogenous donor tissue containing immature chondrocytes bears the risk of cartilage repair failure in vivo, which may be possibly overcome by the addition of PRP. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The infra-value of human rights in the context of assisted regulation in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Pérez, Rosa Verónica

    Infertility represents a problem in the context of reproductive health; to treat it were developed the techniques of assisted human reproduction, despite medical advances, the practice of techniques is subject to medical, legal and ethical dysfunctions. In Mexico, since the late 1980s assisted reproduction clinics were set up in public and private sector hospitals; however, they do not yet have a legal framework to regulate them in a specific way, which causes human rights violations that could be avoided with adequate regulation. This article advances the need to provide Mexico with such regulation as a means of guaranteeing both human rights and the rights of physicians and other health workers involved in these techniques. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  13. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Tomao, Valérie; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector--mass spectroscopy (UPLC-DAD-MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest β-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm(-2), temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of β-carotene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Individualised care for women with assisted conception pregnancies and midwifery practice implications: An analysis of the existing research and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mimi; Hollins-Martin, Caroline; Choucri, Lesley

    2015-02-01

    the aim is to explore the psychosocial needs of women who are pregnant after assisted conception, specifically in vitro Fertilisation and whether their needs are being addressed within the current maternity care service. critical review of the literature using a narrative approach. 15 papers were identified. These included both qualitative and quantitative studies, literature reviews and surveys. The findings of this limited narrative review imply that women who undergo assistive reproductive techniques to achieve pregnancy have higher levels of anxiety in pregnancy and may have some difficulties in the transition to parenthood leading to perinatal morbidity. It appears that for this group of women it is important that their history in achieving pregnancy is known to the care providers, to enable the alleviation of some of the anxieties they face. Various aspects of antenatal care have been identified as possible areas which if addressed may reduce these levels of anxiety leading to a reduction in perinatal morbidity. currently, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that providing specialist midwifery care reduces morbidity in these women. However, maternity service providers should consider offering additional antenatal and postnatal services to meet the needs of this group in advance of further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Raul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Methods Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. Results We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. Conclusion The assist

  16. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  17. Human Capital and Self-Entrepreneurship. The Concept of Robbed Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musio, Alessio

    2018-01-01

    The notions of ″human capital″ and ″self-entrepreneurship″ are by now widespread. The present work takes a critical look at their pervasive acceptance and stresses the self-exploitation to which they give rise. The concept of self-entrepreneurship needs to take into account, in fact, the nature of a revolution in temporal phenomenology. This revolution not only blurs the distinction between time dedicated to life and time dedicated to one's profession. It means that time spent on whatever is traditionally irrelevant to work is potentially time robbed from successful self-entrepreneurship. An analysis is made, lastly, of the relationship between body and ″bio-labor″, recognizable in the emergence of new forms of manual labor. Emblematic, in this sense, is gestational surrogacy. This provides an opportunity to rediscover the pregnancy of M. Foucault's biopolitical interpretation of neoliberalism as opposed to the more recent category of ″psychopolitics″ defined by B.C. Han. In the current scenario, indeed, the body maintains a role that remains as central as it is paradoxical, on account of its configuration as an ″entrepreneurial resource″.

  18. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  19. A Question of Agency: Applying Sen's Theory of Human Capability to the Concept of Secondary School Student Career "Choice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to operationalize Amartya Sen's concept of human capability to guide a scholarly investigation of student career choice capability. We begin by outlining factors affecting youth labour markets in Australia; a prosperous country that is affected by a "two-speed" national economy. We then examine recent government…

  20. Formal Criteria for the Concept of Human Flourishing: The First Step in Defending Flourishing as an Ideal Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Lynne S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human flourishing is the topic of an increasing number of books and articles in educational philosophy. Flourishing should be regarded as an ideal aim of education. If this is defended, the first step should be to elucidate what is meant by flourishing, and what exactly the concept entails. Listing formal criteria can facilitate reflection on the…

  1. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if

  2. Robotically Assisted Sonic Therapy as a Noninvasive Nonthermal Ablation Modality: Proof of Concept in a Porcine Liver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolock, Amanda R; Cristescu, Mircea M; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Green, Chelsey; Cannata, Jonathan; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Lee, Fred T

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of creating a clinically relevant hepatic ablation (ie, an ablation zone capable of treating a 2-cm liver tumor) by using robotically assisted sonic therapy (RAST), a noninvasive and nonthermal focused ultrasound therapy based on histotripsy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional animal use and care committee. Ten female pigs were treated with RAST in a single session with a prescribed 3-cm spherical treatment region and immediately underwent abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Three pigs (acute group) were sacrificed immediately following MR imaging. Seven pigs (chronic group) were survived for approximately 4 weeks and were reimaged with MR imaging immediately before sacrifice. Animals underwent necropsy and harvesting of the liver for histologic evaluation of the ablation zone. RAST ablations were performed with a 700-kHz therapy transducer. Student t tests were performed to compare prescribed versus achieved ablation diameter, difference of sphericity from 1, and change in ablation zone volume from acute to chronic imaging. Results Ablation zones had a sphericity index of 0.99 ± 0.01 (standard deviation) (P < .001 vs sphericity index of 1). Anteroposterior and transverse dimensions were not significantly different from prescribed (3.4 ± 0.7; P = .08 and 3.2 ± 0.8; P = .29, respectively). The craniocaudal dimension was significantly larger than prescribed (3.8 ± 1.1; P = .04), likely because of respiratory motion. The central ablation zone demonstrated complete cell destruction and a zone of partial necrosis. A fibrous capsule surrounded the ablation zone by 4 weeks. On 4-week follow-up images, ablation zone volumes decreased by 64% (P < .001). Conclusion RAST is capable of producing clinically relevant ablation zones in a noninvasive manner in a porcine model. © RSNA, 2018.

  3. A new mechatronic assistance system for the neurosurgical operating theatre: implementation, assessment of accuracy and application concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinger, Jens; Bumm, Klaus; Wurm, Jochen; Bohr, Christopher; Nissen, Urs; Dannenmann, Tim; Buchfelder, Michael; Iro, Heinrich; Nimsky, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    To introduce a new robotic system to the field of neurosurgery and report on a preliminary assessment of accuracy as well as on envisioned application concepts. Based on experience with another system (Evolution 1, URS Inc., Schwerin, Germany), technical advancements are discussed. The basic module is an industrial 6 degrees of freedom robotic arm with a modified control element. The system combines frameless stereotaxy, robotics, and endoscopy. The robotic reproducibility error and the overall error were evaluated. For accuracy testing CT markers were placed on a cadaveric head and pinpointed with the robot's tool tip, both fully automated and telemanipulatory. Applicability in a clinical setting, user friendliness, safety and flexibility were assessed. The new system is suitable for use in the neurosurgical operating theatre. Hard- and software are user-friendly and flexible. The mean reproducibility error was 0.052-0.062 mm, the mean overall error was 0.816 mm. The system is less cumbersome and much easier to use than the Evolution 1. With its user-friendly interface and reliable safety features, its high application accuracy and flexibility, the new system is a versatile robotic platform for various neurosurgical applications. Adaptations for different applications are currently being realized. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Microwave assisted step-by-step process for the production of fucoidan, alginate sodium, sugars and biochar from Ascophyllum nodosum through a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    The biorefinery is an important concept for the development of alternative routes to a range of interesting and important materials from renewable resources. It ensures that the resources are used fully and that all parts of them are valorized. This paper develops this concept, using brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum as an example, by assistance of microwave technology. A step-by-step process was designed to obtain fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar (alga residue) consecutively. The yields of fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar were 14.09%, 18.24%, 10.87% and 21.44%, respectively. To make an evaluation of the biorefinery process, seaweed sample was also treated for fucoidan extraction only, alginate extraction only and hydrothermal treatment for sugars and biochar only. The chemical composition and properties of each product were also analyzed. The results indicated that A. nodosum could be potentially used as feedstock for a biorefinery process to produce valuable chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Congenital Abnormalities of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques versus Infants with Natural Conception in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangniya, Mansoureh; Dortaj Rabori, Eshagh; Mozafari Kermani, Ramin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Bahrampour, Abbas; Bagheri, Pezhman; A L Lancaster, Paul; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan

    2013-10-01

    In many countries, 1 to 3% of newborn infants are conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Despite the success of ART, there is concern about the risk of congenital malformations among these infants. We report our experience to determine whether use of ART is associated with an increase in major congenital malformations or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM) was performed in 978 births from January 2008 to December 2010. The data for this analysis were derived from a Tehran's ART linked data file by simple sampling method. In our study, the risk of congenital malformations was compared in 326 ART infants and 652 naturally conceived (NC) infants. We also performed multiple logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the independent association of ART on each outcome. We found 56 infants with major congenital malformations, these included 29 NC infants (4.4%) and 27 ART infants (8.3%). In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 1.94-fold increased risk of MCM.After adjustment for maternal age, infant's sex stillbirth, abortion and type of delivery, we found a relatively small difference in risk (OR=2.04). In this study the majority (94.3%) of all infants were normal but 5.7% of infants had at least one MCM. The prevalence rate for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was 6.5% for the In vitro fertilisation (IVF) group was 15.9% or 2.73-fold higher than ICSI group (P=0.018). Also we ignore the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Other studies have shown a slightly increased risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies resulting from ART. Likewise, this study reports a greater risk of MCMs in ART infants than in naturally conceived infants. We also found evidence of a difference in risk of MCMs between IVF and ICSI. Musculoskeletal and urogenital

  6. Analytic concepts for assessing risk as applied to human space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles provide an effective framework for quantifying individual elements of risk, including the risk to astronauts and spacecraft of the radiation environment of space flight. The concept of QRA is based on a structured set of scenarios that could lead to different damage states initiated by either hardware failure, human error, or external events. In the context of a spacecraft risk assessment, radiation may be considered as an external event and analyzed in the same basic way as any other contributor to risk. It is possible to turn up the microscope on any particular contributor to risk and ask more detailed questions than might be necessary to simply assess safety. The methods of QRA allow for as much fine structure in the analysis as is desired. For the purpose of developing a basis for comprehensive risk management and considering the tendency to open-quotes fear anything nuclear,close quotes radiation risk is a prime candidate for examination beyond that necessary to answer the basic question of risk. Thus, rather than considering only the customary damage states of fatalities or loss of a spacecraft, it is suggested that the full range of damage be analyzed to quantify radiation risk. Radiation dose levels in the form of a risk curve accomplish such a result. If the risk curve is the complementary cumulative distribution function, then it answers the extended question of what is the likelihood of receiving a specific dose of radiation or greater. Such results can be converted to specific health effects as desired. Knowing the full range of the radiation risk of a space mission and the contributors to that risk provides the information necessary to take risk management actions [operational, design, scheduling of missions around solar particle events (SPE), etc.] that clearly control radiation exposure

  7. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  8. A Concept Analysis of Attitude toward Getting Vaccinated against Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.; Chai, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    In the research literature, the concept of attitude has been used and presented widely. However, attitude has been inconsistently defined and measured in various terms. This paper presents a concept analysis, using the Wilsonian methods modified by Walker and Avant (2004), to define and clarify the concept of attitude in order to provide an operationalized definition for a research study on attitudes toward a behavior: getting vaccinated against HPV. While the finding is not conclusive, three attributes of attitude: belief, affection, and evaluation are described. A theoretical definition and sample cases are constructed to illustrate the concept further. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are discussed. Recommendations regarding the use of the concept of attitude in research, nursing practice, and nursing education are also made. PMID:23781335

  9. Culture media for human pre-implantation embryos in assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed M A; Mantikou, Eleni; van Wely, Madelon; Van der Veen, Fulco; Al-Inany, Hesham G; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2015-11-20

    Many media are commercially available for culturing pre-implantation human embryos in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. It is unknown which culture medium leads to the best success rates after ART. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of different human pre-implantation embryo culture media in used for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the National Research Register, the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Register and the NHS Center for Reviews and Dissemination databases from January 1985 to March 2015. We also examined the reference lists of all known primary studies, review articles, citation lists of relevant publications and abstracts of major scientific meetings. We included all randomised controlled trials which randomised women, oocytes or embryos and compared any two commercially available culture media for human pre-implantation embryos in an IVF or ICSI programme. Two review authors independently selected the studies, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data. We sought additional information from the authors if necessary. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. The primary review outcome was live birth or ongoing pregnancy. We included 32 studies in this review. Seventeen studies randomised women (total 3666), three randomised cycles (total 1018) and twelve randomised oocytes (over 15,230). It was not possible to pool any of the data because each study compared different culture media.Only seven studies reported live birth or ongoing pregnancy. Four of these studies found no evidence of a difference between the media compared, for either day three or day five embryo transfer. The data from the fifth study did not appear reliable

  10. GP-support by means of AGnES-practice assistants and the use of telecare devices in a sparsely populated region in Northern Germany – proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scriba Sibylle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many rural regions in Germany, the proportion of the elderly population increases rapidly. Simultaneously, about one-third of the presently active GPs will retire until 2010. Often it is difficult to find successors for vacant GP-practices. These regions require innovative concepts to avoid the imminent shortage in primary health care. The AGnES-concept comprises the delegation of GP-home visits to qualified AGnES-practice assistants (AGnES: GP-supporting, community-based, e-health-assisted, systemic intervention. Main objectives were the assessment of the acceptance of the AGnES-concept by the participating GPs, patients, and AGnES-practice assistants, the kind of delegated tasks, and the feasibility of home telecare in a GP-practice. Methods In this paper, we report first results of the implementation of this concept in regular GP-practices, conducted November 2005 – March 2007 on the Island of Rügen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. This study was meant as a proof of concept. The GP delegated routine home-visits to qualified practice employees (here: registered nurses. Eligible patients were provided with telecare-devices to monitor disease-related physiological values. All delegated tasks, modules conducted and questionnaire responses were documented. The participating patients were asked for their acceptance based on standardized questionnaires. The GPs and AGnES-practice assistants were asked for their judgement about different project components, the quality of health care provision and the competences of the AGnES-practice assistants. Results 550 home visits were conducted. 105 patients, two GPs and three AGnES-practice assistants (all registered nurses participated in the project. 48 patients used telecare-devices to monitor health parameters. 87.4% of the patients accepted AGnES-care as comparable to common GP-care. In the course of the project, the GPs delegated an increasing number of both monitoring

  11. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes. A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students’ satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students’ satisfaction. Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01). This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was

  12. Human-robot interaction tests on a novel robot for gait assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents tests on a treadmill-based non-anthropomorphic wearable robot assisting hip and knee flexion/extension movements using compliant actuation. Validation experiments were performed on the actuators and on the robot, with specific focus on the evaluation of intrinsic backdrivability and of assistance capability. Tests on a young healthy subject were conducted. In the case of robot completely unpowered, maximum backdriving torques were found to be in the order of 10 Nm due to the robot design features (reduced swinging masses; low intrinsic mechanical impedance and high-efficiency reduction gears for the actuators). Assistance tests demonstrated that the robot can deliver torques attracting the subject towards a predicted kinematic status.

  13. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Herrero, Stephen; Shideler, Richard T.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human–bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, we suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human–bear management and use them in a consistent manner. We constructed a human–bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human–bear management agencies. Specifically, we defined 40 terms and concepts in human–bear management and suggest definitions based on discussions with 13 other professionals from the United States and Canada. Although new terms and concepts will emerge in the future and definitions will evolve as we learn more about bear behavior and ecology, our purpose is to suggest working definitions for terms and concepts to help guide human–bear management and research activities in North America. Applications or revisions of these definitions may be useful outside of North America.

  14. Skulls and Human Evolution: The Use of Casts of Anthropoid Skulls in Teaching Concepts of Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipps, John

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the use of a series of 11 casts of fossil skulls as a method of teaching about the theory of human evolution. Students explore the questions of which skulls are "human" and which came first in Homo Sapien development, large brain or upright stance. (MDH)

  15. Carbon nanotubes-assisted polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for enhanced separation of human serum proteins and application in liverish diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fubin; Wang, Yanan; Hu, Xinfang; Shao, Na; Na, Na; Delanghe, Joris R; Ouyang, Jin

    2010-11-01

    The application of pore-gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PG-PAGE) incorporated with carbon nanotube modified by Triton X-100 and carboxylation so as to improve the separation of human serum proteins is reported. The novel PG-PAGE was made by adding water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) when preparing the polyacrylamide gel. Significant improvements in separation of complement C3 protein and haptoglobin (Hp) in human serum were achieved. It was estimated that the interactions between the hydrophilic groups on the proteins and the surface of the CNTs result in different adsorption kinetics of complement C3 and Hp subtype on the nanoparticles incorporated in the gel, thus enhancing the separation of the two proteins in serum. This new CNT matrix-assisted PG-PAGE method for enhanced separation of complement C3 and Hp in human serum was successfully applied to distinguish the samples from liverish patients and healthy people.

  16. Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC)'s Members and Assistants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — List of members of the Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC): Federal Chief Human Capital Officers (CHCOs) and Deputy CHCOs, as well as the council's chair,...

  17. A map to a new treasure island: the human genome and the concept of common heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1998-06-01

    While the 1970's have been called the environmental years, the 1990's could be seen as the genome years. As the challenge to map and to sequence the human genome mobilized the scientific community, risks and benefits of information and uses that would derive from this project have also raised ethical issues at the international level. The particular interest of the 1997 UNESCO Declaration relies on the fact that it emphasizes both the scientific importance of genetics and the appropriate reinforcement of human rights in this area. It considers the human genome, at least symbolically, as the common heritage of humanity.

  18. Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.; Hadjieva

    2003-01-01

    The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

  19. Dilemma of concepts and strategies for the prevention of spread of HIV in relation to human behavior, law and human rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennin, Reinhard H.; Lafrenz, Michael; Sinn, Arndt; Li, Lan-juan

    2011-01-01

    The new prevalence data regarding the estimated global number of human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) cases, i.e., including people who are either aware or unaware of their HIV infection in 2010, lead many to wonder why the increase in incidence has reached today’s unprecedented level and escalated within such a short time. This, in spite of prevention campaigns in countries affected by HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with their urgent messages aimed at preventing HIV transmission by promoting changes in individual’s behavior. This article analyzes the background of the prevention strategies, in particular their political, social and legal concepts in terms of human rights, and reveals traits of human behavior not considered thus far. A radical reappraisal is necessary, at social and legislative levels, as well as options additional to current concepts. When ethical issues come up, they become blamed for outmoded moralistic positions. However, ignoring the reality has led to dire consequences from prioritizing individual human rights over society’s collective need to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:21726067

  20. Canine assisted reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sever, Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis presents various aspects of animals included in animal-assisted interventions. In theoretical part, I introduced different possible ways of animal-assisted interventions: animal-assisted therapy, animal-assisted activities and animal-assisted education. Animals became common visitors in educational settings all over the world. I presented positive influences on various aspects of human life, as well limitations when animal-assisted interventions are not possible to perform ...

  1. Hybrid Assistive Limb Exoskeleton HAL in the Rehabilitation of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Proof of Concept; the Results in 21 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Oliver; Grasmuecke, Dennis; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Wessling, Martin; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Fisahn, Christian; Aach, Mirko

    2018-02-01

    The use of mobile exoskeletons is becoming more and more common in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton provides a tailored support depending on the patient's voluntary drive. After a pilot study in 2014 that included 8 patients with chronic SCI, this study of 21 patients with chronic SCI serves as a proof of concept. It was conducted to provide further evidence regarding the efficacy of exoskeletal-based rehabilitation. Functional assessment included walking speed, distance, and time on a treadmill, with additional analysis of functional mobility using the following tests: 10-meter walk test (10MWT), timed up and go (TUG) test, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and the walking index for SCI II (WISCI-II) score. After a training period of 90 days, all 21 patients significantly improved their functional and ambulatory mobility without the exoskeleton. Patients were assessed by the 6MWT, the TUG test, and the 10MWT, which also indicated an increase in the WISCI-II score along with significant improvements in HAL-associated walking speed, distance, and time. Although, exoskeletons are not yet an established treatment in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries, the devices will play a more important role in the future. The HAL exoskeleton training enables effective, body weight-supported treadmill training and is capable of improving ambulatory mobility. Future controlled studies are required to enable a comparison of the new advances in the field of SCI rehabilitation with traditional over-ground training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    of labour intensive processes and a systematic underestimation of environmental impacts has implications for decision-making. A brief review of the evaluation of human labour in ESAs reveals that only Emergy Assessment (EmA) accounts for labour as standard. Focussing on EmA, we find, however......Human labour is central to the functioning of any human-influenced process. Nevertheless, Environmental Sustainability Assessments (ESAs) do not systematically include human labour as an input. Systematic omission of labour inputs in ESAs may constitute an unfortunate, significant bias in favour......, that there is no agreement on the calculation method for labour. We formalise the calculation of human labour unit emergy values (UEVs) as being the ratio between the emergy resource basis of the labour system and a proxy for labour, with or without allocation to account for different qualities of labour. The formalised...

  3. An intelligent human-machine system based on an ecological interface design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, N.

    1995-01-01

    It seems both necessary and promising to develop an intelligent human-machine system, considering the objective of the human-machine system and the recent advance in cognitive engineering and artificial intelligence together with the ever-increasing importance of human factor issues in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance. It should support human operators in their knowledge-based behaviour and allow them to cope with unanticipated abnormal events, including recovery from erroneous human actions. A top-down design approach has been adopted based on cognitive work analysis, and (1) an ecological interface, (2) a cognitive model-based advisor and (3) a robust automatic sequence controller have been established. These functions have been integrated into an experimental control room. A validation test was carried out by the participation of experienced operators and engineers. The results showed the usefulness of this system in supporting the operator's supervisory plant control tasks. ((orig.))

  4. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  5. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  6. Assisted suicide: Models of legal regulation in selected European countries and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Claudia; Grosse, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents three different models of the legal regulation of assisted suicide in European countries. First, the current legal regime governing assisted suicide in the Netherlands is described where both euthanasia and assisted suicide have been legalised. This section also includes some empirical data on euthanasia and assisted-suicide practices in the Netherlands, as well as a comparison with the current legal legislation in Belgium and Luxembourg. Next, Switzerland is presented as a country where euthanasia is punishable by law but assisted suicide is legally allowed, provided it is not carried out with selfish motives. This section also focuses on the assisted-suicide-related case law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Last, the current legal situation regarding assisted suicide in Austria and Germany is described. While the Austrian Penal Code explicitly prohibits assisted suicide, assistance with suicide is not specifically regulated by the German Penal Code. However, medical doctors are not allowed to assist suicides according to the professional codes of conduct drawn up by the German medical associations under the supervision of the health authorities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Development and evaluation of a hypermedia system that integrates basic concepts of mechanics, biomechanics and human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Rezende

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the modeling of a hypermedia learning system (called “Biomec” that integrates physical, biomechanical and anatomical concepts involved in the human motion and a study carried out with undergraduate students who interacted with the system. The instructional design of the “Biomec” hypermedia system was developed on the basis of a theoretical framework which articulates the Cognitive Flexibility Theory and the interdisciplinary approach to knowledge. The system was evaluated based on its use by students of Biomechanics I and Kinesiology in a Pre Service Teachers Training Course of Physical Education aiming to discuss the following questions: (i what is its impact on the students’ attitude related to Physics? (ii in what extent does the hypertextual approach to the content favor the interdisciplinary conception of human motion? (iii in what extent do the students’ navigation profiles adapt to conceptual needs of the different disciplines of the course? The students answered instruments that assessed affective and cognitive aspects before and after the interaction with the system, and had their navigation registered and analyzed. The set of data obtained allowed to conclude that the “Biomec” system is a relevant instructional material, capable of positively influence the students’ attitude related to Physics, to favor the interdisciplinary approach of human motion and to attend the students enrolled in Biomechanics I better than the students enrolled in Kinesiology.

  8. Energy Optimal Trajectories in Human Arm Motion Aiming for Assistive Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelai Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy expenditure in human arm has been of great interests for seeking optimal human arm trajectories. This paper presents a new way for calculating metabolic energy consumption of human arm motions. The purpose is to reveal the relationship between the energy consumption and the trajectory of arm motion, and further, the acceleration and arm orientation contributions. Human arm motion in horizontal plane is investigated by virtue of Qualisys motion capture system. The motion data is post-processed by a biomechanical model to obtain the metabolic expenditure. Results on the arm motion kinematics, dynamics and metabolic energy consumption, are included.

  9. Developing an Adaptive Robotic Assistant for Close-Proximity Human-Robot Interaction in Space Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As mankind continues making strides in space exploration and associated technologies, the frequency, duration, and complexity of human space exploration missions...

  10. Emerging Concepts for Integrating Human and Environmental Water Needs in River Basin Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petts, Geoff; Kennedy, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The key to successful water and river management is the advancement of holistic approaches that seek to benefit human societies by sustaining the full range of resources created by rivers, including...

  11. The mission execution crew assistant : Improving human-machine team resilience for long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Grant, T.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars set high operational, human factors and technical demands for a distributed support system, which enhances human-machine teams' capabilities to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. Based on a situated

  12. The Potential of Peer Robots to Assist Human Creativity in Finding Problems and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Many technological artifacts (e.g., humanoid robots, computer agents) consist of biologically inspired features of human-like appearance and behaviors that elicit a social response. The strong social components of technology permit people to share information and ideas with these artifacts. As robots cross the boundaries between humans and…

  13. Principle of an operational complexity index for the characterization of the human factor relevance of future reactors concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant : in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future nuclear reactors to consider the minimisation of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design : the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the reactor are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of Pressurized Water Reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (Author)

  14. [Assisted human reproduction techniques: determination of parentage and users in comparative law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Zurriaráin, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The paper undertakes the determination of parentage and users of assisted reproduction techniques in comparative law, particularly in three European Union countries: Italy, France and Spain. The idea of artificially conceived child protection, present in the Italian provision, is substituted, partially in French law, and totally in Spanish law, by an exclusively individualistic outlook, configuring a true ″right to maternity″ for married women and for those not living with a male partner (single women, divorced or widowed) or with a female partner (lesbians), and for women inseminated artificially by the semen of the husband before or after their death, and for women already having culminated their fertile life.

  15. Mind and body: concepts of human cognition, physiology and false belief in children with autism or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(4), 579-600], most children with autism correctly understood the functions of the brain (84%) and the mind (64%). Their explanations were predominantly mentalistic. They outperformed typically developing preschoolers in understanding inner physiological (heart, lungs) and cognitive (brain, mind) systems, and scored as high as age-matched typical children. Yet, in line with much previous ToM research, most children with autism (60%) failed false belief, and their ToM performance was unrelated to their understanding of. human biology. Results were discussed in relation to neurobiological and social-experiential accounts of the ToM deficit in autism.

  16. The Correlation of Metacognition with Critical Thinking Skills of Grade XI Students on Human Excretion System Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Diella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to reveal metacognition and critical thinking skill of students grade XI, and also the correlation between metacognition with crititical thinking skill on human excretion system. The participants of this study consist of 100 students from grade XI of five different high schools in Tasikmalaya. Correlational method was used in this study. Instruments which used to obtain the data consist of metacognition test and critical thinking test. The students' metacognition was captured with the essay item related to the human excretion system concept. The multiple choice-reason item and essay item was used to capture the critical thinking skills. The results showed that students’ score at metacognition and critical thinking have a low average. The results also proved that metacognition has a positive correlation and moderately strong with critical thinking skills

  17. PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR A HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HEURISTIC USABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble

    2005-01-01

    An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or ''discount'' methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining human centered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI

  18. Mathematical modelling as a proof of concept for MPNs as a human inflammation model for cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Andersen

    Full Text Available The chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are acquired stem cell neoplasms which ultimately may transform to acute myelogenous leukemia. Most recently, chronic inflammation has been described as an important factor for the development and progression of MPNs in the biological continuum from early cancer stage to the advanced myelofibrosis stage, the MPNs being described as "A Human Inflammation Model for Cancer Development". This novel concept has been built upon clinical, experimental, genomic, immunological and not least epidemiological studies. Only a few studies have described the development of MPNs by mathematical models, and none have addressed the role of inflammation for clonal evolution and disease progression. Herein, we aim at using mathematical modelling to substantiate the concept of chronic inflammation as an important trigger and driver of MPNs.The basics of the model describe the proliferation from stem cells to mature cells including mutations of healthy stem cells to become malignant stem cells. We include a simple inflammatory coupling coping with cell death and affecting the basic model beneath. First, we describe the system without feedbacks or regulatory interactions. Next, we introduce inflammatory feedback into the system. Finally, we include other feedbacks and regulatory interactions forming the inflammatory-MPN model. Using mathematical modeling, we add further proof to the concept that chronic inflammation may be both a trigger of clonal evolution and an important driving force for MPN disease progression. Our findings support intervention at the earliest stage of cancer development to target the malignant clone and dampen concomitant inflammation.

  19. Eco-friendly ionic liquid assisted capillary electrophoresis and α-acid glycoprotein-assisted liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of anticancer drugs in human fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hady, Deia; Albishri, Hassan M; Rengarajan, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    In the current work, two eco-friendly analytical methods based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were developed for simultaneous determination of the most commonly used anticancer drugs for Hodgkin's disease: methotrexate (MTX), vinblastine, chlorambucil and dacarbazine. A background electrolyte (BGE) of 12.5 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 0.1 µmol/L 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide (BMImBr) ionic liquid (IL) was used for CE measurements at 250 nm detection wavelength, 20 kV applied voltage and 25 °C. The rinsing protocol was significantly improved to reduce the adsorption of IL on the interior surface of capillary. Moreover, RPLC method was developed on α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column. Mobile phase was 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (100% v/v) and flow rate at 0.1 mL/min. As AGP is a chiral column, it was successfully separated l-MTX from its enantiomer impurity d-MTX. Good linearity of quantitative analysis was achieved with coefficients of determinations (r(2) ) >0.995. The stability of drugs measurements was investigated with adequate recoveries up to 24 h storage time under ambient temperature. The limits of detection were <50 and 90 ng/mL by CE and RPLC, respectively. The using of short-chain IL as an additive in BGE achieved 600-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with conventional Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE). Therefore, for the first time, the proposed methods were successfully applied to determine simultaneously the analytes in human plasma and urine samples at clinically relevant concentrations with fast and simple pretreatments. Developed IL-assisted CE and RPLC methods were also applied to measure MTX levels in patients' samples over time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [The 14/2006 law on human assisted reproduction techniques: scientific and ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacadena, Juan-Ramón

    2006-01-01

    The new Spanish Law on Artificial Human Reproduction Techniques is analyzed from the scientific, ethical and legal points of view, paying special attention to the preimplantational diagnosis and the experimental utilization of gametes and preembryos. Other items are also analyzed.

  1. The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Combined with Peer Tutoring towards Learning Achievement on Human Digestive System Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abadiyah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept. This research was conducted at one of State Senior High School in South Tangerang in the academic year of 2016/2017. The research method was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-postest control group design. The sample was taken by simple random sampling. The total of the sampels were 86 students which consisted of 44 students as a controlled group and 42 students as an experimental group. The research instrument was objective test which consisted of 25 multiple choice items of each pretest and posttest. The research also used observation sheets for teacher and students activity. The result of data analysis using t-test on the two groups show that the value of tcount was 2.40 and ttable was 1.99 on significant level α = 0,05, so that tcount > ttable.. This result indicated that there was influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept.

  2. Human rights, democracy and rule of law: Different organisations, different conceptions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, A.S.H.; Sosa, L.P.A.; Häusler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents an exploration of different conceptualisations of human rights, democracy and the rule of law within international organisations. The report focuses on the United Nations, the African Union, the League of Arab States and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. The eventual aim

  3. Human rights, Indigenous peoples and the concept of Free, Prior and Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, F.

    2013-01-01

    The human right to self-determination is enacted in various international treaties and conventions. In order to facilitate self-determination, it is necessary to provide Indigenous peoples with opportunities to participate in decision-making and project development. The obligation for governments

  4. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexandrov, A.V.; Lippi, V.; Mergner, T.; Frolov, A. A.; Hettich, G.; Húsek, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, 25 April (2017), č. článku 22. ISSN 1662-5188 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : human sensorimotor system * neuromechanics * biorobotics * motor control * eigenmovements Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Robotics and automatic control Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2016

  5. NASA's Use of Human Behavior Models for Concept Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    Overview of NASA's use of computational approaches and methods to support research goals, of human performance models, with a focus on examples of the methods used in Code TH and TI at NASA Ames, followed by an in depth review of MIDAS' current FAA work.

  6. An exploration of person-centred concepts in human services: A thematic analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Rebecca A; Buchanan, Angus

    2017-10-01

    Being 'person-centred' in the delivery of health and human services has become synonymous with quality care, and it is a core feature of policy reform in Australia and other Western countries. This research aimed to identify the uses, definitions and characteristics of the term 'person-centred' in the ageing, mental health and disability literature. A thematic analysis identified seven common core themes of person-centredness: honouring the person, being in relationship, facilitating participation and engagement, social inclusion/citizenship, experiencing compassionate love, being strengths/capacity focussed, and organisational characteristics. These suggest a set of higher-order experiences for people that are translated differently in different human services. There is no common definition of what it means to be person-centred, despite being a core feature of contemporary health and human service policy, and this suggests that its inclusion facilitates further misunderstanding and misinterpretation. A common understanding and policy conceptualisation of person-centredness is likely to support quality outcomes in service delivery especially where organisations work across human service groups. Further research into the application and service expressions of being 'person-centred' in context is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Sartre-Heidegger Controversy on Humanism and the Concept of Man in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkori, Leena; Huttunen, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Paul Sartre claims in his 1945 lecture "Existentialism is a Humanism" that there are two kinds of existentialism: that of Christians like Karl Jaspers, and atheistic like Martin Heidegger. Sartre's "spiritual master" Heidegger had no problem with Sartre defining him as an atheist, but he had serious problems with Sartre's…

  8. Analog Testing of Operations Concepts for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Miller, Matthew J.; Halcon, Christopher; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of varying operations concepts and tasks type and complexity on representative communication latencies associated with Mars missions were studied. METHODS: 12 subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science backroom team (SBT) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were planned in advance based on precursor data collected. Subjects completed science-related tasks including presampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, SBT assimilation time (defined as time available for SBT to discuss data/imagery after it has been collected, in addition to the time taken to watch imagery streaming over latency). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that

  9. Human or superhuman: The concept of hero in ancient Greek religion and/in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The word hero appears in Greek language with a twofold meaning. On one hand it is used for denoting a divine being, who lived a mortal life, but after doing some great deed deserved to become god. On the other hand, the hero stands for great and brave warrior who is ready to give his life in order to gain immortal glory, and continue to live in the social sphere, in the memory of his descendants. Exactly this epic narrative survived and was exploited many times, as a very convenient and useful pattern in con strutting the ideal of brave warrior, ready to die for his country when necessary. I am going to requisition the relation between two meanings of the word hero, in order to get deeper insight in the meaning of this twofold term in the social and cultural context in which it appears, as a religious concept or as a narrative in war propaganda.

  10. A Human Rights Perspective of Assisted Suicide: Accounting for Disparate Jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stevie S

    2018-02-01

    This article critically examines the decision of the New Zealand High Court in Seales v Attorney-General [2015] NZHC 1239, which rejected the claim that that country's blanket ban on assisted suicide violated various rights enshrined in the New Zealand Bill of Rights. That outcome runs contrary to the Canadian Supreme Court's decision in Carter v Canada (Attorney General) [2015] 1 SCR 331. This disparity in result arose despite overt similarities between the rights documents in each of the jurisdictions and, more significantly, notwithstanding the fact that the trial judge in Seales placed heavy reliance upon the decision in Carter. With two new challenges to the blanket ban on assisted suicide in England and Wales progressing through the lower courts, and given proposed amendments to the ban in both New Zealand and its antipodean neighbours - the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales - it is a propitious time to consider the reasons for the disparate outcomes in Seales and Carter. This article will demonstrate that the trial judge's reasoning in Seales was wanting in a number of important respects, particularly in terms of the characterisation of the objective of the blanket ban. These limitations undermine the decision's utility as authority both domestically and internationally. This is particularly important given the high likelihood that reference will be made to the decision during debate in the New Zealand Parliament regarding amendments to the ban in that country and the possibility that the Legislatures in Victoria and New South Wales, as well as the English courts hearing the current challenges to the ban in that jurisdiction will, particularly given the shared common law background, refer to the judgment in Seales.

  11. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  12. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton.

  13. Integrating internal communications, human resource management and marketing concepts into the new internal marketing philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinčić, Dubravka; Pološki Vokić, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Successful companies attach great importance to human resource management and internal communications, because they are aware of the value of those activities and of strategic advantage they can bring to the organization. They should also realize that it is necessary to live internal marketing philosophy, if they stream to offer quality products and services to both markets: internal and external. The idea of satisfied employees for the benefit of satisfied customers is accepted and developed...

  14. Concepts for Contemporary Social Work: Globalization, Oppression, Social Exclusion, Human Rights, Etc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The society wrestles with mass social change congruent with economic globalization and the communications revolution. This change creates new challenges for the social work profession in the areas of social and economic justice. This article analyzes the terminology of the new global era, words that signify a paradigm shift in outlook, most of them a reaction to the new authoritarianism of the age. Globalization, oppression, social exclusion, human rights, harm reduction, and restorative justice are the representative terms chosen.

  15. Proof-of-concept: 3D bioprinting of pigmented human skin constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Long; Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win

    2018-01-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.

  16. Assisted living: a place to manage uncertainty. The ambiguity of assisted living is unavoidable because residents' needs are always changing. The Wheat Valley example is used to examine this concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J

    2005-01-01

    The assisted living environment lacks the satisfying clarity of the consumer model (a stay at the Holiday Inn) or the medical model (the hospital or nursing home). Yet the ambiguity of assisted living is unavoidable because it shelters individuals whose needs are changing, the model of care requires extensive negotiation with residents, and staff members must continually compromise as they implement the principles. Assisted living is a place where uncertainty is managed, not resolved. This indicates a need for the further pursuit of qualitative research, such as reported by these articles and others (e.g., Carder, 2002), to explore how participants construct, make sense of, and interpret their daily experience in assisted living.

  17. Exploring the Human Element of Computer-Assisted Language Learning: An Iranian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi Jahromi, Seyed Abolghasseminits; Salimi, Farimah

    2013-01-01

    Based on various theories of human agency (Ajzen, I. (2005). "Attitudes, personality and behavior" (2nd ed.). London: Open University Press; Davis, F.D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. "MIS Quarterly", 13, 319-340; Rogers, E.M. (1983). "Diffusion of…

  18. Human factors study of driver assistance systems to reduce lane departures and side collision accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the human factors issues related to the implementation of lane departure warning systems (LDWS) to reduce side collision and run-off-road crashes for heavy trucks. Lane departures can be either intentional (e.g., to pass anoth...

  19. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  20. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. The Administration on Aging, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers these suggestions to help you ...

  1. Mean inactivation dose: a useful concept for intercomparison of human cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertil, B.; Dertinger, H.; Courdi, A.; Malaise, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    The mean inactivation dose (anti D) is calculated for published in vitro survival curves obtained from cell lines of both normal and neoplastic human tissues. Cells belonging to different histological categories (melanomas, carcinomas, etc.) are shown to be characterized by distinct values of anti D which are related to the clinical radiosensitivity of tumors from these categories. Compared to other ways of representing in vitro radiosensitivity, e.g., by the multitarget parameters D 8 and n, the parameter anti D has several specific advantages

  2. Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains.

  3. Induction and adaptation of chaperone-assisted selective autophagy CASA in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Anna; Gehlert, Sebastian; Leciejewski, Barbara; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Höhfeld, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) is a tension-induced degradation pathway essential for muscle maintenance. Impairment of CASA causes childhood muscle dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. However, the importance of CASA for muscle function in healthy individuals has remained elusive so far. Here we describe the impact of strength training on CASA in a group of healthy and moderately trained men. We show that strenuous resistance exercise causes an acute induction of CASA in affected muscles to degrade mechanically damaged cytoskeleton proteins. Moreover, repeated resistance exercise during 4 wk of training led to an increased expression of CASA components. In human skeletal muscle, CASA apparently acts as a central adaptation mechanism that responds to acute physical exercise and to repeated mechanical stimulation.

  4. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology.

  5. [Modern conceptions about the possible impact of palm oil on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components and adverse effects on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. PO is solid or semisolid at room temperature and often is used as a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which increase risks of hypercholesteremia. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats as well as substances with antioxidant activity. Taking into account the lipid theory of atherosclerosis pathogenesis, and sn-2 hypothesis, PO was compared with other vegetable oils, like olive, sunflower or soybean oils, and did not show great differences in changes of LDL, HDL or total cholesterol levels. Comparison of diets rich in PO with diets rich in trans fatty acids shows improvement of lipid profiles in groups with PO, and serves as a basis for replacement of trans fatty acids in food with PO and its fractions. In addition to fatty acids content, PO contains several phytonutrients including 4 forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, sterols, and some others. Most of these compounds are considered beneficial for human health, mainly on account of their antioxidant activity. It is concluded that PO is safe component of food, when we pay attention to the rather high content of saturated fats in it.

  6. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The medicalization of love and narrow and broad conceptions of human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something intrinsically regrettable about medicalizing love. It is argued here that the medicalization of love can be seen as an "evaluative category mistake": it treats a core human value (love) as if it were mainly a means to other ends (viz. physical health and hedonic well-being). It is also argued that Earp et al's closing argument (that a scientific perspective on love actually adds more value to love) can be seen as involving another evaluative category mistake: it treats an object of desire and practical interest (namely, love) as if it mainly were an object of scientific contemplation and theoretical interest. It is concluded that, to relate love to health and well-being in a more satisfying way, we should construe the latter two in broader ways, whereby love is itself a component or element of human flourishing.

  8. Commercially-driven human interplanetary propulsion systems: Rationale, concept, technology, and performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Borowski, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies of human interplanetary missions are largely characterized by long trip times, limited performance capabilities, and enormous costs. Until these missions become dramatically more open-quote open-quote commercial-friendly close-quote close-quote, their funding source and rationale will be restricted to national governments and their political/scientific interests respectively. A rationale is discussed for human interplanetary space exploration predicated on the private sector. Space propulsion system requirements are identified for interplanetary transfer times of no more than a few weeks/months to and between the major outer planets. Nuclear fusion is identified as the minimum requisite space propulsion technology. A conceptual design is described and evolutionary catalyzed-DD to DHe 3 fuel cycles are proposed. Magnetic nozzles for direct thrust generation and quantifying the operational aspects of the energy exchange mechanisms between high energy reaction products and neutral propellants are identified as two of the many key supporting technologies essential to satisfying system performance requirements. Government support of focused, breakthrough technologies is recommended at funding levels appropriate to other ongoing federal research. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Surveying wearable human assistive technology for life and safety critical applications: standards, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-05-23

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  10. The health outcomes of human offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Heilbronn, L K

    2017-08-01

    Concerns have been raised about the health and development of children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) since 1978. Controversially, ART has been linked with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes, an increased risk of birth defects, cancers, and growth and development disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that ART treatment may also predispose individuals to an increased risk of chronic ageing related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review will summarize the available evidence on the short-term and long-term health outcomes of ART singletons, as multiple pregnancies after multiple embryos transfer, are associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery, which can separately increase risk of adverse postnatal outcomes, and impact long-term health. We will also examine the potential factors that may contribute to these health risks, and discuss underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic changes that may occur during the preimplantation period and reprogram development in utero, and adult health, later in life. Lastly, this review will consider the future directions with the view to optimize the long-term health of ART children.

  11. A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; Galle, Samuel; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg−1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact. Conclusions/Significance The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions. PMID:23418524

  12. Computer-assisted image analysis assay of human neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a computer-based image analysis system to measure in-filter migration of human neutrophils in the Boyden chamber. This method is compared with the conventional manual counting techniques. Neutrophils from healthy individuals and from patients with reduced chemotactic activity were....... Another advantage of the assay is that it can be used to show the migration pattern of different populations of neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients....

  13. Eyewear Computing – Augmenting the Human with Head-mounted Wearable Assistants (Dagstuhl Seminar 16042)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulling, Andreas; Cakmakci, Ozan; Kunze, Kai; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The seminar was composed of workshops and tutorials on head-mounted eye tracking, egocentric vision, optics, and head-mounted displays. The seminar welcomed 30 academic and industry researchers from Europe, the US, and Asia with a diverse background, including wearable and ubiquitous computing, computer vision, developmental psychology, optics, and human-computer interaction. In contrast to several previous Dagstuhl seminars, we used an ignite talk format to reduce the time of talks to...

  14. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E.; del-Ama, Antonio J.; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C.; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton. PMID:29755336

  15. [Simulator-based modular human factor training in anesthesiology. Concept and results of the module "Communication and Team Cooperation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Hofinger, G; Buerschaper, C; Grapengeter, M; Harms, H; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J

    2004-02-01

    Human factors (HF) play a major role in crisis development and management and simulator training can help to train HF aspects. We developed a modular training concept with psychological intensive briefing. The aim of the study was to see whether learning and transfer in the treatment group (TG) with the module "communication and team-cooperation" differed from that in the control group (CG) without psychological briefing ("anaesthesia crisis resource management type course"). A total of 34 residents (TG: n=20, CG: n=14) managed 1 out of 3 scenarios and communication patterns and management were evaluated using video recordings. A questionnaire was answered at the end of the course and 2 months later participants were asked for lessons learnt and behavioral changes. Good communication and medical management showed a significant correlation (r=0.57, p=0.001). The TG showed greater initiative ( p=0.001) and came more often in conflict with the surgeon ( p=0.06). The TG also reported more behavioral changes than the CG 2 months later. The reported benefit of the simulation was training for rare events in the CG, whereas in the TG it was issues of communication and cooperation ( p=0.001). A training concept with psychological intensive briefing may enhance the transfer of HF aspects more than classical ACRM.

  16. Donor assists acceptor binding and catalysis of human α1,6-fucosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötzler, Miriam P; Blank, Simon; Bantleon, Frank I; Wienke, Martin; Spillner, Edzard; Meyer, Bernd

    2013-08-16

    α1,6-Core-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) is a vital enzyme in mammalian physiological and pathophysiological processes such as tumorigenesis and progress of, among others, non-small cell lung cancer and colon carcinoma. It was also shown that therapeutic antibodies have a dramatically higher efficacy if the α1,6-fucosyl residue is absent. However, specific and potent inhibitors for FUT8 and related enzymes are lacking. Hence, it is crucial to elucidate the structural basis of acceptor binding and the catalytic mechanism. We present here the first structural model of FUT8 in complex with its acceptor and donor molecules. An unusually large acceptor, i.e., a hexasaccharide from the core of N-glycans, is required as minimal structure. Acceptor substrate binding of FUT8 is being dissected experimentally by STD NMR and SPR and theoretically by molecular dynamics simulations. The acceptor binding site forms an unusually large and shallow binding site. Binding of the acceptor to the enzyme is much faster and stronger if the donor is present. This is due to strong hydrogen bonding between O6 of the proximal N-acetylglucosamine and an oxygen atom of the β-phosphate of GDP-fucose. Therefore, we propose an ordered Bi Bi mechanism for FUT8 where the donor molecule binds first. No specific amino acid is present that could act as base during catalysis. Our results indicate a donor-assisted mechanism, where an oxygen of the β-phosphate deprotonates the acceptor. Knowledge of the mechanism of FUT8 is now being used for rational design of targeted inhibitors to address metastasis and prognosis of carcinomas.

  17. Robust Control Design of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Assistant Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdi S.Mahmoud; Mohammad T.Nasir

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the design concept and mobile control strategy of the human assistant robot I-PENTAR(inverted pendulum type assistant robot). The motion equation is derived considering the non-holonomic constraint of the twowheeled mobile robot. Different optimal control approaches are applied to a linearized model of I-PENTAR. These include linear quadratic regulator(LQR), linear quadratic Gaussian control(LQG), H2 control and H∞ control. Simulation is performed for all the approaches yielding good performance results.

  18. La ética en la asistencia humanizada al paciente terminal Ethics of humanized assistance to terminal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Velásquez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan aspectos éticos de la asistencia a los pacientes terminales; se hace énfasis en la necesidad de que haya una comunicación seria y responsable con ellos y de que se actúe siempre en forma sensible, en el marco de la ética y con miras a proteger sus derechos, en particular su autonomía y dignidad. Se discuten la orden de no resucitar, el suicido ayudado y la eutanasia.

    Ethical aspects concerning the attendance of terminally-111 patients are analyzed. Emphasis is given to the need of having a serious and responsible communication with them, always acting in a sensitive form and within the framework of ethics. The main goal should be to protect the rights of patients specially their autonomy and dignity. The concepts of do-not resucitate, assisted suicide and euthanasia are considered.

  19. Adenovirus-assisted lipofection: efficient in vitro gene transfer of luciferase and cytosine deaminase to human smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, J; Denger, S; Reifers, F; Beisel, C; Haack, K; Gebert, J; Kübler, W

    1996-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are a central cell type involved in multiple processes of coronary artery diseases including restenosis and therefore are major target cells for different aspects of gene transfer. Previous attempts to transfect primary arterial cells using different techniques like liposomes, CaPO4 and electroporation resulted in only low transfection efficiency. The development of recombinant adenoviruses dramatically improved the delivery of foreign genes into different cell types including SMC. However, cloning and identification of recombinants remain difficult and time-consuming techniques. The present study demonstrates that a complex consisting of reporter plasmid encoding firefly luciferase (pLUC), polycationic liposomes and replication-deficient adenovirus was able to yield very high in vitro transfection of primary human smooth muscle cells under optimized conditions. The technique of adenovirus-assisted lipofection (AAL) increases transfer and expression of plasmid DNA in human smooth muscle cells in vitro up to 1000-fold compared to lipofection. To verify the applicability of AAL for gene transfer into human smooth muscle cells we studied a gene therapy approach to suppress proliferation of SMC in vitro, using the prokaryotic cytosine deaminase gene (CD) which enables transfected mammalian cells to deaminate 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the highly toxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The effect of a transient CD expression on RNA synthesis was investigated by means of a cotransfection with a RSV-CD expression plasmid and the luciferase reporter plasmid. Western blot analysis demonstrated high expression of CD protein in transfected SMC. Cotransfected SMC demonstrated two-fold less luciferase activity in the presence of 5-FC (5 mmol/l) after 48 h compared to cells transfected with a non-CD coding plasmid. The data demonstrate that a transient expression of CD could be sufficient to reduce the capacity of protein synthesis in human SMC. This simple and

  20. Human-assisted spread of a maladaptive behavior in a critically endangered bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Melanie; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Merton, Don; Briskie, James V; Poole, Anthony M; Hale, Marie L

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management often focuses on counteracting the adverse effects of human activities on threatened populations. However, conservation measures may unintentionally relax selection by allowing the 'survival of the not-so-fit', increasing the risk of fixation of maladaptive traits. Here, we report such a case in the critically-endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi) which, in 1980, was reduced to a single breeding pair. Following this bottleneck, some females were observed to lay eggs on the rims of their nests. Rim eggs left in place always failed to hatch. To expedite population recovery, rim eggs were repositioned inside nests, yielding viable hatchlings. Repositioning resulted in rapid growth of the black robin population, but by 1989 over 50% of all females were laying rim eggs. We used an exceptional, species-wide pedigree to consider both recessive and dominant models of inheritance over all plausible founder genotype combinations at a biallelic and possibly sex-linked locus. The pattern of rim laying is best fitted as an autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. Using a phenotype permutation test we could also reject the null hypothesis of non-heritability for this trait in favour of our best-fitting model of heritability. Data collected after intervention ceased shows that the frequency of rim laying has strongly declined, and that this trait is maladaptive. This episode yields an important lesson for conservation biology: fixation of maladaptive traits could render small threatened populations completely dependent on humans for reproduction, irreversibly compromising the long term viability of populations humanity seeks to conserve.

  1. Human-assisted spread of a maladaptive behavior in a critically endangered bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Massaro

    Full Text Available Conservation management often focuses on counteracting the adverse effects of human activities on threatened populations. However, conservation measures may unintentionally relax selection by allowing the 'survival of the not-so-fit', increasing the risk of fixation of maladaptive traits. Here, we report such a case in the critically-endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi which, in 1980, was reduced to a single breeding pair. Following this bottleneck, some females were observed to lay eggs on the rims of their nests. Rim eggs left in place always failed to hatch. To expedite population recovery, rim eggs were repositioned inside nests, yielding viable hatchlings. Repositioning resulted in rapid growth of the black robin population, but by 1989 over 50% of all females were laying rim eggs. We used an exceptional, species-wide pedigree to consider both recessive and dominant models of inheritance over all plausible founder genotype combinations at a biallelic and possibly sex-linked locus. The pattern of rim laying is best fitted as an autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. Using a phenotype permutation test we could also reject the null hypothesis of non-heritability for this trait in favour of our best-fitting model of heritability. Data collected after intervention ceased shows that the frequency of rim laying has strongly declined, and that this trait is maladaptive. This episode yields an important lesson for conservation biology: fixation of maladaptive traits could render small threatened populations completely dependent on humans for reproduction, irreversibly compromising the long term viability of populations humanity seeks to conserve.

  2. Development of a lozenge for oral transmucosal delivery of trans-resveratrol in humans: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otis L Blanchard

    Full Text Available Resveratrol provides multiple physiologic benefits which promote healthspan in various model species and clinical trials support continued exploration of resveratrol treatment in humans. However, there remains concern regarding low bioavailability and wide inter-individual differences in absorption and metabolism in humans, which suggests a great need to develop novel methods for resveratrol delivery. We hypothesized that oral transmucosal delivery, using a lozenge composed of a resveratrol-excipient matrix, would allow resveratrol to be absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream. We pursued proof of concept through two experiments. In the first experiment, the solubility of trans-resveratrol (tRES in water and 2.0 M solutions of dextrose, fructose, ribose, sucrose, and xylitol was determined using HPLC. Independent t-tests with a Bonferroni correction were used to compare the solubility of tRES in each of the solutions to that in water. tRES was significantly more soluble in the ribose solution (p = 0.0013 than in the other four solutions. Given the enhanced solubility of tRES in a ribose solution, a resveratrol-ribose matrix was developed into a lozenge suitable for human consumption. Lozenges were prepared, each containing 146±5.5 mg tRES per 2000 mg of lozenge mass. Two healthy human participants consumed one of the prepared lozenges following an overnight fast. Venipuncture was performed immediately before and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes following lozenge administration. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax for tRES alone (i.e., resveratrol metabolites not included were 325 and 332 ng⋅mL(-1 for the two participants at 15 minute post-administration for both individuals. These results suggest a resveratrol-ribose matrix lozenge can achieve greater Cmax and enter the bloodstream faster than previously reported dosage forms for gastrointestinal absorption. While this study is limited by small sample size and only one method of resveratrol

  3. Architectural concepts of Martian bases built: of domes, around greenhouses and into slopes -the human aspect and the technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Janek; Kozicka, Joanna

    Human missions to Mars are a special kind of space missions due to their long duration. The human aspect of such missions becomes as important as the technological one. The need for a human friendly and comfortable habitat arises. Studies of human behavior in ICEs have shown that larger groups of people mean a lower occurrence of conflicts. However, for a larger crew a larger habitat has to be designed -a Martian base. The research deals with psychological, sociological and technological aspects influencing the architectural design of a Martian Base. Extreme conditions present on Mars demand a partic-ular approach to technological and architectural design. To reduce the cost of building a bigger habitat, low cost solutions have been inquired into. A series of analyses has been performed to identify the best architectural solutions for a Martian base. A review of existing technologies and extreme condition habitats (both terrestrial and extraterrestrial) has revealed solutions that are the most reliable and efficient ones. Additionally, innovative technologies have been analyzed in search of the best candidates for actual base construction. Low cost solutions have been prioritized in the process. An in-depth study of architectural problems inherent in the design of a Martian base has resulted in a number of guidelines for the architect. The main ones are introduced in this review. Based on them, several concepts have been drafted as examples of user-friendly and aesthetically pleasing habitats. They are discussed in the following order: habitats made of domes, those built around greenhouses and those situated in sloping terrain. One of them is presented in detail, including interior design.

  4. Assisted selection in the improvement of soy for human consumption in the State of Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristoteles Capone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy in human food has several health benefits, but finds resistance to its consumption by the western ones due to the flavor caused by the lipoxygenases enzymes. The objective of this study was to select soybean TN (Triple Null hybrids in a population of the fourth self-fertilization cycle (F4 using techniques that use molecular markers. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins Campus Gurupi - TO. Hybridizations between soybean progenitors adapted to Tocantins and TN were performed. Obtained the F1 population in the greenhouse, F2, F3 and F4 were planted in the field, in the F4 generation was selection of superior hybrid for DNA analysis in order to identify hybrids with the trait complete absence of Lox2 and 3. We selected one hundred seventy-one hybrid, made up of DNA extraction and PCR of all. It was concluded that the highest percentage of TN hybrids was obtained at the intersection BRSMG 790A (TN X GB874. Lox2 and Lox3 amplification primers confirmed as an essential tool in a soybean breeding program for human consumption. We selected 34 TN hybrids with the desired agronomic characteristics.

  5. NMR studies of preimplantation embryo metabolism in human assisted reproductive techniques: a new biomarker for assessment of embryo implantation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudakalakatti, Shivanand M; Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in understanding energy metabolism in human embryos generated using assisted reproductive techniques (ART) for improving the overall success rate of the method. Using NMR spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool, we studied human embryo metabolism to identify specific biomarkers to assess the quality of embryos for their implantation potential. The study was based on estimation of pyruvate, lactate and alanine levels in the growth medium, ISM1, used in the culture of embryos. An NMR study involving 127 embryos from 48 couples revealed that embryos transferred on Day 3 (after 72 h in vitro culture) with successful implantation (pregnancy) exhibited significantly (p < 10(-5) ) lower pyruvate/alanine ratios compared to those that failed to implant. Lactate levels in media were similar for all embryos. This implies that in addition to lactate production, successfully implanted embryos use pyruvate to produce alanine and other cellular functions. While pyruvate and alanine individually have been used as biomarkers, the present study highlights the potential of combining them to provide a single parameter that correlates strongly with implantation potential. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Human oocyte calcium analysis predicts the response to assisted oocyte activation in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Buitrago, M; Dhaenens, L; Lu, Y; Bonte, D; Vanden Meerschaut, F; De Sutter, P; Leybaert, L; Heindryckx, B

    2018-01-10

    Can human oocyte calcium analysis predict fertilization success after assisted oocyte activation (AOA) in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI? ICSI-AOA restores the fertilization rate only in patients displaying abnormal Ca2+ oscillations during human oocyte activation. Patients capable of activating mouse oocytes and who showed abnormal Ca2+ profiles after mouse oocyte Ca2+ analysis (M-OCA), have variable responses to ICSI-AOA. It remains unsettled whether human oocyte Ca2+ analysis (H-OCA) would yield an improved accuracy to predict fertilization success after ICSI-AOA. Sperm activation potential was first evaluated by MOAT. Subsequently, Ca2+ oscillatory patterns were determined with sperm from patients showing moderate to normal activation potential based on the capacity of human sperm to generate Ca2+ responses upon microinjection in mouse and human oocytes. Altogether, this study includes a total of 255 mouse and 122 human oocytes. M-OCA was performed with 16 different sperm samples before undergoing ICSI-AOA treatment. H-OCA was performed for 11 patients who finally underwent ICSI-AOA treatment. The diagnostic accuracy to predict fertilization success was calculated based on the response to ICSI-AOA. Patients experiencing low or total failed fertilization after conventional ICSI were included in the study. All participants showed moderate to high rates of activation after MOAT. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes from B6D2F1 mice were used for M-OCA. Control fertile sperm samples were used to obtain a reference Ca2+ oscillation profile elicited in human oocytes. Donated human oocytes, non-suitable for IVF treatments, were collected and vitrified at MII stage for further analysis by H-OCA. M-OCA and H-OCA predicted the response to ICSI-AOA in 8 out of 11 (73%) patients. Compared to M-OCA, H-OCA detected the presence of sperm activation deficiencies with greater sensitivity (75 vs 100%, respectively). ICSI-AOA never showed benefit to overcome

  7. Immunodiagnosis of Human Fascioliasis: An Update of Concepts and Performances of the Serological Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi

    2017-01-01

    Human Fascioliasis (HF) is a foodborne neglected parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. New epidemiological data suggest that the endemic areas of the disease are expanding and HF is being reported from areas where it was previously not observed. Diagnosis of HF is challenging. Performances of parasitological approaches, based on the detection of parasite’s egg in the stool, are not satisfactory. Currently serological methods for the diagnosis of HF are mainly based on detection of anti-Fasciola antibodies in serum. Although, there have been some improvement in the development of immunological diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of HF, yet these tests suffer from insufficiency in sensitivity or/and specificity. Detection of antigens, rather than antibodies, seems to be a suitable approach in the diagnosis of HF. Antigen can be detected in sera or stool of the fascioliasis patients. Circulating antigen in serum disappears within a short time and most of the circulating antigens are in immune complex forms which are not freely available to be detected. Therefore, antigenemia might not be an appropriate method for the diagnosis of HF. Detection of antigen in stool (coproantigens) seems to be a suitable alternative method for the diagnosis of HF. Recent data provided convincing evidence that detection of coproantigen improved and simplified the diagnosis of HF. The present review highlights the new achievements in designing and improvement of diagnostic approaches for the immunodiagnosis of HF. Moreover, current status of the available immunodiagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of HF, their strengths and weaknesses has been discussed. PMID:28764235

  8. Human stem cell based corneal tissue mimicking structures using laser-assisted 3D bioprinting and functional bioinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkio, Anni; Koch, Lothar; Koivusalo, Laura; Deiwick, Andrea; Miettinen, Susanna; Chichkov, Boris; Skottman, Heli

    2018-07-01

    There is a high demand for developing methods to produce more native-like 3D corneal structures. In the present study, we produced 3D cornea-mimicking tissues using human stem cells and laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP). Human embryonic stem cell derived limbal epithelial stem cells (hESC-LESC) were used as a cell source for printing epithelium-mimicking structures, whereas human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) were used for constructing layered stroma-mimicking structures. The development and optimization of functional bioinks was a crucial step towards successful bioprinting of 3D corneal structures. Recombinant human laminin and human sourced collagen I served as the bases for the functional bioinks. We used two previously established LaBP setups based on laser induced forward transfer, with different laser wavelengths and appropriate absorption layers. We bioprinted three types of corneal structures: stratified corneal epithelium using hESC-LESCs, lamellar corneal stroma using alternating acellular layers of bioink and layers with hASCs, and finally structures with both a stromal and epithelial part. The printed constructs were evaluated for their microstructure, cell viability and proliferation, and key protein expression (Ki67, p63α, p40, CK3, CK15, collagen type I, VWF). The 3D printed stromal constructs were also implanted into porcine corneal organ cultures. Both cell types maintained good viability after printing. Laser-printed hESC-LESCs showed epithelial cell morphology, expression of Ki67 proliferation marker and co-expression of corneal progenitor markers p63α and p40. Importantly, the printed hESC-LESCs formed a stratified epithelium with apical expression of CK3 and basal expression of the progenitor markers. The structure of the 3D bioprinted stroma demonstrated that the hASCs had organized horizontally as in the native corneal stroma and showed positive labeling for collagen I. After 7 days in porcine organ cultures, the 3D bioprinted

  9. Self-transcendence: a concept analysis for nursing praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Self-transcendence is a quality inherent in every human being. This process toward personal transformation is instrumental in finding true meaning and purpose in life. When faced with adversity, self-transcendence can be a powerful coping strategy. Clarity of this concept will assist nurses in providing holistic interventions that promote and facilitate self-transcendence.

  10. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller's albatross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Waugh

    Full Text Available Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere, New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori, which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.

  11. Image-assisted non-invasive and dynamic biomechanical analysis of human joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhit, Abdullah A; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, Jennifer M; Ward, Tom; Smith, Paul N

    2013-01-01

    Kinematic analysis provides a strong link between musculoskeletal injuries, chronic joint conditions, treatment planning/monitoring and prosthesis design/outcome. However, fast and accurate 3D kinematic analysis still remains a challenge in order to translate this procedure into clinical scenarios. 3D computed tomography (CT) to 2D single-plane fluoroscopy registration is a promising non-invasive technology for biomechanical examination of human joints. Although this technique has proven to be very precise in terms of in-plane translation and rotation measurements, out-of-plane motion estimations have been a difficulty so far. Therefore, to enable this technology into clinical translation, precise and fast estimation of both in-plane and out-of-plane movements is crucial, which is the aim of this paper. Here, a fast and accurate 3D/2D registration technique is proposed to evaluate biomechanical/kinematic analysis. The proposed algorithm utilizes a new multi-modal similarity measure called ‘sum of conditional variances’, a coarse-to-fine Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach for robust gradient-descent optimization and a novel technique for the analytic calculation of the required gradients for out-of-plane rotations. Computer simulations and in vitro experiments showed that the new approach was robust in terms of the capture range, required significantly less iterations to converge and achieved good registration and kinematic accuracy when compared to existing techniques and to the ‘gold-standard’ Roentgen stereo analysis. (paper)

  12. Ex vivo proof-of-concept of end-to-end scaffold-enhanced laser-assisted vascular anastomosis of porcine arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabittei, Dara R.; Heger, Michal; van Tuijl, Sjoerd; Simonet, Marc; de Boon, Wadim; van der Wal, Allard C.; Balm, Ron; de Mol, Bas A.

    2015-01-01

    The low welding strength of laser-assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) has hampered the clinical application of LAVA as an alternative to suture anastomosis. To improve welding strength, LAVA in combination with solder and polymeric scaffolds (ssLAVA) has been optimized in vitro. Currently, ssLAVA

  13. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Package in Supplementing Teaching of Selected Concepts in High School Chemistry: Writing Formulas and Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Camille L.

    Four classes of high school chemistry students (N=108) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups to investigate the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) package during a unit on writing/naming of chemical formulas and balancing equations. Students in the experimental group received drill, review, and reinforcement…

  14. Preferences for technology versus human assistance and control over technology in the performance of kitchen and personal care tasks in baby boomers and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Matthews, Judith T; Courtney, Karen; Dabbs, Annette DeVito

    2014-11-01

    Quality of Life technology (QoLT) stresses humans and technology as mutually dependent and aware, working together to improve task performance and quality of life. This study examines preferences for technology versus human assistance and control in the context of QoLT. Data are from a nationally representative, cross-sectional web-based sample of 416 US baby boomers (45-64) and 114 older adults (65+) on preferences for technology versus human assistance and control in the performance of kitchen and personal care tasks. Multinomial logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression were used to determine predictors of these preferences. Respondents were generally accepting of technology assistance but wanted to maintain control over its' operation. Baby boomers were more likely to prefer technology than older adults, and those with fewer QoLT privacy concerns and who thought they were more likely to need future help were more likely to prefer technology over human assistance and more willing to relinquish control to technology. Results suggest the need for design of person- and context-aware QoLT systems that are responsive to user desires for level of control over operation of the technology. The predictors of these preferences suggest potentially receptive markets for the targeting of QoLT systems.

  15. Translation, Power Hierarchy, and the Globalization of the ConceptHuman Rights”: Potential Contributions from Confucianism Missed by the UDHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINKWAN CHENG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay strikes new paths for investigating the politics of translation and the (non- universality of the concept of “human rights” by engaging them in a critical dialogue. Part I of my essay argues that a truly universal concept would have available linguistic equivalents in all languages. On this basis, I develop translation into a tool for disproving the claim that the concept human rights is universal. An inaccurate claim to universality could be made to look valid, however, if one culture dominates over others, and manages to impose its own concepts and exclude competitors. Part II explores how human rights, initially a modern Western concept, became more and more universalized as a result of the global reach of Western political and economic power. I attempt to shed new light on the subject by investigating the role of translation in bringing about the global hegemony of Western legal and political languages and concepts. Since translation always involves a choice of foregrounding one of the two languages and cultures involved, the translator is a power broker who can promote one voice at the expense of the other. My examples for conducting this investigation are the key contributions made by China and the West to the drafting of the UDHR: with ren and rights representing respectively the West and China’s proposed solutions to crimes against humanity in the immediate aftermath of World War II. While the concept rights became increasingly assimilated into the Chinese language along with her repeated defeats by colonial powers (and was already firmly established in the Chinese vocabulary by the time of the drafting of the UDHR, ren by contrast has never been included by any Western language and culture

  16. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-Driven Hill-Type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-Assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, JinWu

    2017-08-01

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  17. Human factors evaluation of level 2 and level 3 automated driving concepts : past research, state of automation technology, and emerging system concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of automation Levels 2 and 3, this report documents the proceedings from a literature review of key : human factors studies that was performed related to automated vehicle operations. This document expands and updates : the results...

  18. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and

  19. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  20. Three-dimensional computer-assisted dissection of pancreatic lymphatic anatomy on human fetuses: a step toward automatic image alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardol, T; Subsol, G; Perez, M-J; Genevieve, D; Lamouroux, A; Antoine, B; Captier, G; Prudhomme, M; Bertrand, M M

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth cause of death by cancer worldwide. Lymph node (LN) involvement is known to be the main prognostic factor. However, lymphatic anatomy is complex and only partially characterized. The aim of the study was to study the pancreatic lymphatic system using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD) technique and also to update CAAD technique by automatizing slice alignment. We dissected three human fetuses aged from 18 to 34 WA. 5-µm serial sections of duodeno-pancreas and spleen blocks were stained (hematoxylin-eosin, hematoxylin of Mayer and Masson trichrome), scanned, aligned and modeled in three dimensions. We observed a rich, diffuse but not systematized lymphatic network in the peri-pancreatic region. There was an equal distribution of LNs between the cephalic and body-tail portions. The lymphatic vascularization appeared in continuity from the celiac trunk to the distal ends of its hepatic and splenic arterial branches parallel to the nerve ramifications of the celiac plexus. We also observed a continuity between the drainage of the pancreatic head and the para-aortic region posteriorly. In view of the wealth of peri-pancreatic LNs, the number of LNs to harvest could be increased to improve nodal staging and prognostic evaluation. Pancreatic anatomy as described does not seem to be compatible with the sentinel LN procedure in pancreatic surgery. Finally, we are now able to offer an alternative to manual alignment with a semi-automated alignment.

  1. Sperm donation: implications of Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2004 for recipients, donors, health professionals, and institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Feyles, V; Nisker, J; Perez-Y-Perez, M; Newton, C; Parker, J A; Tekpetey, F; Haase, J

    2006-07-01

    On April 22, 2004, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act came into force, prohibiting the purchase of sperm or eggs from donors in Canada. In response to the concerns of medical professionals and some consumers that prohibiting payment would lead to a decline in the number of gamete donors, Health Canada commissioned research on altruistic donor recruitment and recruitment strategies. Twenty-two studies of sperm donors were located and their findings reviewed. The studies spanned 23 years (1980-2003), were undertaken in a range of countries, and were chosen on the merit of their relevance to the development of recruitment strategies within a policy of altruistic sperm donation. Observations were derived from assessing and comparing the purposes, findings, and implications of the 22 studies. Payment for providing sperm was made in all but three studies, although participants in 15 studies indicated clearly that their motivations were primarily altruistic. Observations indicate that men who are more willing to be identified to offspring in the future share demographic characteristics, such as age and parental status, with those who are prepared to donate altruistically. These characteristics appear to be a factor in motivation to donate altruistically. The studies show that there are men who are prepared to donate sperm without financial payment. The findings suggest that a change is required in the culture of sperm donation, specifically the adoption of a new approach to donor recruitment.

  2. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  3. Intra-Target Microdosing - A Novel Drug Development Approach: Proof of Concept, Safety, and Feasibility Study in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T; MacLeod, D; Lee, K; Santoro, A; DeMasi, D K; Hawk, T; Feinglos, M; Rowland, M; Noveck, R J

    2017-09-01

    Intra-Target Microdosing (ITM) is a novel drug development approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of first-in-human (FIH) testing of new molecular entities (NMEs). ITM combines intra-target drug delivery and "microdosing," the subpharmacological systemic exposure. We hypothesized that when the target tissue is small (about 1/100th of total body mass), ITM can lead to target therapeutic-level exposure with minimal (microdose) systemic exposure. Each of five healthy male volunteers received insulin microdose into the radial artery or full therapeutic dose intravenously in separate visits. Insulin and glucose levels were similar between systemic administration and ITM administration in the ipsilateral hand, and glucose levels demonstrated a reduction in the ipsilateral hand but not in the contralateral hand. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake demonstrated differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral arms. The procedures were safe and well-tolerated. Results are consistent with ITM proof-of-concept (POC) and demonstrate the ethical, regulatory, and logistical feasibility of the approach. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  4. Intra‐Target Microdosing – A Novel Drug Development Approach: Proof of Concept, Safety, and Feasibility Study in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, D; Lee, K; Santoro, A; DeMasi, DK; Hawk, T; Feinglos, M; Rowland, M; Noveck, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intra‐Target Microdosing (ITM) is a novel drug development approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of first‐in‐human (FIH) testing of new molecular entities (NMEs). ITM combines intra‐target drug delivery and “microdosing,” the subpharmacological systemic exposure. We hypothesized that when the target tissue is small (about 1/100th of total body mass), ITM can lead to target therapeutic‐level exposure with minimal (microdose) systemic exposure. Each of five healthy male volunteers received insulin microdose into the radial artery or full therapeutic dose intravenously in separate visits. Insulin and glucose levels were similar between systemic administration and ITM administration in the ipsilateral hand, and glucose levels demonstrated a reduction in the ipsilateral hand but not in the contralateral hand. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of 18F‐fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake demonstrated differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral arms. The procedures were safe and well‐tolerated. Results are consistent with ITM proof‐of‐concept (POC) and demonstrate the ethical, regulatory, and logistical feasibility of the approach. PMID:28689370

  5. Stem cell-based treatments against stroke: observations from human proof-of-concept studies and considerations regarding clinical applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Roland Doeppner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke remains a heavy burden for industrialized countries. The only causal therapy is the recanalization of occluded vessels via thrombolysis, which due to a narrow time window still can be offered only to a minority of patients. Since the majority of patients continues to exhibit neurological deficits even following successful thrombolysis, restorative therapies are urgently needed that promote brain remodeling and repair once stroke injury has occurred. Due to their unique properties of action, stem cell-based strategies gained increasing interest during recent years. Using various stroke models in both rodents and primates, the transplantation of stem cells, namely of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs, has been shown to promote neurological recovery most likely via indirect bystander actions. In view of promising observations, clinical proof-of-concept studies are currently under way, in which effects of stem and precursor cells are evaluated in human stroke patients. In this review we summarize already published studies, which due to the broad experience in other medical contexts mostly employed bone marrow-derived MSCs by means of intravenous transplantation. With the overall number of clinical trials limited in number, only a fraction of these studies used non-treated control groups, and only single studies were adequately blinded. Despite these limitations, first promising results justify the need for more elaborate clinical trials in order to make stem cell transplantation a success for stroke treatment in the future.

  6. Personal Capacity Building for the Human Services: The Roles of Curriculum and Individual Differences in Predicting Self-Concept in College/University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    While much research has outlined the importance of intra-psychic factors in predicting workplace success, it is rare that attention is given to the development of these factors in training for human service professions (e.g. psychology, clergy, nursing). Accordingly, the present study explores differences in self-concept, a key intra-psychic…

  7. Conception et validation d'une assistance numérique domiciliaire pour la personne âgée en perte d'autonomie

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy , Lucile

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of life expectancy, aging in place is today a major concern for developed and emerging countries. Among the key solutions to explore, gerontechnologies are seen as the most promising. However, their evidence-based efficacy remains to be demonstrated for independent living or even for their usability and acceptance by the targeted old users. In this context, a user-centered conception methodology has been implemented for designing a multi-task and multi-domain (supporting eve...

  8. Laser-assisted bioprinting for creating on-demand patterns of human osteoprogenitor cells and nano-hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catros, Sylvain; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Guillotin, Bertrand; Pippenger, Benjamin; Bareille, Reine; Remy, Murielle; Amedee, Joelle; Guillemot, Fabien; Lebraud, Eric; Desbat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Developing tools to reproduce and manipulate the cell micro-environment, including the location and shape of cell patterns, is essential for tissue engineering. Parallel to inkjet printing and pressure-operated mechanical extruders, laser-assisted bioprinting (LAB) has emerged as an alternative technology to fabricate two- and three-dimensional tissue engineering products. The objective of this work was to determine laser printing parameters for patterning and assembling nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and human osteoprogenitors (HOPs) in two and three dimensions with LAB. The LAB workstation used in this study comprised an infrared laser focused on a quartz ribbon that was coated with a thin absorbing layer of titanium and a layer of bioink. The scanning system, quartz ribbon and substrate were piloted by dedicated software, allowing the sequential printing of different biological materials into two and/or three dimensions. nHA printing material (bioink) was synthesized by chemical precipitation and was characterized prior and following printing using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. HOP bioink was prepared using a 30 million cells ml -1 suspension in culture medium and cells were characterized after printing using a Live/Dead assay and osteoblastic phenotype markers (alcaline phosphatase and osteocalcin). The results revealed that LAB allows printing and organizing nHA and HOPs in two and three dimensions. LAB did not alter the physico-chemical properties of nHA, nor the viability, proliferation and phenotype of HOPs over time (up to 15 days). This study has demonstrated that LAB is a relevant method for patterning nHA and osteoblastic cells in 2D, and is also adapted to the bio-fabrication of 3D composite materials.

  9. Laser-assisted bioprinting for creating on-demand patterns of human osteoprogenitor cells and nano-hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catros, Sylvain; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Guillotin, Bertrand; Pippenger, Benjamin; Bareille, Reine; Remy, Murielle; Amedee, Joelle; Guillemot, Fabien [INSERM, U577, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux F-33076 (France); Lebraud, Eric [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, I.C.M.C.B., 87 Avenue du Dr A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Desbat, Bernard, E-mail: sylvaincatros@hotmail.com [CBMN UMR-CNRS 5248, 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2011-06-15

    Developing tools to reproduce and manipulate the cell micro-environment, including the location and shape of cell patterns, is essential for tissue engineering. Parallel to inkjet printing and pressure-operated mechanical extruders, laser-assisted bioprinting (LAB) has emerged as an alternative technology to fabricate two- and three-dimensional tissue engineering products. The objective of this work was to determine laser printing parameters for patterning and assembling nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and human osteoprogenitors (HOPs) in two and three dimensions with LAB. The LAB workstation used in this study comprised an infrared laser focused on a quartz ribbon that was coated with a thin absorbing layer of titanium and a layer of bioink. The scanning system, quartz ribbon and substrate were piloted by dedicated software, allowing the sequential printing of different biological materials into two and/or three dimensions. nHA printing material (bioink) was synthesized by chemical precipitation and was characterized prior and following printing using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. HOP bioink was prepared using a 30 million cells ml{sup -1} suspension in culture medium and cells were characterized after printing using a Live/Dead assay and osteoblastic phenotype markers (alcaline phosphatase and osteocalcin). The results revealed that LAB allows printing and organizing nHA and HOPs in two and three dimensions. LAB did not alter the physico-chemical properties of nHA, nor the viability, proliferation and phenotype of HOPs over time (up to 15 days). This study has demonstrated that LAB is a relevant method for patterning nHA and osteoblastic cells in 2D, and is also adapted to the bio-fabrication of 3D composite materials.

  10. Use of a GnRH antagonist in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted conception in women with polycystic ovary disease: a randomized, prospective, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçeci, Mustafa; Ulug, Ulun; Ben-Shlomo, Izhar; Erden, Halit Firat; Akman, Mehmet Ali

    2005-02-01

    To compare the outcome of using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists versus agonists in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for assisted reproductive techniques (ART). A total of 129 patients with PCOD were randomly allocated to undergo COH with a GnRH antagonist (59 patients) and GnRH agonist (leuprolide acetate) (70 patients) to prevent a premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Assisted fertilization following oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer was performed. None of the cycles were cancelled due to a premature LH surge. There was no significant difference between the antagonist and agonist arms in the number of gonadotropin ampules consumed per cycle. However, in the antagonist arm a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation was recorded as compared to the agonist arm. Although similar numbers of oocytes was retrieved from both groups of patients, the quality of the oocytes, as measured by metaphase 2/total oocyte ratio, was lower in the antagonist arm as compared to the agonist arm. Pregnancy rates were 57.6% and 58.5% in the antagonist and agonist arms, respectively (p > 0.05). Implantation rates were not different (34.0% and 34.6%, respectively). The frequency of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome also did not differ between the treatment groups (5% and 7.1%, respectively). The size of our study, on a specific subgroup of patients, does not allow a reliable conclusion regarding ART outcomefollowing the use of a GnRH antagonist versus agonist. Nevertheless, the protocol with the antagonist gave results that were as good as those of the protocol with the agonist in this PCOD patient population.

  11. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Knaepen

    Full Text Available In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support. Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  12. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  13. In vivo oxygen, temperature and pH dynamics in the female reproductive tract and their importance in human conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Mingels, Roel; Morgan, Hywel; Macklon, Nick; Cheong, Ying

    2018-01-01

    H in the vagina (~pH 4.42) increasing toward the Fallopian tubes (FTs) (~pH 7.94), reflecting variation in the site-specific microbiome and acid-base buffering at the tissue/cellular level. The temperature variation in humans is cyclical by day and month. In humans, it is biphasic, increasing in the luteal phase; with the caudal region of the oviduct 1-2 degrees cooler than the cranial portion. Temperature variation is influenced by hormones, density of pelvic/uterine vascular beds and effectiveness of heat exchange locally, crucial for sperm motility and embryo development. We have identified significant deficiencies and inconsistencies in the methods used to assess these biophysical factors within the reproductive tract. We have suggested that the technological solutions including the development of methods and models for real time, in vivo recordings of biophysical parameters. The notion of 'back to nature' in assisted conception suggested 20 years ago has yet to be translated into clinical practice. While the findings from this systematic review do not provide evidence to change current in vitro protocols, it highlights our current inability to assess the in vivo reproductive tract environment in real time. Data made available through future development of sensing technology in utero may help to provide new insights into how best to optimize the in vitro embryo environment and allow for more precise and personalized fertility treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. The Filiation by Assisted Human Reproductions Techniques in the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code. An Advance that Allows to Harmonize the Rule with the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí Krasnow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the contributions and changes that the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code introduce in the filiation. The focus of attention is moved to the assisted human reproduction techniques in relation with the informed consent as an exteriorization of the will to procreate. Moreover, it is intended a study space about two proceedings that were silenced in the norm as the gestational surrogacy and the post mortem fertilization.

  15. HiMoP: A three-component architecture to create more human-acceptable social-assistive robots : Motivational architecture for assistive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lera, Francisco J; Matellán-Olivera, Vicente; Conde-González, Miguel Á; Martín-Rico, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Generation of autonomous behavior for robots is a general unsolved problem. Users perceive robots as repetitive tools that do not respond to dynamic situations. This research deals with the generation of natural behaviors in assistive service robots for dynamic domestic environments, particularly, a motivational-oriented cognitive architecture to generate more natural behaviors in autonomous robots. The proposed architecture, called HiMoP, is based on three elements: a Hierarchy of needs to define robot drives; a set of Motivational variables connected to robot needs; and a Pool of finite-state machines to run robot behaviors. The first element is inspired in Alderfer's hierarchy of needs, which specifies the variables defined in the motivational component. The pool of finite-state machine implements the available robot actions, and those actions are dynamically selected taking into account the motivational variables and the external stimuli. Thus, the robot is able to exhibit different behaviors even under similar conditions. A customized version of the "Speech Recognition and Audio Detection Test," proposed by the RoboCup Federation, has been used to illustrate how the architecture works and how it dynamically adapts and activates robots behaviors taking into account internal variables and external stimuli.

  16. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  17. Progestogen treatments for cycle management in a sheep model of assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, Claudia; García-Fernández, Rosa Ana; Contreras-Solis, Ignacio; Sanchez, María Angeles; Garcia-Palencia, Pilar; Sanchez, Belen; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Flores, Juana María

    2010-03-01

    To determine, in a sheep model, the effect of a short-term progestative treatment on growth dynamics and functionality of induced corpora lutea. Observational, model study. Public university. Sixty adult female sheep. Synchronization and induction of ovulation with progestogens and prostaglandin analogues; ovarian ultrasonography, blood sampling, and ovariectomy. Determination of pituitary function and morphologic characteristics, expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and progesterone secretion of corpora lutea. The use of progestative pretreatments for assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of LH receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea. The current study indicates, in a sheep model, the existence of deleterious effects from progestogens on functionality of induced corpora lutea. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The linear non threshold conception 'Dose-effect' as a base for standardization of human exposure to ionizing radiation. Arguments pro and con

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2000-01-01

    Examples and argument are presented for reconsidering of the application of the threshold conception in low dose risk assessment. Some of the reasons mentioned are: inapplicability of the quantity 'collective dose' for low doses; serious reassessment of risk coefficients for radiation mutagenesis; report on increasing data on the so called hormesis - stimulation and potential effects from exposure of test animals nas humans to low doses of ionizing radiation

  19. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts: A Longitudinal Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes.A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students' satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students' satisfaction.Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01).This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was satisfactory. This

  20. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 South East Asian Tsunami disaster. The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most personnel had deployed to the Asian Tsunami affected areas with DMAT members having significant clinical and international experience. While all except one respondent stated they received a full orientation prior to deployment, only 34% of respondents (20/59) felt their role was clearly defined pre deployment. Approximately 56% (33/59) felt their actual role matched their intended role and that their clinical background was well suited to their tasks. Most respondents were prepared to be available for deployment for 1 month (34%, 20/59). The most common period of notice needed to deploy was 6-12 hours for 29% (17/59) followed by 12-24 hours for 24% (14/59). The preferred period of overseas deployment was 14-21 days (46%, 27/59) followed by 1 month (25%, 15/59) and the optimum shift period was felt to be 12 hours by 66% (39/59). The majority felt that there was both adequate pay (71%, 42/59) and adequate indemnity (66%, 39/59). Almost half (49%, 29/59) stated it was better to work with people from the same hospital and, while most felt their deployment could be easily covered by staff from their workplace (56%, 33/59) and caused an inconvenience to their colleagues (51%, 30/59), it was less likely to interrupt service delivery in their workplace (10%, 6/59) or cause an inconvenience to patients (9%, 5/59). Deployment was felt to benefit the affected community by nearly all

  1. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. Results We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. Conclusion The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective. PMID:19226449

  2. Manual vs. computer-assisted sperm analysis: can CASA replace manual assessment of human semen in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarczyk-Desole, Joanna; Berger, Anna; Taszarek-Hauke, Grażyna; Hauke, Jan; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Jedrzejczak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check the quality of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system in comparison to the reference manual method as well as standardization of the computer-assisted semen assessment. The study was conducted between January and June 2015 at the Andrology Laboratory of the Division of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland. The study group consisted of 230 men who gave sperm samples for the first time in our center as part of an infertility investigation. The samples underwent manual and computer-assisted assessment of concentration, motility and morphology. A total of 184 samples were examined twice: manually, according to the 2010 WHO recommendations, and with CASA, using the program set-tings provided by the manufacturer. Additionally, 46 samples underwent two manual analyses and two computer-assisted analyses. The p-value of p CASA and manually. In the group of patients where all analyses with each method were performed twice on the same sample we found no significant differences between both assessments of the same probe, neither in the samples analyzed manually nor with CASA, although standard deviation was higher in the CASA group. Our results suggest that computer-assisted sperm analysis requires further improvement for a wider application in clinical practice.

  3. Concepções do profissional farmacêutico sobre a assistência farmacêutica na unidade básica de saúde: dificuldades e elementos para a mudança Conceptions of the pharmaceutical professional about the pharmaceutical assistance in basic health care units: difficulties and elements for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aílson da Luz André de Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi feita avaliação da Assistência Farmacêutica em farmácias de Unidades de Saúde do município de Ribeirão Preto, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Partindo-se do referencial de avaliação tecnológica em saúde e suas interfaces, foram realizadas entrevistas com os profissionais farmacêuticos, procurando-se conhecer as concepções desses atores sobre a assistência farmacêutica. Os resultados obtidos mostram um trabalho baseado na gestão burocrática dos medicamentos com objeto no controle de estoque do medicamento. Alguns elementos emergentes que poderão contribuir para a alteração deste quadro foram detectados: voluntarismo, busca pela valorização profissional, iniciativa de integração com a equipe de saúde, percepção do paciente como objeto de trabalho e formação profissional complementar.In the present study we evaluated the Pharmaceutical Assistance in pharmacies of Basic Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering the technological evaluation reference in health and its interfaces, pharmaceutical professionals were interviewed in a way to find out their conceptions about pharmaceutical assistance. The results showed a work based on the bureaucratic management of medicines specially the control of medicine supplies. Some emergent elements were thought to contribute to change this system: voluntarism, professional valorization, integration of the health team, perception of the patient as object of the work and complementary professional formation.

  4. Optical versus virtual: teaching assistant perceptions of the use of virtual microscopy in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed through qualitative methods. This analysis showed that the teaching assistants found the virtual microscope to be an advantageous change in the classroom. They cite the ease of use of the virtual microscope, access to histology outside of designated laboratory time, and increasing student collaboration in class as the primary advantages. The teaching assistants also discuss principal areas where the use of the virtual microscope can be improved from a pedagogical standpoint, including requiring students to spend more time working on histology in class. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Lessons that non-scientists can teach us about the concept of energy: a human-centred approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Monica

    2003-03-01

    Energy is not only a core concept in physics but also a major issue in our post-Kyoto world. When using a constructivist approach to teaching, we need to be aware of students' preconceptions. A palette of alternative frameworks, which includes those used by adults within the community, can facilitate this. An exploration of energy issues with non-scientists within the community has generated some relevant insights. Participants' concepts of energy were multifaceted. Most had a strong personal component, but also social, technical and cosmic dimensions. Although many participants were uncomfortable with the terms `renewable' and `sustainable', they clearly articulated the social and technical requirements for a shift away from current fossil fuel dependency. However, the law of conservation of energy, a core belief of physicists, appeared to be totally absent from their concept of energy.

  6. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Course on Laboratory Detection of Malarial Parasites in Human Blood. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzel, Harold E.

    In cooperation with the United States Navy, this project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of computer assisted instruction in clinical malaria recognition, to train a small group of Naval personnel in techniques of creating and presenting such material, and to evaluate the course by giving it to a representative sample of Naval medical…

  7. Optical versus Virtual: Teaching Assistant Perceptions of the Use of Virtual Microscopy in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed…

  8. The Human Side of Change: Towards a Pragmatic, Evolutionary Conception of Cognition and Emotion in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation synthesizes and analyzes an emblematic sample of three prevalent psychological approaches to organizational change and learning, giving particular attention to the conception of cognition and emotion. It also explores some of the philosophical and psychological assumptions undergirding these approaches. A web model depicting…

  9. Image-guided neurosurgery. Global concept of a surgical tele-assistance using obstacle detection robotics; Neurochirurgie guidee par l'image. Concept global d'une tele-assistance chirurgicale a l'aide d'une robotique d'empechement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgeorges, M.; Bellegou, N.; Faillot, Th.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutertre, G.; Blondet, E.; Soultrait, F. de; Boissy, J.M. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-12-01

    Surgical tele-assistance significantly increases accuracy of surgical gestures, especially in the case of brain tumor neurosurgery. The robotic device is tele-operated through a microscope and the surgeon's gestures are guided by real-time overlaying of the X-ray imagery in the microscope. During the device's progression inside the brain, the focus is ensured by the microscope auto-focus feature. The surgeon can thus constantly check his position on the field workstation. Obstacles to avoid or dangerous areas can be previewed in the operation field. This system is routinely used for 5 years in the neurosurgery division of the Val de Grace hospital. More than 400 brain surgery operations have been done using it. An adaptation is used for rachis surgery. Other military hospitals begin to be equipped with similar systems. It will be possible to link them for data transfer. When it will be operational, such a network it will show what could be, in the future, a medical/surgical remote-assistance system designed to take care of wounded/critical conditions people, including assistance to surgical gestures. (authors)

  10. Duration of luteal support (DOLS with progesterone pessaries to improve the success rates in assisted conception: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazvani Rafet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteal support with progesterone is necessary for successful implantation of the embryo following egg collection and embryo transfer in an in-vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. Progesterone has been used for as little as 2 weeks and for as long as 12 weeks of gestation. The optimal length of treatment is unresolved at present and it remains unclear how long to treat women receiving luteal supplementation. Design The trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of the duration of luteal support with progesterone in IVF cycles. Following 2 weeks standard treatment and a positive biochemical pregnancy test, this randomized control trial will allocate women to a supplementary 8 weeks treatment with vaginal progesterone or 8 weeks placebo. Further studies would be required to investigate whether additional supplementation with progesterone is beneficial in early pregnancy. Discussion Currently at the Hewitt Centre, approximately 32.5% of women have a positive biochemical pregnancy test 2 weeks after embryo transfer. It is this population that is eligible for trial entry and randomization. Once the patient has confirmed a positive urinary pregnancy test they will be invited to join the trial. Once the consent form has been completed by the patient a trial prescription sheet will be sent to pharmacy with a stated collection time. The patient can then be randomized and the drugs dispensed according to pharmacy protocol. A blood sample will then be drawn for measurement of baseline hormone levels (progesterone, estradiol, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, Activin A, Inhibin A and Inhibin B. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of all randomized women that continue successfully to a viable pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart rate >100 beats/minute on transabdominal/transvaginal ultrasound at 10 weeks post embryo

  11. Study of human interface for narrow road drive assist system considered characteristic of driver; Driver no tokusei wo koryoshita kyoro soko shien system no human interface no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, A [Subaru Research Center Co., Tokyo (Japan); Amada, N; Kawashima, H [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The measurement of driver`s watching point, driving time on narrow road and the evaluation of stress etc. were conducted in order to construct the narrow road drive assist system using the stereo image recognition system. Consequently, the driver`s thinking process, stress factor and the indispensable information for this system were clarified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Detection and quantification of neurotensin in human brain tissue by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobom, J; Kraeuter, K O; Persson, R

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed for mass spectrometric detection of neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity and quantification of NT in human brain tissue. The method is based on immunoprecipitation followed by analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF......-MS). The identity of the major component of the immunoprecipitates as neurotensin was confirmed by fragment ion analysis on an electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight instrument. MALDI-TOF-MS quantification of NT was achieved using stable-isotope-labeled NT as the internal standard, yielding an error...

  13. The issue of constitutional law legitimacy on "human assisted reproduction" between reasonableness of the choices and effectiveness of the protection of all involved subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This artiche analyzes the constitutionality petition to the constitutional Court against Law 40 of 2004 on "human assisted reproduction", where it prohibits the "preimplantatory genetical diagnosis", because it could be against the mother's right to health (art. 32 Italian Constitution) and the egalitarian protection clause (art. 3 Italian Constitution). In the constitutionally petition the ordinary judge proposes an interpretation in accordance with Constitution of the contested disposition (art. 13 of Law 40 of 2004) and this could be the possibility to teste the "living law" theory and its relation with the "adequate interpretation" of the law and the Constitution.

  14. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  15. Assisted reproductive technologies before de European Court of Human Rights: From Evans v. The United Kingdom to Parrillo v. Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Although most of the European legal systems regulate assisted reproductive technologies, diversity among member states regarding highly sensitive questions remains (e.g., conditions for access to certain treatments; use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in order to avoid a children’s genetic disease; resource to heterologous technologies with donated gametes; effects of international surrogacy arrangements; or the final destiny of cryopreserved embryos resulting from an “in vitro” fertiliz...

  16. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Solar Energy Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This solar energy curriculum guide is designed to assist teachers in infusing energy concepts into vocational education programs. It consists of 31 competency-based instructional units organized into 10 sections. Covered in the sections are the following topics: related instructions (history and development; human relations; general safety;…

  17. To move as a human. Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina

    2016-03-01

    I agree with the authors, that ;there have been very few attempts to develop user-centered medical technologies; [1] in the field of rehabilitation for persons with disabilities and wheelchair users in particular. The human-environment context in which humans plan and inhabit their actions as wheelchair users has not been extensively studied. The authors' unique work explores how a person embodies an exoskeleton (robotic legs or a wheelchair) in their everyday life and focuses on proprioception and brain's capacity to enlarge one's body schema in order to understand users' perspectives. Ultimately, Pazzaglia and Molinari wish to support persons who use assistive devices adapt and have successful, meaningful lives. The work is neuro-scientifically grounded, but doesn't forget the emotional or affective aspects of the user.

  18. THE CONCEPT OF REFERENCE CONDITION, REVISITED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often used to describe the standard or benchmark against which current condition is compared. If assessments are to be conducted consistently, then a common understanding of the definitions and complications of reference condition is necessary. A 2006 paper (Stoddard et al., 2006, Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276) made an early attempt at codifying the reference condition concept; in this presentation we will revisit the points raised in that paper (and others) and examine how our thinking has changed in a little over 10 years.Among the issues to be discussed: (1) the “moving target” created when reference site data are used to set thresholds in large scale assessments; (2) natural vs. human disturbance and their effects on reference site distributions; (3) circularity and the use of biological data to assist in reference site identification; (4) using site-scale (in-stream or in-lake) measurements vs. landscape-level human activity to identify reference conditions. Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often use

  19. The Nature of Human Disposition: al-Ghazālī's Contribution to an Islamic Concept of Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Husein Ali

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critique of contemporary psychological models of human nature and highlights the contribution of al-Ghazālī towards a better conceptualization of human disposition. A brief outline of the philosophical foundations of the three major psychological approaches–Freudian psychoanalysis, Skinnerian behaviorism, and Rogerian and Maslowvian Humanism– are provided. Consequently, the metaphors they adopted for human nature are discussed. The paper also highlights the shortcomings of these models by looking at their practical implications, particularly for psychology of personality. The last part of the paper dwells on al-Ghazālī’s contribution to an Islamic abstraction of human disposition and personality.

  20. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  1. Postgraduate fellows as teaching assistants in human anatomy: an experimental teaching model at a Chinese research university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Lin; Guo, Kaihua; Liu, Shu; Li, Feng; Chu, Guoliang; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Postgraduate fellowship training programs are expanding at Chinese universities. This growing cadre of advanced trainees calls for the development of new learning and training models wherein postgraduate fellows have an ample opportunity to teach more junior learners, thereby expanding their own knowledge base and competitiveness for future employment. Educational reform at Sun Yat-Sen University has recently allowed postgraduate fellows to act as teaching assistants for undergraduate anatomy courses. This model is common in western countries but is novel in China. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Study on the Forming Process and Exploration of Concept of Human-Water Harmonization of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Si, Liqi

    2018-05-01

    According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the process of human development and utilization of water resources can be divided into three stages: engineering water conservancy, resource water conservancy and harmonious coexistence between man and water. These three stages reflect the transformation of the idea of human development and utilization of water resources and eventually reach the state of harmony between human being and water. At the same time, this article draws on the experiences of water management under the thinking of sustainable development in the United States, Western Europe, Northern Europe and Africa. Finally, this paper points out that we need to realize the harmonious coexistence between man and water and sustainable development of water resources in the process of development and utilization of water resources, which is the inevitable requirement of the economic and social development.

  3. Analysis of the conceptions and expectations of students in the courses of pedagogy, administration and human resources about the discipline of science, technology and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alexandre; de Oliveira Neves, Jobert; Ferreira, Orlando Rodrigues; Lúcia Costa Amaral, Carmem; Delourdes Maciel, Maria; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Nascimento, Rômulo Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Provided for the education curricula since 1960, the focus on Science, Technology and Society (STS) has been poorly implemented even until today. Set as a goal to be achieved at all levels of education by 2014, in Brazil it is necessary to undertake specific actions in pursuit of putting into practice what has been stalled over the years in Education. As a result of joint efforts of teachers and students of the Masters in Teaching Science and Mathematics at the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul comes the challenge of providing a specific discipline dealing with the concepts of STS, offered as a optional special, initially for students of Pedagogy and later, due to the interest of some students, for the course of Administration and Human Resources of this institution. The survey of previous conceptions of students enrolled in the Special Discipline Elective Science, Technology and Society (CTS DOP) on the triad of STS showed a great ignorance on the same theme. The reports reveal conceptions of students who approach the linear model of development. As to the generated expectations in terms of discipline, there stand out the desires of expansion of knowledge for possible applications in personal and professional life. This research aims to evaluate the current course, while identifying ways to improve and strengthen the STS movement in education.

  4. Protecting polar wilderness : Just a western philosophical idea or a useful concept for regulating human activities in the polar regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees; Leary, D.; Koivurova, T.; Alfredsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments involved in Arctic and Antarctic governance have been well aware of the increasing human pressure on the Polar Regions and particularly the last two decades many initiatives have been taken to protect the Arctic and Antarctic environment. But what values are to be protected? This paper

  5. INCOMMANDS TDP: Human Factors Design and Evaluation Guide (PDT INCOMMANDS: Guide de Conception et d’Evaluation des Facteurs Humains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Human-Computer Interface (AHCI) Style Guide, (Report No. 64201-97U/61223), Veridian, Veda Operations, Dayton Ohio. [13] CSFAB Osga, G. and Kellmeyer, D...Interface (AHCI) Style Guide, (Report No. 64201-97U/61223), Veridian, Veda Operations, Dayton Ohio. [14] Osga, G. and Kellmeyer, D. (2000), Combat

  6. Portable vibration-assisted filtration device for on-site isolation of blood cells or pathogenic bacteria from whole human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Seyl; Kim, Soon Ae; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Tae Jae; Lee, Kyoung G

    2018-03-01

    Isolation of specific cells from whole blood is important to monitor disease prognosis and diagnosis. In this study, a vibration-assisted filtration (VF) device has been developed for isolation and recovery of specific cells such as leukocytes and pathogenic bacteria from human whole blood. The VF device is composed of three layers which was fabricated using injection molding with cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) pellets consisting of: a top layer with coin-type vibration motor (Ф = 10mm), a middle plate with a 1μm or 3μm-pore filter membrane to separate of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cells or leukocytes (i.e. white blood cells) respectively, and a bottom chamber with conical-shaped microstructure. One milliliter of human whole blood was injected into a sample loading chamber using a 3μm-pore filter equipped in the VF device and the coin-type vibration motor applied external vibration force by generating a rotational fluid which enhances the filtration velocity due to the prevention of the cell clogging on the filter membrane. The effluent blood such as erythrocytes, platelet, and plasma was collected at the bottom chamber while the leukocytes were sieved by the filter membrane. The vibration-assisted leukocyte separation was able to finish within 200s while leukocyte separation took 1200s without vibration. Moreover, we successfully separated S. aureus from human whole blood using a 1μm-pore filter equipped VF device and it was further confirmed by genetic analysis. The proposed VF device provides an advanced cell separation platform in terms of simplicity, fast separation, and portability in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical modelling as a proof of concept for MPNs as a human inflammation model for cancer development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Sajid, Zamra; Pedersen, Rasmus K.

    2017-01-01

    The chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are acquired stem cell neoplasms which ultimately may transform to acute myelogenous leukemia. Most recently, chronic inflammation has been described as an important factor for the development and progression of MPNs.......The basics of the model describe the proliferation from stem cells to mature cells including mutations of healthy stem cells to become malignant stem cells. We include a simple inflammatory coupling coping with cell death and affecting the basic model beneath. First, we describe the system without feedbacks...... or regulatory interactions. Next, we introduce inflammatory feedback into the system. Finally, we include other feedbacks and regulatory interactions forming the inflammatory-MPN model. Using mathematical modeling, we add further proof to the concept that chronic inflammation may be both a trigger of clonal...

  8. Using assistive technology services at differing levels of care: healthy older couples' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrefors, Christina; Axelsson, Karin; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe healthy older couples' perceptions of using assistive technology services when needing assistance with care. The use of information technology-based assistive technology services in elder care has increased as a result of an increase of care performed in private homes. The use of assistive technology services in care of older people at home has been evaluated as something positive by patients, relatives and nursing staff, while as resistance to their increased use has also been noted. Twelve healthy couples, aged over 70 years, from northern Sweden were interviewed in 2005 about their perceptions of using assistive technology services in the case of being in need of assistance with personal care. Open, individual semi-structured interviews supported by written vignettes describing three levels of caring needs were used and the data analysed with content analysis. The findings were interpreted as one main theme with three categories: Asset or threat depends on caring needs and abilities. Three categories were identified within the theme: Assistive technology services provide an opportunity; The consequences of using assistive technology services are hard to anticipate; and Fear of assistive technology services when completely dependent on care. Trust and security in the care of older people who are severely ill, dependent on care and living at home should be a hallmark in using assistive technology services. Human presence is an important dimension and must be considered when developing concepts for use of assistive technology services.

  9. Using data from drug discovery and development to aid the aquatic environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals: concepts, considerations, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew J; Owen, Stewart F; Murray-Smith, Richard; Panter, Grace H; Hetheridge, Malcolm J; Kinter, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, human pharmaceuticals have been detected in the aquatic environment. This, combined with the fact that many are (by design) biologically active compounds, has raised concern about potential impacts in wildlife species. This concern was realized with two high-profile cases of unforeseen environmental impact (i.e., estrogens and diclofenac), which have led to a flurry of work addressing how best to predict such effects in the future. One area in which considerable research effort has been made, partially in response to regulatory requirements, has been on the potential use of preclinical and clinical pharmacological and toxicological data (generated during drug development from nonhuman mammals and humans) to predict possible effects in nontarget, environmentally relevant species: so-called read across. This approach is strengthened by the fact that many physiological systems are conserved between mammals and certain environmentally relevant species. Consequently, knowledge of how a pharmaceutical works (the “mode-of-action,” or MoA) in nonclinical species and humans could assist in the selection of appropriate test species, study designs, and endpoints, in an approach referred to as “intelligent testing.” Here we outline the data available from the human drug development process and suggest how this might be used to design a testing strategy best suited to the specific characteristics of the drug in question. In addition, we review published data that support this type of approach, discuss the potential pitfalls associated with read across, and identify knowledge gaps that require filling to ensure accuracy in the extrapolation of data from preclinical and clinical studies, for use in the environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals.

  10. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  11. Music Recommendation System for Human Attention Modulation by Facial Recognition on a driving task: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila-Vázquez Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of music on driving process had been discussed in the context of driver assistance as an element of security and comfort. Throughout this document, we present the development of an audio recommender system for the use by drivers, based on facial expression analysis. This recommendation system has the objective of increasing the attention of the driver by the election of specific music pieces. For this pilot study, we start presenting an introduction to audio recommender systems and a brief explanation of the function of our facial expression analysis system. During the driving course the subjects (seven participants between 19 and 25 years old are stimulated with a chosen group of audio compositions and their facial expressions are captured via a camera mounted in the car's dashboard. Once the videos were captured and recollected, we proceeded to analyse them using the FACET™ module of the biometric capture platform iMotions™. This software provides us with the expression analysis of the subjects. Analysed data is postprocessed and the data obtained were modelled on a quadratic surface that was optimized based on the known cestrum and tempo of the songs and the average evidence of emotion. The results showed very different optimal points for each subject, that indicates different type of music for optimizing driving attention. This work is a first step for obtaining a music recommendation system capable to modulate subject attention while driving.

  12. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  13. Intra?Target Microdosing ? A Novel Drug Development Approach: Proof of Concept, Safety, and Feasibility Study in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, T; MacLeod, D; Lee, K; Santoro, A; DeMasi, DK; Hawk, T; Feinglos, M; Rowland, M; Noveck, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Intra-target microdosing (ITM) is a novel drug development approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of first-in-human (FIH) testing of new molecular entities (NMEs). ITM combines intra-target drug delivery and "microdosing," the subpharmacological systemic exposure. We hypothesized that when the target tissue is small (about 1/100th of total body mass), ITM can lead to target therapeutic-level exposure with minimal (microdose) systemic exposure. Each of five healthy male volunteers receive...

  14. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  15. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer, Maryam; Horvath, Hacsi; Mmeje, Okeoma; van der Poel, Sheryl; Semprini, Augusto E; Rutherford, George; Brown, Joelle

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Forty single-arm open-label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen. Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI. HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy. No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen among 3,994 women. Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women after 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen. Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission. Overall, 56.3% of couples (2,357/4,184) achieved a clinical pregnancy with the use of washed semen. Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help to further reduce the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concepção e utilização da tecnologia assistva por profissionais da área da saúde/Conceptions and practices regarding the assistive technology for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Roberta de Souza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir da problemática quanto à concepção de Tecnologia Assistiva e da necessidade do conhecimento dessa área por parte dos profissionais para sua correta implementação, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as concepções e as práticas relativas à Tecnologia Assistiva dos profissionais da saúde que compunham a equipe técnica de um serviço-escola situado em uma Universidade pública do interior paulista, visando o seu uso mais efetivo. Participaram do estudo um terapeuta ocupacional, dois fisioterapeutas, um fonoaudiólogo e um psicólogo. Os dados foram coletados por meio de uma ficha de cadastro do participante e de um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado. Os resultados encontrados foram organizados em sete categorias de análise e indicaram que a maioria dos técnicos considera a Tecnologia Assistiva como recursos e equipamentos que auxiliam o paciente a realizar determinada tarefa ou atividade. Poucos afirmaram que utilizavam a Tecnologia Assistiva em sua prática clínica, e apontaram a necessidade de formação mais específica para os profissionais da área. Conclui-se que esses resultados trouxeram informações importantes a respeito da inserção da temática Tecnologia Assistiva em serviços direcionados à população com deficiência, uma vez que há demanda específica de formação inicial e continuada dos profissionais técnicos presentes nessa instituição. From the problematic about of conceiving assistive technology and the need for knowledge of it by the professionals for its right implementation, the purpose of this study was to identify the conceptions and practices regarding the Assistive Technology for health professionals which made up the technical team of a School Service located in a public university in the interior of São Paulo, aiming its correct implementation. The participants of study were one occupational therapist, two physiotherapists and one psychologist. The data were collected through

  17. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  18. Exploring critical uncertainties in pathway assessments of human-assisted introductions of alien forest species in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Mark J. Ducey; Marty Siltanen; Kirsty Wilson; Klaus Koehler

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance introductions of alien species are often driven by socioeconomic factors, such that conventional “biological” invasion models may not be capable of estimating spread fully and reliably. In this study, we demonstrate a new technique for assessing and reconstructing human-mediated pathways of alien forest species entries to major settlements in Canada via...

  19. A Plasmid Containing the Human Metallothionein II Gene Can Function as an Antibody-assisted Electrophoretic Biosensor for Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Biol. Chem. 273:7127–7133. Brugnera, E., Georgiev, O., Radtke , F., et al. 1994. Cloning, chromosomal mapping and characterization of the human metal...Signaling events for metallothionein induction. Mutat. Res. 533:211–226. Heuchel, R., Radtke , F., Georgiev, O., et al. 1994. The transcription factor MTF

  20. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown; Analys av maensklig tillfoerlitlighet. HRA-begreppets tillaempbarhet vid revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenius, Aino (MTO Psykologi AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-08-15

    monotonous work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  1. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  2. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  3. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie; Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS 'pathways,' or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  4. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  5. First Human Use of a Radiopharmaceutical Prepared by Continuous-Flow Microfluidic Radiofluorination: Proof of Concept with the Tau Imaging Agent [18F]T807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive preclinical imaging with radiotracers developed by continuous-flow microfluidics, a positron emission tomographic (PET radiopharmaceutical has not been reported for human imaging studies by this technology. The goal of this study was to validate the synthesis of the tau radiopharmaceutical 7-(6-fluoropyridin-3-yl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole ([18F]T807 and perform first-in-human PET scanning enabled by microfluidic flow chemistry. [18F]T807 was synthesized by our modified one-step method and adapted to suit a commercial microfluidic flow chemistry module. For this proof of concept, the flow system was integrated to a GE Tracerlab FXFN unit for high-performance liquid chromatography purification and formulation. Three consecutive productions of [18F]T807 were conducted to validate this radiopharmaceutical. Uncorrected radiochemical yields of 17 ± 1% of crude [18F]T807 (≈ 500 mCi, radiochemical purity 95% were obtained from the microfluidic device. The crude material was then purified, and > 100 mCi of the final product was obtained in an overall uncorrected radiochemical yield of 5 ± 1% (n = 3, relative to starting [18F]fluoride (end of bombardment, with high radiochemical purity (≥ 99% and high specific activities (6 Ci/μmol in 100 minutes. A clinical research study was carried out with [18F]T807, representing the first reported human imaging study with a radiopharmaceutical prepared by this technology.

  6. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2003-01-01

    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  7. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating Fault Management Operations Concepts for Next-Generation Spacecraft: What Eye Movements Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; McCann, Robert S.; Beutter, Brent; Spirkovska, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancements associated with selected forms of automation were quantified in a recent human-in-the-loop evaluation of two candidate operational concepts for fault management on next-generation spacecraft. The baseline concept, called Elsie, featured a full-suite of "soft" fault management interfaces. However, operators were forced to diagnose malfunctions with minimal assistance from the standalone caution and warning system. The other concept, called Besi, incorporated a more capable C&W system with an automated fault diagnosis capability. Results from analyses of participants' eye movements indicate that the greatest empirical benefit of the automation stemmed from eliminating the need for text processing on cluttered, text-rich displays.

  9. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.

  10. Human Capital Management in Banking Institutions in Connection with the Population Ageing Process, Age Management Philosophy and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bejtkovský

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is, besides other things, to identify awareness of the Age Management philosophy in respect of the Corporate Social Responsibility concept in Czech banking institutions and further think about how to implement the philosophy in the process of human resource management so as to be targeted and efficient for all entities involved. From research methods, questionnaire survey and observation were used. These methods were further supplemented with a semi-structured interview with the employees of banking institutions. The obtained data were analyzed by statistical methods. In association with the conducted researches it can be generally stated that the addressed respondents agree with the statement that their banking institution does implement age diversity of employees in a certain form and Age Management principles – the idea of heterogeneous structure of employees, development of working conditions and environment for performance of required working conditions or cooperation on corporate projects.

  11. Computer-assisted design and synthesis of a highly selective smart adsorbent for extraction of clonazepam from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqababa, Heydar; Tabandeh, Mehrdad; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hasheminejad, Meisam; Emadi, Masoomeh

    2013-01-01

    A computational approach was applied to screen functional monomers and polymerization solvents for rational design of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) as smart adsorbents for solid-phase extraction of clonazepam (CLO) form human serum. The comparison of the computed binding energies of the complexes formed between the template and functional monomers was conducted. The primary computational results were corrected by taking into calculation both the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and the effect of the polymerization solvent using the counterpoise (CP) correction and the polarizable continuum model, respectively. Based on the theoretical calculations, trifluoromethyl acrylic acid (TFMAA) and acrylonitrile (ACN) were found as the best and the worst functional monomers, correspondingly. To test the accuracy of the computational results, three MIPs were synthesized by different functional monomers and their Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) isotherms were studied. The experimental results obtained confirmed the computational results and indicated that the MIP synthesized using TFMAA had the highest affinity for CLO in human serum despite the presence of a vast spectrum of ions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptation to acrolein through upregulating the protection by glutathione in human bronchial epithelial cells: the materialization of the hormesis concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthijns, Mireille M J P E; Randall, Matthew J; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2014-04-18

    Acrolein is a thiol reactive compound present in cigarette smoke and plays a pivotal role in the deleterious effects of smoking. Acrolein causes toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose dependent manner. GSH forms the first line of defense against acrolein-induced toxicity. At high doses of acrolein (⩾10 μM) the capacity of the cellular protection by GSH is overwhelmed and GSH is not able to quench all the acrolein, resulting in cytotoxicity. At a relatively low dose of acrolein (3 μM), no cytotoxicity is observed due to protection by GSH. Moreover we found that exposure to a low dose of acrolein protects cells against the toxic effect of a second higher dose of acrolein. The adaptation to acrolein is induced via Nrf2 mediated gene expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase leading to elevated GSH levels. This upregulation of the protection by GSH demonstrates a hormetic response to acrolein. Hormesis is an adaptive or compensatory response induced by a relatively subtle challenge of homeostasis by a toxic compound. Insight into the mechanism of hormesis is mandatory for a more accurate societal regulation of toxic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analyzing the Concept of Planetary Boundaries from a Strategic Sustainability Perspective: How Does Humanity Avoid Tipping the Planet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Henrik Robèrt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an approach for global sustainability, the planetary-boundary approach (PBA, has been proposed, which combines the concept of tipping points with global-scale sustainability indicators. The PBA could represent a significant step forward in monitoring and managing known and suspected global sustainability criteria. However, as the authors of the PBA describe, the approach faces numerous and fundamental challenges that must be addressed, including successful identification of key global sustainability metrics and their tipping points, as well as the coordination of systemic individual and institutional actions that are required to address the sustainability challenges highlighted. We apply a previously published framework for systematic and strategic development toward a robust basic definition of sustainability, i.e., the framework for strategic sustainable development (FSSD, to improve and inform the PBA. The FSSD includes basic principles for sustainability, and logical guidelines for how to approach their fulfillment. It is aimed at preventing unsustainable behavior at both the micro, e.g., individual firm, and macro, i.e., global, levels, even when specific global sustainability symptoms and metrics are not yet well understood or even known. Whereas the PBA seeks to estimate how far the biosphere can be driven away from a "normal" or "natural" state before tipping points are reached, because of ongoing violations of basic sustainability principles, the FSSD allows for individual planners to move systematically toward sustainability before all impacts from not doing so, or their respective tipping points, are known. Critical weaknesses in the PBA can, thus, be overcome by a combined approach, significantly increasing both the applicability and efficacy of the PBA, as well as informing strategies developed in line with the FSSD, e.g., by providing a "global warning system" to help prioritize strategic actions highlighted by the FSSD

  14. Application of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for simultaneous determination of aminophenol isomers in human urine, hair dye, and water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alireza; Fazl-Karimi, Hamidreza; Barfi, Behruz; Rajabi, Maryam; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Aminophenol isomers (2-, 3-, and 4-aminophenols) are typically classified as industrial pollutants with genotoxic and mutagenic effects due to their easy penetration through the skin and membranes of human, animals, and plants. In the present study, a simple and efficient ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector was developed for preconcentration and determination of these compounds in human fluid and environmental water samples. Effective parameters (such as type and volume of extraction solvent, pH and ionic strength of sample, and ultrasonication and centrifuging time) were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions (including sample volume: 5 mL; extraction solvent: chloroform, 80 µL; pH: 6.5; without salt addition; ultrasonication: 3.5 min; and centrifuging time: 3 min, 5000 rpm min(-1)), the enrichment factors and limits of detection were ranged from 42 to 51 and 0.028 to 0.112 µg mL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.085-157 µg mL(-1), r (2) > 0.998), accuracy (recovery = 88.6- 101.7%), and precision (repeatability: intraday precision water samples. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Determination of atenolol in human plasma using ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted in situ solvent formation microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Mohsen; Farahani, Hadi; Papan, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-06-01

    An efficient analytical method called ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted in situ solvent formation microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of atenolol in human plasma. A hydrophobic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was formed by the addition of a hydrophilic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) to a sample solution containing an ion-pairing agent during microextraction. The analyte was extracted into the ionic liquid phase while the microextraction solvent was dispersed throughout the sample by utilizing ultrasound. The sample was then centrifuged, and the extracting phase retracted into the microsyringe and injected to liquid chromatography. After optimization, the calibration curve showed linearity in the range of 2-750 ng/mL with the regression coefficient corresponding to 0.998. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification (S/N = 10) were 0.5 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. A reasonable relative recovery range of 90-96.7% and satisfactory intra-assay (4.8-5.1%, n = 6) and interassay (5.0-5.6%, n = 9) precision along with a substantial sample clean-up demonstrated good performance of the procedure. It was applied for the determination of atenolol in human plasma after oral administration and some pharmacokinetic data were obtained. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  17. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Murakami, Noriyuki; Lee, Catherine I; Leigh, Jen; Wirtz, Andrea L; Daniels, Brock; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Beyrer, Chris

    2010-04-19

    Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT) to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during reconstruction efforts. Such issues remain unaddressed in official assessments

  18. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahn Mahn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  19. Computer-assisted machine-to-human protocols for authentication of a RAM-based embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissa, Abdourhamane; Aubert, Alain; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    Mobile readers used for optical identification of manufactured products can be tampered in different ways: with hardware Trojan or by powering up with fake configuration data. How a human verifier can authenticate the reader to be handled for goods verification? In this paper, two cryptographic protocols are proposed to achieve the verification of a RAM-based system through a trusted auxiliary machine. Such a system is assumed to be composed of a RAM memory and a secure block (in practice a FPGA or a configurable microcontroller). The system is connected to an input/output interface and contains a Non Volatile Memory where the configuration data are stored. Here, except the secure block, all the blocks are exposed to attacks. At the registration stage of the first protocol, the MAC of both the secret and the configuration data, denoted M0 is computed by the mobile device without saving it then transmitted to the user in a secure environment. At the verification stage, the reader which is challenged with nonces sendsMACs / HMACs of both nonces and MAC M0 (to be recomputed), keyed with the secret. These responses are verified by the user through a trusted auxiliary MAC computer unit. Here the verifier does not need to tract a (long) list of challenge / response pairs. This makes the protocol tractable for a human verifier as its participation in the authentication process is increased. In counterpart the secret has to be shared with the auxiliary unit. This constraint is relaxed in a second protocol directly derived from Fiat-Shamir's scheme.

  20. Assisting at-risk community college students' acquisition of critical thinking learning strategies in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arburn, Theresa Morkovsky

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning thinking strategies within the context of a community college course in Human Anatomy and Physiology would result in increased academic performance and the incidence of critical thinking skills. Included in the study sample were 68 community college students, many of whom would be categorized as "at-risk," who were enrolled in four sections of a Human Anatomy and Physiology class. Two of the class sections served as the experimental group and two sections served as the control group. During the course of one semester, members of the experimental group participated in the use of a student-generated questioning technique in conjunction with lecture presentations, while members of the control group did not. All students were pretested using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Posttesting was completed using these same instruments and an end-of-course comprehensive examination. Analysis of data revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups with regard to their overall achievement, their ability to process information, or their demonstration of critical thinking. It was interesting to note, however, that members of the experimental group did exhibit a change in their ability to select main ideas, apply deductive reasoning, and use inference. While the use of thinking strategies within the context of the course did not effect a significant change in academic achievement or critical thinking among at-risk community college students, it should be noted that application of a non-lecture method of class participation had no negative impact on student performance. Whether more abstruse changes have occurred with regard to the acquisition of cognitive skills remains to be elucidated.

  1. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  2. [Current modalities and concepts on access and use of biospecimen samples and associated data for research from human biobanks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Roman; Semler, Sebastian Claudius

    2016-03-01

    It is accepted worldwide that biospecimen and data sharing (BDS) play an essential role for the future of medical research to improve diagnostics and prognostics, e.g. by validated biomarkers. BDS is also pivotal to the development of new therapeutic treatments and for the improvement of population health. Human biobanks can generate an added value to this need by providing biospecimens and/or associated data to researchers. An inspection of several examples of epidemiological as well as clinical/disease-oriented biobanks in Germany shows that best practice procedures (BPP) that are internationally agreed on are being installed for biospecimen and/or data access. In general, fair access is aimed at requiring a written application by the requesting scientist, which is then peer-reviewed for scientific and ethical validity by the Biobank. Applied BPP take into account (i) patient education/agreement according to the informed consent model, (ii) privacy protection, (iii) intellectual property rights, the (iv) notification obligation of health-related findings (including incidental findings), the (v) use of material (MTA) and data transfer agreements (DTA) for mutual legal security, the avoidance of conflicts of interests, as well as for cost recovery/fee for service as a basis for sustainability of the biobank. BPP are rooted in the self-regulation efforts of life sciences and are supported by parent ethics committees in Germany. Central biobank registries displaying aggregated information on biospecimens stored and the research foci constitute an important tool to make biobanks that are scattered across the country visible to each other, and, can thus promote access to hitherto unknown biospecimen and data resources.

  3. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  4. A Concept for Optimizing Behavioural Effectiveness & Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Jan Carlo; Rumantir, Grace; Li, Raymond

    Both humans and machines exhibit strengths and weaknesses that can be enhanced by merging the two entities. This research aims to provide a broader understanding of how closer interactions between these two entities can facilitate more optimal goal-directed performance through the use of artificial extensions of the human body. Such extensions may assist us in adapting to and manipulating our environments in a more effective way than any system known today. To demonstrate this concept, we have developed a simulation where a semi interactive virtual spider can be navigated through an environment consisting of several obstacles and a virtual predator capable of killing the spider. The virtual spider can be navigated through the use of three different control systems that can be used to assist in optimising overall goal directed performance. The first two control systems use, an onscreen button interface and a touch sensor, respectively to facilitate human navigation of the spider. The third control system is an autonomous navigation system through the use of machine intelligence embedded in the spider. This system enables the spider to navigate and react to changes in its local environment. The results of this study indicate that machines should be allowed to override human control in order to maximise the benefits of collaboration between man and machine. This research further indicates that the development of strong machine intelligence, sensor systems that engage all human senses, extra sensory input systems, physical remote manipulators, multiple intelligent extensions of the human body, as well as a tighter symbiosis between man and machine, can support an upgrade of the human form.

  5. The influence of environment and human rights in the business – the concept of public health – case study on noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dudová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the competitive global environment raises the question of responsibility in business and maintaining certain legal standards and responsibilities of corporations. Especially discussed is the question of human rights and business impacts on the environment. These factors are surprisingly closely related. They meet in an area, which is referred as “public health”. This concept is widely reflected both in the UN and in the legislation of many countries, but Czech legal arrangement is still not conceptually solved. However, in the debate about increasing corporate responsibility for their actions, we must take into account the protection of the health risk factors, respectively negative environmental effects. This right to public health is enforceable in a certain number of cases. It is therefore necessary to strictly distinguish some of the issues relating to liability for personal injury in the context of human rights. Problem is always to prove a causal nexus between the injury to health and adverse environmental impacts arising in connection with the business or operating a business.

  6. An Assistive Technology Design Framework for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Marshall, Paul; Obel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design framework for ADHD assistive technologies that aims to give researchers grounding in the background research on the condition, to provide a lingua franca, and to highlight potential research directions for HCI researchers within assistive technology. The design ...... map existing assistive technologies and potential new research efforts to the framework concepts. This way we show how it is used to support and advance the research and development of novel assistive technologies for the ADHD domain....

  7. Is It Now Institutionally Appropriate for the Courts to Consider Whether the Assisted Dying Ban is Human Rights Compatible? Conway V Secretary of State for Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Clark

    2017-11-07

    Noel Conway has ultimately been granted permission to apply for judicial review, to seek a declaration under section 4(2) Human Rights Act 1998 that section 2(1) Suicide Act 1961 is incompatible with his right to respect for private life under Article 8(1) ECHR. Both decisions in the application process are significant. They attempt to deal with the qualitative elements in the reasoning of Lords Neuberger, Mance and Wilson, in Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice: what Parliament is required to have done to have 'satisfactorily addressed' the question of relaxing or modifying section 2(1) Suicide Act. In failing to consider the explicit use of qualitative reasoning, both courts fail to interpret Nicklinson properly-that Parliament must change the law, with a declaration of incompatibility likely if it failed to do so. The Court of Appeal was correct to overrule the High Court's unqualified approach to whether it was now institutionally appropriate for a court to consider issuing a declaration of incompatibility, for the purposes of granting permission to apply for judicial review. However, the Court of Appeal directly signals their belief that a range of primary evidence bears out a system of assisted suicide for those in Mr Conway's position could feasibly be devised. This question though, as to evidence of a feasible system in the future, is irrelevant to whether permission to apply for judicial review should be granted to argue it is institutionally appropriate to make a declaration of incompatibility regarding current legislation. This is a problem Nicklinson has made for assisted dying and incompatibility debates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hippocampal lipid differences in Alzheimer's disease: a human brain study using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Lakshini H S; Grey, Angus C; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterized by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. Although there have been a few studies investigating lipid changes in the human hippocampus in particular, there are few reports on how lipids change in each hippocampal subfield (e.g., Cornu Ammonis [CA] 1-4, dentate gyrus [DG] etc.). Since each subfield has its own function, we postulated that there could be lipid changes that are unique to each. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry to investigate specific lipid changes in each subfield in AD. Data from the hippocampus region of six age- and gender-matched normal and AD pairs were analyzed with SCiLS lab 2015b software (SCiLS GmbH, Germany; RRID:SCR_014426), using an analysis workflow developed in-house. Hematoxylin, eosin, and luxol fast blue staining were used to precisely delineate each anatomical hippocampal subfield. Putative lipid identities, which were consistent with published data, were assigned using MS/MS. Both positively and negatively charged lipid ion species were abundantly detected in normal and AD tissue. While the distribution pattern of lipids did not change in AD, the abundance of some lipids changed, consistent with trends that have been previously reported. However, our results indicated that the majority of these lipid changes specifically occur in the CA1 region. Additionally, there were many lipid changes that were specific to the DG. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry and our analysis workflow provide a novel method to investigate specific lipid changes in hippocampal subfields. Future work will focus on elucidating the role that specific lipid differences in each subfield play in AD pathogenesis.

  9. A Novel Approach for Computer-Assisted Template-Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth With Custom 3D Designed/Printed Surgical Tooling. An Ex Vivo Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anssari Moin, David; Derksen, Wiebe; Verweij, J P; van Merkesteyn, Richard; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method for accurate autotransplantation with computer-assisted guided templates and assembled custom-designed surgical tooling and to test the feasibility and accuracy of this method ex vivo. A partially edentulous human mandibular cadaver was scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and an intraoral scan system. The 3-dimensional (3D) data of this cadaver were imported into specialized software and used to analyze the region of the recipient site and the donor tooth was selected. Subsequently, congruent to the donor tooth, custom surgical tools and a surgical guided template were designed and 3D printed. The guided osteotomy was performed and the donor tooth was transplanted. To evaluate the planned position of the donor tooth in relation to the position of the transplanted donor tooth, the mandible with the transplanted donor tooth was rescanned with the CBCT system and software matching was applied to measure the accuracy of the procedure. The angular deflection of the transplanted donor tooth in relation to the planned donor tooth position was 3.1°. When comparing the 3D positions of the shoulder, there was a deviation of 1.25 mm and an apical deviation of 0.89 mm. With the use of currently available technology, it is feasible to accurately plan and create in a virtual simulation a donor tooth position with congruent custom surgical tools and to transfer this to a clinical setting with 3D printing. However, further research on multiple levels is needed to explore this novel approach. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  11. The effects of chemical and physical factors on mammalian embryo culture and their importance for the practice of assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wale, Petra L; Gardner, David K

    2016-01-01

    Although laboratory procedures, along with culture media formulations, have improved over the past two decades, the issue remains that human IVF is performed in vitro (literally 'in glass'). Using PubMed, electronic searches were performed using keywords from a list of chemical and physical factors with no limits placed on time. Examples of keywords include oxygen, ammonium, volatile organics, temperature, pH, oil overlays and incubation volume/embryo density. Available clinical and scientific evidence surrounding physical and chemical factors have been assessed and presented here. Development of the embryo outside the body means that it is constantly exposed to stresses that it would not experience in vivo. Sources of stress on the human embryo include identified factors such as pH and temperature shifts, exposure to atmospheric (20%) oxygen and the build-up of toxins in the media due to the static nature of culture. However, there are other sources of stress not typically considered, such as the act of pipetting itself, or the release of organic compounds from the very tissue culture ware upon which the embryo develops. Further, when more than one stress is present in the laboratory, there is evidence that negative synergies can result, culminating in significant trauma to the developing embryo. It is evident that embryos are sensitive to both chemical and physical signals within their microenvironment, and that these factors play a significant role in influencing development and events post transfer. From the viewpoint of assisted human reproduction, a major concern with chemical and physical factors lies in their adverse effects on the viability of embryos, and their long-term effects on the fetus, even as a result of a relatively brief exposure. This review presents data on the adverse effects of chemical and physical factors on mammalian embryos and the importance of identifying, and thereby minimizing, them in the practice of human IVF. Hence, optimizing the

  12. Adaptive training algorithm for robot-assisted upper-arm rehabilitation, applicable to individualised and therapeutic human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemuturi, Radhika; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2013-09-28

    Rehabilitation robotics is progressing towards developing robots that can be used as advanced tools to augment the role of a therapist. These robots are capable of not only offering more frequent and more accessible therapies but also providing new insights into treatment effectiveness based on their ability to measure interaction parameters. A requirement for having more advanced therapies is to identify how robots can 'adapt' to each individual's needs at different stages of recovery. Hence, our research focused on developing an adaptive interface for the GENTLE/A rehabilitation system. The interface was based on a lead-lag performance model utilising the interaction between the human and the robot. The goal of the present study was to test the adaptability of the GENTLE/A system to the performance of the user. Point-to-point movements were executed using the HapticMaster (HM) robotic arm, the main component of the GENTLE/A rehabilitation system. The points were displayed as balls on the screen and some of the points also had a real object, providing a test-bed for the human-robot interaction (HRI) experiment. The HM was operated in various modes to test the adaptability of the GENTLE/A system based on the leading/lagging performance of the user. Thirty-two healthy participants took part in the experiment comprising of a training phase followed by the actual-performance phase. The leading or lagging role of the participant could be used successfully to adjust the duration required by that participant to execute point-to-point movements, in various modes of robot operation and under various conditions. The adaptability of the GENTLE/A system was clearly evident from the durations recorded. The regression results showed that the participants required lower execution times with the help from a real object when compared to just a virtual object. The 'reaching away' movements were longer to execute when compared to the 'returning towards' movements irrespective of the

  13. Versatile Manipulation for Assistive Free-Flyers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Assistive Free-Flyers (AFFs) are flying robots designed to share the living space with human astronauts in orbit. These robots have shown the potential to assist...

  14. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs. Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants. While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both

  15. Physician-assisted dying: thoughts drawn from Albert Camus' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia

    2018-03-20

    Physician-assisted dying (assisted suicide and euthanasia) is currently an intensely discussed topic in several countries. Despite differences in legislation and application, countries with end-of-life laws have similar eligibility criteria for assistance in dying: individuals must be in a hopeless situation and experience unbearable suffering. Hopelessness, as a basic aspect of the human condition, is a central topic in Albert Camus' philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus, which addresses the question of suicide. Suffering in the face of a hopeless situation, and the way doctors approach this suffering, is the topic of his novel The Plague, which describes the story of a city confronted with a plague epidemic. In this paper, I draw philosophical and ethical conclusions about physician-assisted dying based on an analysis of central concepts in the work of Camus-specifically, those treated in The Myth of Sisyphus and The Plague. On the basis of my interpretation of Camus' work, I argue that hopelessness and unbearable suffering are useless as eligibility criteria for physician-assisted dying, given that they do not sufficiently elucidate where the line should be drawn between patients who should to be eligible for assistance and those who should not.

  16. Assistance for design and realization of real-time safety critical applications according to Oasis; Aide a la conception et a la realisation d'applications temps-reel critiques selon OASIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aussagues, Ch.; Cordonnier, Ch.; Quetueil, I.; David, V

    1998-07-01

    Assistance for design and realization is all the more essential when safety-critical, real-time and complex applications are considered. When developing such applications, real-time and dependability features should be managed as soon as possible. Then, since the design phase, programmers have to strive even more than with common applications. In the context of the OASIS approach, assistance for design and realization is based on some intrinsic properties of the model, i.e. determinism, behavior independence and timeliness. The assistance, that may be furnished in the OASIS approach, has three complementary components that constitute the focus of this article. (authors)

  17. Circular RNA expression profiling of human granulosa cells during maternal aging reveals novel transcripts associated with assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cheng

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs (circRNAs are a unique class of endogenous RNAs which could be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. Our study aimed to investigate circRNA profiles in human granulosa cells (GCs during maternal aging and to uncover age-related circRNA variations that potentially reflect decreased oocyte competence. CircRNAs in GCs from in vitro fertilization (IVF patients with young age (YA, ≤ 30 years and advanced age (AA, ≥ 38 years were profiled by microarray, and validated in 20 paired samples. The correlation between circRNAs expression and clinical characteristics was analyzed in additional 80 samples. Chip-based analysis revealed 46 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated circRNAs in AA samples (fold change > 2.0. Specifically, circRNA_103829, circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 were validated to be up-regulated, while circRNA_101889 was down-regulated in AA samples. After adjustment for gonadotropin treatment, only circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 levels were positively associated with maternal age (partial r = 0.332, P = 0.045; partial r = 0.473, P = 0.003; respectively. Moreover, circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 expressions in GCs were negatively correlated with the number of top quality embryos (r = -0.235, P = 0.036; r = -0.221, P = 0.049; respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis indicated that the performance of circRNA_103827 for live birth prediction reached 0.698 [0.570-0.825], with 77.2% sensitivity and 60.9% specificity (P = 0.006, and that of circRNA_104816 was 0.645 [0.507-0.783] (P = 0.043. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both circRNAs were potentially involved in glucose metabolism, mitotic cell cycle, and ovarian steroidogenesis. Therefore, age-related up-regulation of circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 might be potential indicators of compromised follicular micro-environment which could be used to predict IVF prognosis, and improve female infertility

  18. COMET concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  19. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  20. Management concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Management concepts evolve through time. Health care managers can learn new concepts by evaluating classical management strategies, as well as modern-day strategies. Focusing on quality improvement and team building can help managers align the goals of their departments with the goals of the organization, consequently improving patient care.