WorldWideScience

Sample records for human assisted conception

  1. Ambient Assisted Living Systems in the Context of Human Centric Sensing and IoT Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, Nicola; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of Human Centric Sensing in the context of Internet of Things and Ambient Assisted Living. The paper uses a case study to present and analyze the proposed idea, and identifies the main challenges and open issues that require research and policy attention....

  2. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.

  3. Information on genetic origins in donor-assisted conception: is knowing who you are a human rights issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric

    2002-11-01

    It was not by my choice that my ancestral home is nothing more than a sample jar. (Whipp, 2000) There can be few more basic rights than a right to one's identity...a right not to be deceived about one's true origins. (Freeman, 1996) This article provides an overview of existing arrangements for the management of information on genetic origins in donor-assisted conception, that is, treatment involving sperm, eggs or embryo donation. The balance of this article reflects the fact that much of the debate on information on genetic origins in donor-assisted conception has been dominated by sperm donation. A detailed discussion of the rather different issues of egg and embryo donation would have added significantly to its complexity and length. The article considers what donor-conceived people wish to know about their genetic origins and how this might be seen as a human rights issue. The possibility of conflict between the interests and rights of donors and recipients of donated gametes or embryos is discussed, and possible policy and legislative options are outlined. The paper concludes that a donor-conceived person's own definition of their best interests should form the basis for the facilitation of access to information about their genetic origins.

  4. Parents of children conceived through assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    Parental responsibility allows parents to exercise rights over their children and to make decisions on behalf of the child that are in the best interests of the welfare of the child. It is a crucial part of being a parent. In recognition of the changing demographic of the family resulting in more cohabiting couples and step families the law relating to parental responsibility was changed in 2003 and 2005. With the development of more effective assisted conception techniques and increased use of 'do-it-yourself ' insemination using semen purchased over the Internet it was necessary to amend the rules relating to parenthood as a result of assisted conception. This article considers the amendments relating to the recognition of parenthood introduced by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008.

  5. Analyses of robotic traverses and sample sites in the Schrödinger basin for the HERACLES human-assisted sample return mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, Edgar S.; Martin, Dayl J. P.; McDonald, Francesca E.; Paisarnsombat, Sarinya; Venturino, Christian; O'Hara, Sean; Calzada-Diaz, Abigail; Bottoms, Shelby; Leader, Mark K.; Klaus, Kurt K.; van Westrenen, Wim; Needham, Debra H.; Kring, David A.

    2016-09-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) developed an integrated Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that outlines plans for human-assisted sample return from the lunar surface in ∼2024 and for human presence on the lunar surface in ∼2028. Previous studies have identified the Schrödinger basin, situated on the far side of the Moon, as a prime target for lunar science and exploration where a significant number of the scientific concepts reviewed by the National Research Council (NRC, 2007) can be addressed. In this study, two robotic mission traverses within the Schrödinger basin are proposed based on a 3 year mission plan in support of the HERACLES human-assisted sample return mission concept. A comprehensive set of modern remote sensing data (LROC imagery, LOLA topography, M3 and Clementine spectral data) has been integrated to provide high-resolution coverage of the traverses and to facilitate identification of specific sample localities. We also present a preliminary Concept of Operations (ConOps) study based on a set of notional rover capabilities and instrumental payload. An extended robotic mission to the Schrödinger basin will allow for significant sample return opportunities from multiple distinct geologic terrains and will address multiple high-priority NRC (2007) scientific objectives. Both traverses will offer the first opportunity to (i) sample pyroclastic material from the lunar farside, (ii) sample Schrödinger impact melt and test the lunar cataclysm hypothesis, (iii) sample deep crustal lithologies in an uplifted peak ring and test the lunar magma ocean hypothesis and (iv) explore the top of an impact melt sheet, enhancing our ability to interpret Apollo samples. The shorter traverse will provide the first opportunity to sample farside mare deposits, whereas the longer traverse has significant potential to collect SPA impact melt, which can be used to constrain the basin-forming epoch. These robotic missions will revalidate

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist Vehicle-Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle clearing the track and shifting to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The system, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) system, is a launch system developed and tested by Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using an off-board electric energy source and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  7. INPO Assistance Activities: Human Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, J.T.

    1999-11-14

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has a number of ongoing activities designed to provide assistance to our members in the human resources area. These include the Educational Assistance Program and the ongoing facilitation of information exchange through Nuclear Network and INPO publications. INPO will continue to seek ways to assist its member utilities.

  8. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  9. A team approach to assisted conception treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Margaret; Lawton, Janet

    1998-01-01

    A programme to improve 'continuity of care' was initiated at Bourn Hall Clinic in direct response to patient demand to see the same doctors and nurses throughout assisted conception treatment cycles. A working party comprising individuals from all disciplines involved in assisted conception care was set up to review practices and aims and to establish an action plan. As a result, in 1996, a team approach to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and frozen embryo transfer (FET) treatment cycles was introduced at the clinic. The nursing staff were divided into two teams, each with a leader, an appropriate skill mix of full- and part-time nurses, and one full-time and one relief doctor. Treatment cycles were scheduled using pituitary downregulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist when appropriate, and a programme was devised in which groups of 40--45 couples started treatment during the same 5 day period. Each couple was assigned to one of the teams and starting dates for each group were separated by 2 week intervals. The objectives of the working party were successfully achieved. The team approach to treating a finite number of couples provides a better opportunity for individualized care. Couples appreciate the advantages of continuity of care and the improved rapport with team staff. Forward planning of treatment cycles provides greater flexibility for incorporating clinic visits into patients' normal routines. Staff have benefited from increased job satisfaction due to greater involvement with couples from initial contact to the completion of treatment. The new working practice provides opportunities for training and research. Staff costs have been rationalized with benefits both to couples and to the business unit.

  10. Social and Human Service Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Employment of social and human service assistants is projected to grow ...

  11. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  12. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  13. The Role of Human Web Assistants in E-Commerce: An Analysis and a Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Johan; Shahmehri, Nahid

    2000-01-01

    Discusses electronic commerce and presents the concept of Web assistants, human assistants working in an electronic Web shop. Presents results of a usability study of a prototype adaptive Web assistant system that show users were enthusiastic about the concept of Web assistants and its implications. (Author/LRW)

  14. The Role of Human Web Assistants in E-Commerce: An Analysis and a Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Johan; Shahmehri, Nahid

    2000-01-01

    Discusses electronic commerce and presents the concept of Web assistants, human assistants working in an electronic Web shop. Presents results of a usability study of a prototype adaptive Web assistant system that show users were enthusiastic about the concept of Web assistants and its implications. (Author/LRW)

  15. Italian law on assisted conception: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Claudio; Nardo, Luciano G

    2005-11-01

    The Italian law 40/2004 regulating the use of assisted conception will remain on the statutes after the failure of the referendum in June 2005. Italy is now one of the most restrictive countries in the world in the field of assisted conception. It is thought that the new regulations, which have already increased 'reproductive tourism' in Italian subfertile couples, will also have clinical and research implications.

  16. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bos-Mikich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with varying degrees of success in terms of parthenote generation rates, embryo development stem cell derivation rates. Success in achieving a standardized artificial activation methodology for human oocytes and the subsequent potential therapeutic gain obtained from these embryos depends mainly on the availability of gametes donated from infertility treatments. This review will focus on the creation of parthenotes from clinically unusable oocytes for derivation and establishment of human parthenogenetic stem cell lines and their potential applications in regenerative medicine.

  17. [Parents of multiple births after assisted conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalcek, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    A major criticism is the increase in multiple pregnancies after ART in the past 30 years and the associated fetal and maternal risks. Few studies examined the psychosocial risks of the parents of multiple births after ART, for example psychology adjustment, parenting stress, education problems, anxiety, depression, relationship problems or social isolation. The research confirms the psychosocial characteristics after multiple births. In the early postpartum period there is increased risk of depressive disorders. Mothers of twins after ART show a limitation of their psychosocial well-being compared to mothers of singles after ART. Higher expectations of parenthood during pregnancy, less sufficiency coping strategies, and consequently, greater parental stress show twin mothers after ART in comparison to twin mothers after nature conception. An interdisciplinary postpartum care services makes sense. However, clinicians should keep attention to potential psychosocial burden of a multiple birth.

  18. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): conception and application of a tele-operated assisted living robot

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Clotet; Dani Martínez; Javier Moreno; Marcel Tresanchez; Jordi Palacín

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast hig...

  19. A problem shared...? Teamwork, autonomy and error in assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Anne

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores the benefits and drawbacks of new team-based approaches to error management in medicine through a case study of teamwork, double witnessing and incident reporting in assisted conception clinics in the UK. This is based upon the analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews with people working in assisted conception clinics and two periods of ethnography in clinics, conducted between 2004 and 2007, as part of an ESRC-funded study on the ethics of assisted conception and embryo research. In common with other studies of practitioners' management of error, I identify a series of tensions around individual and collective autonomy in identifying and preventing error, for the assisted conception team as a whole, and for particular groups within it, notably consultants and embryologists. I found that team-based approaches could create the conditions for error to occur when it undermined independent thinking, responsibility or concentration. There was also a danger that teamwork could come to be associated with particular 'technical' practices or occupational groups, diminishing its relevance and value in clinical settings. I, therefore, conclude that team-based approaches and professional autonomy have their 'dark' as well as their 'light' sides (Vaughan, D. (1999). The dark side of organisations: mistake, misconduct, and disaster. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 271-305). Errors cannot be prevented in their entirety, but they can be well managed when teamwork and autonomy are complementary. Drawing on Reason (Reason, J. (2004). Beyond the organisational accident: the need for "error wisdom" on the frontline. Quality Safety in Health Care, 12, ii28-ii33), I argue that informed vigilance and intelligent wariness in a necessary compliment to systems-based approaches to error management in assisted conception in particular, and medicine in general.

  20. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot.

  1. Artist's Concept of Magnetic Launch Assisted Air-Breathing Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle in orbit. Formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, the Magnetic Launch Assist system is a launch system developed and tested by engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  2. Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Dr. Kishor

    2008-01-01

    Human Physiology’, or the study of functional aspects of human body, is designated by the term ‘Śarīra Vicaya’ in Ayurvedic literature. The word ‘Vicaya’ means the special or detailed knowledge. Detailed knowledge of normal human body i.e., ‘Śarīra’, is considered helpful in understanding the factors influencing the health. Though most of the basic concepts of human physiology explained in Ayurveda are strikingly similar to the concepts of modern physiology, some concepts like ‘Ātmā’, ‘Ma...

  3. Human Security: Concept, Disputes and Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Human security is a new concept in the area of security and constitutes one of the important indicators for realizing human rights.It puts the point of concern about security on humans and therefore embodies a people-centered idea.It has become a major hallmark of the shift in security after the cold war.

  4. [Humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fernanda Maria de Jesus S Pires; Crizostomo, Cilene Delgado; Nery, Inez Sampaio; Mendonça, Rita de Cássia Magalhães; de Araújo, Olívia Dias; da Rocha, Silvana Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Bibliographical study that sought to identify the scientific production about humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth. The sources were scientific articles from SCIELO-Brasil's database, from 2000 to 2007. We obtained 13 articles as result from the search, which were grouped in the following categories: childbirth medicalization, humanization of assistance to childbirth, companion during childbirth and performance of the obstetric nurse. The analysis pointed out that the current paradigm is centralized on childbirth intervention, despite of humanization movements defending the natural and physiological childbirth made by the nurse. We concluded that qualified and humanized assistance to childbirth and birth privileges women's respect, dignity and autonomy, regarding women's active role in the birth process.

  5. Assistant Personal Robot (APR: Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Clotet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot.

  6. [Current Concepts of Human Microsporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, S A

    2015-01-01

    Microsporidiosis is an ubiquitous opportunistic disease that usually appears in immunocompromised patients: AIDS patients or organ-transplant recipients. The infectious agents of disease are fungi-related obligate intracellular parasites - microsporidia. Alongside with Cryptosporidium and Cytomegalovirus, these parasites are the most common causative agents of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. Intestinalform of microsporidiosis has been mostfrequently observed, but microsporidia can affect almost any organs of the human body, eyes, lungs, muscles, organs of the nervous system. The present paper overviews the current data on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment methods of microsporidiosis.

  7. Human Security Concept in the UN Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Alexandrovna Bokeriya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the theme, scientific actuality and practical relevance of which is not in doubt, and is caused by a new wave of interest in human security. The human security concept has been the subject of active discussions on national and international security forums for the past 10 years. This article is focused on the human security concept evolution in the framework of the UN in conditions of the growing challenges and threats as well as polycentric world and international relations transformation. The author turned to the analysis of human security issues in the UN human rights dimension, as this organization performs a key role in the application and implementation of the concept on a global scale. The detailed periodization of human security development within the UN is presented for the first time. The analysis of the situation with Syrian refugees in Lebanon is carried out in the format of a case study. Author has made an attempt to undertake not a comprehensive analysis of the concept within the UN, but re-evaluation of new trends and dominant problems in practical application of human security idea and its impact on the effectiveness of international organizations.

  8. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models and finishing on strategic human resources models (orthodox model and human resources architecture, proposed by R.G. Klimecki S. A. Litz and D.P. Lepak S.A. Snell.

  9. HUMAN RIGHTS - A CONCEPT WITH UNIVERSAL MEANINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela STANCEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human rights has evolved in its essence as physical force was gradually replaced by reason, as in society took shape legal principles that would become fundamental: the principle of freedom, equality, solidarity, etc.. Fundamental human rights are a set of rights, freedoms and duties recognized worldwide covering essential issues for human development, welfare and progress. Over time, the human rights institution has evolved and undergone important correctives from one historical arrangement to another and bet on the same order, from one stage to another.

  10. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  11. Multiplicity and early gestational age contribute to an increased risk of cerebral palsy from assisted conception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana;

    2010-01-01

    : The risk of CP is increased after both IVF and OI. The increased risk of CP in children born after assisted conception, and in particular IVF, is strongly associated with the high proportion of multiplicity and preterm delivery in these pregnancies. A more widespread use of single embryo transfer warrants....... When we included the intermediate factors multiplicity and gestational age in multivariate models, the risk of CP in assisted conception disappeared. In general, children with CP born after assisted conception had similar CP subtypes and co-morbidities as children with CP born after NC. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: This paper assesses the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in children born after assisted conception compared with children born after natural conception (NC). METHODS: This population based follow-up study included all 588,967 children born in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. Assisted conception...

  12. Human dignity in concept and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Clark, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dignity seems to be something that virtually all people want. It is a seminal expression of the human experience that gains authority through the convergent demands of people worldwide. Even so, the human dignity concept is in unhelpful disarray. Dignity is variously viewed as an antecedent, a consequence, a value, a principle, and an experience, from philosophical, legal, pragmatic, psychological, behavioral, and cultural perspectives. We ask which if any of these human dignity concepts will likely serve our global common interests best, as both common ground and policy diagnostic? We examine four broad themes: dignity as (1) a metaphysical justification for human rights and duties, (2) virtuous comportment or behavior, (3) a perspective of "other," and (4) a subjective experience of the individual, contingent on a broad and equitable sharing of values. We recommend viewing dignity as a commonwealth of individually assessed well-being, shaped by relationships with others, affected by the physical world, and framed in terms of values. Viewed this way, the idea of dignity accommodates the priorities of both individualistic and communitarian cultures. Conceiving of human dignity as a commonwealth of subjectively experienced value production and enjoyment has many practical policy implications. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  13. Exotendons for assistance of human locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bogert Antonie J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered robotic exoskeletons for assistance of human locomotion are currently under development for military and medical applications. The energy requirements for such devices are excessive, and this has become a major obstacle for practical applications. Legged locomotion in many animals, however, is very energy efficient. We propose that poly-articular elastic mechanisms are a major contributor to the economy of locomotion in such specialized animals. Consequently, it should be possible to design unpowered assistive devices that make effective use of similar mechanisms. Methods A passive assistive technology is presented, based on long elastic cords attached to an exoskeleton and guided by pulleys placed at the joints. A general optimization procedure is described for finding the best geometrical arrangement of such "exotendons" for assisting a specific movement. Optimality is defined either as minimal residual joint moment or as minimal residual joint power. Four specific exotendon systems with increasing complexity are considered. Representative human gait data were used to optimize each of these four systems to achieve maximal assistance for normal walking. Results The most complex exotendon system, with twelve pulleys per limb, was able to reduce the joint moments required for normal walking by 71% and joint power by 74%. A simpler system, with only three pulleys per limb, could reduce joint moments by 46% and joint power by 47%. Conclusion It is concluded that unpowered passive elastic devices can substantially reduce the muscle forces and the metabolic energy needed for walking, without requiring a change in movement. When optimally designed, such devices may allow independent locomotion in patients with large deficits in muscle function.

  14. Interaction design concepts for a mobile personal assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.; Oostendorp, H. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Personal Assistant for onLine Services (PALS) project aims to develop an intelligent interface that facilitates efficient user interaction through personalization and context awareness with commerce web sites on a handheld device. The types of assistance services and interaction support represen

  15. Interaction design concepts for a mobile personal assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.; Oostendorp, H. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Personal Assistant for onLine Services (PALS) project aims to develop an intelligent interface that facilitates efficient user interaction through personalization and context awareness with commerce web sites on a handheld device. The types of assistance services and interaction support

  16. Concept and design of a cooperative robotic assistant surgery system

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Cruces, Raúl Armando

    2008-01-01

    The modular interactive computer-assisted surgery (modiCAS) project, settled in the Center for Sensor System (ZESS) at the University of Siegen, in Germany, is engaged to develop an integral solution for different surgical problems by the combination of a navigation system and a robot arm with hands-on capabilities. The robotic system may be thought of as a smart surgical tool that extends surgeon's ability to treat patients, giving him/her surgical assistant by working in cooperative fashion...

  17. Human Energy Field: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Deborah; Fuller, Ann; Resnicoff, Marci; Butcher, Howard K; Frisch, Noreen

    2016-11-23

    The human energy field (HEF) as a phenomenon of interest across disciplines has gained increased attention over the 20th and 21st centuries. However, a concern has arisen that there is a lack of evidence to support the concept of the HEF as a phenomenon of interest to professional nurses and nursing practice. Using Chinn and Kramer's method of creating conceptual meaning, a concept analysis was conducted for the purpose of developing a conceptual definition of HEF. A systematic review of the literature using the CINAHL database yielded a total of 81 articles and text sources that were determined to be relevant to the concept analysis. The HEF is defined as a luminous field of energy that comprises a person, extends beyond the physical body, and is in a continuous mutual process with the environmental energy field. It is a vital energy that is a continuous whole and is recognized by its unique pattern; it is dynamic, creative, nonlinear, unpredictable, and flows in lower and higher frequencies. The balanced HEF is characterized by flow, rhythm, symmetry, and gentle vibration.

  18. An international view of surgically assisted conception and surrogacy tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine, specifically assisted reproductive technology (ART), has overtaken the law in many jurisdictions around the world. New technologies and practices open a Pandora's Box of ethical, religious, social and legal questions, and may present a variety of significant legal problems to the courts and legislators. Surrogate motherhood and pregnancy through ART have both attracted controversy. Some groups condemn ART and want it banned while its supporters acknowledge there is a need for legislative guidelines and regulations. A proposed statute, the Assisted Reproductive Technique Services Act, aimed at regulating reproductive technologies, including surrogacy arrangements, will be introduced in the Malaysian parliament, probably in 2012, and the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill 2010 is already before the Indian parliament. This paper will discuss several of the potential socio-legal issues surrounding ART in the light of the complex situation, with a comparative analysis of the Malaysian, USA, UK and Indian positions.

  19. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  20. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  1. An Investigation into the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Present Basic English Grammar Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    CAI tutorial that will help students to better understand English gramar concepts. This objective consisted of two distinct facets: development of the... English gramar in terms of functions and building elements as presented in the tutorial; four users were unsure; and only five indicated that they had...AFIT/GIR/LSR/91D-10 DTIC PI-ECTE JAN 0 7 1992 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF CCMPUT-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TO PRESENT BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR CONCEPTS

  2. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  3. Emotion-Aware Assistive System for Humanistic Care Based on the Orange Computing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhing-Fa Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental care has become crucial with the rapid growth of economy and technology. However, recent movements, such as green technologies, place more emphasis on environmental issues than on mental care. Therefore, this study presents an emerging technology called orange computing for mental care applications. Orange computing refers to health, happiness, and physiopsychological care computing, which focuses on designing algorithms and systems for enhancing body and mind balance. The representative color of orange computing originates from a harmonic fusion of passion, love, happiness, and warmth. A case study on a human-machine interactive and assistive system for emotion care was conducted in this study to demonstrate the concept of orange computing. The system can detect emotional states of users by analyzing their facial expressions, emotional speech, and laughter in a ubiquitous environment. In addition, the system can provide corresponding feedback to users according to the results. Experimental results show that the system can achieve an accurate audiovisual recognition rate of 81.8% on average, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the system. Compared with traditional questionnaire-based approaches, the proposed system can offer real-time analysis of emotional status more efficiently.

  4. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  5. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  6. Development of Assistive Robots Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Concept, Applications, and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Tanaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many assistive robots for elderly and disabled people have been developed in the past few decades. However, very few of them became commercially available. The major cause of the problem is that the cost-benefit ratio and the risk-benefit ratio of them are not good or not known. The evaluation of them should be done in the light of the impacts of assistive technologies on users’ whole life, both in short-term and long-term. In this paper, we propose a framework of evaluation and design of assistive robots using ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The goal of the framework is the realization of the life design and the improvement of the quality of life using assistive technologies. We describe the concept of utilizing ICF in the development process of assistive robots, and demonstrate its utility by using some examples of practical application such as the analysis of daily living, the design of assistive robots and the evaluation of assistive robots. We also show the issues of using ICF for further development of the framework.

  7. The human concept in Nicolas Maquiavelo

    OpenAIRE

    Echandi Gurdián, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the elements underlying the Machiavellian discourse about human reality and behavior throughout ancient history that considers magistra vitae. Its explains why the author makes a deterministic interpretation of the nature of man, even though Machiavelli is recognized as a precursor of human psychology, showing us with countless examples, a naturalism that presupposes a content of the dualism of human nature: rational-instinctive, where the latter is dominant and immutable. ...

  8. [Living the birth process in a humanized assistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa Mandarano; Barbieri, Márcia; Fustinoni, Suzete Maria

    2011-01-01

    That was a qualitative study with phenomenological approach that aimed at understanding women's post-partum experiences in a humanized assistance. Data were collected in a hospital from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Eight women in post-partum period were interviewed. From data analysis two themes were extracted: Bearing the labor and Having the opportunity rescuing autonomy, being disclosed the phenomenon: "Living the ambiguity on the birth process in a humanized assistance model". The reports show feelings like pain, fear and anxiety, however, it allowed a participation and rescuing autonomy. Although the study have been realized in a humanized assistance, the women's experiences reveals that they are far from an effective humanization, according to its principles. This study can be used to guide educative actions target to humanization and to generate managerial changes.

  9. Exploring Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Physics Instructors and Teaching Assistants Using the Force Concept Inventory

    CERN Document Server

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices that correspond to students' alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students' initial knowledge state in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate the pedagogical content knowledge of both instructors and teaching assistants (TAs) of varying teaching experience. For each item on the FCI, the instructors and TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. We also discussed the responses individually with a few instructors. Then, we used the FCI pre-test and post-test data from ...

  10. Concept of the Flemish human biomonitoring programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Colles, Ann; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; Keune, Hans; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Sioen, Isabelle; De Coster, Sam; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Vrijens, Jan; Croes, Kim; Goeyens, Karen; Baeyens, Willy

    2012-02-01

    Since 2002 a human biomonitoring network has been established in Flanders (Belgium) as part of a programme on environmental health surveillance. The human biomonitoring network should support environmental health policy by identifying priorities for further action. The first cycle of the programme (2002-2006) confirmed the hypotheses that living in areas with different environmental pressure is reflected in different loads of environmental chemicals in the residents. In the second cycle of the programme (2007-2011) the number of environmental chemicals for which human biomonitoring data were obtained was expanded substantially. The goal of the Flemish programme is to use and translate the scientific results into policy actions. Its further orientation in the second cycle to human biomonitoring in hot spots and sensitive age groups or susceptible persons with underlying complications (e.g. persons with diabetes) are linked to these goals. Interaction with stakeholders is embedded in the programme emphasizing transparency of the choices that are made and direct communication. The Flemish human biomonitoring programme is organized centrally with major involvement of research partners from different disciplines which allows engrafting environmental health research on the programme. One of the major focuses is the question whether combinations of pollutants in the general population are associated with biological effects. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the options that were taken in the human biomonitoring programme in order to achieve its goals.

  11. [Right of access to the assisted human reproduction: bioethics discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luciana Soares de; Verdi, Marta Inez Machado

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how is configured the right of access to the assisted human reproduction service (AHRS). It was developed through documentary research in official sources of the Brazilian Federal Government. From the criteria of the analysis of content were analyzed: 1 government directive and 6 projects of law, divided in 3 thematic areas (access to what?; access to whom?; and conditions and criteria of access), revealing nucleus of meaning that had been explored in this research. This revealed that the right of access in official documents is exclusive, and morally induced by a professional category and its arbitrariness. The joint of these nucleus of meaning with the everyday bioethics was of extreme relevance to deal with the different kinds of family that are being legitimated through these proposals of regulation, as well as the ethical questions intrinsic to the formulation of these texts, which remit us to the idea of traditional family, model not hegemonic anymore in our society, and social and legally surpassed by new familiar conceptions that also demand visibility and legitimacy from the State. The study intends to be one more possibility of reflection about the questions that involve the right of access to the AHRS from the everyday bioethics issues.

  12. Property and the human body: a proposal for posthumous conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Eli Byron Stuart

    2008-02-01

    There is no greater error in law and bioethics than the continuing opposition to applying the concept of property to posthumous conception cases and the human body generally. The aim of this article is to challenge this error and the assumptions underpinning it. The language of property, conceived of as a "web of interests", can be used to capture and identify the social, moral and ethical concerns that arise in cases concerning the human body, a position that finds support from a correct reading of the early High Court of Australia's decision in Doodeward v Spence (1908) 6 CLR 406. However, a key issue on which the language of property is silent is how to quantify the various competing interests in the posthumous conception case: the concept is useful only insofar as it provides the device for capturing the entirety of the posthumous conception problem.

  13. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of e...

  14. Spacecraft Rendevouz and Docking. An Autonomy assisted Human Operator Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1999-01-01

    The phenomena and problems encountered when a rendezvous maneuver, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies and details of a variety of scenarios has been analyzed. So far, all solutions that have been brought into realization have been...... based entirely on direct human supervision and control.This paper describes a vision based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation procedures...... information to assist the human operator during the docking phase.The closed loop and operator assistance performance of the system have been assessed using a test bench including human operator, navigation module and high fidelity visualization module.The tests performed verified the general accuracy, real...

  15. Human-level concept learning through probabilistic program induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Brenden M; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2015-12-11

    People learning new concepts can often generalize successfully from just a single example, yet machine learning algorithms typically require tens or hundreds of examples to perform with similar accuracy. People can also use learned concepts in richer ways than conventional algorithms-for action, imagination, and explanation. We present a computational model that captures these human learning abilities for a large class of simple visual concepts: handwritten characters from the world's alphabets. The model represents concepts as simple programs that best explain observed examples under a Bayesian criterion. On a challenging one-shot classification task, the model achieves human-level performance while outperforming recent deep learning approaches. We also present several "visual Turing tests" probing the model's creative generalization abilities, which in many cases are indistinguishable from human behavior.

  16. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  17. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  18. Can Using Human Examples Facilitate Learning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports an experimental study of 80 ninth grade biology students randomly assigned to treatment and control groups to determine whether the use of human examples in instructional strategies on Mendelian genetics increases acquisition and retention of genetics concepts. Results indicate that use of human examples in contrast to traditional examples…

  19. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, R.H.M.; Willemsen, H.

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005,

  20. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study - GABRIEL concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacs, Daniel; Rohacs, Jozsef

    2016-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap 2013 developed by the International Air Transport Association envisions the option of flying without an undercarriage to be in operation by 2032. Preliminary investigations clearly indicate that magnetic levitation technology (MagLev) might be an appealing solution to assist the aircraft take-off and landing. The EU supported research project, abbreviated as GABRIEL, was dealing with (i) the concept development, (ii) the identification, evaluation and selection of the deployable magnetic levitation technology, (iii) the definition of the core system elements (including the required aircraft modifications, the ground-based system and airport elements, and the rendezvous control system), (iv) the analysis of the safety and security aspects, (v) the concept validation and (vi) the estimation of the proposed concept impact in terms of aircraft weight, noise, emission, cost-benefit). All results introduced here are compared to a medium size hypothetic passenger aircraft (identical with an Airbus A320). This paper gives a systematic overview of (i) the applied methods, (ii) the investigation of the possible use of magnetic levitation technology to assist the commercial aircraft take-off and landing processes and (iii) the demonstrations, validations showing the feasibility of the radically new concept. All major results are outlined.

  1. Human Grasp Assist Device With Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon B. J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove, actuator assembly, and controller. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. Phalange rings are positioned with respect to the digit. A flexible tendon is connected at one end to one of the rings and is routed through the remaining rings. An exoskeleton positioned with respect to the digit includes hinged interconnecting members each connected to a corresponding ring, and/or a single piece of slotted material. The actuator assembly is connected to another end of the tendon. The controller calculates a tensile force in response to the measured grasping force, and commands the tensile force from the actuator assembly to thereby pull on the tendon. The exoskeleton offloads some of the tensile force from the operator's finger to the glove.

  2. Dynamic management of multi-channel interfaces for human interactions with computer-based intelligent assistants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, T.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    For complex man-machine tasks where multi-media interaction with computer-based assistants is appropriate, a portion of the assistant's intelligence must be devoted to managing its communication processes with the user. Since people often serve the role of assistants, the conventions of human communication provide a basis for designing the communication processes of the computer-based assistant. Human decision making for communication requires knowledge of the user's style, the task demands, and communication practices, and knowledge of the current situation. Decisions necessary for effective communication, when, how, and what to communicate, can be expressed using these knowledge sources. A system based on human communication rules was developed to manage the communication decisions of an intelligent assistant. The Dynamic Communication Management (DCM) system consists of four components, three models and a manager. The model of the user describes the user's communication preferences for different task situations. The model of the task is used to establish the user's current activity and to describe how communication should be conducted for this activity. The communication model provides the rules needed to make decisions: when to communicate the message, how to present the message to the user, and what information should be communicated. The Communication Manager controls and coordinates these models to conduct all communication with the user. Performance with DCM as the interface to a simulated Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control task was established to learn about the potential benefits of the concept.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Analyser l’effet du recours à la procréation assistée (PA) sur les issues périnatales, identifier les aspects propres aux issues de naissance et à la PA qui nécessitent des recherches approfondies, et fournir des lignes directrices permettant l’optimisation de la prise en charge obstétricale et du counseling des parents potentiels canadiens. Issues : Le présent document compare les issues périnatales constatées dans le cadre de différents types de grossesse attribuable à la PA les unes aux autres, ainsi qu’à celles qui sont constatées dans le cadre des grossesses conçues de façon spontanée. Les cliniciens seront mieux renseignés au sujet des issues indésirables associées à la PA qui ont été documentées, y compris les complications obstétricales, les issues périnatales indésirables, les gestations multiples, les anomalies congénitales structurelles, les anomalies chromosomiques et les troubles de l’empreinte génomique. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« assisted reproduction », « assisted reproductive technology », « ovulation induction », « intracytoplasmic sperm injection », « embryo transfer » et « in vitro fertilization »). Les résultats n’ont pas été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles; les études (tous devis confondus) publiées en anglais entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2012 ont été analysées, et des publications additionnelles ont été identifiées à partir des bibliographies de ces études. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en août 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a

  4. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet

  5. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet flexibl

  6. Intelligence for Human-Assistant Planetary Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey; Tyree, Kimberly; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The central premise in developing effective human-assistant planetary surface robots is that robotic intelligence is needed. The exact type, method, forms and/or quantity of intelligence is an open issue being explored on the ERA project, as well as others. In addition to field testing, theoretical research into this area can help provide answers on how to design future planetary robots. Many fundamental intelligence issues are discussed by Murphy [2], including (a) learning, (b) planning, (c) reasoning, (d) problem solving, (e) knowledge representation, and (f) computer vision (stereo tracking, gestures). The new "social interaction/emotional" form of intelligence that some consider critical to Human Robot Interaction (HRI) can also be addressed by human assistant planetary surface robots, as human operators feel more comfortable working with a robot when the robot is verbally (or even physically) interacting with them. Arkin [3] and Murphy are both proponents of the hybrid deliberative-reasoning/reactive-execution architecture as the best general architecture for fully realizing robot potential, and the robots discussed herein implement a design continuously progressing toward this hybrid philosophy. The remainder of this chapter will describe the challenges associated with robotic assistance to astronauts, our general research approach, the intelligence incorporated into our robots, and the results and lessons learned from over six years of testing human-assistant mobile robots in field settings relevant to planetary exploration. The chapter concludes with some key considerations for future work in this area.

  7. Subfertility factors rather than assisted conception factors affect cognitive and behavioural development of 4-year-old singletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Seggers, Jorien; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-01-01

    Research on cognitive and behavioural development of children born after assisted conception is inconsistent. This prospective study aimed to explore underlying causal relationships between ovarian stimulation, in-vitro procedures, subfertility components and child cognition and behaviour. Participa

  8. Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

    2010-05-01

    Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by working in pairs ( n = 53) for six lessons. As an interdisciplinary learning activity in such complex knowledge domains has to combine many different aspects, we focused on long-term knowledge. Learners working cooperatively in dyads constructed computer-supported concept maps which were analysed by specific software. The data analysis encompassed structural aspects of the knowledge corresponding to a target reference map. After the learning unit, the results showed the acquisition of higher-order domain-specific knowledge structures which indicates successful interdisciplinary learning through the hypermedia learning environment. The benefit of using a computer-assisted concept mapping assessment for research in science education, and in science classrooms is considered.

  9. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  10. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  11. Human-Centered Design for the Personal Satellite Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Gawdiak, Yuri; Thomas, Hans; Greaves, Mark; Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) is a softball-sized flying robot designed to operate autonomously onboard manned spacecraft in pressurized micro-gravity environments. We describe how the Brahms multi-agent modeling and simulation environment in conjunction with a KAoS agent teamwork approach can be used to support human-centered design for the PSA.

  12. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory.

  13. THE QUEST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONCEPT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    On this note, it suffices to argue that, the essence of government is to better the lots ... Human development is a concept that was popularized by the arguments and .... introduction of quota system has encouraged laxity and lack of commitment ...

  14. AMBIVALENCE OF THE ENTROPY CONCEPT IN THE HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Andrei V. Matyushko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with various views on the concept of entropy. The author gives examples of entropy actualization from different spheres of existence and comes to conclusion about the ambiguity of the treatment of this term in the Humanities.

  15. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage…

  16. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  17. The Usefulness of the Legal Concept of Human Dignity in the Human Rights Discourse: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Fernandez Burgueño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the convenience of using the legal concept of human dignity in the human rights discourse and its effectiveness to address injustice in a twenty-first century democratic society. This article will argue that the difficulty of defining human dignity does not diminish its merits and allows it to be both solid and adaptable to new challenges. Then, this paper will argue that human dignity is a powerful concept due to its capacity to bring change and modernise society and will conclude that there is a strong relationship between time, human dignity, human rights and democracy.

  18. Concepts of mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis of expert evidence presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Annabel; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Wiseman, Theresa; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-04-22

    In May 2013 a new Assisted Dying Bill was tabled in the House of Lords and is currently scheduled for a second reading in May 2014. The Bill was informed by the report of the Commission on Assisted Dying which itself was informed by evidence presented by invited experts.This study aims to explore how the experts presenting evidence to the Commission on Assisted Dying conceptualised mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide and examine these concepts particularly in relation to the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. This study was a secondary qualitative analysis of 36 transcripts of oral evidence and 12 pieces of written evidence submitted by invited experts to the Commission on Assisted Dying using a framework approach. There was agreement on the importance of mental capacity as a central safeguard in proposed assisted dying legislation. Concepts of mental capacity, however, were inconsistent. There was a tendency towards a conceptual and clinical shift toward a presumption of incapacity. This appeared to be based on the belief that assisted suicide should only be open to those with a high degree of mental capacity to make the decision.The 'boundaries' around the definition of mental capacity appeared to be on a continuum between a circumscribed legal 'cognitive' definition of capacity (in which most applicants would be found to have capacity unless significantly cognitively impaired) and a more inclusive definition which would take into account wider concepts such as autonomy, rationality, voluntariness and decision specific factors such as motivation for decision making. Ideas presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying about mental capacity as it relates to assisted suicide were inconsistent and in a number of cases at variance with the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Further work needs to be done to establish a consensus as to what constitutes capacity for this decision and whether current legal frameworks are able to

  19. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  20. Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Hathaway, D. H.; Grugel, R. N.; Watts, J. W.; Parnell, T. A.; Gregory, J. C.; Winglee, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum covers revolutionary ideas for space radiation shielding that would mitigate mission costs while limiting human exposure, as studied in a workshop held at Marshall Space Flight Center at the request of NASA Headquarters. None of the revolutionary new ideas examined for the .rst time in this workshop showed clear promise. The workshop attendees felt that some previously examined concepts were de.nitely useful and should be pursued. The workshop attendees also concluded that several of the new concepts warranted further investigation to clarify their value.

  1. Human rights concepts in EU Human Rights Dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, A.S.H.; Sosa, Lorena; Majtényi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    This report presents five case studies on EU Human Rights Dialogues (HRDs). The case studies concern the HRDs with the African Union, China, India, Morocco and Peru. Building on the findings of the previous reports in Work Package 3 of the FRAME project, the aim of this report is to explore how

  2. [A new concept in digestive surgery: the computer assisted surgical procedure, from virtual reality to telemanipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Nord, M; Russier, Y; Tassetti, V; Mutter, D; Cotin, S; Ayache, N

    1997-11-01

    Surgical simulation increasingly appears to be an essential aspect of tomorrow's surgery. The development of a hepatic surgery simulator is an advanced concept calling for a new writing system which will transform the medical world: virtual reality. Virtual reality extends the perception of our five senses by representing more than the real state of things by the means of computer sciences and robotics. It consists of three concepts: immersion, navigation and interaction. Three reasons have led us to develop this simulator: the first is to provide the surgeon with a comprehensive visualisation of the organ. The second reason is to allow for planning and surgical simulation that could be compared with the detailed flight-plan for a commercial jet pilot. The third lies in the fact that virtual reality is an integrated part of the concept of computer assisted surgical procedure. The project consists of a sophisticated simulator which has to include five requirements: visual fidelity, interactivity, physical properties, physiological properties, sensory input and output. In this report we will describe how to get a realistic 3D model of the liver from bi-dimensional 2D medical images for anatomical and surgical training. The introduction of a tumor and the consequent planning and virtual resection is also described, as are force feedback and real-time interaction.

  3. Analysis of a human phenomenon: self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMone, P

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of self-concept includes an examination of definitions, historical perspectives, theoretical basis, and closely related terms. Antecedents, consequences, defining attributes, and a definition were formulated based on the analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to provide support for the use of the label "self-concept" as a broad category that encompasses the self-esteem, identity, and body-image nursing diagnoses within Taxonomy I. This classification could allow the use of a broad diagnostic label to better describe conditions that necessitate nursing care. It may also further explain the relationships between and among those diagnoses that describe human responses to disturbance of any component of the self-concept.

  4. Ontological And Anthropological Aspects of the Concept of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asha Nimali Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology is the study of the origin of the man. It is basically concern with the concept of Homo sapiens, and it is scientifically questioning what are human physical traits as well how do men behave and the variation among different groups of  human with his social and cultural dimensions. Ontology is a subfield in traditional philosophy which is mainly focuses on the nature of being, existence or reality as such. There are some similarities and differences among these two areas. However when we deeply study the philosophical basis of the anthropology it is proof that it was derived from ontology.Anthropology discusses the social and cultural world or the physical entity of human nature. Ontology focuses the invisible aspect of human nature along with the ultimate reality. Therefore, it has a metaphysical aspect of human being; this philosophical notion has in fact, contributed to the development of the subject of anthropology. The present modern day has given very little attention to this philosophical combination of  ontolog y to anthropology, rendering further investigation into the philosophical roots of anthropology.This research paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between ontology and anthropology by paying attention to the ontological arguments about the concept of man and human nature within Greek and modern western thoughts, in comparing with modern anthropological arguments.

  5. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  6. Conception and limits of robust perceptual hashing: towards side information assisted hash functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav; Koval, Oleksiy; Beekhof, Fokko; Pun, Thierry

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we consider some basic concepts behind the design of existing robust perceptual hashing techniques for content identification. We show the limits of robust hashing from the communication perspectives as well as propose an approach that is able to overcome these shortcomings in certain setups. The consideration is based on both achievable rate and probability of error. We use the fact that most robust hashing algorithms are based on dimensionality reduction using random projections and quantization. Therefore, we demonstrate the corresponding achievable rate and probability of error based on random projections and compare with the results for the direct domain. The effect of dimensionality reduction is studied and the corresponding approximations are provided based on the Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma. Side-information assisted robust perceptual hashing is proposed as a solution to the above shortcomings.

  7. Human-Assisted Graph Search: It's Okay to Ask Questions

    CERN Document Server

    Parameswaran, Aditya; Garcia-Molina, Hector; Polyzotis, Neoklis; Widom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of human-assisted graph search: given a directed acyclic graph with some (unknown) target node(s), we consider the problem of finding the target node(s) by asking an omniscient human questions of the form "Is there a target node that is reachable from the current node?". This general problem has applications in many domains that can utilize human intelligence, including curation of hierarchies, debugging workflows, image segmentation and categorization, interactive search and filter synthesis. To our knowledge, this work provides the first formal algorithmic study of the optimization of human computation for this problem. We study various dimensions of the problem space, providing algorithms and complexity results. Our framework and algorithms can be used in the design of an optimizer for crowd-sourcing platforms such as Mechanical Turk.

  8. Political Concepts for the Ethical Debate on Dilemmas on Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Israel Rodríguez Soriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on some of the political elements embedded in the ethical problems of medically assisted suicide and euthanasia. The thesis work is that political theoretical founda­tions of modern nations are aimed to protect the lives of people, a fact that responds to a series of historical processes of the very development of modern political theory. These fundamentals directly affect the cultural and political positions for the refusal to accept the legalization or regulation of the two practices in question, thus denying the right of self-determination in human decision making on the own life and death.

  9. External validation of anti-Müllerian hormone based prediction of live birth in assisted conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Amani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronological age and oocyte yield are independent determinants of live birth in assisted conception. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after controlled ovarian stimulation. We have previously assessed the ability of AMH and age to independently predict live birth in an Italian assisted conception cohort. Herein we report the external validation of the nomogram in 822 UK first in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods Retrospective cohort consisting of 822 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle at Glasgow Centre for Reproductive Medicine. Analyses were restricted to women aged between 25 and 42 years of age. All women had an AMH measured prior to commencing their first IVF cycle. The performance of the model was assessed; discrimination by the area under the receiver operator curve (ROCAUC and model calibration by the predicted probability versus observed probability. Results Live births occurred in 29.4% of the cohort. The observed and predicted outcomes showed no evidence of miscalibration (p = 0.188. The ROCAUC was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.68, suggesting moderate and similar discrimination to the original model. The ROCAUC for a continuous model of age and AMH was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61, 0.69, suggesting that the original categories of AMH were appropriate. Conclusions We confirm by external validation that AMH and age are independent predictors of live birth. Although the confidence intervals for each category are wide, our results support the assessment of AMH in larger cohorts with detailed baseline phenotyping for live birth prediction.

  10. Computer-assisted learning in human and dental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, S; Schumann, R R

    2004-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of new didactic methods for use in computer-assisted teaching and learning systems for training doctors and dentists. Taking the Meducase project as an example, didactic models and their technological implementation are explained, together with the limitations of imparting knowledge with the "new media". In addition, legal concepts for a progressive, pragmatic, and innovative distribution of knowledge to undergraduate students are presented. In conclusion, potential and visions for the wide use of electronic learning in the German and European universities in the future are discussed. Self-directed learning (SDL) is a key component in both undergraduate education and lifelong learning for medical practitioners. E-learning can already be used to promote SDL at undergraduate level. The Meducase project uses self-directed, constructive, case- and problem-oriented learning within a learning platform for medical and dental students. In the long run, e-learning programs can only be successful in education if there is consistent analysis and implementation of value-added factors and the development and use of media-didactic concepts matched to electronic learning. The use of innovative forms of licensing - open source licenses for software and similar licenses for content - facilitates continuous, free access to these programs for all students and teachers. These legal concepts offer the possibility of innovative knowledge distribution, quality assurance and standardization across specializations, university departments, and possibly even national borders.

  11. The Necessity of the Development of the Human Capital Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Trifu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Capital is considered an investment, but of a special and qualitative kind. We emphasize that there are levels of defining the concept: investments in health, education, training and specializing, and the upper level, the stock of skills, talent, knowledge, embodied in the human personality as a participant to the economic, social, cultural, activities; micro and macro approaches. In this period, we can speak about a global overview regarding the two or more levels of human capital. This is mostly pointed when discussing the educational and the health capital and, on the other hand, the biological capital. We have to understand the concept in the inter-relation between the two levels and with the business and natural environments. Important is the causal chain in the construction of Human Capital: investments in health care and education → the impulse to ensure the formation and the modeling of the capabilities, skills and other specific biological stocks → the effective action of labour power, creating new values added → economic development within a structure (in our case, EU.

  12. A Meta-Analytic Review of Social, Self-Concept, and Behavioral Outcomes of Peer-Assisted Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg-Block, Marika D.; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to examine social, self-concept, and behavioral effects of peer-assisted learning (PAL) interventions with elementary school students. An electronic search of PsycINFO and ERIC databases resulted in 36 relevant PAL studies. Overall, effect sizes were small to moderate across the 3 outcome variable domains. Both social and…

  13. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  14. Clinical and molecular analyses of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Comparison between spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Jair; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Fernández, García-Moya; Segovia, Mabel; Perandones, Claudia; Pérez Jurado, Luis A; Esteller, Manel; Fraga, Mario; Arias, Pedro; Gordo, Gema; Dapía, Irene; Mena, Rocío; Palomares, María; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Nevado, Julián; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Vallespín, Elena; Monk, David; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by an excessive prenatal and postnatal growth, macrosomia, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The molecular basis of this syndrome is complex and heterogeneous, involving genes located at 11p15.5. BWS is correlated with assisted reproductive techniques. BWS in individuals born following assisted reproductive techniques has been found to occur four to nine times higher compared to children with to BWS born after spontaneous conception. Here, we report a series of 187 patients with to BWS born either after assisted reproductive techniques or conceived naturally. Eighty-eight percent of BWS patients born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in comparison with 49% for patients with BWS conceived naturally. None of the patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypermethylation of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR, neither CDKN1 C mutations nor patUPD11. We did not find differences in the frequency of multi-locus imprinting disturbances between groups. Patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had an increased frequency of advanced bone age, congenital heart disease, and decreased frequency of earlobe anomalies but these differences may be explained by the different molecular background compared to those with BWS and spontaneous fertilization. We conclude there is a correlation of the molecular etiology of BWS with the type of conception. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  16. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  17. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  18. Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konc J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has become an integral component of assisted reproductive technology. The ability to cryopreserve, thaw, and establish pregnancies with supernumerary preimplantation embryos has become an important tool in fertility treatment. Human oocyte cryopreservation has practical application in preserving fertility for individuals prior to cancer treatments. While the efficiency of oocyte and embryo freezing technology has increased over time, there is still room for improvement, since even under ideal circumstances the clinical pregnancy rate from frozen embryo transfer is approximately two-thirds of that from the fresh transfer of embryos. Thus, studies connected with cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos are very important to the expansion of effective clinical services. This review gives a summary of the theoretical and technical aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.

  19. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  20. Conflicting modes of reasoning in the Assisted Migration debate: a concept mapping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, N. L.; Larson, B.

    2011-12-01

    A growing body of literature in biodiversity conservation and forestry has developed around the risks and benefits of the Assisted Migration (AM) of species, including recommendations for planning and management. However, despite years of academic debate, general consensus has yet to be reached between the proponents and the opponents of AM as a policy option. We hypothesize that the continued impasse arises out of fundamentally conflicting value judgments. Using a concept mapping technique, we analyzed reasons for and against AM, including the use of scientific evidence and the nature of the values and ethical norms that shape the modes of reasoning in the debate. Our results indicate the presence of a diversity of ethical arguments in addition to the standard precautionary argument and pragmatic reasoning. We further discovered that different kinds of scientific arguments are used by proponents versus opponents of AM: the former rely mostly on detailed biological and ecological facts about species most-at-risk under climate change, while the latter focus on broader ecological theories. Our analysis suggests little dispute over the scientific foundations of the debate. Instead, we suggest that the main barrier to consensus is the advocacy of fundamental values, which are a matter of personal choice, and thus not likely to be changed. One way out of this impasse is a pragmatic mode of reasoning, which eschews the debate on fundamental values and evaluates the means and ends of AM in a case-by-case approach.

  1. Psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting after assisted conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, K; Fisher, J R W; Wynter, K H

    2008-01-01

    It is known that infertility affects emotional well-being, satisfaction with life and self-esteem and that failed assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment is associated with diminished life satisfaction, reduced self-confidence and substantial psychological distress. Investigations of whether these persist when treatment results in a pregnancy and live birth have been undertaken. A systematic search for English-language research articles on psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and the first post-partum year after ART conception. Of 466 retrieved papers, 46 met inclusion criteria. These reported data from 28 studies. There is consistent evidence that marital satisfaction, emotional well-being and self-regard in pregnancy, attachment to the fetus and parent-infant relationship in ART groups are similar to comparison groups. Anxiety about the survival of the fetus and early parenting difficulties appear to be higher and post-natal self-confidence lower. Evidence about adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood and the experience of childbirth is inconclusive and reports of parental perceptions of infant temperament and behaviour are contradictory. Between-study methodological differences may explain the lack of consistency in findings of the influence of infertility and ART on some aspects of the transition to parenthood. Overall, this body of evidence is best described as emergent. It is possible that in pregnancy after ART, parenthood might be idealized and this might then hinder adjustment and the development of a confident parental identity.

  2. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  3. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  4. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Eduardo González; Zarricueta, Ernesto Fredes; Cheein, Fernando Auat

    2015-02-01

    The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. The proposed sound-based system is very efficient

  5. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  6. Defending the indefensible? Psychiatry, assisted suicide and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The siege guns of the forces for change to euthanasia and assisted suicide laws have been pounding for decades, but the longstanding proscription on these practices has held out in all but a few jurisdictions. A few psychiatrists have enlisted with the challengers, but many remain on the battlements, defending the impermissibility of active assistance in dying. Given the long history of the separation of church and state and the significant secularisation of society; the recognition by the law of both acts and omissions as legal causes; lenient sentences for mercy killers; critiques of the "psychiatriatisation" of different aspects of life; and the consistency of public opinion, this recalcitrant stand bespeaks undercurrents and positions that are often by rationalised or camouflaged, and which call for exploration. In this paper, I examine connections between psychiatry and conceptualisations of harm, suffering and natural death; medicalisation, psychiatrisation and medical paternalism; decision-making capacity, rationality and diagnosis; recent legal developments; social pluralism; and religious intuitionism. I conclude that psychiatrists and the psychiatry profession, concerned as they are with enlarging the province of human freedom, should begin a more transparent rapprochement with those they would repel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CSR concept implementation vs. political hedonism driven by human action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Hoppe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of CSR is a big challenge for organisations striving for business excellence. Nevertheless, a question should be asked whether achieving excellence is possible? I s it possible to become an excellent organisation in contemporary economic, social and political circumstances? Or the efforts to build an excellent organisation are only a PR trick. Unfortunately, nowadays many facts seem to confirm that, while operating in a very unfavourable environment, the majority of organisations which implement – to the full extent – the CSR concept in their strategies and adopt the model of socially responsible business risk business failure. Such a conclusion derives from two key facts. First of all, the legal environment is not ready for the development of socially responsible companies which results from political hedonism being an innate feature of democratic systems. Secondly, the level of customer social responsibility is not satisfactory and hardly any changes are expected in the short-term perspective, which is the consequence of hedonistic nature of human actions.

  8. Concept Representation Analysis in the Context of Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to make a conceptual and epistemological junction between human learning and machine learning. I will be concerned with specifying and analysing the structure of concepts in the common ground between a concept-based human learning theory and a concept-based machine learning ...

  9. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  10. [Navigated control: a new concept in computer assisted ENT-surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, G; Koulechov, K; Richter, R; Dietz, A; Meixensberger, J; Trantakis, C; Lüth, T

    2005-08-01

    This work conceived and evaluates a mechatronical system for ORL-surgery by example of a Shaver for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery controlled by navigation. The Shaver is automatically on/off-regulated depending on the current position in relation to the planned working space. This working space is defined on the basis of the individual CT data. Within this area the Shaver reacts to the signal of the surgeon (foot pedal). If the Shaver leaves the working space, an interruption of the drive regulation to the Shaver takes place. The evaluation of the planning software based on 32 patient CT-data sets. The registration accuracy in a anatomical model was examined on 451 measurements of endonasal attached titanium screws. The conversions of the working space were evaluated at 5 different technical models. The average time for segmenting the working space was found at 4.23 minutes per case. An average registration accuracy of the Shaver of 1.08 mm resulted. The pre-defined cavity was to be cleared away without restrictions. The preoperative determined work-space was converted by 3.1 mm over all levels. The study proves the feasibility of a mechatronical assistant system by the example of the navigate-controlled Shaver in paranasal sinus surgery. Contrary to conventional CAS solutions redundancy and cognitive discharge of the surgeon are considered in this conception. We see numerous applications according to the explained principle for power-control of instruments in ORL-surgery in the future such as drilling, high frequency surgery or laser.

  11. A New Approach for Human Forearm Motion Assist by Actuated Artificial Joint-An Inner Skeleton Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Teramoto, Kenbu

    In order to help the physical activities of the elderly or physically disabled persons, we propose a new concept of a power-assist inner skeleton robot (i.e., actuated artificial joint) that is supposed to assist the human daily life motion from inside of the human body. This paper presents an implantable 2 degree of freedom (DOF) inner skeleton robot that is designed to assist human elbow flexion-extension motion and forearm supination-pronation motion for daily life activities. We have developed a prototype of the inner skeleton robot that is supposed to assist the motion from inside of the body and act as an actuated artificial joint. The proposed system is controlled based on the activation patterns of the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the user's muscles by applying fuzzy-neuro control method. A joint actuator with angular position sensor is designed for the inner skeleton robot and a T-Mechanism is proposed to keep the bone arrangement similar to the normal human articulation after the elbow arthroplasty. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been evaluated by experiment.

  12. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of clients seeking assisted conception at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Ottun, Tawakwalit A; Abiara, Tayo; Chukwuma, Jane-Frances; Okorie, Lauretta

    2017-10-01

    The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 246 consecutive couples seeking assisted conception in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria from inception in 2011 till 2014 were reviewed restrospectively. Eighty-five (34.5%) were in the 35-40 years age group. The body mass index of the women showed that 111 (45.1%) were overweight. One hundred and ninety five (88%) were referred on account of secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility was 9.6 ± 4.8 years. Major factors identified were male factor 128 (52%), ovarian/age-related decline in fertility 107 (43.5%), tubal 83 (33.7%) and combined male/female factor 71 (28.9%). One hundred and ninety (77.2%) clients seeking assisted conception were Christians at advanced age (greater than 35 years) with a longstanding duration of infertility of more than 10 years. Government, private and religious organisations need to raise public awareness about the availability of in-vitro fertilisation services as well as encourage early resort to assisted reproductive technologies. Impact statement What we already know: Secondary infertility due mainly to tubal factor is reported to be the commonest cause of infertility in developing countries like Nigeria and clients affected seek assisted reproductive techniques late. What the results of this study add: Male factor infertility is more common amongst infertile couples seeking in vitro fertilisation in LASUTH. The implications of the findings for practice and/or further research: A thorough examination of the male partner followed by investigation is vital at the initial visit so that they can be referred early for assisted conception.

  13. Watson’s Human Caring Theory: Pertinent Transpersonal and Humanities Concepts for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey S. Clark

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and the caring moment are based in part in the concepts of transpersonal psychology. This paper will provide a historical background around transpersonal psychology and how it relates to Watson’s human caring moment. The purpose of explicating these humanities-based concepts is to support nurses and nurse educators in creating a deeper understanding of Watson’s caring-healing moment as a time-space continuum, where the nurse’s caring supports a mutually created environment for healing. The article provides useful background information, as well as outlining simple steps to revising nursing curricula so that they become supportive of nursing students’ growth as transpersonal-caring beings.

  14. Habitation Concepts for Human Missions Beyond Low-Earth-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been engaged for several years in a variety of study activities to help define various options for deep space habitation. This work includes study activities supporting asteroid, lunar and Mars mission activities for the Human spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT), the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project, and the Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. The missions under consideration required human habitation beyond low-Earth-orbit (LEO) including deep space habitation in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar surface missions, deep space research facilities, Mars vehicle servicing, and Mars transit missions. Additional considerations included international interest and near term capabilities through the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS systems, those that could be fabricated from SLS components, and other approaches. This paper presents an overview of several leading designs explored in late fiscal year (FY) 2015 for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats and identifies some of the known advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that module diameters larger than those used for ISS can offer lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long-duration missions in deep space. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning and deep space habitat design efforts.

  15. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  16. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

  17. Sperm selection in natural conception: what can we learn from Mother Nature to improve assisted reproduction outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Denny; Ramalingam, Mythili; Garrido, Nicolas; Barratt, Christopher L R

    2015-01-01

    In natural conception only a few sperm cells reach the ampulla or the site of fertilization. This population is a selected group of cells since only motile cells can pass through cervical mucus and gain initial entry into the female reproductive tract. In animals, some studies indicate that the sperm selected by the reproductive tract and recovered from the uterus and the oviducts have higher fertilization rates but this is not a universal finding. Some species show less discrimination in sperm selection and abnormal sperm do arrive at the oviduct. In contrast, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) utilize a more random sperm population. In this review we contrast the journey of the spermatozoon in vivo and in vitro and discuss this in the context of developing new sperm preparation and selection techniques for ART. A review of the literature examining characteristics of the spermatozoa selected in vivo is compared with recent developments in in vitro selection and preparation methods. Contrasts and similarities are presented. New technologies are being developed to aid in the diagnosis, preparation and selection of spermatozoa in ART. To date progress has been frustrating and these methods have provided variable benefits in improving outcomes after ART. It is more likely that examining the mechanisms enforced by nature will provide valuable information in regard to sperm selection and preparation techniques in vitro. Identifying the properties of those spermatozoa which do reach the oviduct will also be important for the development of more effective tests of semen quality. In this review we examine the value of sperm selection to see how much guidance for ART can be gleaned from the natural selection processes in vivo. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  18. Autologous Germline Mitochondrial Energy Transfer (AUGMENT) in Human Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian aging is characterized by a decline in both the total number and overall quality of oocytes, the latter of which has been experimentally tied to mitochondrial dysfunction. Clinical studies in the late 1990s demonstrated that transfer of cytoplasm aspirated from eggs of young female donors into eggs of infertile women at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection improved pregnancy success rates. However, donor mitochondria were identified in offspring, and the United States Food and Drug Administration raised questions about delivery of foreign genetic material into human eggs at the time of fertilization. Accordingly, heterologous cytoplasmic transfer, while promising, was in effect shut down as a clinical protocol. The recent discovery of adult oogonial (oocyte-generating) stem cells in mice, and subsequently in women, has since re-opened the prospects of delivering a rich source of pristine and patient-matched germline mitochondria to boost egg health and embryonic developmental potential without the need for young donor eggs to obtain cytoplasm. Herein we overview the science behind this new protocol, which has been patented and termed autologous germline mitochondrial energy transfer, and its use to date in clinical studies for improving pregnancy success in women with a prior history of assisted reproduction failure.

  19. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  20. Perinatal outcomes by mode of assisted conception and sub-fertility in an Australian data linkage cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Marino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment is associated with increased risk of major birth defects, which varies between in vitro fertilisation (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and is significantly reduced by embryo freezing. We therefore examined a range of additional perinatal outcomes for these exposures. METHODS: All patients in South Australia receiving assisted conception between Jan 1986-Dec 2002 were linked to the state-wide perinatal collection (all births/stillbirths ≥20 weeks gestation or 400 g birth weight, n = 306 995. We examined stillbirth, mean birth weight, low birth weight (90th percentile, preterm birth (32-<37 weeks, <32 weeks gestation, postterm birth (≥41 weeks gestation, Apgar <7 at 5 minutes and neonatal death. RESULTS: Relative to spontaneous conceptions, singletons from assisted conception were more likely to be stillborn (OR = 1.82, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.34-2.48, while survivors as a group were comprehensively disadvantaged at birth, including lower birth weight (-109 g, CI -129--89, very low birth weight (OR = 2.74, CI 2.19-3.43, very preterm birth (OR = 2.30, CI 1.82-2.90 and neonatal death (OR = 2.04, CI 1.27-3.26. Outcomes varied by type of assisted conception. Very low and low birth weight, very preterm and preterm birth, and neonatal death were markedly more common in singleton births from IVF and to a lesser degree, in births from ICSI. Using frozen-embryos eliminated all significant adverse outcomes associated with ICSI but not with IVF. However, frozen-embryo cycles were also associated with increased risk of macrosomia for IVF and ICSI singletons (OR = 1.36, CI 1.02-1.82; OR = 1.55, CI 1.05-2.28. Infertility status without treatment was also associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Births after assisted conception show an extensive range of compromised outcomes that vary by treatment modality, that are substantially reduced after embryo freezing, but which

  1. A Randomized, Controlled Proof-of-Concept Trial of an Internet-Based, Therapist-Assisted Self-Management Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryant, Richard A; Engel, Charles C; Litz, Brett T; Papa, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors report an 8-week randomized, controlled proof-of-concept trial of a new therapist-assisted, Internet-based, self-management cognitive behavior therapy versus Internet-based supportive...

  2. Personal Assistant for onLine Services: Addressing human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, J.; Nagata, S.F.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Personal Assistant for onLine Services (PALS) project aims at substantially improving the user experience of mobile internet services. It focuses on a generic solution: a personal assistant, which attunes the interaction to the momentary user needs and use context (e.g. adjusting the

  3. Introduction to Physical Education: Concepts of Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffers, John; Evaul, Tom

    This book is written for physical educators and others interested in the performance of the human body in motion. It is divided into four major catagories: (1) The discipline of human movement and its applications; (2) human beings and function through movement; (3) human movement; applied; and (4) human movement: generative and integrated. Six…

  4. Shifting Relations with the More-than-Human: Six Threshold Concepts for Transformative Sustainability Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M. J.; Harmin, Matthew; Maracle, Bryan; Patterson, Molly; Thomson, Christina; Flowers, Michelle; Bors, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Using the iterative process of action research, we identify six portals of understanding, called threshold concepts, which can be used as curricular guideposts to disrupt the socially constituted separation, and hierarchy, between humans and the more-than-human. The threshold concepts identified in this study provide focal points for a curriculum…

  5. A method based on temporal concept analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Hamza, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking and forced prostitution are a serious problem for the Amsterdam-Amstelland police (the Netherlands). In this paper, we present a method based on Temporal Concept Analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects. Using traditional Formal Concept Analysis, we first bui

  6. Epigenetic Alterations in Density Selected Human Spermatozoa for Assisted Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Yu

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that assisted reproductive technologies (ART may be associated with several epigenetic diseases such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Selection of sperm by density-gradients in ART has improved DNA integrity and sperm quality; however, epigenetic alterations associated with this approach are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation and histone retention profiles in raw sperm and selected sperm derived from the same individual and separated by using density-gradients. Results from a study group consisting of 93 males demonstrated that both global DNA methylation and histone retention levels decreased in density selected sperm. Compared to unselected raw sperm, histone transition rates decreased by an average of 27.2% in selected sperm, and the global methylation rate was 3.8% in unselected sperm and 3.3% in the selected sperm. DNA methylation and histone retention location profiling analyses suggested that these alterations displayed specific location patterns in the human genome. Changes in the pattern of hypomethylation largely occurred in transcriptional factor gene families such as HOX, FOX, and GATA. Histone retention increased in 67 genes, whereas it was significantly clustered in neural development-related gene families, particularly the olfactory sensor gene family. Although a causative relationship could not be established, the results of the present study suggest the possibility that sperm with good density also possess unique epigenetic profiles, particularly for genes involved in neural and olfactory development. As increasing evidence demonstrates that epigenetics plays a key role in embryonic development and offspring growth characteristics, the specific epigenetic alterations we observed in selected sperm may influence the transcriptional process and neural development in embryos.

  7. Legal Concepts Study Guide. A Self-Paced Study Guide To Assist with Student Preparation for Terminology Section - Legal Concepts Competitive Event, Business Professionals of America Competition. Competitive Event No. 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Darcelle D.

    This study guide is designed to assist students in preparing for the legal terminology portion of the Business Professionals of America Legal Concepts Competitive Event. The guide can also be used by secondary students who are being introduced to basic legal concepts. The guide provides materials to help students to learn the definitions of legal…

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction in Economics: An Approach for Illustrating General Equilibrium Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Robert W.

    A market exchange simulation utilizing the PLATO computer-assisted instructional system at the University of Illinois has been designed to teach students the principles of a general equilibrium system. It serves a laboratory function which supplements traditional instruction by stimulating students' interests and providing them with illustrations…

  9. Histologic evaluation of an Nd:YAG laser-assisted new attachment procedure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukna, Raymond A; Carr, Ronald L; Evans, Gerald H

    2007-12-01

    This report presents histologic results in humans following a laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP) for the treatment of periodontal pockets. Six pairs of single-rooted teeth with moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis associated with subgingival calculus deposits were treated. A bur notch was placed within the pocket at the clinically and radiographically measured apical extent of calculus. All teeth were scaled and root planed with ultrasonic and hand scalers. One of each pair of teeth received treatment of the inner pocket wall with a free-running pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to remove the pocket epithelium, and the test pockets were lased a second time to seal the pocket. After 3 months, all treated teeth were removed en bloc for histologic processing. LANAP-treated teeth exhibited greater probing depth reductions and clinical probing attachment level gains than the control teeth. All LANAP-treated specimens showed new cementum and new connective tissue attachment in and occasionally coronal to the notch, whereas five of the six control teeth had a long junctional epithelium with no evidence of new attachment or regeneration. There was no evidence of any adverse histologic changes around the LANAP specimens. These cases support the concept that LANAP can be associated with cementum-mediated new connective tissue attachment and apparent periodontal regeneration of diseased root surfaces in humans.

  10. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment: a new concept of treating anal fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinero, Piercarlo; Mori, Lorenzo; Gasloli, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    The surgical treatment of complex anal fistulas is very challenging because of the incidence of incontinence and recurrence after traditional approaches. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is a novel endoscopic sphincter-saving technique. The aim of this article is to evaluate the results of treating complex anal fistulas from the inside and to focus on the rationale and the advantages of this innovative approach. This is a retrospective observational study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care public hospital in Italy. From February 2006 to February 2012, video-assisted anal fistula treatment was performed on 203 patients (124 men and 79 women; median age, 42 years; range, 21-77 years) who had complex anal fistulas. One hundred forty-nine had undergone previous anal fistula surgery. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment has 2 phases: diagnostic and operative. The fistuloscope is introduced through the external opening to identify the main tract, possible secondary tracts or abscess cavities, and the internal opening. With the use of an electrode, the fistula and its branches are destroyed under direct vision and cleaned. The internal opening is closed by a stapler or a flap. Half a milliliter of synthetic cyanoacrylate is used for suture reinforcement. Successful healing of the fistula was assessed with clinical evaluation. Continence was evaluated by using patient self-reports of the presence/absence of postdefecation soiling. Follow-up was at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 months. The 6-month cumulative probability of freedom from fistula estimated according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis is 70% (95%CI, 64%-76%). No major complications occurred. No patients reported a reduction in their postoperative continence score. The limitations of this study included potential single-institution bias, lack of anorectal manometry, and potential selection bias. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is effective and safe for the treatment of fistula-in-ano.

  11. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Christian T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; van der Spek, J.H.; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need

  12. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Chris T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Spek, van der Jaap; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need

  13. The phenomenon of social assistance in the humanities: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Lazarenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of social assistance in humanitarian schools. Such as: 1 Philosophy; 2 Cultural Studies; 3 Law; 3 Socio-pedagogical science. Retrospective analysis allowed revealing the research principles of social assistance analysis, functional features and differences of this phenomenon. Established that the theoretical basis of social assistance study incorporated in works of ancient philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Analyzed influence on the formation of social assistance scientific research by religious philosophers of the Middle Ages (F. Aquinas, A. Blessed. Deals the transformation of social assistance understanding from a part of society moral to forms of social interaction. Civilizational approach outlined in the cultural mainstream schools (B. Malinowski, C. Polanyi. It was determined that the cultural research traditions of social assistance understood this phenomena as a repeater of cultural heritage through the traditions of the community. Outlined scientific approach to social assistance in Law sciences. It was found that representatives of Socio-pedagogical and Political Science have used theoretical developments sociologists (M. Weber, J. Mead, H. Blumer, T. Parsons, R. Merton, E Giddens. Demonstrated that in Political Science social assistance acts as a functional tool for implementation of social policy. Characterized the role of social assistance within different models of social policy and its positions in state and international organization. Deals with the fundamental difference between the concepts of «social assistance» and «social work». Outlined limits the use of these concepts in humanitarian studies. The analysis allows us to formulate research strategies study the phenomenon of social assistance in modern society. In particular sociological perspective updated study of the phenomenon of social assistance. Actually, applied achievements of classic theory of social capital in the

  14. Teaching assistants' performance at identifying common introductory student difficulties in mechanics revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-06-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students' alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students' initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs): knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (˜900 ) of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students' difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information about why TAs sometimes

  15. Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van Trigt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.

  16. Assisted suicide under the European Convention on Human Rights: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In a high profile case, a terminally ill woman, Diane Pretty, challenged the United Kingdom prohibition on assisted suicide as incompatible with certain fundamental rights which are guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights. Mrs Pretty's battle was ultimately unsuccessful, with a total of three courts and 15 judges ruling against her. Such unanimity of opinion might well be thought to represent the coup de grace for arguments about the right to assistance in death under European human rights law. However, in this article it is suggested that, in limited circumstances, such assistance might yet still be possible under the Constitution.

  17. [A new concept in surgery of the digestive tract: surgical procedure assisted by computer, from virtual reality to telemanipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Vix, M; Russier, Y; Tassetti, V; Mutter, D; Cotin, S; Ayache, N

    1998-02-01

    Surgical simulation increasingly appears to be an essential aspect of tomorrow's surgery. The development of a hepatic surgery simulator is an advanced concept calling for a new writing system which will transform the medical world: virtual reality. Virtual reality extends the perception of our five senses by representing more than the real state of things by the means of computer sciences and robotics. It consists of three concepts: immersion, navigation and interaction. Three reasons have led us to develop this simulator: the first is to provide the surgeon with a comprehensive visualisation of the organ. The second reasons is to allow for planning and surgical simulation that could be compared with the detailed flight-plan for a commercial jet pilot. The third lies in the fact that virtual reality is an integrated part of the concept of computer assisted surgical procedure. The project consists of a sophisticated simulator which must include five requirements: a) visual fidelity, b) interactivity, c) physical properties, d) physiological properties, e) sensory input and output. In this report we describe how to obtain a realistic 3D model of the liver from bi-dimensional 2D medical images for anatomical and surgical training. The introduction of a tumor and the consequent planning and virtual resection is also described, as are force feedback and real-time interaction.

  18. The impact of art integration as an intervention to assist learners' visual perception and concept understanding in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilan, Cathy A.

    Art integration as educational reform has been the focus of recent debate. The suggestion has been made that the arts can provide unique learning opportunities in other content areas. To provide empirical evidence for this added value of the arts in learning, this study investigated the efficacy of teaching science concepts in and through the visual arts by implementing an art integrated lesson. The study investigated the impact of an art integration to assist elementary level learners' visual perception so they could more accurately form mental models of the science ideas. The hypothesis suggests that participants in the art intervention who construct a three-dimensional representation of abstract science concepts will gain an increased understanding of those concepts. Specifically, students who work with parallel concepts in art and science to make and manipulate three-dimensional, kinetic models of the sun, earth, and moon will be able to more accurately visualize the relationships between these heavenly bodies. Fifth grade students participated in the study which was integrated into the regular curriculum. Seventy-six randomly selected students comprised the experimental group and participated in the art project. After the completion of traditional textbook and lecture presentation by the classroom teachers, a researcher developed Science Concept Test was administered to all fifth grade students. Statistically significant results indicated that the differences between the groups on the science concept test were due to the integration of the art intervention. These empirical data show significant differences between the group receiving the art intervention and the group receiving traditional classroom instruction, supporting the efficacy of the art integration model. In conclusion, the study supports the literature that suggests the efficacy of art integration partnerships as alternative avenues for presenting and representing knowledge. The study additionally

  19. The concept of human dignity in the ethics of genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David K

    2015-05-01

    Despite criticism that dignity is a vague and slippery concept, a number of international guidelines on bioethics have cautioned against research that is contrary to human dignity, with reference specifically to genetic technology. What is the connection between genetic research and human dignity? In this article, I investigate the concept of human dignity in its various historical forms, and examine its status as a moral concept. Unlike Kant's ideal concept of human dignity, the empirical or relational concept takes human dignity as something that is affected by one's circumstances and what others do. I argue that the dignity objection to some forms of genetic research rests on a view of human nature that gives humans a special status in nature - one that is threatened by the potential of genetic research to reduce individuals to their genetic endowment. I distinguish two main philosophical accounts of human nature. One of these, the Aristotelian view, is compatible with the use of genetic technology to help humans realize their inherent potential to a fuller extent.

  20. Primitive Concepts of Number and the Developing Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    Counting is an evolutionarily recent cultural invention of the human species. In order for humans to have conceived of counting in the first place, certain representational and logical abilities must have already been in place. The focus of this article is the origins and nature of those fundamental mechanisms that promoted the emergence of the…

  1. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  2. Can Using Human Examples Diminish the Number of Misconceptions Held Concerning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores high school biology and the teaching of genetics. The question is asked, Can the use of relevant, meaningful human genetics concepts diminish the number of misconceptions formed between new and existing concepts? Can the application of the Ausubelian learning theory also decrease the acquisition of misconceptions? (SAH)

  3. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  4. R Ebert and RMJ Oduor The Concept of Human Dignity in German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R Ebert and RMJ Oduor

    European Enlightenment, and contemporary secular theories of autonomy and ... This paper undertakes a critical examination of the concept of human dignity in German and ...... jurisdiction of the Basic Law (Landgericht Frankfurt 2005).

  5. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    OpenAIRE

    Veltink, Peter H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Chris T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Spek, van der, R.J.; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need for sensory feedback in FES control systems and gives an overview of available artificial sensors for human use and progress in the derivation and application of signals from natural sensors

  6. Robot-assisted shopping for the visually impaired: proof-of-concept design and feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyukin, Vladimir; Gharpure, Chaitanya; Coster, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article presents RoboCart, a proof-of-concept prototype of a robotic shopping cart for the visually impaired in supermarkets. RoboCart autonomously leads shoppers to required locations and cues them through synthetic speech and a portable barcode reader to the salient features of the environment sufficient for product retrieval. In a longitudinal pilot feasibility study, visually impaired shoppers (n = 10) used the device to retrieve products in Lee's MarketPlace, a supermarket in Logan, Utah. The main finding is that RoboCart enables visually impaired shoppers to reliably and independently navigate to and retrieve products in a real supermarket.

  7. Population Spotting Using Big Data: Validating the Human Performance Concept of Operations Analytic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0001 Population Spotting Using “ Big Data ”: Validating the Human Performance Concept of Operations Analytic Vision...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Population Spotting Using “ Big Data ”: Validating the Human Performance Concept of Operations Analytic Vision 5a. CONTRACT...STINFO COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any

  8. Categories, concepts, and conditioning: how humans generalize fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Murphy, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research.

  9. NEW APPROACHES OF THE CONCEPTS OF HUMAN RESOURCES, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU ANCA-IOANA

    2013-07-01

    M. Porter highlights the important role of human resources within an organization, considering that in any business there are potential sources for obtaining competitive advantage. It comes from the ability of firms to master better than its rivals competitive forces. Any subdivision organizational structure and any employee of the organization, no matter how far away lies the strategy development process, contributing to gaining and maintaining competitive advantage.

  10. Pregnancy complications in spontaneous and assisted conceptions of women with infertility and subfertility factors. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; Gibbins, Karen; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Silver, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    In the literature, there is growing evidence that assisted reproductive techniques increase the risk of pregnancy complications in subfertile couples. Moreover, many concomitant preconception risk factors for subfertility are frequently present in the same subject and increase the risk of pregnancy complications. This review aimed to summarize in a systematic fashion the best current evidence regarding the effects of preconception maternal factors on maternal and neonatal outcomes. A literature search up to March 2016 was performed in IBSS, SocINDEX, Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. An evidence-based hierarchy was used to determine which articles to include and analyse. Available data show that the risk of pregnancy complications in spontaneous and assisted conceptions is likely multifactorial, and the magnitude of this risk is probably very different according specific subgroups of patients. Notwithstanding the only moderate level and quality of the available evidence, available data suggest that the presence and the treatment of specific preconception cofactors of subfertility should be always taken into account both in clinical practice and for scientific purposes.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 604 - Listing of Human Service Federal Financial Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Listing of Human Service Federal Financial... (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Listing of Human Service Federal Financial Assistance Programs Federal...

  13. Complementary Machine Intelligence and Human Intelligence in Virtual Teaching Assistant for Tutoring Program Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Huang, Bau-Hung; Lin, Chi-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a virtual teaching assistant (VTA) to share teacher tutoring tasks in helping students practice program tracing and proposes two mechanisms of complementing machine intelligence and human intelligence to develop the VTA. The first mechanism applies machine intelligence to extend human intelligence (teacher answers) to evaluate…

  14. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  15. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment.

  16. Bioinformatics Assisted Gene Discovery and Annotation of Human Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As the sequencing stage of human genome project is near the end, the work has begun for discovering novel genes from genome sequences and annotating their biological functions. Here are reviewed current major bioinformatics tools and technologies available for large scale gene discovery and annotation from human genome sequences. Some ideas about possible future development are also provided.

  17. From sensors to human spatial concepts: An annotated data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Z.; Booij, O.; Kröse, B.; Topp, E.A.; Christensen, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    An annotated data set is presented meant to help researchers in developing, evaluating, and comparing various approaches in robotics for building space representations appropriate for communicating with humans. The data consist of omnidirectional images, laser range scans, sonar readings, and robot

  18. Becoming physics people: Development of physics identity in self-concept and practice through the Learning Assistant experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor

    2016-03-01

    The physics department at Texas State University has implemented a Learning Assistant (LA) program with reform-based instructional changes in our introductory course sequences. We are interested in how participation in the LA program influences LAs' identity both as physics students and as physics teachers; in particular, how being part of the LA community changes participants' self-concepts and their day-to-day practice. We analyze video of weekly LA preparation sessions and interviews with LAs as well as written artifacts from program applications, pedagogy course reflections, and evaluations. Our analysis of self-concepts is informed by the identity framework developed by Hazari et al., and our analysis of practice is informed by Lave and Wenger's theory of Communities of Practice. Regression models from quantitative studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics; the goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger ``physics student'' identity and stronger ``physics instructor'' identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. In addition to becoming more confident and competent in physics, LAs perceive themselves to have increased competence in communication and a stronger sense of belonging to a supportive and collaborative community; participation in the LA program also changes their ways of learning and of being students, both within and beyond physics. This research and the TXST LA program are supported by NSF DUE-1240036, NSF DUE-1431578, and the Halliburton Foundation.

  19. Robot-assisted arm assessments in spinal cord injured patients: a consideration of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Keller

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance is increasingly used in neurological rehabilitation for enhanced training. Furthermore, therapy robots have the potential for accurate assessment of motor function in order to diagnose the patient status, to measure therapy progress or to feedback the movement performance to the patient and therapist in real time. We investigated whether a set of robot-based assessments that encompasses kinematic, kinetic and timing metrics is applicable, safe, reliable and comparable to clinical metrics for measurement of arm motor function. Twenty-four healthy subjects and five patients after spinal cord injury underwent robot-based assessments using the exoskeleton robot ARMin. Five different tasks were performed with aid of a visual display. Ten kinematic, kinetic and timing assessment parameters were extracted on joint- and end-effector level (active and passive range of motion, cubic reaching volume, movement time, distance-path ratio, precision, smoothness, reaction time, joint torques and joint stiffness. For cubic volume, joint torques and the range of motion for most joints, good inter- and intra-rater reliability were found whereas precision, movement time, distance-path ratio and smoothness showed weak to moderate reliability. A comparison with clinical scores revealed good correlations between robot-based joint torques and the Manual Muscle Test. Reaction time and distance-path ratio showed good correlation with the "Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension" (GRASSP and the Van Lieshout Test (VLT for movements towards a predefined position in the center of the frontal plane. In conclusion, the therapy robot ARMin provides a comprehensive set of assessments that are applicable and safe. The first results with spinal cord injured patients and healthy subjects suggest that the measurements are widely reliable and comparable to clinical scales for arm motor function. The methods applied and results can

  20. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) wit...

  1. Making Use of Semantic Concept Detection for Modelling Human Preferences in Visual Summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether and how the human choice of images for summarizing a visual collection is influenced by the semantic concepts depicted in them. More specifically, by analysing a large collection of human-created visual summaries obtained through crowdsourcing, we aim at automati

  2. A Study of Seventh-Graders Comprehensions of Human Reproduction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd Harley

    1977-01-01

    Study of an Iowa junior high school revealed that: (1) seventh grade pupils' knowledge levels were raised after studying human reproduction concepts and that (2) the pupils were of the opinion that human reproduction studies should be included in life science classes. (MB)

  3. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  4. Machine vision based on the concept of contrast sensitivity of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzubik, Vitali; Belashenkov, Nikolai; Vdovin, Gleb

    2014-09-01

    The model of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of machine vision system, based on the CSF of the human visual system is proposed. By analogy with the human eye, we employ the concept of ganglion cell receptive field to the artificial light-sensitive elements. By further following this concept, we introduced quantative metrics of local and global contrast of digital image. We suggested that the contrast sensitivity threshold forms an iso-line in the parameter space contrast - spatial frequency. The model, implemented in a computer vision system, has been compared to the results of contrast sensitivity research, conducted directly with the human visual system, and demonstrated a good match.

  5. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations from Human into Machine relying on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...... of constructivism and constructivist models of knowing. This research constructs a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts in the common ground between humanistic and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....

  6. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations from Human into Machine relying on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...... of constructivism and constructivist models of knowing. This research constructs a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts in the common ground between humanistic and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....

  7. Development of a Power Assist System of a Walking Chair Based on Human Arm Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Takeda, Yukio; Higuchi, Masaru; Sugimoto, Koichi

    In this paper, design of control system and power combination mechanism of a power assist system of the walking chair was discussed based on kinetostatic characteristics of human arm. The walking chair is a welfare walking machine which is an alternative vehicle of the wheelchair, and expected to be driven by user's cranking operation with assisting actuator. To efficiently utilize user power as much as possible for long locomotion without giving much fatigue to the user while providing comfortable driving feeling to the user, the human arm characteristics were taken into consideration. Kinetostatic characteristics of the human arm were experimentally investigated for its modeling. This model was applied to the design of mechanism and control system of the power assist system of the walking chair, and design parameters were determined for achieving comfortable driving feeling and efficient utilization of user power.

  8. A HUMAN AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONCEPT FOR A SMALL MODULAR REACTOR CONTROL ROOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Spielman, Zach; Hill, Rachael

    2017-06-01

    Many advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) designs incorporate higher degrees of automation than the existing fleet of NPPs. Automation is being introduced or proposed in NPPs through a wide variety of systems and technologies, such as advanced displays, computer-based procedures, advanced alarm systems, and computerized operator support systems. Additionally, many new reactor concepts, both full scale and small modular reactors, are proposing increased automation and reduced staffing as part of their concept of operations. However, research consistently finds that there is a fundamental tradeoff between system performance with increased automation and reduced human performance. There is a need to address the question of how to achieve high performance and efficiency of high levels of automation without degrading human performance. One example of a new NPP concept that will utilize greater degrees of automation is the SMR concept from NuScale Power. The NuScale Power design requires 12 modular units to be operated in one single control room, which leads to a need for higher degrees of automation in the control room. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers and NuScale Power human factors and operations staff are working on a collaborative project to address the human performance challenges of increased automation and to determine the principles that lead to optimal performance in highly automated systems. This paper will describe this concept in detail and will describe an experimental test of the concept. The benefits and challenges of the approach will be discussed.

  9. Concepts and their dynamics: a quantum-theoretic modeling of human thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2013-10-01

    We analyze different aspects of our quantum modeling approach of human concepts and, more specifically, focus on the quantum effects of contextuality, interference, entanglement, and emergence, illustrating how each of them makes its appearance in specific situations of the dynamics of human concepts and their combinations. We point out the relation of our approach, which is based on an ontology of a concept as an entity in a state changing under influence of a context, with the main traditional concept theories, that is, prototype theory, exemplar theory, and theory theory. We ponder about the question why quantum theory performs so well in its modeling of human concepts, and we shed light on this question by analyzing the role of complex amplitudes, showing how they allow to describe interference in the statistics of measurement outcomes, while in the traditional theories statistics of outcomes originates in classical probability weights, without the possibility of interference. The relevance of complex numbers, the appearance of entanglement, and the role of Fock space in explaining contextual emergence, all as unique features of the quantum modeling, are explicitly revealed in this article by analyzing human concepts and their dynamics.

  10. [Egg: concepts, analyses and controversies in the human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Daiana; Franceschini, Priscilla; Quintiliano, Daiana Aparecida; Ost, Paulo Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Cholesterol rich-foods consumption has been related as a causing factor for heart ischemic disease. Because the high cholesterol content of the yolk, the egg consumption has been decreased in spite of it, egg is a complete food, rich in many nutrients, and economically accessible. The cholesterol content in egg yolk has also important properties for the human organism. The present work had the objective to review the scientific literature about egg's cholesterol, describing the possible consequences on the human health and wellbeing, its effect when they are enriched, and the chemical composition in relation to its lipidic profile. Information for this review was collected through national and international inquiries. According to this information, most of the studies on egg consumption are not related to the risk of cardiopathies in healthy people. Also, in people with diabetes mellitus, there is scarce evidence to drawn any conclusion about egg consumption and cardiopathies. Omega-3 egg enrichment presumably possesses a protective effect against cancer, despite its cholesterol content remains unaltered. Many of the Food Chemical Composition Tables contain different values on egg's fat composition, so it should be continuously update to reduce these discrepancies. Also, more studies on omega-3 enriched eggs are necessary for deeper conclusions on their cardio-protective effect.

  11. What is needed to implement a computer-assisted health risk assessment tool? An exploratory concept mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging eHealth tools could facilitate the delivery of comprehensive care in time-constrained clinical settings. One such tool is interactive computer-assisted health-risk assessments (HRA, which may improve provider-patient communication at the point of care, particularly for psychosocial health concerns, which remain under-detected in clinical encounters. The research team explored the perspectives of healthcare providers representing a variety of disciplines (physicians, nurses, social workers, allied staff regarding the factors required for implementation of an interactive HRA on psychosocial health. Methods The research team employed a semi-qualitative participatory method known as Concept Mapping, which involved three distinct phases. First, in face-to-face and online brainstorming sessions, participants responded to an open-ended central question: “What factors should be in place within your clinical setting to support an effective computer-assisted screening tool for psychosocial risks?” The brainstormed items were consolidated by the research team. Then, in face-to-face and online sorting sessions, participants grouped the items thematically as ‘it made sense to them’. Participants also rated each item on a 5-point scale for its ‘importance’ and ‘action feasibility’ over the ensuing six month period. The sorted and rated data was analyzed using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses which produced visual maps. In the third and final phase, the face-to-face Interpretation sessions, the concept maps were discussed and illuminated by participants collectively. Results Overall, 54 providers participated (emergency care 48%; primary care 52%. Participants brainstormed 196 items thought to be necessary for the implementation of an interactive HRA emphasizing psychosocial health. These were consolidated by the research team into 85 items. After sorting and rating, cluster analysis

  12. Current concepts of active vasodilation in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brett J.; Hollowed, Casey G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In humans, an increase in internal core temperature elicits large increases in skin blood flow and sweating. The increase in skin blood flow serves to transfer heat via convection from the body core to the skin surface while sweating results in evaporative cooling of the skin. Cutaneous vasodilation and sudomotor activity are controlled by a sympathetic cholinergic active vasodilator system that is hypothesized to operate through a co-transmission mechanism. To date, mechanisms of cutaneous active vasodilation remain equivocal despite many years of research by several productive laboratory groups. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advancements in the field of cutaneous active vasodilation framed in the context of some of the historical findings that laid the groundwork for our current understanding of cutaneous active vasodilation.

  13. Human activity understanding for robot-assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated the problem of understanding human activities, at different levels of granularity and taking into account both the variability in activities and annotator disagreement. To be able to capture the large variations within each of the action classes, we propose a model that uses

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression following pregnancies conceived through fertility treatments : the effects of medically assisted conception on postpartum well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J Catja; Stramrood, Claire A I; Paarlberg, K Marieke; Haisma, Hinke H; Vingerhoets, A J J M; Schultz, Willibrord C M Weijmar; van Pampus, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the postpartum prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in women who conceived via medically assisted conception (MAC) and women who conceived naturally. STUDY DESIGN: All women (n = 907) who delivered under supervision of four independent midw

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression following pregnancies conceived through fertility treatments : the effects of medically assisted conception on postpartum well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J Catja; Stramrood, Claire A I; Paarlberg, K Marieke; Haisma, Hinke H; Vingerhoets, A J J M; Schultz, Willibrord C M Weijmar; van Pampus, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the postpartum prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in women who conceived via medically assisted conception (MAC) and women who conceived naturally. STUDY DESIGN: All women (n = 907) who delivered under supervision of four independent midw

  16. The Effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Program on Peer Acceptance, Teacher Acceptance, and Self-Concept of Mildly Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Sam; Culliver, Concetta C.

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the self-concept of mainstreamed, mildly handicapped fifth-grade students (labeled learning disabled, emotionally conflicted, and educable mentally retarded) attending 13 different elementary schools in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. A control group…

  17. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  18. Empowering and Assisting Natural Empowering and Assisting Natural Human Mobility: The Simbiosis Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Frizera-Neto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete development of the Simbiosis Smart Walker. The device is equipped with a set of sensor subsystems to acquire user-machine interaction forces and the temporal evolution of user's feet during gait. The authors present an adaptive filtering technique used for the identification and separation of different components found on the human-machine interaction forces. This technique allowed isolating the components related with the navigational commands and developing a Fuzzy logic controller to guide the device. The Smart Walker was clinically validated at the Spinal Cord Injury Hospital of Toledo - Spain, presenting great acceptability by spinal chord injury patients and clinical staff.

  19. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. gene...

  20. Human capital gains associated with robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in children compared to open pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, James W; Kim, Steve S; Dorey, Frederick; De Filippo, Roger E; Chang, Andy Y; Hardy, Brian E; Koh, Chester J

    2011-10-01

    Robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an emerging, minimally invasive alternative to open pyeloplasty in children for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The procedure is associated with smaller incisions and shorter hospital stays. To our knowledge previous outcome analyses have not included human capital calculations, especially regarding loss of parental workdays. We compared perioperative factors in patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty at a single institution, especially in regard to human capital changes, in an institutional cost analysis. A total of 44 patients 2 years old or older from a single institution underwent robotic assisted (37) or open (7) pyeloplasty from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the charts to collect demographic and perioperative data. The human capital approach was used to calculate parental productivity losses. Patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty had a significantly shorter average hospital length of stay (1.6 vs 2.8 days, p human capital gains, eg decreased lost parental wages, and lower hospitalization expenses. Future comparative outcome analyses in children should include financial factors such as human capital loss, which can be especially important for families with young children. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concept Representation Analysis in the Context of Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    paradigm. I will focus on (i) humans’ conceptual representations in the framework of constructivism (as an educational theory of learning and model of knowing) and constructionism (as a theory for conceptualising learning) and (ii) concept representations in the framework of inductive concept learning (as...... an inductive machine learning paradigm). The results will support figuring out the most significant key points for constructing a conceptual linkage between a human learning theory and a machine learning paradigm. Accordingly, I will construct a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts...

  2. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  3. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline.

  4. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment.

  5. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle as Human-Assistant Robotics System

    CERN Document Server

    Chingtham, Tejbanta Singh; Ghose, M K; 10.1109/ICCIC.2010.5705731

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Heritage Dictionary [1],Robotics is the science or study of the technology associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of Robots. The term Hoverbot is also often used to refer to sophisticated mechanical devices that are remotely controlled by human beings even though these devices are not autonomous. This paper describes a remotely controlled hoverbot by installing a transmitter and receiver on both sides that is the control computer (PC) and the hoverbot respectively. Data is transmitted as signal or instruction via a infrastructure network which is converted into a command for the hoverbot that operates at a remote site.

  6. Characteristics of an Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction Shell with an Example in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Yochim, Jerome M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses exemplary teacher and student characteristics that can provide the base to generate an Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI) shell. Outlines the expertise, learning, student-model, and inference modules of an ICAI shell. Describes the development of an ICAI shell for an undergraduate course in human physiology. (33 references)…

  7. A Laser-Assisted Anastomotic Technique : Feasibility on Human Diseased Coronary Arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Vink, Aryan; Homoet-van der Kraak, Petra H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313984166; Helthuis, Jasper; Pasterkamp, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138488304; Buijsrogge, Marc P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24420098X

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic disease might hamper the efficacy of the Excimer laser-assisted Trinity Clip anastomotic connector in coronary arteries. Therefore, its efficacy was evaluated on human diseased coronary arteries (study 1). In addition, the acute laser effects onto the coronary wall were as

  8. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hor...

  9. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  10. Enhancing human-animal relationships through veterinary medical instruction in animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman

    2008-01-01

    Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.

  11. A Set of Web based Assistant Learning Tools based on Concept Map Theory%基于概念图的个性化自主学习分析模型及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞民; 汤轶阳

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Concept Map theory,the paper establishes an assistant learning analysis model on concept map in the application of eduction assessment field, which is composed of the construction, analysis, storage and feedback modules. According to the model, we develop a set of assistant learning tools based on Web.

  12. Rugoscopy: Human identification by computer-assisted photographic superimposition technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human identification has been studied since fourteenth century and it has gradually advanced for forensic purposes. Traditional methods such as dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context, allowing fast and secure identification processes. But, in circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source of material. Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the individualistic nature and use of palatal rugae patterns for personal identification and also to test the efficiency of computerized software for forensic identification by photographic superimposition of palatal photographs obtained from casts. Materials and Methods: Two sets of Alginate impressions were made from the upper arches of 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females with one month interval in between and the casts were poured. All the teeth except the incisors were removed to ensure that only the palate could be used in identification process. In one set of the casts, the palatal rugae were highlighted with a graphite pencil. All the 200 casts were randomly numbered, and then, they were photographed with a 10.1 Mega Pixel Kodak digital camera using standardized method. Using computerized software, the digital photographs of the models without highlighting the palatal rugae were overlapped over the images (transparent of the palatal rugae with highlighted palatal rugae, in order to identify the pairs by superimposition technique. Incisors were remained and used as landmarks to determine the magnification required to bring the two set of photographs to the same size, in order to make perfect superimposition of images. Results: The result of the overlapping of the digital photographs of highlighted palatal rugae over normal set of models without highlighted palatal rugae resulted in 100% positive

  13. Status of human assisted reproduction in Spain: results from the new registry of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosser, Roser; Gispert, Rosa; Torné, Mar; Calaf, Joaquim

    2009-11-01

    The FIVCAT. NET database in Catalonia is the only official obligatory registry of human assisted reproduction practitioners in Spain. The present study assessed the effectiveness and outcomes of assisted reproduction over the period 2001-2005 relative to other established worldwide registries. The data analysed were derived from all centres conducting assisted reproduction in Catalonia, and included users of the services (resident and non-resident); all cycles performed; descriptive characteristics of the assisted reproduction procedures; and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Effectiveness of assisted reproduction was measured by standard indicators such as rates of pregnancy and rates of live births per pregnancy. The results indicated that the preferred number of embryos for transfer changed from three to two over this period. Pregnancies per transfer improved from 33.2% to 37.1% (from 36.9% to 40.2% using fresh embryos and from to 18.4% to 27.0% with frozen embryos). Multiple births decreased from 50.1% to 38.6%, premature births from 37.5% to 28.3% and low-birth-weight infants from 38.0% to 25.6%. It is concluded that the conduct of assisted reproduction in Catalonia has improved considerably and compares favourably with other countries, not only with respect to the level of activity, but also the effectiveness and outcomes achieved, although the quality of the sociodemographic information requires improvement.

  14. Human-robot-interaction control for orthoses with pneumatic soft-actuators--concept and initial trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, David; Ivlev, Oleg

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a concept of human-robot-interaction control for robots with compliant pneumatic soft-actuators which are directly attached to the human body. Backdrivability of this type of actuators is beneficial for comfort and safety and they are well suitable to design rehabilitation robots for training of activities of daily living (ADL). The concept is verified with an application example of sit-to-stand tasks taking conventional treatment in neurology as reference. The focus is on stroke patients with a target group suffering from hemiplegia and paralysis in one half of the body. A 2 DOF exoskeleton robot was used as testbed to implement the control concept for supporting rising based on a master-slave position control such that movements from the fit leg are transferred to the affected leg. Furthermore the wearer of the robot has the possibility to adjust support for stabilizing the knee joint manually. Preliminary results are presented.

  15. The Sartre-Heidegger Controversy on Humanism and the Concept of Man in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkori, Leena; Huttunen, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Paul Sartre claims in his 1945 lecture "Existentialism is a Humanism" that there are two kinds of existentialism: that of Christians like Karl Jaspers, and atheistic like Martin Heidegger. Sartre's "spiritual master" Heidegger had no problem with Sartre defining him as an atheist, but he had serious problems with Sartre's concept of humanism…

  16. Using Intergenerational Oral History Service-Learning Projects to Teach Human Behavior Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Natalie; Diepstra, Stephene A.

    2006-01-01

    An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction…

  17. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  18. The prebiotic concept and human health : a changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinert, R. E.; Sadaghian, Mehdi; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Weber, P.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of

  19. The concept of the rule of law and the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbach, G.

    2013-01-01

    This book analyses the concept of the rule of law in the context of international law, through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. It investigates how the court has defined and interpreted the notion of the rule of law in its jurisprudence. It places this analysis against a backgroun

  20. The prebiotic concept and human health : a changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinert, R. E.; Sadaghian, Mehdi; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Weber, P.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of p

  1. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  2. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  3. The humanization of the assistance in Intensive Care Unit from the patients’ point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Maria de Sousa Pinto; Sides Fragoso da Silva; Andrezza Paz Sampaio; Milena Sampaio Magalhães

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the perceptions of patients in post-operative of cardiac surgery regarding the humanization of the assistance in the period of internment at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the rendered assistance and services of health professionals. Methods: The study presents a qualitative approach and was held with ten patients of both sexes, who had been interned for over 24 hours in ICU of a public hospital in Fortaleza-CE, during the period of August to October, 2006. A semi structu...

  4. The devil we know: the implications of bill C-38 for assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana; Cohen, Sara R

    2013-07-01

    In June 2012, the Canadian House of Commons passed the so-called omnibus budget bill, making several important changes to the governance of assisted reproduction in Canada. The bill (Bill C-38) was widely criticized for its unwieldy size and rapid passage through Parliament, preventing adequate parliamentary debate and public scrutiny. Given the substantive nature of the amendments to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act made by Bill C-38, and the lack of relevant discussion about these changes both before and following its passage, this commentary is intended to identify how Bill C-38 may alter the governance of reproductive technologies in Canada. In this commentary, we address some of the more significant changes made by Bill C-38 to the regulation of reproductive medicine in Canada. We identify the benefits and challenges of closing Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, noting that doing so eliminates a much-needed forum for stakeholder consultation in this field. Further, we explore the implications of moving the regulation of donor semen from the Food and Drugs Act to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act; these include increased liability for physicians, and opportunities to expand the existing regulations to account for the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer Canadians using donor gametes and recent advances in reproductive technologies. Overall, we argue that although the implementation of a policy framework in this field remains highly dependent on yet-to-be written regulations, the changes to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act enabled by Bill C-38 may significantly alter how Canadians interact with reproductive technologies.

  5. Normality and naturalness: a comparison of the meanings of concepts used within veterinary medicine and human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2011-12-01

    This article analyses the different connotations of "normality" and "being natural," bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of "natural" are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide ranging conceptions of "normal" in human medicine may enrich conceptions in veterinary medicine, where the discussions seem to be sparse. We do not argue that conceptions from veterinary medicine should be used in human medicine and vice versa, but only that it could be done and that it may well be fruitful. Moreover, there are overlaps between some notions of normal and natural, and further conceptual analysis on this overlap is needed.

  6. Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: unravelling the concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human

  7. Integrated 3D control concept for active driver assistance; Integriertes drei-dimensionales Fuehrungskonzept als aktive Fahrerassistenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, R.; Bertram, T. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany); Seemann, M.

    2002-07-01

    The integration of by-wire systems into motor vehicles offers great potential for improvement in active and passive safety. Assistance systems that improve safety can be simply adapted through the application in electronics of safety relevant vehicle functions. Another aspect is the possibility of networking individual electronic components and to improve performance in comparison to original individual systems through the coordination of the modules. This method is used in the research presented here to develop an integrated control concept. Modules for vehicle condition recognition and autonomous vehicle dynamics control were also developed. Autonomous control is applied in the areas of steering, braking and damping. As components of the electronic network, the modules are overseen by a supervisory unit - the integrations controller. Simulation results and the application of individual components and their integration based on this description of the modules required and their application is also presented here. (orig.) [German] Der Einzug von By-wire Systemen in das Kraftfahrzeug verspricht ein grosses Potenzial fuer die Erhoehung der aktiven und passiven Sicherheit. Durch die elektronische Umsetzung von sicherheitsrelevanten Fahrzeugfunktionen koennen sicherheitssteigernde Assistenzsysteme einfach adaptiert werden. Ein anderer Aspekt ist die Moeglichkeit einzelne Elektronikkomponenten zu vernetzen und durch die Koordination der Module eine Leistungsverbesserung gegenueber der Einzelkomponente zu erreichen. Dieser Umstand wird genutzt, um im Rahmen des Beitrages eine Integrationsregelung vorzustellen. Dabei werden Module fuer die Bereiche Fahrzustandsbeurteilung und autonome Fahrdynamikregelung entwickelt. Autonome Regelungen kommen in den Bereichen Lenken, Bremsen und Daempfen zur Anwendung. Als Komponenten des elektronischen Netzwerkes werden diese Module durch eine uebergeordnete Instanz ueberwacht, dem Modul der Integrationsregelung. Ausgehend von einer

  8. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  9. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kevin; She, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  10. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lai

    Full Text Available Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  11. Techniques of Assisted Human Reproduction and the Problematic of Parental Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Moraes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the issues related to the civil responsibility of parents, when using the assisted human reproductions techniques. Drew up a discussion about the reflections of the principles of responsible parenting and of human dignity in the use of those techniques, delineating one by one of them that can cause damages to the embryo, unborn or child already born. Discussing about the assisted human reproduction techniques, it outlined those allowed by the Federal Medical Council through the Resolution nº 2013/2013 and stood out the legal system omission related to the regulation of the use of those techniques, since the only legal instrument that deals with it, that is the Law nº 11.105/2005, did not specify about it. Was presented therefore, all human assisted reproduction techniques that give rise to a possible potentiation of vulnerability of the embryo as well as to possibly answers regarding to the legal status of the embryo that the doctrine is trying to trace. Finally, we discussed about the civil responsibility forms, relating it to the responsible parenthood and the damages caused from not using those techniques.

  12. Polanyi’s Criticisms on Modern Economics’ Conception of the Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seriyye Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discipline of economics, who already assimilated the mathematical and technical tools as a base for the expression of theory is almost lost its identity as a social science. This process has become visible through some historical breakups. These breakups have scientific, social and economic faces. While the developments in natural sciences had led the economists to imitate physics - since it uses more certain methods as a science; the market society which established after the industrial revolution separated humans from the economic understanding of the past eras. Rationality, which indeed a philosophical concept, purified from its philosophical context and integrated to economics. On the other hand, the mainstream economics which accepts the maximisation of interest as one of the components of human nature prevailed the economics literature. The modern economics’ conception of human had shaped via the steps which we briefly mentioned above. Karl Polanyi (1886-1964 had criticized the human conception of modern economics by using social anthropological methods. He had claimed that market system did not emerged spontaneously, the nature of human did not change throughout history, and primitive economics was totally different from today’s market society since the economic relations were embedded in the other social relations. In this article, we tried to analyse Polanyi’s criticisms on modern economics’ human conception. For this reason, we firstly argued the term rationality in the economic context, since it would be a basis for our subject. Then we emphasized the thesis of “uncahged nature of human” which highlighted by Polanyi, discussions on primitive economies, and the market society which established parallel to the industrial revolution respectively.

  13. Anthropology from a Kantian point of view: toward a cosmopolitan conception of human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Robert B

    2008-12-01

    Anthropology was a new field of study when Kant first began lecturing on it in 1772, and Kant himself was the first academic to teach regular courses in this area. As is well known, his own approach to anthropology is self-described as 'pragmatic', and Kant's pragmatic anthropology differs markedly from the anthropologies that other early contributors to the new discipline were advocating. In this essay I focus on a fundamental feature of Kant's anthropology that has been under-appreciated in previous discussions; namely, the particular conception of human nature that he believes anthropology, when pursued properly, leads to. I call this conception a cosmopolitan conception of human nature. In addition to establishing the central importance of this idea for Kant's project in anthropology, I also try in this essay to unravel some of its ambiguities and tensions as well as to highlight its underlying moral motives. The cosmopolitan conception of human nature that is central to Kant's anthropology is a further indication of the significance of his anthropology for ethics.

  14. Análise do discurso oficial sobre a humanização da assistência hospitalar Analysis of the official speech about humanization of the hospital assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely F. Deslandes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo "humanização" tem sido empregado constantemente no âmbito da saúde. É a base de um amplo conjunto de iniciativas, mas não possui uma definição mais clara, geralmente designando a forma de assistência que valoriza a qualidade do cuidado do ponto de vista técnico, associada ao reconhecimento dos direitos do paciente, de sua subjetividade e cultura, além do reconhecimento do profissional. Tal conceito pretende-se norteador de uma nova práxis na produção do cuidado em saúde. Este artigo, de cunho exploratório, visa analisar o discurso do Ministério da Saúde sobre a humanização da assistência. Investigamos os sentidos e expectativas associados à idéia de humanização a partir da análise dos textos oficiais, retomando um diálogo crítico com os autores da área de saúde pública e das ciências sociais. Discutimos as idéias centrais da humanização como oposição à violência; oferta de atendimento de qualidade, articulando os avanços tecnológicos com acolhimento, melhoria das condições de trabalho do profissional, e ampliação do processo comunicacional, eixo central dos textos.The term "humanization" has been employed constantly in the health field. It is the base of a wide set of initiatives, even though the concept does not have a clear definition. Generally, it refers to a kind of assistance that gives importance to the technical quality of care, associated with recognition of patients' rights, subjectivity and culture. Such concept intends to guide a new praxis in the care production in health. This article, of exploratory mark, aims analyze the speech of the Health Department on the assistance humanization. We investigate the meanings and expectations associates to the humanization idea from the analysis of the official texts, retaking a critical dialog with the authors of the area of public health and of the social sciences. We argue the central ideas of the humanization as opposition to the violence

  15. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  16. The Concept of Security Revisited New Approaches: Human Security and Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Mărgărit

    2009-01-01

    The field of study of security is confronted today with a proliferation of security relatedconcepts. In this regard we can mention various concepts, such as: “transnational security”, “extendedsecurity”, “human security”, “global security”, “cooperative security”, “international security”,“economic security” and many others. Ever since the end of the Cold War, the concept of humansecurity began to appear more often in the speeches of scholars, policy makers and even the media.Despite the more...

  17. Teaching Assistants' Performance at Identifying Common Introductory Student Difficulties in Mechanics Revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students' alternate conceptions in…

  18. Global Exploration Roadmap Derived Concept for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Landgraf, Markus; Sato, Naoki; Picard, Martin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Stephenson, Keith; Narita, Shinichiro; Gonthier, Yves; Cowley, Aiden; Hosseini, Shahrzad; hide

    2017-01-01

    Taking advantage of the development of Mars-forward assets in cislunar space, a human lunar surface concept is proposed to maximize value for both lunar exploration and future deep space missions. The human lunar surface missions will be designed to build upon the cislunar activities that precede them, providing experience in planetary surface operations that cannot be obtained in cislunar space. To enable a five-mission limited campaign to the surface of the Moon, two new elements are required: a human lunar lander and a mobile surface habitat. The human lunar lander will have been developed throughout the cislunar phase from a subscale demonstrator and will consist of a descent module alongside a reusable ascent module. The reusable ascent module will be used for all five human lunar surface missions. Surface habitation, in the form of two small pressurized rovers, will enable 4 crew to spend up to 42 days on the lunar surface.

  19. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mergner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free, scalar equations. This paper investigates whether the EM alternative shows “real-world robustness” against noisy and inaccurate sensors, mechanical non-linearities such as dead zones, and human-like feedback time delays when controlling hip-ankle movements of a balancing humanoid robot. The EM concept and the EM controller are introduced, the robot's dynamics are identified using a biomechanical approach, and robot tests are performed in a human posture control laboratory. The tests show that the EM controller provides stable control of the robot with proactive (“voluntary” movements and reactive balancing of stance during support surface tilts and translations. Although a preliminary robot-human comparison reveals similarities and differences, we conclude (i the Eigenmovement concept is a valid candidate when different concepts of human sensorimotor control are considered, and (ii that human-inspired robot experiments may help to decide in future the choice among the candidates and to improve the design of humanoid robots and robotic rehabilitation devices.

  20. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Lind, Morten [Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Djibouti); Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tsuruga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP.

  1. The Role of Users' Concepts of the Robot in Human-Robot Spatial Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kerstin

    Spatial instructions are always delivered for a particular communication partner. In this paper I investigate the the role of users' concepts of their communication partner in human-robot interaction by analysing the spatial language choices speakers make in three comparable corpora with three different robots. I show that the users' concepts of their artificial communication partner is only mildly shaped by the appearance of the robot, and thus that users do not mindlessly use all clues they can get about their communication partner in order to formulate their spatial instructions. Instead, spatial instruction in human-robot interaction also depends on the users' models of the communication situation, as well as on external variables, such as gender.

  2. A novel approach for computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3d designed/printed surgical tooling. An ex vivo proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anssari Moin, D.; Derksen, W.; Verweij, J.P.; van Merkesteyn, R.; Wismeijer, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method for accurate autotransplantation with computer-assisted guided templates and assembled custom-designed surgical tooling and to test the feasibility and accuracy of this method ex vivo. Materials and Methods: A partially edentulous human

  3. [The concept of medical entomology: the determination of the effect of arthropods on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnitsyn, S P

    1996-01-01

    A new concept of medical entomology is proposed, according to which this discipline should comprehensively study the effects of arthropods on human health and possible control of these effects. Thus, the tasks of medical entomology are markedly widened to embrace cognitively and practically important problems, which have been neglected. This approach does not negate the accepted understanding of medical entomology but includes it as an essential component.

  4. Temporal Performance of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems vis-á-vis Human Driving Behavior in Dense Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Hendriks, T.; Bijlsma, T.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are becoming ubiquitous, and gradually take over the role of human drivers in the vision of the automotive sector. Humans are different from most systems: while in general humans exhibit a much higher error rate when performing specific functions, they are a

  5. The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eBernacer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, its philosophical inspiration and the problems that arise from it, mostly centered on the sharp distinction between goal-directed actions and habitual behavior. We then introduce the Aristotelian view and we compare it with that of William James. For Aristotle, a habit is an acquired disposition to perform certain types of action. If this disposition involves an enhanced cognitive control of actions, it can be considered a habit-as-learning. The current view of habit in neuroscience, which lacks cognitive control and we term habit-as-routine, is also covered by the Aristotelian conception. He classifies habits into three categories: 1 theoretical, or the retention of learning understood as knowing that x is so; 2 behavioral, through which the agent achieves a rational control of emotion-permeated behavior (knowing how to behave; and 3 technical or learned skills (knowing how to make or to do. Finally, we propose new areas of research where this novel conception of habit could serve as a framework concept, from the cognitive enrichment of actions to the role of habits in pathological conditions. In all, this contribution may shed light on the understanding of habits as an important feature of human action. Habits, viewed as cognitively controlled behaviors that in turn improve cognitive control of behavior, are a crucial resource for enhancing human learning and behavioral plasticity.

  6. The pluralistic water research concept - a new human-water system research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda; Garcia-Santos, Glenda

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management has been and still is a main challenge for decision makers even though for the past number of decades integrative approaches and concepts (e.g. Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) have been developed to address problems on floods, droughts, water quality, water quantity, environment and ecology. Although somehow these approaches are aiming to address water related problems in an integrative approach and to some extent include or involve society in the planning and management, they still lack some of the vital components in including the social dimensions and their interaction with water. Understanding these dynamics in a holistic way and how they are shaped by time and space may tackle these shortcomings and provide more effective and sustainable management solutions with respect to a set of potential present social actions and values as well as possible futures. This paper aims to discuss challenges to coherently and comprehensively integrate the social dimensions of different human-water concepts like IWRM, socio-hydrology and waterscape. Against this background it will develop criteria for an integrative approach and present a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR) concept. PWR is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to acknowledge the social and water dimensions and their interaction and dynamics by considering more than one perspective of a water-related issue, hereby providing a set of multiple (future) developments. Our PWR concept will be illustrated by a case study application of the Canary island La Gomera. Furthermore an outlook on further possible developments of the PWR concept will be presented and discussed.

  7. Human experience and product usability: principles to assist the design of user-product interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Koc, Marianella; Popovic, Vesna; Emmison, Michael

    2009-07-01

    This paper introduces research that investigates how human experience influences people's understandings of product usability. It describes an experiment that employs visual representation of concepts to elicit participants' ideas of a product's use. Results from the experiment lead to the identification of relationships between human experience, knowledge, and context-of-use--relationships that influence designers' and users' concepts of product usability. These relationships are translated into design principles that inform the design activity with respect to the aspects of experience that trigger people's understanding of a product's use. A design tool (ECEDT) is devised to aid designers in the application of these principles. This tool is then trialled in the context of a design task in order to verify applicability of the findings.

  8. Criteria of Human-computer Interface Design for Computer Assisted Surgery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-guo; LIN Yan-ping; WANG Cheng-tao; LIU Zhi-hong; YANG Qing-ming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems become more and more common in clinical practices, but few specific design criteria have been proposed for human-computer interface (HCI) in CAS systems. This paper tried to give universal criteria of HCI design for CAS systems through introduction of demonstration application, which is total knee replacement (TKR) with a nonimage-based navigation system.A typical computer assisted process can be divided into four phases: the preoperative planning phase, the intraoperative registration phase, the intraoperative navigation phase and finally the postoperative assessment phase. The interface design for four steps is described respectively in the demonstration application. These criteria this paper summarized can be useful to software developers to achieve reliable and effective interfaces for new CAS systems more easily.

  9. Concept of an immersive assistance system with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments; Konzept eines immersiven Assistenzsystems mit Augmented Reality zur Unterstuetzung manueller Aktivitaeten in radioaktiven Produktionsumgebungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eursch, Andreas A.

    2010-06-29

    The thesis on an immersive assistance system concept with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments covers the following topics: analysis of the situation: production and use of radioactive materials, problem analysis of the work in the production facilities, necessity of manual activities, automation, prediction in hot cells; status of research and development; assistance system concept, immersive camera system; augmented reality support in hot cells; economic evaluation and generalization.

  10. Next Gen NEAR: Near Earth Asteroid Human Robotic Precursor Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Kirby, Karen; Cheng, Andrew F.; Gold, Robert; Kelly, Daniel; Reed, Cheryl; Abell, Paul; Garvin, James; Landis, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Asteroids have long held the attention of the planetary science community. In particular, asteroids that evolve into orbits near that of Earth, called near-Earth objects (NEO), are of high interest as potential targets for exploration due to the relative ease (in terms of delta V) to reach them. NASA's Flexible Path calls for missions and experiments to be conducted as intermediate steps towards the eventual goal of human exploration of Mars; piloted missions to NEOs are such example. A human NEO mission is a valuable exploratory step beyond the Earth-Moon system enhancing capabilities that surpass our current experience, while also developing infrastructure for future mars exploration capabilities. To prepare for a human rendezvous with an NEO, NASA is interested in pursuing a responsible program of robotic NEO precursor missions. Next Gen NEAR is such a mission, building on the NEAR Shoemaker mission experience at the JHU/APL Space Department, to provide an affordable, low risk solution with quick data return. Next Gen NEAR proposes to make measurements needed for human exploration to asteroids: to demonstrate proximity operations, to quantify hazards for human exploration and to characterize an environment at a near-Earth asteroid representative of those that may be future human destinations. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has demonstrated exploration-driven mission feasibility by developing a versatile spacecraft design concept using conventional technologies that satisfies a set of science, exploration and mission objectives defined by a concept development team in the summer of 2010. We will describe the mission concept and spacecraft architecture in detail. Configuration options were compared with the mission goals and objectives in order to select the spacecraft design concept that provides the lowest cost, lowest implementation risk, simplest operation and the most benefit for the mission implementation. The Next Gen NEAR

  11. Benefits from a geographers' perspective on human-water systems - the waterscape concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Recently a couple of theoretical foundations and concepts were developed such as hydro-sociology, hydro-economics and integrated water resources management in order to structure and process parameterizations of hydrological research and reflect human-water-interrelations. However, a remaining challenge in human-water-system research is that approaches like socio-hydrology still struggle to formalize hypotheses which are capable to capture the basic driving mechanisms of the dynamic human-water system beyond optimizing algorithms or the principle of optimality or entropy as the societal values and experiences may unfold diverging policy and society responses (cf. Troy et al. 2015). Another challenge that we see is the integration of physical and social sciences with regard to the different epistemologies and perspectives: positivist thinking common in natural sciences and engineering and constructivist conceptualisation common in the social sciences. Here, geographic research seeks to acknowledge multi-spatial perspectives of the different actors and entities and their integration into the physical system that needs mutual recognition of natural and social sciences concepts, theories and methods. We suggest for human-water system research a more geographic perspective, which we call waterscape concept. Water can be regarded as a key structuring element for landscape and its management and, hence, from our perspective, the dynamics in water resources and interrelation of actors and entities in its management also helps to better understand current landscape patterns, their developments and interrelations, respectively. By our definition, a waterscape includes sources and users of water, their interactions, feedbacks and external influencing factors. It is therefore not only the physical space but rather includes the arena of actors and entities interacting. Against this understanding, waterscapes are defined by reciprocal boundary conditions which allow integrating

  12. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  13. An Implementation of the REpresentation and MAintenance of Process Knowledge(REMAP) Model in the Knowledge-Based Software Assistant Concept Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    D.M. Elefante , p. 8, 1988. 8. Debellis, M., "The Concept Demonstration Rapid Prototype System", PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH CONFERENCE ON KBSA, p. 222...1987. 11. Elefante , loc. cit., p. 8. 12. White, op. cit., p. 3. 13. White, op. cit., p. 4. 14. Goldberg, A., et al., "KBSA Performance Estimation...Assistant Program Specification," Documentation, RADC Contract F30602-86-C-0026. 71 15. White, op.cit., p. 5. 16. White, op. cit., pp. 3-4. 17. Elefante , op

  14. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    of high-strength pipeline steel and the concentration of hydrogen present in the steel. B. Determine the degree hydrogen absorption by cathodically protected steel exposed in natural soil sediment, which include activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). C. Compare the above points with fracture......An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties...... in this steel....

  15. The Roles of Internal Communications, Human Resource Management and Marketing Concepts in Determining Holistic Internal Marketing Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinčić Ćorić, Dubravka; Pološki Vokić, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the triad of internal marketing (IM), internal communications (IC) and human resource management (HRM) parallely, which was not the prior interest of academics (so far only the dyads of those concepts were analyzed). The scopes, overlaps and differences between the three concepts are analyzed. By combining three before mentioned concepts a holistic internal marketing philosophy is described. The main conclusions are that a holistic internal marketing philosophy is grounded ...

  16. Is there a human right to be assisted in dying? [Temos um direito humano a ser assistido na morte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Tonetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the issue of whether it is plausible to think about a human right to be assisted in dying. The right to be assisted in dying cannot be considered just a right of non-interference. It is better understood as a claim right because it demands assistance and positive actions. I will argue that the principles of individual autonomy and Kant’s notion of dignity taken independently cannot be considered plausible justification for the human right to be assisted in dying. Griffin’s personhood account points out that principles of liberty, minimum provision and autonomy must be taken together to justify human rights. Based on his theory, I will argue that a person with a terminal disease who was aware of her imminent death or who suffered from an intractable, incurable, irreversible disease may waive the right to life and choose death. Therefore, the right to life would not restrict the human right to be assisted in dying and a state that allowed the practice of assisted dying would not be disrespecting the human right to life. This article will defend that the personhood account is able to protect vulnerable people from making decisions under pressure and avoid the slippery slope objection.

  17. [Anatomical discoveries and concept of human body structure in Nan-jing (Classic of Questioning)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-zhe

    2006-04-01

    What Nan-jing (Classic of Questioning) contributes to the anatomical discoveries and concepts of human body structure in TCM is that it clarifies the concept, function and anatomical essence of viscera and bowels. It is the first. book that clearly defines the triple jiao as a "qi bowel", This statement is a typical example of Chinese dualistic system of its view on the human body, consisting of physical and spiritual components. This has stirred up confusion for modern interpretation and, as a result, some thought the visceral theory in the book is not based on substantial basis of anatomy. However, the Forty-second Question in Nan-jing not only carries the contents about Wei (stomach), Xiaochang (small intestine), Huichang (large intestine) and Guangchang (anus) in the chapter of "Intestine and Stomach" in Lingshu Jing (Miraculous Pivot), but also changes these names to those we actually use today in the latter chapters; and it also records the gross anatomical shape and size of gall bladder, urinary bladder and all the five viscerae. So, Nan-jing discusses the structure of human body in ancient times, and is equivalent to an integrated science of modern physiology and anatomy, and establishes a solid basis for the fundamental theory of TCM.

  18. Human-pet interaction and loneliness: a test of concepts from Roy's adaptation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, M M

    1989-01-01

    This research used two key concepts from Roy's adaptation model of nursing to examine the relationship between human-pet interaction and loneliness in nursing home residents. These concepts included (a) environmental stimuli as factors influencing adaptation and (b) interdependence as a mode of response to the environment. The hypothesis of this study asserted that the residents of a nursing home who had greater levels of interaction with a pet program would experience less loneliness than those who had lower levels of interaction with a pet. The study used an ex post facto nonexperimental design with 65 subjects. The simplified version of the revised UCLA loneliness scale was used to measure loneliness. Reported level of human-pet interaction was measured according to a four-point scale (1 = no interaction, 4 = quite a lot of interaction). The hypothesis was supported at the p less than 0.03 level of significance. Implications for practice through organizing pet programs in situations where loneliness exists are discussed. Recommendations for future research include replicating the study using a larger sample and developing a comprehensive human-pet interaction tool.

  19. Self-Organizing Wearable Device Platform for Assisting and Reminding Humans in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most older persons would prefer “aging in my place,” that is, to remain in good health and live independently in their own home as long as possible. For assisting the independent living of older people, the ability to gather and analyze a user’s daily activity data would constitute a significant technical advance, enhancing their quality of life. However, the general approach based on centralized server has several problems such as the usage complexity, the high price of deployment and expansion, and the difficulty in identifying an individual person. To address these problems, we propose a wearable device platform for the life assistance of older persons that automatically records and analyzes their daily activity without intentional human intervention or a centralized server (i.e., cloud server. The proposed platform contains self-organizing protocols, Delay-Tolerant Messaging system, knowledge-based analysis and alerting for daily activities, and a hardware platform that provides low power consumption. We implemented a prototype smart watch, called Personal Activity Assisting and Reminding (PAAR, as a testbed for the proposed platform, and evaluated the power consumption and the service time of example scenarios.

  20. The Quasi-Human Child: How Normative Conceptions of Childhood Enabled Neoliberal School Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie; Benson, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault's concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a…

  1. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  2. ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE HUMAN SECURITY CONCEPT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Paulina Marczuk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide economic support and an attempt to guarantee safety, which the European governments are trying to provide for their citizens, are reasons why the European Union explores new directions of conducting common policies for which the most important is the human being and his needs. The European security policy – and the new concept of human security – could be one example of the EU`s new behavior. Taking into consideration the previous attempts at developing security theories in Europe and other countries, it is possible to state that the modern human security doctrine in the EU could be followed by creating a special kind of European corps which would be a new tool for ensuring security where it would be necessary to provide it – European Gendarmerie Forces (known as EGF or EUROGENDFOR. The aim of this article is to show the impact of the evolution of the modern security theories for creating a human security doctrine in the framework of the European Union. Moreover, genesis and activity of the EGF are presented and the author is trying to answer the question: could the EGF be a tool of human security in the EU?. Finally, a couple of proposals for the future development of the European security policy are mentioned.

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  4. Human-animal relationships: from daily life to animal-assisted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Hausberger, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of human animal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used.

  5. Human-animal relationships: from daily life to animal-assisted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of human animal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used.

  6. Hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy skills acquisition: augmented reality simulator versus human cadaver training models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Fabien; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Delaney, Conor P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a simulator with the human cadaver model for hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training. An observational prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the laparoscopic surgery training models. The study took place during the laparoscopic colectomy training course performed at the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Thirty four practicing surgeons performed hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on human cadavers (n = 7) and on an augmented reality simulator (n = 27). Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Trainers and trainees completed independently objective structured assessment forms. Training models were compared by trainees' technical skills scores, events scores, and satisfaction. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both surgeon groups. Generic and specific skills scores were similar on both training models. Generic events scores were significantly better on the cadaver model. The 2 most frequent generic events occurring on the simulator were poor hand-eye coordination and inefficient use of retraction. Specific events were scored better on the simulator and reached the significance limit (p = 0.051) for trainers. The specific events occurring on the cadaver were intestinal perforation and left ureter identification difficulties. Overall satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p = 0.009). With regard to skills scores, the augmented reality simulator had adequate qualities for the hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy training. Nevertheless, events scores highlighted weaknesses of the anatomical replication on the simulator. Although improvements likely will be required to incorporate the simulator more routinely into the colorectal training, it may be useful in its current form for more junior trainees or those early on their learning curve. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  7. Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2014-06-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  8. Fake it till you make it: Policymaking and assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave

    2014-06-01

    The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.

  9. Assisted navigation based on shared-control, using discrete and sparse human-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana C; Nunes, Urbano; Vaz, Luis; Vaz, Luís

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a shared-control approach for Assistive Mobile Robots (AMR), which depends on the user's ability to navigate a semi-autonomous powered wheelchair, using a sparse and discrete human-machine interface (HMI). This system is primarily intended to help users with severe motor disabilities that prevent them to use standard human-machine interfaces. Scanning interfaces and Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), characterized to provide a small set of commands issued sparsely, are possible HMIs. This shared-control approach is intended to be applied in an Assisted Navigation Training Framework (ANTF) that is used to train users' ability in steering a powered wheelchair in an appropriate manner, given the restrictions imposed by their limited motor capabilities. A shared-controller based on user characterization, is proposed. This controller is able to share the information provided by the local motion planning level with the commands issued sparsely by the user. Simulation results of the proposed shared-control method, are presented.

  10. Efficient blastomere biopsy for mouse embryo splitting for future applications in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to establish a safe, efficient biopsy procedure for embryo splitting using the mouse model for future applications in human assisted reproduction. From mouse embryos at the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell stage, half the number of blastomeres were microsurgically biopsied and transferred into empty mouse zonae pellucidae. Twin embryonic development was monitored during in-vitro culture. Blastocyst developmental rate using 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-cell splitting was 74.4, 75.0, 66.7 and 38.4 respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 94.9, 97.5, 92.7 and 83.8%. Blastocysts from 2-, 4-, and 6-cell splitting resulted in elevated hatching rates compared with non-operated blastocysts (87.5%), due to the Tyrode-assisted hatching effect. Blastocyst morphology was superior from 2- and 4-cell splitting when compared with 6- and 8-cell splitting. Furthermore, outgrowth of twin blastocysts from 2- and 4-cell splitting showed well-developed colonies with trophoblast cells and clusters of ICM cells, whereas those obtained from 6- and 8-cell splitting frequently formed small-sized colonies. Due to the high twinning success rate obtained under the experimental conditions employed in this study, it appears that with further modifications and proper safeguards, such embryo splitting efforts could have potential applications in humans.

  11. Maternal nutrition at conception modulates DNA methylation of human metastable epialleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Moore, Sophie E; Baker, Maria S; Bergen, Andrew W; Cox, Sharon E; Dyer, Roger A; Fulford, Anthony J; Guan, Yongtao; Laritsky, Eleonora; Silver, Matt J; Swan, Gary E; Zeisel, Steven H; Innis, Sheila M; Waterland, Robert A; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2014-04-29

    In experimental animals, maternal diet during the periconceptional period influences the establishment of DNA methylation at metastable epialleles in the offspring, with permanent phenotypic consequences. Pronounced naturally occurring seasonal differences in the diet of rural Gambian women allowed us to test this in humans. We show that significant seasonal variations in methyl-donor nutrient intake of mothers around the time of conception influence 13 relevant plasma biomarkers. The level of several of these maternal biomarkers predicts increased/decreased methylation at metastable epialleles in DNA extracted from lymphocytes and hair follicles in infants postnatally. Our results demonstrate that maternal nutritional status during early pregnancy causes persistent and systemic epigenetic changes at human metastable epialleles.

  12. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  13. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  14. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  15. Assistance to the industrial process supervision: toward a methodology of conception; Aide a la supervision des processus industriels: vers une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhannouche, S.

    1996-05-31

    This thesis presents a methodological approach to the design of computerized assistance for operators in control industrial processes. We are particularly interested in how to find the solutions which best suit their needs. Our preferred approach is focused on the operator: the main factors influencing his performance are reviewed and we make a synthesis which consists of a categorized list, or typology, of the extents of the operators` activities, tasks and errors. This typology is then used to classify the possible improvements as well as associated computer aids. The DIAPASON held system for fault diagnosis is integrated in this structure. This typology is our chosen basis for defining a specification method which enables the quality of the designed system to be guarantee. We propose a phased approach, the first phase of which involves analysing needs and thus identifying the objectives of the project. The second phase is the preparation of a performance specification which serves as a reference system for the project. In the third phase technical solutions are proposed to meet the requirements set out in the performance specification. The following phases involve studying the technical feasibility of the proposed solutions and the actual development of the system. Together with the feasibility study comes the step of making up a knowledge bank. The usual method of systems analysis are included in the typology of the aids. Furthermore, the SAGACE method uses a new approach to systems analysis based on its description which unites various points of view ; the evaluation of its possibilities forms a part of the construction of a reference system which gathers up the information needed to put the DIAPASON diagnosis system into action. (author).

  16. The perceptual origins of the abstract same/different concept in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addyman, Caspar; Mareschal, Denis

    2010-11-01

    Very few experiments have studied the two item same/different relation in young human infants. This contrasts with an extensive animal literature. We tested young infants with two novel tasks designed specifically to provide convergent comparative measures. Each infant completed both tasks allowing an assessment of their understanding of the abstract concept rather than task-specific abilities. In a looking time task with photographic stimuli, we found that 8-month-olds are sensitive to the relation but 4-month-olds are not. The second task used an anticipatory eye movement paradigm with simple geometric stimuli. On each trial, two colored shapes appear and moved upwards behind an occluder. They reappeared on either the upper left or right depending on the relation between them. Infants at both ages learned and generalized the dependency but only for the different relation. These results show that human infants can learn the same/different concept but that, in strong continuity with animal results, their abilities are firmly grounded in perception.

  17. A High-Heritage Blunt-Body Entry, Descent, and Landing Concept for Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Humphrey; Manning, Robert; Sklyanskiy, Evgeniy; Braun, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Human-scale landers require the delivery of much heavier payloads to the surface of Mars than is possible with entry, descent, and landing (EDL) approaches used to date. A conceptual design was developed for a 10 m diameter crewed Mars lander with an entry mass of approx.75 t that could deliver approx.28 t of useful landed mass (ULM) to a zero Mars areoid, or lower, elevation. The EDL design centers upon use of a high ballistic coefficient blunt-body entry vehicle and throttled supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP). The design concept includes a 26 t Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) that could support a crew of 2 for approx.24 days, a crew of 3 for approx.16 days, or a crew of 4 for approx.12 days. The MAV concept is for a fully-fueled single-stage vehicle that utilizes a single pump-fed 250 kN engine using Mono-Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON-25) propellants that would deliver the crew to a low Mars orbit (LMO) at the end of the surface mission. The MAV concept could potentially provide abort-to-orbit capability during much of the EDL profile in response to fault conditions and could accommodate return to orbit for cases where the MAV had no access to other Mars surface infrastructure. The design concept for the descent stage utilizes six 250 kN MMH/MON-25 engines that would have very high commonality with the MAV engine. Analysis indicates that the MAV would require approx.20 t of propellant (including residuals) and the descent stage would require approx.21 t of propellant. The addition of a 12 m diameter supersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (SIAD), based on a proven flight design, was studied as an optional method to improve the ULM fraction, reducing the required descent propellant by approx.4 t.

  18. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy in Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes in the Distance Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, A. Seda

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating…

  19. The Goal of Evolutionary and Neoclassical Economics as a Consequence of the Changes in Concepts of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horodecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economics depends on the concept of human nature very strongly. The concepts of human nature can be understood as a set of assumptions made about the individual (on different levels: behavior, motives, meaning and his interactions with other people, with groups and diverse institutions. It corresponds with the image of world people have. The concept of human nature together with an image of the world builds the basis of thinking about the economics and about such fundamental element of it as its goal. Therefore if those images of men change, the way of thinking about economics and their elements adjust to those changes as well. The goal of the paper is to present the impact of these alterations of image of man on the economics. This impact will be illustrated on the example of the evolutionary economics, which is contrasted with the orthodox concept of human nature persisting in the neoclassical economics – homo economicus. The method applied to this research is, among others, a content analysis of the most important texts developed within neoclassical and evolutionary economics. To reach this goal, the following steps will be conducted: firstly, the concepts of human nature will be defined in regards of their particularity depending on the discipline by which they are defined; secondly, the main differences between concepts of human nature in neoclassical and evolutionary economics will be analyzed, and thirdly the differences in understanding of the goal and field between those two schools will be explained as resulting from the diverse concepts of human nature. The analysis proved that the main differences in those economic schools might be explained by the changed assumptions about the human nature and the image of the world.

  20. A Human-Robot Interaction Perspective on Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerle, Philipp; Salvietti, Gionata; Unal, Ramazan; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Rossi, Simone; Castellini, Claudio; Hirche, Sandra; Endo, Satoshi; Amor, Heni Ben; Ciocarlie, Matei; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Argall, Brenna D; Bianchi, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Assistive and rehabilitation devices are a promising and challenging field of recent robotics research. Motivated by societal needs such as aging populations, such devices can support motor functionality and subject training. The design, control, sensing, and assessment of the devices become more sophisticated due to a human in the loop. This paper gives a human-robot interaction perspective on current issues and opportunities in the field. On the topic of control and machine learning, approaches that support but do not distract subjects are reviewed. Options to provide sensory user feedback that are currently missing from robotic devices are outlined. Parallels between device acceptance and affective computing are made. Furthermore, requirements for functional assessment protocols that relate to real-world tasks are discussed. In all topic areas, the design of human-oriented frameworks and methods is dominated by challenges related to the close interaction between the human and robotic device. This paper discusses the aforementioned aspects in order to open up new perspectives for future robotic solutions.

  1. Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation: more of a concept than a measurable entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2012-12-01

    According to Lavoisier, 'Life is combustion'. But to what extent humans adapt to changes in food intake through adaptive thermogenesis--by turning down the rate of heat production during energy deficit (so as to conserve energy) or turning it up during overnutrition (so as to dissipate excess calories)--has been one of the most controversial issues in nutritional sciences over the past 100 years. The debate nowadays is not whether adaptive thermogenesis exists or not, but rather about its quantitative importance in weight homoeostasis and its clinical relevance to the pathogenesis and management of obesity. Such uncertainties are likely to persist in the foreseeable future primarily because of limitations to unobtrusively measure changes in energy expenditure and body composition with high enough accuracy and precision, particularly when even small inter-individual variations in thermogenesis can, in dynamic systems and over the long term, be important in the determining weight maintenance in some and obesity and weight regain in others. This paper reviews the considerable body of evidence, albeit fragmentary, suggesting the existence of quantitatively important adaptive thermogenesis in several compartments of energy expenditure in response to altered food intake. It then discusses the various limitations that lead to over- or underestimations in its assessment, including definitional and semantics, technical and methodological, analytical and statistical. While the role of adaptive thermogenesis in human weight regulation is likely to remain more a concept than a strictly 'quantifiable' entity in the foreseeable future, the evolution of this concept continues to fuel exciting hypothesis-driven mechanistic research which contributes to advance knowledge in human metabolism and which is bound to result in improved strategies for the management of a healthy body weight. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    YUCEL, A. Seda

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  3. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    YUCEL, A. Seda

    2015-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  4. Interrelationships between seminal parameters and sperm nuclear DNA damage before and after density gradient centrifugation: implications for assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M J; Moffatt, O; Manicardi, G C; Bizzaro, D; Afnan, M; Sakkas, D

    2001-10-01

    With an increase in the use of assisted reproduction technologies the requirements of the diagnostic semen analysis are constantly changing. Spermatozoa from patients undergoing IVF were analysed by examining the conventional semen parameters and DNA/chromatin integrity, using in-situ nick translation (NT) and the Chromomycin A(3) fluorochrome, which indirectly demonstrates a decreased presence of protamine. Samples were examined before and after preparation using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. Density gradient centrifugation enriched samples by improving the percentage of morphologically normal forms by 138% and sperm nuclear integrity by 450%. Sperm nuclear integrity as assessed by in-situ nick translation (NT) demonstrated a very clear relationship with sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Morphology correlated with fertilization rates of patients undergoing IVF, while NT values of the spermatozoa post-preparation were significantly lower in pregnant patients. We have demonstrated that along with the classical semen parameters, the assessment of nuclear integrity improves the characterization of the semen sample and may be used as a tool for allocating patients to specific assisted reproduction treatments.

  5. Evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, O; de Bruin, E D; Schindelholz, M; Schuster, C; de Bie, R A; Hunt, K J

    2013-01-01

    Robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) with focus on motor recovery has become popular in early post-stroke rehabilitation but low endurance for exercise is highly prevalent in these individuals. This study aimed to develop an exercise testing method using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to evaluate aerobic capacity after severe stroke. Constant load testing (CLT) based on body weight support (BWS) control, and incremental exercise testing (IET) based on guidance force (GF) control were implemented during RATE. Analyses focussed on step change, step response kinetics, and peak performance parameters of oxygen uptake. Three subjects with severe motor impairment 16-23 days post-stroke were included. CLT yielded reasonable step change values in oxygen uptake, whereas response kinetics of oxygen uptake showed low goodness of fit. Peak performance parameters were not obtained during IET. Exercise testing in post-stroke individuals with severe motor impairments using a BWS control strategy for CLT is deemed feasible and safe. Our approach yielded reasonable results regarding cardiovascular performance parameters. IET based on GF control does not provoke peak cardiovascular performance due to uncoordinated walking patterns. GF control needs further development to optimally demand active participation during RATE. The findings warrant further research regarding the evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke.

  6. Experimental studies on the human gait using a tethered pelvic assist device (T-PAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashista, Vineet; Mustafa, S K; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a novel tethered pelvic assist device (T-PAD). This is a purely passive device, consisting of a set of elastic tethers with one end attached to a hip brace worn by a subject walking on a treadmill, and the other end attached to a fixed frame surrounding the subject. T-PAD offers the flexibility of varying the assistance required on the pelvis by changing the configuration of the tether attachment locations, number of tethers and tether elasticity. Experimental studies were conducted using a full and a partial pelvic constraint configuration of T-PAD, with varying tether elasticity. The studies were aimed at observing the effect of T-PAD on the human gait. Results show that T-PAD reduced the range-of-motion for the pelvic angles with increase of tether elasticity. However, it had mixed effects on the range-of-motion of the hip angles, but negligible effect on the knee and ankle joint angles. Overall, T-PAD shows potential as a low-cost pelvic support device with pelvic motion control capabilities, and can work in tandem with existing gait trainers.

  7. Projecting the number of older singaporeans with activity of daily living limitations requiring human assistance through 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James; Malhotra, Rahul; Love, Sean; Ostbye, Truls; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David

    2014-01-01

    In the context of rapid population ageing and the increase in number of activity of daily living (ADL) limitations with age, the number of older persons requiring human assistance in Singapore is likely to grow. To promote informed planning for the needs of these elderly, we project the number of resident Singaporeans 60 years of age and older with 1 or more ADL limitations requiring human assistance through 2030. The proportion of community-dwelling older adults with ADL limitations requiring human assistance, stratified by gender and age group, was calculated utilising a recent nationally-representative survey of older Singaporeans. The proportion of older adults in nursing homes with ADL limitations was estimated based on available literature. Together, these prevalence estimates were applied to a simulation of the future population of older adults in Singapore to derive an estimate of the number of individuals with ADL limitations requiring human assistance through 2030. By 2030, the number of resident Singaporeans aged 60 years or older with 1 or more ADL limitations requiring human assistance is projected to be 82,968 persons (7% of the total population aged 60 years or older). Of this number, 38,809 (47%) are estimated to have 1 or 2 ADL limitations, and 44,159 (53%) are estimated to have 3 or more. The number of elderly Singaporeans with activity limitations is expected grow rapidly from 31,738 in 2010 to 82,968 in 2030. Estimates of the number of older individuals with ADL limitations requiring human assistance are of value for policymakers as well as acute and long-term care capacity planners as they seek to meet demand for health and social services in Singapore.

  8. Concept of Human Capital in the Context of Transition to the Wisdom Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovk Volodymyr A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to study factors that determine a necessity of expansion of the essence of the “human capital” notion in the context of changing priorities of economic growth and transition to the “wisdom society”. The article reveals, in the result of the analysis, that wisdom becomes the priority at the modern stage of social and economic development and the main challenge – leaving the limits of the “knowledge society” and developing into the “wisdom society”. Consequently, the humanitarian economy (“wisdom economy” is shown as the main direction of development of the economic science. Moreover, the article shows that the concept of human capital should be expanded with consideration of specific features of the wisdom society. The article offers to understand the human capital as an aggregate of knowledge, skills, motivations (according to Becker plus wisdom (happiness, imperative of values and subjectness. Prospects of further studies are connected with the search for methods of measurement of such a difficult to measure property as “happiness”, comparison of the heuristic potential of the existing indices and, possibly, their specification or development of new ones.

  9. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-10-03

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prion proteins. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a different role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant gonadotropins (r-hFSH and r-hLH) have become available for ART therapies. Recombinant LH contains only LH molecules. In the field of reproduction there has been controversy in recent years over whether r-hLH or hCG should be used for ART. This review examines the existing evidence for molecular and functional differences between LH and hCG and assesses the clinical implications of hCG-supplemented urinary therapy compared with recombinant therapies used for ART.

  10. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  11. Human Gait Feature Extraction Including a Kinematic Analysis Toward Robotic Power Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Chacon-Murguia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs’ angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.

  12. Social LCA of maritime gardens and the concept of human capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2014-01-01

    accelerates and paves the way for new urban life spaces. The pioneers claim that their design provides a range of potentially positive social impacts: oysters at reasonable cost are a nutritious addition to the daily diet; the activities throughout the life cycle of oysters provide learning and recreation...... for the families involved; and also a sense of community and belonging develops in the process. In terms of human capital development, aquaculture - in particular under experimental conditions - requires a high level of managerial skills. However, according to Sen, this will be included in his broader concept...... approach needs to be integrated into Social LCA to contextualize the assessment in terms of plurality of interests, local knowledge, diversity of social value judgements etc. One important contribution towards the measurement of capabilities points the option for microfoundations in normative assessments...

  13. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  14. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  15. Robot-assisted surgery: an emerging platform for human neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Michael Jarc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies in human sensorimotor control use simplified tasks to uncover fundamental control strategies employed by the nervous system. Such simple tasks are critical for isolating specific features of motor, sensory, or cognitive processes, and for inferring causality between these features and observed behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how these theories translate to complex sensorimotor tasks or to natural behaviors. Part of the difficulty in performing such experiments has been the lack of appropriate tools for measuring complex motor skills in real-world contexts. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges by enabling unobtrusive measurements of user behavior. In addition, a continuum of tasks with varying complexity – from simple tasks such as those in classic studies to highly complex tasks such as a surgical procedure – can be studied using RAS platforms. Finally, RAS includes a diverse participant population of inexperienced users all the way to expert surgeons. In this perspective, we illustrate how the characteristics of RAS systems make them compelling platforms to extend many theories in human neuroscience, as well as, to develop new theories altogether.

  16. Robot-assisted surgery: an emerging platform for human neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Anthony M; Nisky, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    Classic studies in human sensorimotor control use simplified tasks to uncover fundamental control strategies employed by the nervous system. Such simple tasks are critical for isolating specific features of motor, sensory, or cognitive processes, and for inferring causality between these features and observed behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how these theories translate to complex sensorimotor tasks or to natural behaviors. Part of the difficulty in performing such experiments has been the lack of appropriate tools for measuring complex motor skills in real-world contexts. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges by enabling unobtrusive measurements of user behavior. In addition, a continuum of tasks with varying complexity-from simple tasks such as those in classic studies to highly complex tasks such as a surgical procedure-can be studied using RAS platforms. Finally, RAS includes a diverse participant population of inexperienced users all the way to expert surgeons. In this perspective, we illustrate how the characteristics of RAS systems make them compelling platforms to extend many theories in human neuroscience, as well as, to develop new theories altogether.

  17. Microwave assisted step-by-step process for the production of fucoidan, alginate sodium, sugars and biochar from Ascophyllum nodosum through a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    The biorefinery is an important concept for the development of alternative routes to a range of interesting and important materials from renewable resources. It ensures that the resources are used fully and that all parts of them are valorized. This paper develops this concept, using brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum as an example, by assistance of microwave technology. A step-by-step process was designed to obtain fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar (alga residue) consecutively. The yields of fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar were 14.09%, 18.24%, 10.87% and 21.44%, respectively. To make an evaluation of the biorefinery process, seaweed sample was also treated for fucoidan extraction only, alginate extraction only and hydrothermal treatment for sugars and biochar only. The chemical composition and properties of each product were also analyzed. The results indicated that A. nodosum could be potentially used as feedstock for a biorefinery process to produce valuable chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Origin of Hobbes’s Conception of Language: The Literary Culture of English Renaissance Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hobbes' education in the literary culture of English Renaissance humanism has been overlooked as an important tradition in understanding his position in Early Modern Philosophy. Against the traditional readings of Hobbes' conception of language as a sequel to Medieval nominalism, I will argue that Hobbes' education in the literary culture of Renaissance humanism and his subsequent developments in this tradition would have allowed him to consider philosophical problems raised by new science in an original way and, thus, to introduce his innovative conception of language as the core of his solution to the problem of social and natural orders.

  19. Arthroscopic airbrush assisted cell implantation for cartilage repair in the knee: a controlled laboratory and human cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, de T.S.; Vonk, L.A.; Buskermolen, J.K.; Visser, J.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of arthroscopic airbrush assisted cartilage repair. Methods An airbrush device (Baxter) was used to spray both human expanded osteoarthritic chondrocytes and choncrocytes with their pericellular matrix (chondrons) at 1

  20. Arthroscopic airbrush assisted cell implantation for cartilage repair in the knee : a controlled laboratory and human cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Windt, T S; Vonk, L A; Buskermolen, J K; Visser, J.; Karperien, M; Bleys, R L A W; Dhert, W J A; Saris, D B F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of arthroscopic airbrush assisted cartilage repair. METHODS: An airbrush device (Baxter) was used to spray both human expanded osteoarthritic chondrocytes and choncrocytes with their pericellular matrix (chondrons) at 1 × 10(6

  1. Arthroscopic airbrush assisted cell implantation for cartilage repair in the knee : A controlled laboratory and human cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Windt, T. S.; Vonk, L. A.; Buskermolen, J. K.; Visser, J.; Karperien, M.; Bleys, R. L A W; Dhert, W. J A; Saris, D. B F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of arthroscopic airbrush assisted cartilage repair. Methods: An airbrush device (Baxter) was used to spray both human expanded osteoarthritic chondrocytes and choncrocytes with their pericellular matrix (chondrons) at 1×106cel

  2. A TASER conducted electrical weapon with cardiac biomonitoring capability: Proof of concept and initial human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Ritter, Samuel I; Beatty, Jennifer; Johnson, James C; Kleiner, Douglas M; Winslow, James E; Gardner, Alison R; Bozeman, William P

    2016-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating the overall safety of Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs), commonly known by the brand name TASER(®), concerns remain regarding cardiac safety. The addition of cardiac biomonitoring capability to a CEW could prove useful and even lifesaving in the rare event of a medical crisis by detecting and analyzing cardiac rhythms during the period immediately after CEW discharge. To combine an electrocardiogram (ECG) device with a CEW to detect and store ECG signals while still allowing the CEW to perform its primary function of delivering an incapacitating electrical discharge. This work was performed in three phases. In Phase 1 standard law enforcement issue CEW cartridges were modified to demonstrate transmission of ECG signals. In Phase 2, a miniaturized ECG recorder was combined with a standard issue CEW and tested. In Phase 3, a prototype CEW with on-board cardiac biomonitoring was tested on human volunteers to assess its ability to perform its primary function of electrical incapacitation. Bench testing demonstrated that slightly modified CEW cartridge wires transmitted simulated ECG signals produced by an ECG rhythm generator and from a human volunteer. Ultimately, a modified CEW incorporating ECG monitoring successfully delivered incapacitating current to human volunteers and successfully recorded ECG signals from subcutaneous CEW probes after firing. An ECG recording device was successfully incorporated into a standard issue CEW without impeding the functioning of the device. This serves as proof-of-concept that safety measures such as cardiac biomonitoring can be incorporated into CEWs and possibly other law enforcement devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Aptamer-Assisted Detection of the Altered Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Human Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ahirwar

    Full Text Available An increase in the expression of estrogen receptors (ER and the expanded population of ER-positive cells are two common phenotypes of breast cancer. Detection of the aberrantly expressed ERα in breast cancer is carried out using ERα-antibodies and radiolabelled ligands to make decisions about cancer treatment and targeted therapy. Capitalizing on the beneficial advantages of aptamer over the conventional antibody or radiolabelled ligand, we have identified a DNA aptamer that selectively binds and facilitates the detection of ERα in human breast cancer tissue sections. The aptamer is identified using the high throughput sequencing assisted SELEX screening. Biophysical characterization confirms the binding and formation of a thermodynamically stable complex between the identified DNA aptamer (ERaptD4 and ERα (Ka = 1.55±0.298×108 M(-1; ΔH = 4.32×104±801.1 cal/mol; ΔS = -108 cal/mol/deg. Interestingly, the specificity measurements suggest that the ERaptD4 internalizes into ERα-positive breast cancer cells in a target-selective manner and localizes specifically in the nuclear region. To harness these characteristics of ERaptD4 for detection of ERα expression in breast cancer samples, we performed the aptamer-assisted histochemical analysis of ERα in tissue samples from breast cancer patients. The results were validated by performing the immunohistochemistry on same samples with an ERα-antibody. We found that the two methods agree strongly in assay output (kappa value = 0.930, p-value <0.05 for strong ERα positive and the ERα negative samples; kappa value = 0.823, p-value <0.05 for the weak/moderate ER+ve samples, n = 20. Further, the aptamer stain the ERα-positive cells in breast tissues without cross-reacting to ERα-deficient fibroblasts, adipocytes, or the inflammatory cells. Our results demonstrate a significant consistency in the aptamer-assisted detection of ERα in strong ERα positive, moderate ERα positive and ERα negative

  4. Novel concepts on pregnancy clocks and alarms: redundancy and synergy in human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Condon, Jennifer; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N

    2016-09-01

    triggering of parturition. Linkage of these processes allows convergence and integration of the gestational clocks and alarms, prompting a timely and safe birth. In summary, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the mediators that contribute to the timing of human labor. Integrating these concepts will provide a better understanding of human parturition and ultimately improve pregnancy outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Identifying Functional Requirements for Flexible Airspace Management Concept Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Bender, Kim; Pagan, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) is a mid- term Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept that allows dynamic changes to airspace configurations to meet the changes in the traffic demand. A series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) studies have identified procedures and decision support requirements needed to implement FAM. This paper outlines a suggested FAM procedure and associated decision support functionality based on these HITL studies. A description of both the tools used to support the HITLs and the planned NextGen technologies available in the mid-term are presented and compared. The mid-term implementation of several NextGen capabilities, specifically, upgrades to the Traffic Management Unit (TMU), the initial release of an en route automation system, the deployment of a digital data communication system, a more flexible voice communications network, and the introduction of a tool envisioned to manage and coordinate networked ground systems can support the implementation of the FAM concept. Because of the variability in the overall deployment schedule of the mid-term NextGen capabilities, the dependency of the individual NextGen capabilities are examined to determine their impact on a mid-term implementation of FAM. A cursory review of the different technologies suggests that new functionality slated for the new en route automation system is a critical enabling technology for FAM, as well as the functionality to manage and coordinate networked ground systems. Upgrades to the TMU are less critical but important nonetheless for FAM to be fully realized. Flexible voice communications network and digital data communication system could allow more flexible FAM operations but they are not as essential.

  6. Radioguided surgery and the GOSTT concept: From pre-operative image and intraoperative navigation to image-assisted excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, H; Sánchez, N; Tapias, A; Paredes, P; Campos, F; Bluemel, C; Valdés Olmos, R A; Vidal-Sicart, S

    Radio-guided surgery has been developed for application in those disease scheduled for surgical management, particularly in areas of complex anatomy. This is based on the use of pre-operative scintigraphic planar, tomographic and fused SPECT/CT images, and the possibility of 3D reconstruction for the subsequent intraoperative locating of active lesions using handheld devices (detection probes, gamma cameras, etc.). New tracers and technologies have also been incorporated into these surgical procedures. The combination of visual and acoustic signals during the intraoperative procedure has become possible with new portable imaging modalities. In daily practice, the images offered by these techniques and devices combine perioperative nuclear medicine imaging with the superior resolution of additional optical guidance in the operating room. In many ways they provide real-time images, allowing accurate guidance during surgery, a reduction in the time required for tissue location and an anatomical environment for surgical recognition. All these approaches have been included in the concept known as (radio) Guided intraOperative Scintigraphic Tumour Targeting (GOSTT). This article offers a general view of different nuclear medicine and allied technologies used for several GOSTT procedures, and illustrates the crossing of technological frontiers in radio-guided surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility study and preliminary design of load-assisting clothes for lumbar protection inspired by human musculoskeletal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Riho; Masuda, Arata; Chen, Hao; Kobayashi, Sou

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop load assisting clothes for caregivers. Low back pain is one of the most major reasons for caregivers to leave their jobs. In this study, load assisting clothes which reduce the risks of low back pain of caregivers are designed and manufactured, targeting at the use in small care-houses and family caregiving. The load assisting clothes should have two functions. One is to reduce the compressive load acting on the lumbar spine as well as the tensile load on the lumbar muscles by providing an appropriate assisting force. The other is not to interfere with wearers' motion. The proposed approach in this study is to put elastic compressive members and tensioner belts integrated in the garment to provide the assisting forces without hindering natural movement and comfortable feeling. We study human musculoskeletal systems in the lumbar part, and consider to construct a parallel reinforcement of it on the body surface by embedding passive support structures. The arrangement of those elements is determined based on the study of the principal strain directions and the non-extension directions of the body surface to manage the appropriate assisting force without spoiling the mobility. The effectiveness of the proposed support principle is verified through experimental studies.

  8. Novel concepts on pregnancy clocks and alarms: redundancy and synergy in human parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Bonney, Elizabeth A.; Condon, Jennifer; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    triggering of parturition. Linkage of these processes allows convergence and integration of the gestational clocks and alarms, prompting a timely and safe birth. In summary, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the mediators that contribute to the timing of human labor. Integrating these concepts will provide a better understanding of human parturition and ultimately improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27363410

  9. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  10. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if activa

  11. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Boorsma, J.; Bosgra, S.; Caiment, F.; Ezendam, J.; Greuping, R.; Hendriksen, P.; Soeteman-Hernandez, L.G.; Jennen, D.; Kleinjans, J.; Kroese, D.; Kuper, F.; Loveren, van H.; Monshouwer, M.; Russel, F.; Someren, van E.; Tsamou, M.; Groothuis, G.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617–623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if activa

  12. A Question of Agency: Applying Sen's Theory of Human Capability to the Concept of Secondary School Student Career "Choice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to operationalize Amartya Sen's concept of human capability to guide a scholarly investigation of student career choice capability. We begin by outlining factors affecting youth labour markets in Australia; a prosperous country that is affected by a "two-speed" national economy. We then examine recent government…

  13. Formal Criteria for the Concept of Human Flourishing: The First Step in Defending Flourishing as an Ideal Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Lynne S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human flourishing is the topic of an increasing number of books and articles in educational philosophy. Flourishing should be regarded as an ideal aim of education. If this is defended, the first step should be to elucidate what is meant by flourishing, and what exactly the concept entails. Listing formal criteria can facilitate reflection on the…

  14. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  15. Assisted hatching in assisted reproduction: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadeh, Mohamad Eid; Fischer-Hammadeh, Constanze; Ali, Khaled Refaat

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that one in six couples experience some delay in conception and an increasing number require treatment by the assisted conception (AC) procedures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The implantation rate of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization cycles is generally less than 20%. The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo's ability to undergo normal hatching, resulting in low rates of implantation following IVF and embryo transfer. Human embryos resulting from superovulation develop more slowly in vitro compared to embryos in vivo, manifest a relatively high degree of cytogenetic abnormalities and undergo cellular fragmentation. Artificially disrupting the zona pellucida is known as assisted hatching (AH) and there is some evidence that embryos that have undergone zona manipulation for assisted hatching tend to implant one day earlier than unhatched embryos. A variety of techniques have since been employed to assist embryo hatching, including partial mechanical zona dissection, zona drilling and zona thinning, making use of acid tyrodes, proteinases, piezon vibrator manipulators and lasers. This review will consider the impact of IVF conditions on zona pellucida physiology, zona hardening, different techniques of assisted hatching, who may benefit from assisted hatching and potential hazards.

  16. GP-support by means of AGnES-practice assistants and the use of telecare devices in a sparsely populated region in Northern Germany – proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scriba Sibylle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many rural regions in Germany, the proportion of the elderly population increases rapidly. Simultaneously, about one-third of the presently active GPs will retire until 2010. Often it is difficult to find successors for vacant GP-practices. These regions require innovative concepts to avoid the imminent shortage in primary health care. The AGnES-concept comprises the delegation of GP-home visits to qualified AGnES-practice assistants (AGnES: GP-supporting, community-based, e-health-assisted, systemic intervention. Main objectives were the assessment of the acceptance of the AGnES-concept by the participating GPs, patients, and AGnES-practice assistants, the kind of delegated tasks, and the feasibility of home telecare in a GP-practice. Methods In this paper, we report first results of the implementation of this concept in regular GP-practices, conducted November 2005 – March 2007 on the Island of Rügen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. This study was meant as a proof of concept. The GP delegated routine home-visits to qualified practice employees (here: registered nurses. Eligible patients were provided with telecare-devices to monitor disease-related physiological values. All delegated tasks, modules conducted and questionnaire responses were documented. The participating patients were asked for their acceptance based on standardized questionnaires. The GPs and AGnES-practice assistants were asked for their judgement about different project components, the quality of health care provision and the competences of the AGnES-practice assistants. Results 550 home visits were conducted. 105 patients, two GPs and three AGnES-practice assistants (all registered nurses participated in the project. 48 patients used telecare-devices to monitor health parameters. 87.4% of the patients accepted AGnES-care as comparable to common GP-care. In the course of the project, the GPs delegated an increasing number of both monitoring

  17. Biomimetic MEMS to assist, enhance, and expand human sensory perceptions: a survey on state-of-the-art developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarczuk, Teresa; Matin, Tina R.; Karman, Salmah B.; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Davaji, Benyamin; Macqueen, Mark O.; Mueller, Jeanette; Schmid, Ulrich; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2011-06-01

    The human senses are of extraordinary value but we cannot change them even if this proves to be a disadvantage in modern times. However, we can assist, enhance and expand these senses via MEMS. Current MEMS cover the range of the human sensory system, and additionally provide data about signals that are too weak for the human sensory system (in terms of signal strength) and signal types that are not covered by the human sensory system. Biomimetics deals with knowledge transfer from biology to technology. In our interdisciplinary approach existing MEMS sensor designs shall be modified and adapted (to keep costs at bay), via biomimetic knowledge transfer of outstanding sensory perception in 'best practice' organisms (e.g. thermoreception, UV sensing, electromagnetic sense). The MEMS shall then be linked to the human body (mainly ex corpore to avoid ethics conflicts), to assist, enhance and expand human sensory perception. This paper gives an overview of senses in humans and animals, respective MEMS sensors that are already on the market and gives a list of possible applications of such devices including sensors that vibrate when a blind person approaches a kerb stone edge and devices that allow divers better orientation under water (echolocation, ultrasound).

  18. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants: the interface between human and experimental studies in the development of new toxicological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Ricarda; Golka, Klaus; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-02-28

    The growing knowledge of the genetic polymorphisms of enzymes metabolising xenobiotics in humans and their connections with individual susceptibility towards toxicants has created new and important interfaces between human epidemiology and experimental toxicology. The results of molecular epidemiological studies may provide new hypotheses and concepts, which call for experimental verification, and experimental concepts may obtain further proof by molecular epidemiological studies. If applied diligently, these possibilities may be combined to lead to new strategies of human-oriented toxicological research. This overview will present some outstanding examples for such strategies taken from the practically very important field of occupational toxicology. The main focus is placed on the effects of enzyme polymorphisms of the xenobiotic metabolism in association with the induction of bladder cancer and renal cell cancer after exposure to occupational chemicals. Also, smoking and induction of head and neck squamous cell cancer are considered.

  19. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  20. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  1. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part II: Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J; Maal, T.J.J.; Essig, H.; Gooris, P.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  2. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: a human cadaver study: part II: navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J.; Maal, T.J.J.; Essig, H.; Gooris, P.J.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  3. Analytic concepts for assessing risk as applied to human space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1997-04-30

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles provide an effective framework for quantifying individual elements of risk, including the risk to astronauts and spacecraft of the radiation environment of space flight. The concept of QRA is based on a structured set of scenarios that could lead to different damage states initiated by either hardware failure, human error, or external events. In the context of a spacecraft risk assessment, radiation may be considered as an external event and analyzed in the same basic way as any other contributor to risk. It is possible to turn up the microscope on any particular contributor to risk and ask more detailed questions than might be necessary to simply assess safety. The methods of QRA allow for as much fine structure in the analysis as is desired. For the purpose of developing a basis for comprehensive risk management and considering the tendency to {open_quotes}fear anything nuclear,{close_quotes} radiation risk is a prime candidate for examination beyond that necessary to answer the basic question of risk. Thus, rather than considering only the customary damage states of fatalities or loss of a spacecraft, it is suggested that the full range of damage be analyzed to quantify radiation risk. Radiation dose levels in the form of a risk curve accomplish such a result. If the risk curve is the complementary cumulative distribution function, then it answers the extended question of what is the likelihood of receiving a specific dose of radiation or greater. Such results can be converted to specific health effects as desired. Knowing the full range of the radiation risk of a space mission and the contributors to that risk provides the information necessary to take risk management actions [operational, design, scheduling of missions around solar particle events (SPE), etc.] that clearly control radiation exposure.

  4. Satisfação e responsividade: formas de medir a qualidade e a humanização da assistência à saúde Satisfaction and responsiveness: ways to measure quality and humanization of health assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeni Vaitsman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma discussão dos conceitos de "satisfação do usuário", "responsividade", "humanização" e "direitos do paciente". Ressaltam-se suas convergências e diferenças, bem como sua pertinência nas pesquisas de avaliação de serviços e sistemas de saúde. Satisfação e responsividade são analisados como conceitos operacionais que incorporam a visão do usuário; humanização e direitos do paciente referem-se a princípios normativos que orientam políticas e programas. Enquanto as pesquisas de satisfação deram destaque ao lugar dos pacientes nos serviços e sistemas de saúde, o conceito de responsividade fortaleceu sua posição, dando ao paciente o status de um indivíduo/cidadão, ou seja, de um sujeito de direitos válidos universalmente. Esse arcabouço conceitual e metodológico é parte de um paradigma de direitos aplicado também na área da avaliação da qualidade e da assistência à saúde.The paper discusses the concepts of "user's satisfaction", "responsiveness", "humanization" and patient's rights, focusing on their convergences and differences, as well as their reliability when used in the evaluation of health services and systems. Satisfaction and responsiveness are viewed as operational concepts, integrating user’s views, while humanization and patients’s rights concern to normative principles which serve as grounds for policies and programs. While satisfaction studies put a light on the patient’s role in health services and systems, the concept of responsiveness strengthened its position, giving him the status of an individual and citizen, that is, a subject of universal rights. This conceptual and methodological framework is viewed as part of a paradigm of rights - individual, social and political -, which is used also in the area of evaluation of quality and health care.

  5. Application of nanodiamonds in human body fluid analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglei Kong

    2008-01-01

    Direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex biological samples is very important and challenging. In this paper, nanodiamonds have been successfully used in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of human serum and urine. As a practical tool and platform, it can be widely used in the field of humoral proteomics, and it plays a very promising role in clinical diagnosis, including identification of novel disease-associated biomarkers.

  6. Core Concepts of Human Rights and Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups in the Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite a highly progressive legislation and clear governmental commitment, living conditions among persons with disabilities in Namibia are systematically lower than among persons without disabilities. This implies that persons with disabilities are denied equal opportunities to participate and contribute to society, and consequently are denied their human rights.Methods: EquiFrame, an innovative policy analysis framework, was used to analyse Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services. EquiFrame evaluates the degree of stated commitment of an existing health policy to 21 Core Concepts of human rights and to 12 Vulnerable Groups, guided by the ethos of universal, equitable and accessible health services.Results: A number of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups were found to be absent in the Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services, and its Overall Summary Ranking was assessed as Moderate.Conclusion and Implications: The Namibian health sector faces significant challenges in addressing inequities with respect to its policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services. If policy content, or policy ‘on the books’, is not inclusive of vulnerable groups and observant of core concepts of human rights, then health practices are also unlikely to do so. This paper illustrates that EquiFrame can provide the strategic guidance for the reform of Namibian Orthopaedic Technical Services policy, leading to universal and equitable access to healthcare.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.132

  7. Feasibility study to support a threshold of sensitization concern concept in risk assessment based on human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Detlef; Krauledat, Matthias; Scheel, Julia

    2009-12-01

    In analogy to the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concept, a Threshold of Sensitization Concern (TSC) concept is proposed for chemicals with respect to their ability to induce an allergic contact dermatitis. Recently, the derivation of a dermal sensitization threshold was suggested based on an evaluation of animal data. In order to establish the concept with human data, we conducted a meta-analysis taking into account No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels for fragrance ingredients from the IFRA/RIFM dataset. Based on a statistical analysis by applying Sensitization Assessment Factors that account for interindividual variability and different exposure conditions, TSC values of 0.91 or 0.30 lg/cm2 can be derived in terms of amount per skin area. TSC values are compared with typical exposure levels of cosmetic products. A substance can be considered to be virtually safe if the quotient of exposure level and TSC is < 1. The findings derived from human data include several conservative assumptions and largely support the dermal sensitization thresholds previously derived from animal data. The TSC concept might in principle be used for any untested chemical and therefore help in some cases to waive animal testing.

  8. Integrating Human Performance Metrics into the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) is a simulation tool to evaluate next generation air traffic management (ATM) systems. FACET...

  9. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  10. Avatar-assisted therapy: a proof-of-concept pilot study of a novel technology-based intervention to treat substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Carswell, Steven B; Schadegg, Mary; Mangen, Kayla; Merkel, Kelly; Tangires, Susan; Vocci, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    Avatar-assisted therapy (AAT) is a novel and emerging technology that uses the Internet to enable clinicians and clients in substance abuse treatment to participate in group counseling sessions from separate and remote locations in real time through the use of avatars and virtual environments. The current study is a pilot proof-of-concept feasibility study involving individuals in outpatient substance abuse treatment. This report addresses two questions: (1) are individuals who present for substance abuse treatment interested in receiving AAT and (2) what factors are associated with better treatment success. Individuals who presented at the treatment clinic who met study eligibility criteria, and provided their written informed consent to participate, were included in the current study (N = 59; 78% male). Twenty-eight (47.5%) participants completed 16 weeks of treatment and attended more sessions compared to non-completers (M = 14.3 vs. 7.5 p < .05). Those individuals who completed treatment were less likely to have a positive urine drug screen at baseline (21.5 vs. 78.6%; p < .05). Furthermore, those individuals who successfully completed treatment were less likely to have positive urine drug screens during treatment compared to those who did not complete (29.7% vs. 70.3%, p < .05). There were no arrests during treatment for completers and non-completers. Poor retention in substance use disorder treatment has long been a major problem for public health. AAT is a feasible approach that has the potential to expand treatment to individuals who might have difficulty accessing treatment. Moreover, AAT may be appealing to clients who are concerned about anonymity and confidentiality.

  11. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Herrero, Stephen; Shideler, Richard T.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human–bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, we suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human–bear management and use them in a consistent manner. We constructed a human–bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human–bear management agencies. Specifically, we defined 40 terms and concepts in human–bear management and suggest definitions based on discussions with 13 other professionals from the United States and Canada. Although new terms and concepts will emerge in the future and definitions will evolve as we learn more about bear behavior and ecology, our purpose is to suggest working definitions for terms and concepts to help guide human–bear management and research activities in North America. Applications or revisions of these definitions may be useful outside of North America.

  12. Suitport Feasibility - Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests with the Marmon Clamp and Pneumatic Flipper Suitport Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Rodriggs, Liana; Alton, Charles; Jennings, Mallory; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. Two second generation suitports were designed and tested. The previously reported second generation Marman Clamp suitport and a newer concept, the Pneumatic Flipper Suitport. These second generation suitports demonstrated human donning and doffing of the Z1 spacesuit with an 8.3 psi pressure differential across the spacesuit. Testing was performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. The test included human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test brought these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the results of the testing, including unexpected difficulties with doffing, and engineering solutions implemented to ease the difficulties. A review of suitport functions, including a discussion of the need to doff a pressurized suit in earth gravity, is included. Recommendations for future design and testing are documented.

  13. Suitport Feasibility - Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests with the Marman Clamp and Pneumatic Flipper Suitport Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Rodriggs, Liana; Allton, Charles; Jennings, Mallory; Aitchision, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. Two second generation suitports were designed and tested. The previously reported second generation Marman Clamp suitport and a newer concept, the Pneumatic Flipper Suitport. These second generation suitports demonstrated human donning and doffing of the Z1 spacesuit with an 8.3 psi pressure differential across the spacesuit. Testing was performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. The test included human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test brought these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the results of the testing, including unexpected difficulties with doffing, and engineering solutions implemented to ease the difficulties. A review of suitport functions, including a discussion of the need to doff a pressurized suit in earth gravity, is included. Recommendations for future design and testing are documented.

  14. Human-robot interaction tests on a novel robot for gait assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents tests on a treadmill-based non-anthropomorphic wearable robot assisting hip and knee flexion/extension movements using compliant actuation. Validation experiments were performed on the actuators and on the robot, with specific focus on the evaluation of intrinsic backdrivability and of assistance capability. Tests on a young healthy subject were conducted. In the case of robot completely unpowered, maximum backdriving torques were found to be in the order of 10 Nm due to the robot design features (reduced swinging masses; low intrinsic mechanical impedance and high-efficiency reduction gears for the actuators). Assistance tests demonstrated that the robot can deliver torques attracting the subject towards a predicted kinematic status.

  15. Using machine learning to blend human and robot controls for assisted wheelchair navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goil, Aditya; Derry, Matthew; Argall, Brenna D

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an algorithm for collaborative control of an assistive semi-autonomous wheelchair. Our approach is based on a statistical machine learning technique to learn task variability from demonstration examples. The algorithm has been developed in the context of shared-control powered wheelchairs that provide assistance to individuals with impairments that affect their control in challenging driving scenarios, like doorway navigation. We validate our algorithm within a simulation environment, and find that with relatively few demonstrations, our approach allows for safe traversal of the doorway while maintaining a high level of user control.

  16. Hypothesis Generation, Evaluation, and Memory Abilities in Adult Human Concept Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Studies were made between performance on tests of mental abilities and concept learning tasks; it is pointed out that the researcher is usually confronted with administering large batteries of tests of mental abilities and then analyzing his results with one of the factor analytic techniques. An information process analysis of tests of mental…

  17. Young Children's Conception of Physical Attractiveness as Evidenced in Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James D., III; And Others

    In order to assess young children's conceptions of "pretty" and "ugly", twenty-nine 5- and 6-year-old children (14 male and 15 female) were asked to draw a pretty person and an ugly person. These drawings were scored for developmental maturity according to Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test and for emotionality by means of the Koppitz…

  18. Assisted suicide: Models of legal regulation in selected European countries and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Claudia; Grosse, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents three different models of the legal regulation of assisted suicide in European countries. First, the current legal regime governing assisted suicide in the Netherlands is described where both euthanasia and assisted suicide have been legalised. This section also includes some empirical data on euthanasia and assisted-suicide practices in the Netherlands, as well as a comparison with the current legal legislation in Belgium and Luxembourg. Next, Switzerland is presented as a country where euthanasia is punishable by law but assisted suicide is legally allowed, provided it is not carried out with selfish motives. This section also focuses on the assisted-suicide-related case law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Last, the current legal situation regarding assisted suicide in Austria and Germany is described. While the Austrian Penal Code explicitly prohibits assisted suicide, assistance with suicide is not specifically regulated by the German Penal Code. However, medical doctors are not allowed to assist suicides according to the professional codes of conduct drawn up by the German medical associations under the supervision of the health authorities.

  19. Static and Dynamic Human Shape Modeling - Concept Formation and Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Abdomen Joint: 1) start at 10 th Rib Midspine coordinates; 2) translate 51 mm in the anterior direction. Thorax Joint: 1) start at Cervicale...respective joint centers to represent the articulated structure and segments of human body, as shown in Figure 1. Note that while the skeleton model... articulated structure. That is, the human body can be treated as a system of segments linked by joints. • The human pose changes as the joints

  20. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  1. Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC)'s Members and Assistants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — List of members of the Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC): Federal Chief Human Capital Officers (CHCOs) and Deputy CHCOs, as well as the council's chair,...

  2. Controversial Review:Dilemma of concepts and strategies for the prevention of spread of HIV in relation to human behavior, law and human rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reinhard H. DENNIN; Michael LAFRENZ; Arndt SINN; Lan-juan LI

    2011-01-01

    The new prevalence data regarding the estimated global number of human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) cases,i.e.,including people who are either aware or unaware of their HIV infection in 2010,lead many to wonder why the increase in incidence has reached today's unprecedented level and escalated within such a short time.This,in spite of prevention campaigns in countries affected by HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with their urgent messages aimed at preventing HIV transmission by promoting changes in individual's behavior.This article analyzes the background of the prevention strategies,in particular their political,social and legal concepts in terms of human rights,and reveals traits of human behavior not considered thus far.A radical reappraisal is necessary,at social and legislative levels,as well as options additional to current concepts.When ethical issues come up,they become blamed for outmoded moralistic positions.However,ignoring the reality has led to dire consequences from prioritizing individual human rights over society's collective need to prevent the spread of HIV.

  3. A Conceptual Framework over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning within Human-Machine Interplays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    This research provides a contextual description concerning existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (...

  4. A Low-Cost, Low-Risk Mission Concept for the Return of Martian Atmospheric Dust: Relevance to Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M.; Leshin, L.; Clark, B.; Jones, S.; Jurewicz, A.; McLennan, S.; Mischna, M.; Ruff, S.; Squyres, S.; Westphal, A.

    2017-06-01

    We present a low-cost, low-risk mission concept for return of martian atmospheric dust. Such a mission would serve as a scientific, technological and operational pathfinder for future surface sample return and human exploration to Mars.

  5. The ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and the beginning of human life

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjak, Asim; MARIA CARRERA, JOSE; McCullough, Laurence B.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    »When does human life begin?« is not one question, but three. The first question is, »When does human biological life begin?,« and is a scientific question. A brief review of embryology is provided to answer this question. The second question is, »When do obligations to protect human life begin?,« and is a question of general theological and philosophical ethics. A brief review of major world religions and philosophy is provided to answer this question has no settled answer and therefore invo...

  6. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...... interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented...

  7. Assisted reproductive technologies in the common marmoset: an integral species for developing nonhuman primate models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Di Marzo, Andrea; Golos, Thaddeus

    2017-02-01

    Generation of nonhuman primate models of human disease conditions will foster the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Callithrix jacchus, or the common marmoset, is a New World, nonhuman primate species that exhibits great reproductive fitness in captivity with an ovarian cycle that can be easily managed with pharmacological agents. This characteristic, among others, provides an opportunity to employ assisted reproductive technologies to generate embryos that can be genetically manipulated to create a variety of nonhuman primate models for human disease. Here, we review methods to synchronize the marmoset ovarian cycle and stimulate oocyte donors, and compare various protocols for in vitro production of embryos. In light of advances in genomic editing, recent approaches used to generate transgenic or genetically edited embryos in the marmoset and also future perspective are reviewed.

  8. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  9. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Human labour is central to the functioning of any human-influenced process. Nevertheless, Environmental Sustainability Assessments (ESAs) do not systematically include human labour as an input. Systematic omission of labour inputs in ESAs may constitute an unfortunate, significant bias in favour...... of labour intensive processes and a systematic underestimation of environmental impacts has implications for decision-making. A brief review of the evaluation of human labour in ESAs reveals that only Emergy Assessment (EmA) accounts for labour as standard. Focussing on EmA, we find, however...... calculation approach is demonstrated using examples from the literature (USA, with allocation based on educational level; Ghana, with allocation based on income level; the World, with no allocation). We elaborate on how labour may be considered as endogenous or exogenous to the studied system, and how inputs...

  10. [The concept of medical entomology: the management of the influence of arthropods on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnitsyn, S P

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of medical entomology are analyzed with special reference to the development of methods of protection against the harmful influence of arthropods on human health and the use of these animals in health sciences. Special attention is paid to the following problems: characterization of individual and group features of humans and their relationship with arthropods, elucidation of the properties of arthropods, determination of the state of their populations, estimation of the efficiency of controlling measures, their ecological consequences, etc.

  11. An assisted navigation training framework based on judgment theory using sparse and discrete human-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana C; Nunes, Urbano

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present a new framework to train people with severe motor disabilities steering an assisted mobile robot (AMR), such as a powered wheelchair. Users with high level of motor disabilities are not able to use standard HMIs, which provide a continuous command signal (e. g. standard joystick). For this reason HMIs providing a small set of simple commands, which are sparse and discrete in time must be used (e. g. scanning interface, or brain computer interface), making very difficult to steer the AMR. In this sense, the assisted navigation training framework (ANTF) is designed to train users driving the AMR, in indoor structured environments, using this type of HMIs. Additionally it provides user characterization on steering the robot, which will later be used to adapt the AMR navigation system to human competence steering the AMR. A rule-based lens (RBL) model is used to characterize users on driving the AMR. Individual judgment performance choosing the best manoeuvres is modeled using a genetic-based policy capturing (GBPC) technique characterized to infer non-compensatory judgment strategies from human decision data. Three user models, at three different learning stages, using the RBL paradigm, are presented.

  12. Questioning the concept of risk in ethical guidelines for research in the humanities and social sciences in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the use of the concept of risk in ethical guidelines directed to research in the humanities and social sciences (CHS), suggesting an alternative to that concept. In Public Health field (PH), risk assumes a peculiar semantics, closely linked to the idea of calculation and predictability, according to the disciplinary bases that support it. This circumstance makes incongruous its use in initiatives justified precisely by strong distinctions between biomedical and social research, as ilustrated by specific guidelines for CHS, especially to the qualitative approach. The authors do not seek to redefine risk, operating a conceptual transit, but to sustain an effective conceptual distance within these specific guidelines, keeping congruence with the objectives pursued by its construction. Taking risk in the quantitative sense, still hegemonic in PH, overlooks important dimensions, reifying the use of this concept in situations where uncertainty, unpredictability, intersubjectivity inherent to the processes beyond the calculation and measurement, as in the case of a significant portion of the research in CHS. Alternatively, it is suggested to replace the expression level of risk, as also appears in Brazilian resolutions.

  13. Review article: Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2013-07-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  14. Concept of a human eye camera to assess laser dazzling interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Michael; Eberle, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The increase in availability and application of various laser sources poses an increasing threat to the human eye. Not only the actual damage dealt to the retina or other parts of the eye, but also dazzling during critical tasks has to be faced. However, experiments to verify the actual threat due to dazzling are quite critical, as it is almost never possible or even reasonable, to dazzle human observers. Based on this dilemma, we propose to construct a camera that mimics the perception of laser dazzle by the human eye as close as possible. The human eye camera consists of hardware and a software component, which perform the several tasks of the eye. The hardware controls the eye-movement (saccadic viewing), the adaption of the iris (irradiance control) and the projection of the image onto a sensor. The software receives the image taken by the sensor and includes the density of receptors, the retinal neural operations and a feedback to the hardware. The processed images by the virtual retina are meant to be used to evaluate the degree of dazzling, as it would occur to a human observer.

  15. The mission execution crew assistant : Improving human-machine team resilience for long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Grant, T.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars set high operational, human factors and technical demands for a distributed support system, which enhances human-machine teams' capabilities to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. Based on a situated Cogn

  16. The Potential of Peer Robots to Assist Human Creativity in Finding Problems and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Many technological artifacts (e.g., humanoid robots, computer agents) consist of biologically inspired features of human-like appearance and behaviors that elicit a social response. The strong social components of technology permit people to share information and ideas with these artifacts. As robots cross the boundaries between humans and…

  17. Comparison of Human and Guinea Pig Acetylcholinesterase Sequences and Rates of Oxime-Assisted Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    s e t p o o b o h t i a p C A I i O m M U t t R [ [ [ snake - venom toxin fasciculin-II, Acta Crystallogr. D: Biol. Crystallogr. 56...CONTRACT NUMBER oxime-assisted reactivation 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Cadieux, CL, Broomfield, CA, Kirkpatrick...MG, Kazanski, ME, Lenz, DE, Cerasoli, DM 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S )

  18. ASSISTED HUMAN REPRODUCTION EMPLOYED AS A MEANS FOR THE FORMATION OF HOMOAFFECTIVE FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Geala Geslaine; Faculdade Catuaí de Cambé; França, Loreanne Manuella Castro; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Capelari, Rogério Sato; Faculdade Pitagoras

    2014-01-01

    The 1988 Brazilian Federal Constitution brought about a widening in the concept of the family due to the acknowledgement of new familial entities besides those produced by marriage. Henceforth the family has been defined as a plural institution based on dignity, equality and solidarity, aiming at affection, regardless of sexual choice. After the decision of the Supreme Federal Court in making equivalent the homoaffective stable union to heterosexual marriage, new rights have been guaranteed t...

  19. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  20. The Concept and Use of Human Security: A Critical Analysis of its Potentialities and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlos Pérez de Armiño

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the existence of different approaches to human security (the broad one and the restricted one, this article analyses the scope of this new paradigm based on a study of its contributions and potentialities, as well as the risks entailed in applying it. Among the positive contributions, it must be highlighted that: it focuses on the person as the subject of security, and not on the State; it is linked to human development and human rights; and it underscores the need for public policies and so-called ‘humanitarianinterventions’. On the other hand, the risks have grown following 9/11, with the paradigm being used more in its security dimension and less in its development-related aspect.

  1. Studying human immunodeficiencies in humans: advances in fundamental concepts and therapeutic interventions [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiencies reveal the crucial role of the immune system in defending the body against microbial pathogens. Given advances in genomics and other technologies, this is currently best studied in humans who have inherited monogenic diseases. Such investigations have provided insights into how gene products normally function in the natural environment and have opened the door to new, exciting treatments for these diseases.

  2. Matrix solid phase dispersion assisted enzymatic hydrolysis as a novel approach for cocaine and opiates isolation from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-11-05

    The possibility of assisting enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) procedures by sample disruption mechanisms inherent to matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) has been explored in the current study. EH of hair specimens from poly-drug abusers was assisted by dispersing/blending the sample (0.05 g) with alumina (2.25 g) before loading the dissolved enzyme (6 mL of 1 mg mL(-1) Pronase E in 1.4 M/1.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 7.3) through the hair-alumina solid phase packaged inside a disposable MSPD syringe. The MSPD-EH method was developed, and it proved to offer quantitative results when isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair samples. The procedure allows an on column clean-up/pre-concentration procedure of the isolated targets by attaching a previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge to the end of the MSPD syringe. The EH procedure of human hair with Pronase E can therefore be shortened to approximately 30 min. Within this time, sample blending/dispersion, MSPD syringe package, elution (EH when dissolved Pronase E is passing through the sample-dispersant bed), and extract clean-up and target pre-concentration stages are achieved. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for determining each target after elution from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol, concentration by N2 stream evaporation, and dried extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The method was validated according to the guidance for bioanalytical method validation of the US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. The simplicity of the proposed approach makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse in hair specimens from poly-drug abusers.

  3. NASA's Use of Human Behavior Models for Concept Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    Overview of NASA's use of computational approaches and methods to support research goals, of human performance models, with a focus on examples of the methods used in Code TH and TI at NASA Ames, followed by an in depth review of MIDAS' current FAA work.

  4. The Sartre-Heidegger Controversy on Humanism and the Concept of Man in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkori, Leena; Huttunen, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Paul Sartre claims in his 1945 lecture "Existentialism is a Humanism" that there are two kinds of existentialism: that of Christians like Karl Jaspers, and atheistic like Martin Heidegger. Sartre's "spiritual master" Heidegger had no problem with Sartre defining him as an atheist, but he had serious problems with Sartre's…

  5. Season of conception in rural gambia affects DNA methylation at putative human metastable epialleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Waterland

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the mammalian genome, genetically regulated developmental programming establishes diverse yet predictable epigenetic states across differentiated cells and tissues. At metastable epialleles (MEs, conversely, epigenotype is established stochastically in the early embryo then maintained in differentiated lineages, resulting in dramatic and systemic interindividual variation in epigenetic regulation. In the mouse, maternal nutrition affects this process, with permanent phenotypic consequences for the offspring. MEs have not previously been identified in humans. Here, using an innovative 2-tissue parallel epigenomic screen, we identified putative MEs in the human genome. In autopsy samples, we showed that DNA methylation at these loci is highly correlated across tissues representing all 3 embryonic germ layer lineages. Monozygotic twin pairs exhibited substantial discordance in DNA methylation at these loci, suggesting that their epigenetic state is established stochastically. We then tested for persistent epigenetic effects of periconceptional nutrition in rural Gambians, who experience dramatic seasonal fluctuations in nutritional status. DNA methylation at MEs was elevated in individuals conceived during the nutritionally challenged rainy season, providing the first evidence of a permanent, systemic effect of periconceptional environment on human epigenotype. At MEs, epigenetic regulation in internal organs and tissues varies among individuals and can be deduced from peripheral blood DNA. MEs should therefore facilitate an improved understanding of the role of interindividual epigenetic variation in human disease.

  6. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN THE ETHICAL CONDUCT OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the concern for human research subject protection has increased markedly in the United States. The nature of research subject participation in controlled exposure environmental health research is such that the individual subject bears the risk of participation w...

  7. Human rights, democracy and rule of law: Different organisations, different conceptions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, A.S.H.; Sosa, L.P.A.; Häusler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents an exploration of different conceptualisations of human rights, democracy and the rule of law within international organisations. The report focuses on the United Nations, the African Union, the League of Arab States and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. The eventual aim

  8. The Sartre-Heidegger Controversy on Humanism and the Concept of Man in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkori, Leena; Huttunen, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Paul Sartre claims in his 1945 lecture "Existentialism is a Humanism" that there are two kinds of existentialism: that of Christians like Karl Jaspers, and atheistic like Martin Heidegger. Sartre's "spiritual master" Heidegger had no problem with Sartre defining him as an atheist, but he had serious problems with Sartre's…

  9. Human or superhuman: The concept of hero in ancient Greek religion and/in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The word hero appears in Greek language with a twofold meaning. On one hand it is used for denoting a divine being, who lived a mortal life, but after doing some great deed deserved to become god. On the other hand, the hero stands for great and brave warrior who is ready to give his life in order to gain immortal glory, and continue to live in the social sphere, in the memory of his descendants. Exactly this epic narrative survived and was exploited many times, as a very convenient and useful pattern in con strutting the ideal of brave warrior, ready to die for his country when necessary. I am going to requisition the relation between two meanings of the word hero, in order to get deeper insight in the meaning of this twofold term in the social and cultural context in which it appears, as a religious concept or as a narrative in war propaganda.

  10. PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR A HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HEURISTIC USABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or “discount” methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining humancentered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI.

  11. Integrating internal communications, human resource management and marketing concepts into the new internal marketing philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Sinčić; Nina Pološki Vokić

    2007-01-01

    Successful companies attach great importance to human resource management and internal communications, because they are aware of the value of those activities and of strategic advantage they can bring to the organization. They should also realize that it is necessary to live internal marketing philosophy, if they stream to offer quality products and services to both markets: internal and external. The idea of satisfied employees for the benefit of satisfied customers is accepted a...

  12. Robust human machine interface based on head movements applied to assistive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair.

  13. Robust Human Machine Interface Based on Head Movements Applied to Assistive Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Perez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user’s head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user’s head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair.

  14. A prospective 9-month human clinical evaluation of Laser-Assisted New Attachment Procedure (LANAP) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Marc; Kim, Soo-Woo; Camelo, Marcelo; Martin, Ignacio Sanz; Kim, David; Nevins, Myron

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was designed and implemented as a single-center, prospective study to evaluate the clinical response to the Laser-Assisted New Attachment Procedure (LANAP). Eight patients with advanced periodontitis were enrolled and treated with full-mouth LANAP therapy and monitored for 9 months. Fullmouth clinical measurements, including clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), and recession, were provided at baseline and after 9 months of healing by a single calibrated examiner, including a total of 930 sites and 444 sites with initial PD equal to or greater than 5 mm. Clinical results for the 930 sites measured pre- and postoperatively revealed that mean PD was reduced from 4.62 ± 2.29 mm to 3.14 ± 1.48 mm after 9 months (P LANAP therapy should be further investigated with long-term clinical trials to compare the stability of clinical results with conventional therapy.

  15. A Human Rights Perspective of Assisted Suicide: Accounting for Disparate Jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stevie S

    2017-09-11

    This article critically examines the decision of the New Zealand High Court in Seales v Attorney-General [2015] NZHC 1239, which rejected the claim that that country's blanket ban on assisted suicide violated various rights enshrined in the New Zealand Bill of Rights. That outcome runs contrary to the Canadian Supreme Court's decision in Carter v Canada (Attorney General) [2015] 1 SCR 331. This disparity in result arose despite overt similarities between the rights documents in each of the jurisdictions and, more significantly, notwithstanding the fact that the trial judge in Seales placed heavy reliance upon the decision in Carter. With two new challenges to the blanket ban on assisted suicide in England and Wales progressing through the lower courts, and given proposed amendments to the ban in both New Zealand and its antipodean neighbours - the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales - it is a propitious time to consider the reasons for the disparate outcomes in Seales and Carter. This article will demonstrate that the trial judge's reasoning in Seales was wanting in a number of important respects, particularly in terms of the characterisation of the objective of the blanket ban. These limitations undermine the decision's utility as authority both domestically and internationally. This is particularly important given the high likelihood that reference will be made to the decision during debate in the New Zealand Parliament regarding amendments to the ban in that country and the possibility that the Legislatures in Victoria and New South Wales, as well as the English courts hearing the current challenges to the ban in that jurisdiction will, particularly given the shared common law background, refer to the judgment in Seales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Resident Assistant Selection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Thomas

    The American phenomenon of "more is better" extends a value-loaded concept implicit in budget preparation. At any university, the scope, magnitude and cost of a residence hall assistant program selection process is a metaphor to illustrate efficiency and effectiveness of human resources. In order to discover a more efficient and…

  17. College Learning Skills: Frontierland Origins of the Learning Assistance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Gwyn

    When the learning assistence center's origins and development, beginning with the yen to be scientific and continuing to the rewards of combining technology with humanism, are considered in retrospect, they show the evolution and the revolutionary realignment of many very basic educational concepts. The historical irony of the learning assistance…

  18. Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Zdenek, Christina N; Cunningham, Ross B; Endler, John A; Langmore, Naomi E

    2017-06-01

    All human societies have music with a rhythmic "beat," typically produced with percussive instruments such as drums. The set of capacities that allows humans to produce and perceive music appears to be deeply rooted in human biology, but an understanding of its evolutionary origins requires cross-taxa comparisons. We show that drumming by palm cockatoos (Probosciger aterrimus) shares the key rudiments of human instrumental music, including manufacture of a sound tool, performance in a consistent context, regular beat production, repeated components, and individual styles. Over 131 drumming sequences produced by 18 males, the beats occurred at nonrandom, regular intervals, yet individual males differed significantly in the shape parameters describing the distribution of their beat patterns, indicating individual drumming styles. Autocorrelation analyses of the longest drumming sequences further showed that they were highly regular and predictable like human music. These discoveries provide a rare comparative perspective on the evolution of rhythmicity and instrumental music in our own species, and show that a preference for a regular beat can have other origins before being co-opted into group-based music and dance.

  19. Induction and adaptation of chaperone-assisted selective autophagy CASA in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Anna; Gehlert, Sebastian; Leciejewski, Barbara; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Höhfeld, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) is a tension-induced degradation pathway essential for muscle maintenance. Impairment of CASA causes childhood muscle dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. However, the importance of CASA for muscle function in healthy individuals has remained elusive so far. Here we describe the impact of strength training on CASA in a group of healthy and moderately trained men. We show that strenuous resistance exercise causes an acute induction of CASA in affected muscles to degrade mechanically damaged cytoskeleton proteins. Moreover, repeated resistance exercise during 4 wk of training led to an increased expression of CASA components. In human skeletal muscle, CASA apparently acts as a central adaptation mechanism that responds to acute physical exercise and to repeated mechanical stimulation.

  20. Theological Responses to the Concepts of Democracy and Human Rights: The Case of Contemporary Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masykuri Abdillah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost all governments in the world, including authoritarian, claiming that their political system is democratic. However, not all governments in the Muslim world accept this system. Among the 'ulama and Muslim intellectuals themselves there are differences of opinion about the system and the concept of democracy. In general, the modernist Muslim groups accept this system, because he was judged to be compatible with Islam, while Muslim groups "fundamentalist" and mostly conservative Muslims reject this system, because it supposedly excludes the sovereignty of God.The problem that often arises is how to implement human rights in Islamic societies. Then in 1990 the Muslim countries which are members of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC issued a "Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam" , after over 13 years of discussing this issue among its members. Thus, there are two declarations for the people of Islam, namely: Cairo Declaration on the top and the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights".Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v3i1.812

  1. [New concepts in human oncology: is it possible to use them in veterinary medicine as well?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Ruess-Melzer, K; Buchholz, J; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2011-08-01

    In human oncology, novel targeted therapy focusing on monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors has become an attractive anticancer strategy. The introduction of antiangiogenetic drugs and metronomic chemotherapy has also increased the therapeutic arsenal. Chemotherapy still plays a key role in the treatment of many tumors affecting dogs and cats. However, novel anticancer strategies (including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, as well as antiangiogenetic treatments) are becoming relevant in veterinary medicine, too. The goal of this review is to describe new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment in veterinary medicine, including less well-known chemotherapeutic drugs.

  2. Kansei Colour Concepts to Improve Effective Colour Selection in Designing Human Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharangie K G D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colours have a major impact on Human Computer Interaction. Although there is a very thin line between appropriate and inappropriate use of colours, if used properly, colours can be a powerful tool to improve the usefulness of a computer interface in a wide variety of areas. Many designers mostly consider the physical aspect of the colour and tend to forget that psychological aspect of colour exists. However the findings of this study confirm that the psychological aspect or the affective dimension of colour also plays an important role in colour Interface design towards user satisfaction. Using Kansei Engineering principles the study explores the affective variability of colours and how it can be manipulated to provide better design guidance and solutions. A group of twenty adults from Sri Lanka, age ranging from 30 to 40 took part in the study. Survey was conducted using a Kansei colour questionnaire in normal atmospheric conditions. The results reveal that the affective variability of colours plays an important role in human computer interaction as an influential factor in drawing the user towards or withdrawing from the Interface. Thereby improving or degrading the user satisfaction.

  3. [Modern conceptions about the possible impact of palm oil on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components and adverse effects on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. PO is solid or semisolid at room temperature and often is used as a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which increase risks of hypercholesteremia. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats as well as substances with antioxidant activity. Taking into account the lipid theory of atherosclerosis pathogenesis, and sn-2 hypothesis, PO was compared with other vegetable oils, like olive, sunflower or soybean oils, and did not show great differences in changes of LDL, HDL or total cholesterol levels. Comparison of diets rich in PO with diets rich in trans fatty acids shows improvement of lipid profiles in groups with PO, and serves as a basis for replacement of trans fatty acids in food with PO and its fractions. In addition to fatty acids content, PO contains several phytonutrients including 4 forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, sterols, and some others. Most of these compounds are considered beneficial for human health, mainly on account of their antioxidant activity. It is concluded that PO is safe component of food, when we pay attention to the rather high content of saturated fats in it.

  4. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding.

  5. Providing the Scientific Backbone for Positive Psychology: A Multi-Level Conception of Human Thriving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennon M. Sheldon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a consideration of what is missing in positive psychology – namely, an integrative framework within which to view the entire person, especially as nested within more-or-less supportive social contexts and cultures. Thus, I presented a multi-level hierarchical framework for considering and explaining human behavior, arguing that all levels of the framework are necessary for complete exposition. From this point of view, personality processes cannot be reduced to "mere" cognitive processes; there are trans-cognitive rules and laws operating at this higher level. I also considered a four level sub-framework within the personality level of analysis, consisting of organismic needs/characteristics, traits/dispositions, goals/intentions, and self/self-narratives. I contended that each of these spheres of the person operates via unique rules and regularities, processes that cannot be reduced to lower levels of analysis (such as biological, neurological, and cognitive levels of analysis. Finally, I described some recent research that simultaneously examines factors at multiple levels of the SLOPIC model, showing that each has influence for predicting SWB, and moreover, that all of these effects are mediated by basic need satisfaction. Hopefully this line of research will prove useful for other positive psychologists seeking "the big picture" on human flourishing.

  6. Value of the concept of minimal detectable dosage in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The influence on drug incorporation of melanin affinity, lipophilicity, and membrane permeability is of paramount importance. Despite their high lipophilicity, some drugs have quite low incorporation rate into hair, suggesting that the higher incorporation rates of basic drugs (cocaine, amphetamines.) than neutral (steroids, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids…) or acidic ones are strongly related to the penetrating ability of the drug to break through the membrane based on the pH gradient between blood and the acidic hair matrix. When using hair analysis as a matrix during investigative analysis, e.g. workplace drug testing, doping, driving under the influence, drug-facilitated crime, the question of importance is to know whether the analytical procedure was sensitive enough to identify traces of drugs; this is particularly important when the urine sample(s) of the subject was positive and the hair sample(s) was negative. It has been accepted in the forensic community that a negative hair result cannot exclude the administration of a particular drug, or one of its precursors and the negative findings should not overrule a positive urine result. Nevertheless, the negative hair findings can, on occasion, cast doubt on the positive urine analysis, resulting in substantial legal debate and various consequences for the subject. The concept of minimal detectable dosage in hair is of interest to document the negative findings, but limited data is currently available in the scientific literature. Such data includes cocaine, codeine, ketamine, some benzodiazepines and some unusual compounds. Until laboratories will have sensitive enough methodologies to detect a single use of drug, care should be taken to compare urine and hair findings.

  7. Computer-assisted curation of a human regulatory core network from the biological literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.; Durek, P.; Solt, I.; Klinger, B.; Witzel, F.; Schulthess, P.; Mayer, Y.; Tikk, D.; Blüthgen, N.; Leser, U.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: A highly interlinked network of transcription factors (TFs) orchestrates the context-dependent expression of human genes. ChIP-chip experiments that interrogate the binding of particular TFs to genomic regions are used to reconstruct gene regulatory networks at genome-scale, but are plag

  8. Total synthesis of human urotension-Ⅱ by microwave-assisted solid phase method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Human urotension-Ⅱ was synthesized efficiently on Wang resin under microwave irradiation using Fmoc/tBu orthogonal protection strategy. Disulphide bridge was formed on solid phase with the irradiation of microwave, then the whole peptide was cleaved from the resin. The purity of crude peptide cyclized under microwave irradiation was higher than that under room temperature.

  9. [Simulator-based modular human factor training in anesthesiology. Concept and results of the module "Communication and Team Cooperation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Hofinger, G; Buerschaper, C; Grapengeter, M; Harms, H; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J

    2004-02-01

    Human factors (HF) play a major role in crisis development and management and simulator training can help to train HF aspects. We developed a modular training concept with psychological intensive briefing. The aim of the study was to see whether learning and transfer in the treatment group (TG) with the module "communication and team-cooperation" differed from that in the control group (CG) without psychological briefing ("anaesthesia crisis resource management type course"). A total of 34 residents (TG: n=20, CG: n=14) managed 1 out of 3 scenarios and communication patterns and management were evaluated using video recordings. A questionnaire was answered at the end of the course and 2 months later participants were asked for lessons learnt and behavioral changes. Good communication and medical management showed a significant correlation (r=0.57, p=0.001). The TG showed greater initiative ( p=0.001) and came more often in conflict with the surgeon ( p=0.06). The TG also reported more behavioral changes than the CG 2 months later. The reported benefit of the simulation was training for rare events in the CG, whereas in the TG it was issues of communication and cooperation ( p=0.001). A training concept with psychological intensive briefing may enhance the transfer of HF aspects more than classical ACRM.

  10. A hydrologic retention system and water quality monitoring program for a human decomposition research facility: concept and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Thies, Monte L; Bytheway, Joan A; Lutterschmidt, William I

    2015-01-01

    Forensic taphonomy is an essential research field; however, the decomposition of human cadavers at forensic science facilities may lead to nutrient loading and the introduction of unique biological compounds to adjacent areas. The infrastructure of a water retention system may provide a mechanism for the biogeochemical processing and retention of nutrients and compounds, ensuring the control of runoff from forensic facilities. This work provides a proof of concept for a hydrologic retention system and an autonomous water quality monitoring program designed to mitigate runoff from The Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) Facility. Water samples collected along a sample transect were analyzed for total phosphorous, total nitrogen, NO3-, NO2-, NH4, F(-), and Cl(-). Preliminary water quality analyses confirm the overall effectiveness of the water retention system. These results are discussed with relation to how this infrastructure can be expanded upon to monitor additional, more novel, byproducts of forensic science research facilities.

  11. La ética en la asistencia humanizada al paciente terminal Ethics of humanized assistance to terminal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Velásquez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan aspectos éticos de la asistencia a los pacientes terminales; se hace énfasis en la necesidad de que haya una comunicación seria y responsable con ellos y de que se actúe siempre en forma sensible, en el marco de la ética y con miras a proteger sus derechos, en particular su autonomía y dignidad. Se discuten la orden de no resucitar, el suicido ayudado y la eutanasia.

    Ethical aspects concerning the attendance of terminally-111 patients are analyzed. Emphasis is given to the need of having a serious and responsible communication with them, always acting in a sensitive form and within the framework of ethics. The main goal should be to protect the rights of patients specially their autonomy and dignity. The concepts of do-not resucitate, assisted suicide and euthanasia are considered.

  12. A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; Galle, Samuel; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg−1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact. Conclusions/Significance The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions. PMID:23418524

  13. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahtab Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people’s safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  14. Surveying wearable human assistive technology for life and safety critical applications: standards, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-05-23

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  15. A simple exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion can reduce the metabolic cost of human walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Malcolm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg(-1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean (p = 0.019 below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions.

  16. Development of a lozenge for oral transmucosal delivery of trans-resveratrol in humans: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otis L Blanchard

    Full Text Available Resveratrol provides multiple physiologic benefits which promote healthspan in various model species and clinical trials support continued exploration of resveratrol treatment in humans. However, there remains concern regarding low bioavailability and wide inter-individual differences in absorption and metabolism in humans, which suggests a great need to develop novel methods for resveratrol delivery. We hypothesized that oral transmucosal delivery, using a lozenge composed of a resveratrol-excipient matrix, would allow resveratrol to be absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream. We pursued proof of concept through two experiments. In the first experiment, the solubility of trans-resveratrol (tRES in water and 2.0 M solutions of dextrose, fructose, ribose, sucrose, and xylitol was determined using HPLC. Independent t-tests with a Bonferroni correction were used to compare the solubility of tRES in each of the solutions to that in water. tRES was significantly more soluble in the ribose solution (p = 0.0013 than in the other four solutions. Given the enhanced solubility of tRES in a ribose solution, a resveratrol-ribose matrix was developed into a lozenge suitable for human consumption. Lozenges were prepared, each containing 146±5.5 mg tRES per 2000 mg of lozenge mass. Two healthy human participants consumed one of the prepared lozenges following an overnight fast. Venipuncture was performed immediately before and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes following lozenge administration. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax for tRES alone (i.e., resveratrol metabolites not included were 325 and 332 ng⋅mL(-1 for the two participants at 15 minute post-administration for both individuals. These results suggest a resveratrol-ribose matrix lozenge can achieve greater Cmax and enter the bloodstream faster than previously reported dosage forms for gastrointestinal absorption. While this study is limited by small sample size and only one method of resveratrol

  17. THOMAS AQUINAS’ PHILOSOPHY OF BEING AS THE BASIS FOR WOJTYLA’S CONCEPT AND COGNITION OF HUMAN PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jalocho-Palicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a claim that Thomas Aquinas’ philosophy of being plays a fundamental role in Karol Wojtyła’s concept of person presented in his major anthropological work Osoba i czyn (known in English as The Acting person. Aquinas discovered that every being is composed of existence (being, esse and essence (essentia. Wojtyła builds his philosophy of personhood within this framework of esse (being, existence and essentia (essence. The moral and rational essence of human person, according to Wojtyła, is best revealed by specifically human, free and conscious, actions. That is why Wojtyła analyzes human person through his actions and discovers such essential structures of human reason and free will as self-cognition, self-knowledge, self-owning, self-ruling which make the ontic basis for selfgovernance. The immediate ground for Wojtyła’s analysis of person through his actions is the act and potency theory, developed by Aristotle and redefined by Thomas Aquinas in the light of the composition of being from esse and essentia. Every act reveals a correlated potency which otherwise would remain hidden and unknown. Potency-act theory characterizes not only two real states of every being, but also it is the adequate tool to describe every being’s becoming. It is not becoming out of nothingness, but on the ground and within the limits of already existing potency. A specifically human action (actus humanus discloses a specifically human potency-essence. Through his actions a man becomes good or bad as a man, depending on the moral quality of the actions. All these insights into man’s essence presented by Wojtyła emphasize the absolute primacy of a man’s existence (being, esse over his actions and over his becoming. Being (esse precedes acting and becoming. Without being (esse there would be no acting and no becoming (operari sequitur esse—first something must exist and only then it can act. Thus, as a contingent being, a man does

  18. Architectural concepts of Martian bases built: of domes, around greenhouses and into slopes -the human aspect and the technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Janek; Kozicka, Joanna

    Human missions to Mars are a special kind of space missions due to their long duration. The human aspect of such missions becomes as important as the technological one. The need for a human friendly and comfortable habitat arises. Studies of human behavior in ICEs have shown that larger groups of people mean a lower occurrence of conflicts. However, for a larger crew a larger habitat has to be designed -a Martian base. The research deals with psychological, sociological and technological aspects influencing the architectural design of a Martian Base. Extreme conditions present on Mars demand a partic-ular approach to technological and architectural design. To reduce the cost of building a bigger habitat, low cost solutions have been inquired into. A series of analyses has been performed to identify the best architectural solutions for a Martian base. A review of existing technologies and extreme condition habitats (both terrestrial and extraterrestrial) has revealed solutions that are the most reliable and efficient ones. Additionally, innovative technologies have been analyzed in search of the best candidates for actual base construction. Low cost solutions have been prioritized in the process. An in-depth study of architectural problems inherent in the design of a Martian base has resulted in a number of guidelines for the architect. The main ones are introduced in this review. Based on them, several concepts have been drafted as examples of user-friendly and aesthetically pleasing habitats. They are discussed in the following order: habitats made of domes, those built around greenhouses and those situated in sloping terrain. One of them is presented in detail, including interior design.

  19. Headmaster´s Conceptions of the Finnish Religious Education - Solution from the Perspective of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Matilainen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussion about the most suitable model of religious education (RE hereafter in public schools all around Europe. The Finnish model of RE has attracted great interest, because in Finland RE is given according to one’s own religion. The Finnish model of RE is very unique and it emphasises the right of religious minorities to participate in RE according to their own religion in state-owned schools. In this article we examine headmasters’ conceptions of the current Finnish RE solution from the perspective of human rights. The study is based on qualitative interviews.Headmasters presented both advantages and disadvantages of the current RE solution. These advantages are briefly: freedom of religion, an opportunity to get RE according to one´s own religion, knowing one´s own roots, an opportunity to understand people from different religious backgrounds and an opportunity to study other religions for those students who are not members of religious communities. The limits of the solution are that it puts students into their own religious groups and this limits possibilities for religious dialogue, which should be one of the key elements of modern RE. RE has a strong potential to promote human rights. It is important to discuss different models of arranging education from the viewpoint of human rights. The human rights viewpoint should be central when dealing with the aims, contents and organization structure of RE. Different interpretations of religious freedom and the right to religious education are important considerations especially for RE.

  20. Gold nanoparticle-assisted primer walking for closing the human chromosomal gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H; Shi, B; Li, X

    2013-01-01

    The finished sequence of the human genome still contains 260 euchromatic gaps. All the PCR-based genome walking techniques used to close gaps have common limitations, such as low efficiency and low specificity. We herein describe a strategy to solve this problem by employing gold nanoparticles (A...... is capable of effectively improving the specificity of PCR amplification and enriching the yield of target DNA fragments; it offers a new avenue for closing gaps left by current sequencing methods...

  1. The impact of laser-assisted hatching on the outcome of frozen human embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyo, Katalin; Zeke, Jozsef; Kriston, Rita; Szücs, Zoltan; Cseh, Sandor; Somoskoi, Bence; Konc, Janos

    2016-10-01

    Biochemical modifications of zona pellucida (ZP) result in zona hardening. Zona hardening (ZH) is induced by several factors such as advancing maternal age, in vitro culture conditions and cryopreservation and adversely effects implantation. The objective of the clinical study was to determine whether or not laser-assisted hatching (LAH) applied on day 3 frozen embryos improves the outcome of frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in patients with recurrent implantation failure and/or advanced female age. In total, 413 patients of different ages with recurrent implantation failure (maximum three cycles) were involved into the study. Patients were allocated randomly into LAH and control groups. On the day of FET, after thawing and just before FET, the ZP was thinned using a laser system. In the control group no treatment was applied on frozen embryo before transfer. The main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate. Overall, the results indicate a tendency that LAH increased (P = 0.08) clinical pregnancy. However, for patients older than 37 years, LAH increased pregnancy rates significantly (P = 0.03). In the LAH and control groups, the age of patients and the number of transferred embryos influenced pregnancy rates (P = 0.01). For patients older than 37 years, no effect of number of transferred embryos was detected (P = 0.14). The incidence of multiple pregnancies also increased in the LAH group (P = 0.01). In conclusion, in older woman, to overcome the negative effect of zona hardening, LAH could be performed on frozen embryos as a routine strategy before FET in frozen cycles in order to increase the possibility of pregnancy formation.

  2. Human clinical and histologic evaluation of laser-assisted new attachment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Marc L; Camelo, Marcelo; Schupbach, Peter; Kim, Soo-Woo; Kim, David M; Nevins, Myron

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the healing response to the laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP). Eight patients presenting with 12 teeth predetermined to be surgically extracted were enrolled and consented to treatment with full-mouth LANAP therapy. LANAP surgical therapy consisted of a first pass with a 360-Μm fiber diameter, laser settings with verified output of 4.0 W and energy density of 1,965 mJ/mm2, 100-Μs pulse duration, and 20 Hz applied from the gingival margin to the base of the pocket parallel to the root surface and moved laterally and apically to remove the diseased pocket epithelium. The teeth were aggressively scaled and root planed with piezo ultrasonic instrumentation. A second pass was performed with a 360-Μm fiber diameter, laser settings with verified output of 4.0 W and energy density of 1,965 mJ/mm2, 650-Μs pulse duration, and 20 Hz applied from the apical extent of the bone defect to the gingival margin. After 9 months of healing, en bloc biopsy extractions were provided. Ten teeth were analyzed histologically to assess the periodontal wound healing. Five teeth evidenced a degree of periodontal regeneration with new cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. One tooth had new attachment with new cementum and inserting collagen fibers, and four teeth healed via a long junctional epithelium. LANAP therapy should be further investigated with long-term clinical trials to compare the stability of clinical results to conventional therapy. This report provides evidence that LANAP therapy can induce periodontal regeneration.

  3. 68Ga- and 177Lu-Labeled PSMA I&T: Optimization of a PSMA-Targeted Theranostic Concept and First Proof-of-Concept Human Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weineisen, Martina; Schottelius, Margret; Simecek, Jakub; Baum, Richard P; Yildiz, Akin; Beykan, Seval; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Lassmann, Michael; Klette, Ingo; Eiber, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    ...) in metastatic prostate cancer (PC), the goal of this study was the development, preclinical evaluation, and first proof-of-concept investigation of a PSMA inhibitor for imaging and therapy (PSMA I&T) for (68)Ga-based PET and (177...

  4. Human Hand Kinematic Modeling Based on Robotic Concepts for Digit Animation with Dynamic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondu, Bertrand

    The recent development of highly anthropomorphic avatars in computer graphics has emphasized the importance of accurate hand kinematic models. Although kinematic methods derived from robotics have recently been applied to the modeling of hands, we consider that original/new and relevant results can be brought into play with the use of more advanced applications of robotic techniques to human hand kinematic modeling. Our chapter analyses some of these questions both in the non-differential and differential fields. More specifically, we study how to integrate the peculiar natural digit movement constraints into robotics-based inverse kinematic modeling. As a result, we propose an original approach based on an interpretation of each joint dynamic constraint as a linear joint synergy. This leads to defining the considered digit as a serial chain kinematically redundant in position and reducing the dimension of its joint space by associated joint synergies. The method is applied to the Cartesian positioning simulation of a 4 d.o.f. index model; a comparison with a Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based approach emphasizes its relevance.

  5. Human-assisted spread of a maladaptive behavior in a critically endangered bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Massaro

    Full Text Available Conservation management often focuses on counteracting the adverse effects of human activities on threatened populations. However, conservation measures may unintentionally relax selection by allowing the 'survival of the not-so-fit', increasing the risk of fixation of maladaptive traits. Here, we report such a case in the critically-endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi which, in 1980, was reduced to a single breeding pair. Following this bottleneck, some females were observed to lay eggs on the rims of their nests. Rim eggs left in place always failed to hatch. To expedite population recovery, rim eggs were repositioned inside nests, yielding viable hatchlings. Repositioning resulted in rapid growth of the black robin population, but by 1989 over 50% of all females were laying rim eggs. We used an exceptional, species-wide pedigree to consider both recessive and dominant models of inheritance over all plausible founder genotype combinations at a biallelic and possibly sex-linked locus. The pattern of rim laying is best fitted as an autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. Using a phenotype permutation test we could also reject the null hypothesis of non-heritability for this trait in favour of our best-fitting model of heritability. Data collected after intervention ceased shows that the frequency of rim laying has strongly declined, and that this trait is maladaptive. This episode yields an important lesson for conservation biology: fixation of maladaptive traits could render small threatened populations completely dependent on humans for reproduction, irreversibly compromising the long term viability of populations humanity seeks to conserve.

  6. Reversal of multidrug resistance phenotype in human breast cancer cells using doxorubicin-liposome-microbubble complexes assisted by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiting; Yan, Fei; Jin, Qiaofeng; Li, Fei; Wu, Junru; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-01-28

    The circumvention of multidrug resistance (MDR) plays a critically important role in the success of chemotherapy. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness and possible mechanisms of the reversal of MDR phenotype in human breast cancer cells by using doxorubicin-liposome-microbubble complexes (DLMC) assisted by ultrasound (US). DLMC is fabricated through conjugating doxorubicin (DOX)-liposome (DL) to the surface of microbubbles (MBs) via the biotin-avidin linkage. The resulting drug-loaded complexes are then characterized and incubated with MCF-7/ADR human breast cancer cells and followed by US exposure. Our results show the more rapid cellular uptake, evident enhancement of nuclear accumulation and less drug efflux in the resistant cells treated by DLMC+US than those treated by DL, DL+verapamil under the same US treatment or DLMC without US. The enhanced drug delivery and cellular uptake also associated with the increase of cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells, lower MCF-7/ADR cell viability and higher apoptotic cells. Mechanism investigations further disclose a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, enhanced DNA damage and obvious reduction of P-glycoprotein expression in the resistant cells treated with DLMC+US compared with the control cases of cells treated by DLMC, DL+US or DL+verapamil+US. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that DLMC in combination with US may provide an effective delivery of drug to sensitize cells to circumvent MDR and to enhance the therapeutic index of the chemotherapy.

  7. Human-robot interactions during the robot-assisted urban search and rescue response at the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, J; Murphy, R R

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) rescue response provided an unfortunate opportunity to study the human-robot interactions (HRI) during a real unstaged rescue for the first time. A post-hoc analysis was performed on the data collected during the response, which resulted in 17 findings on the impact of the environment and conditions on the HRI: the skills displayed and needed by robots and humans, the details of the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task, the social informatics in the USAR domain, and what information is communicated at what time. The results of this work impact the field of robotics by providing a case study for HRI in USAR drawn from an unstaged USAR effort. Eleven recommendations are made based on the findings that impact the robotics, computer science, engineering, psychology, and rescue fields. These recommendations call for group organization and user confidence studies, more research into perceptual and assistive interfaces, and formal models of the state of the robot, state of the world, and information as to what has been observed.

  8. Computer Assisted Parallel Program Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computation is widely employed in scientific researches, engineering activities and product development. Parallel program writing itself is not always a simple task depending on problems solved. Large-scale scientific computing, huge data analyses and precise visualizations, for example, would require parallel computations, and the parallel computing needs the parallelization techniques. In this Chapter a parallel program generation support is discussed, and a computer-assisted parallel program generation system P-NCAS is introduced. Computer assisted problem solving is one of key methods to promote innovations in science and engineering, and contributes to enrich our society and our life toward a programming-free environment in computing science. Problem solving environments (PSE) research activities had started to enhance the programming power in 1970's. The P-NCAS is one of the PSEs; The PSE concept provides an integrated human-friendly computational software and hardware system to solve a target ...

  9. The antioxidant status in human population based on the concept of prakruthi in Ayurveda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhukar Mallya H; Revathi P Shenoy; Sreejith Ramakrishnan; Linta Thampi; Rashmi Ste-vens; MSethukumar Kamath; Anupama Nayak; Anjali Rao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:In the Ayurvedic system of medicine,body constitution (prakruthi)is said to play a vital role in the disease process as well as in its progression.Free radical toxicity is also involved in the etiopathogenesis of many disorders.Hence,in the present study an attempt has been made to correlate the body constitution type and the antioxidant status of that prakruthi.Methods:Healthy volunteers from Manipal University Campus, South Karnataka,India were classified into three main human constitutions (prakruthi)and their possible com-binations and their serum total antioxidant activity was determined.Results:There was a significant negative correlation of the total antioxidant status with the pitta prakruthi whereas vata and kapha constitutions showed no significant correlation with the total antioxidant status.Conclusion:Ayurveda classifies each individual based on his/her prakruthi into three categories of Doshas:Vata,Pitta and Kapha (collectively known as Tri-doshas).The three Doshas are fundamental regulatory principles responsible for maintaining organism functio-ning and manifesting those characteristics typifying each individual,that is,in equilibrium Tridoshas signify health and an imbalance leads to disease.Thus,in this study a significantly decreased antioxidant status in the Pitta group would render them more susceptible to damage by oxidative stress.Hence,we suggest that supple-mentation with antioxidants of herbal (Ayurvedic)origin to such a group would prove to be beneficial -opening up the arena for pharmacogenomics and customized antioxidant drug administration based on the prakruthi of an individual.

  10. A synthesis of the theories and concepts of early human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A; Shultz, Susanne; Trauth, Martin H

    2015-03-05

    Current evidence suggests that many of the major events in hominin evolution occurred in East Africa. Hence, over the past two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of Africa has varied over the past 10 Myr. A new consensus is emerging that suggests the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created a complex, environmentally very variable setting. This new understanding of East African climate has led to the pulsed climate variability hypothesis that suggests the long-term drying trend in East Africa was punctuated by episodes of short alternating periods of extreme humidity and aridity which may have driven hominin speciation, encephalization and dispersals out of Africa. This hypothesis is unique as it provides a conceptual framework within which other evolutionary theories can be examined: first, at macro-scale comparing phylogenetic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium; second, at a more focused level of human evolution comparing allopatric speciation, aridity hypothesis, turnover pulse hypothesis, variability selection hypothesis, Red Queen hypothesis and sympatric speciation based on sexual selection. It is proposed that each one of these mechanisms may have been acting on hominins during these short periods of climate variability, which then produce a range of different traits that led to the emergence of new species. In the case of Homo erectus (sensu lato), it is not just brain size that changes but life history (shortened inter-birth intervals, delayed development), body size and dimorphism, shoulder morphology to allow thrown projectiles, adaptation to long-distance running, ecological flexibility and social behaviour. The future of evolutionary research should be to create evidence-based meta-narratives, which encompass multiple mechanisms that select for different traits leading ultimately to speciation.

  11. A Process Concept for High-Purity Production of Amines by Transaminase-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis: Combining Enzyme Cascade and Membrane-Assisted ISPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börner, Tim; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl;

    2015-01-01

    in situ product removal (ISPR) approach using liquid-membrane extraction together with an enzyme cascade. This ISPR strategy facilitates very high (>98%) product purity with an integrated enrichment step and eliminates product as well as coproduct inhibition. In the presented proof-of-concept alanine...

  12. Assisting Secondary Support Teachers to Work in the Recommended Service Delivery Model: Introducing the Concept of a Subculture of Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicole Ann

    2012-01-01

    The original concept of a subculture of learning support in secondary schools developed from a study of "Support Teachers, Learning Difficulties" in New South Wales, Australia. The study examined the influence of school culture on the service delivery model used by these support teachers in three case studies, one of which is reported in…

  13. Assisting Secondary Support Teachers to Work in the Recommended Service Delivery Model: Introducing the Concept of a Subculture of Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicole Ann

    2012-01-01

    The original concept of a subculture of learning support in secondary schools developed from a study of "Support Teachers, Learning Difficulties" in New South Wales, Australia. The study examined the influence of school culture on the service delivery model used by these support teachers in three case studies, one of which is reported in this…

  14. Computational and in vivo investigation of optical reflectance from human brain to assist neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, M; Giller, C; Liu, H

    1998-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive disease involving the globus pallidus (GP), which is a gray matter mass, surrounded by white matter deep within the brain. During a neurosurgery procedure, a thin probe is inserted into the GP to create a lesion that often relieves the cardinal symptoms of PD. The goal of this study is to develop an optical method to accurately locate the GP border. In theory, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to predict the optical reflectance from brain tissue. In experiment, a portable, real-time display spectrometer with a fiber optic reflectance probe was developed and used during human surgery. Optical reflectance values were recorded at 1 mm intervals to obtain a spatial profile of the tissue as the probe passed through regions of gray and white matter. The simulation and in vivo studies of the reflectance from the brain are in good agreement with one another. The clinical data show that the reflectance from gray matter is approximately 50% or less than that from white matter between 650 and 800 nm. A slope algorithm is developed to distinguish gray and white matter in vivo. This study provides previously unknown optical reflectance of the human brain. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  15. One Health proof of concept: Bringing a transdisciplinary approach to surveillance for zoonotic viruses at the human-wild animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Karesh, William B; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Anthony, Simon J; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah H; Machalaba, Catherine; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2017-02-01

    As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals. Here, we share One Health approaches used by consortium members to illustrate the potential for successful One Health outcomes that can be achieved through collaborative, transdisciplinary partnerships. PREDICT's collaboration with partners around the world on strengthening local capacity to detect hundreds of viruses in wild animals, coupled with a series of cutting-edge virological and analytical activities, have significantly improved our baseline knowledge on the zoonotic pool of viruses and the risk of exposure to people. Further testament to the success of the project's One Health approach and the work of its team of dedicated One Health professionals are the resulting 90 peer-reviewed, scientific publications in under 5 years that improve our understanding of zoonoses and the factors influencing their emergence. The findings are assisting in global health improvements, including surveillance science, diagnostic technologies, understanding of viral evolution, and ecological driver identification. Through its One Health leadership and multi

  16. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-driven Hill-type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, Jin-Wu

    2016-06-22

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  17. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R.; Alvarez, Jason R.; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by FE-SEM, ATR-FTIR and XRD. The concentration of fluoride and supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP) = 10.2±2.0 with fluoride 1.5±0.5 mg/L and amelogenin 40±10 µg/mL, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarized the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management. PMID:21256987

  18. Short chain polyethylene glycols unusually assist thermal unfolding of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Nirnay; Mahanta, Debasish Das; Hazra, Soumitra; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh; Mitra, Rajib Kumar

    2014-09-01

    In the present study we have investigated the thermal stability of the globular transport protein human serum albumin (HSA), in the presence of two small chain polyethylene glycols (namely PEG 200 and PEG 400). Both near- and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) study reveal that addition of PEG moderately increases the α-helical content of the protein without abruptly changing its tertiary structure. The hydration structure at the protein surface experiences a notable change at 30% PEG (v/v) concentration as evidenced from compressibility and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Thermal denaturation of HSA in the presence of PEG has been studied by CD and fluorescence spectroscopy using the intrinsic fluorophore tryptophan and it has been found that addition of PEG makes the protein more prone towards unfolding, which is in contrary to what has been observed in case of larger molecular weight polymers. The energetics of the thermal unfolding process has been obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Our study concludes that both the indirect excluded volume principle as well as interaction of the polymer at the protein surface is responsible for the observed change of the unfolding process.

  19. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller’s albatross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Timothée A.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Stahl, Jean-Claude; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller’s albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere), New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori), which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17–40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969. PMID:28406981

  20. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller's albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Susan M; Poupart, Timothée A; Miskelly, Colin M; Stahl, Jean-Claude; Arnould, John P Y

    2017-01-01

    Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere), New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori), which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.

  1. A proof of concept study investigating the feasibility of combining iPAM robot assisted rehabilitation with functional electrical stimulation to deliver whole arm exercise in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory J; Jackson, Andrew; Makower, Sophie G; Cozens, Alastair; Levesley, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation robots can provide exercise for stroke survivors with weakness at the shoulder and elbow, but most do not facilitate hand movements. The aim was to combine robotics and functional electrical stimulation to facilitate exercise in stroke survivors with upper limb impairment. iPAM Mk II was used to assist active reaching in combination with an Odstock Pace stimulator to assist hand opening. The ABILHAND, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) were recorded at baseline and completion. Nine participants (eight males and one female; mean age = 58 years) were recruited; mean time since stroke was 16 months (range = 6-64). The ABILHAND at baseline was -2.73, improving to -1.45 at follow-up (p = 0.038). The ARAT changed from 4.1 to 2.6 (p = 0.180), and the SIS from 49 to 60 (p = 0.019). This study demonstrates that it is possible to combine two technologies in stroke rehabilitation.

  2. Personal Capacity Building for the Human Services: The Roles of Curriculum and Individual Differences in Predicting Self-Concept in College/University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    While much research has outlined the importance of intra-psychic factors in predicting workplace success, it is rare that attention is given to the development of these factors in training for human service professions (e.g. psychology, clergy, nursing). Accordingly, the present study explores differences in self-concept, a key intra-psychic…

  3. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and

  4. Application of microwave-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of parabens in human ovarian cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Choolani, Mahesh; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-09-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. However, weak estrogenicity of some parabens has been reported in several studies, which provided the impetus for this work. Here, a simple and efficient analytical method for quantifying parabens in cancer tissues has been developed. This technique involves the simultaneous use of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), in tandem with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) analysis for the determination of parabens. The pollutants studied included four parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens). Optimization of the experimental parameters for MASE and μ-SPE was performed. Good relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.09 to 2.81% and high enrichment factors (27-314) were obtained. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) up to 0.9962 were obtained across a concentration range of 5.0-200ngg(-1). The method detection limits for parabens ranged from 0.005 to 0.0244ngg(-1). The procedure was initially tested on prawn samples to demonstrate its feasibility on a complex biological matrix. Preliminary studies on human ovarian cancer (OC) tissues showed presence of parabens. Higher levels of parabens were detected in malignant ovarian tumor tissues compared to benign tumor tissue samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  6. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI. It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes.

  7. Electroporation-assisted penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles in ex vivo normal and cancerous human colon tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we presented the research of the penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (30 and 90 nm), and electroporation (EP) assisted penetration of the ZnO NPs in the human normal colon (NC) and adenomatous colon (AC) tissues studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) measurement. The results have shown that the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after the application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs alone decreased approximately by 28% and 14% for NC tissue, 35% and 22% for AC tissue, respectively; while the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after combined application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs/EP decreased approximately by 46% and 30% for NC tissue, and 53% and 42% for AC tissue, respectively. The results illustrate EP can significantly increase the penetration of ZnO NPs in the colon tissue, especially in AC tissue. Through the analysis of attenuation coefficient and reflectance intensity of the colon tissue, we find that the accumulation of the ZnO NPs in the colon tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  8. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  9. Stem cell-based treatments against stroke: observations from human proof-of-concept studies and considerations regarding clinical applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Roland Doeppner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke remains a heavy burden for industrialized countries. The only causal therapy is the recanalization of occluded vessels via thrombolysis, which due to a narrow time window still can be offered only to a minority of patients. Since the majority of patients continues to exhibit neurological deficits even following successful thrombolysis, restorative therapies are urgently needed that promote brain remodeling and repair once stroke injury has occurred. Due to their unique properties of action, stem cell-based strategies gained increasing interest during recent years. Using various stroke models in both rodents and primates, the transplantation of stem cells, namely of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs, has been shown to promote neurological recovery most likely via indirect bystander actions. In view of promising observations, clinical proof-of-concept studies are currently under way, in which effects of stem and precursor cells are evaluated in human stroke patients. In this review we summarize already published studies, which due to the broad experience in other medical contexts mostly employed bone marrow-derived MSCs by means of intravenous transplantation. With the overall number of clinical trials limited in number, only a fraction of these studies used non-treated control groups, and only single studies were adequately blinded. Despite these limitations, first promising results justify the need for more elaborate clinical trials in order to make stem cell transplantation a success for stroke treatment in the future.

  10. Non-Invasive Intra-cardiac Pressure Measurements Using Subharmonic-Aided Pressure Estimation: Proof of Concept in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Kulkarni, Sushmita V; Pangaonkar, Purva P; Stanczak, Maria; McDonald, Maureen E; Cohen, Ira S; Mehrotra, Praveen; Savage, Michael P; Walinsky, Paul; Ruggiero, Nicholas J; Fischman, David L; Ogilby, David; VanWhy, Carolyn; Lombardi, Matthew; Forsberg, Flemming

    2017-08-11

    This study evaluated the feasibility of employing non-invasive intra-cardiac pressure estimation using subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents in humans. This institutional review board-approved proof-of-concept study included 15 consenting patients scheduled for left and right heart catheterization. During the catheterization procedure, Definity was infused intra-venously at 4-10 mL/min. Ultrasound scanning was performed with a Sonix RP using pulse inversion, three incident acoustic output levels and 2.5-MHz transmit frequency. Radiofrequency data were processed and subharmonic amplitudes were compared with the pressure catheter data. The correlation coefficient between subharmonic signals and pressure catheter data ranged from -0.3 to -0.9. For acquisitions with optimum acoustic output, pressure errors between the subharmonic technique and catheter were as low as 2.6 mmHg. However, automatically determining optimum acoustic output during scanning for each patient remains to be addressed before clinical applicability can be decided. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 42 CFR 21.42 - Examinations; junior assistant, assistant, or senior assistant grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations; junior assistant, assistant, or senior assistant grade. 21.42 Section 21.42 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.42 Examinations; junior assistant...

  12. THE PROBLEM OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN NATURE (BASED ON THE NOVEL "WHAT TO DO?" BY N.G. CHERNYSHEVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. UZDEYEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship of words and opinions to deeds and actions in the general concept of human nature. The writer has developed its own identity and the correspondence theory of human behavior, which is compared with the doctrine of free will. The contradictions between the character's intentions and the final choice of the author seen in the images of Anna P. Stoleshnikova and Maria A. Rozalskaya. The article emphasized the role of the material factor as the motive of human behavior. The author has found a universal property of the Chernyshevsky’s novel ‒ increased attention to the material side of life. In the opinion of the writer, bullying this side there is a line of romantic detachment from life. The article outlined the difference between the "predation" Marya A. and "predation" Anna P. The paper gives a detailed analysis of the motives and actions of Maria A. mapped with the motives and actions of Anna P. The author concludes that in the novel by Russian writer is a transition from the humanistic concept of human-to-new, original and to the point, and to develop. The paper traced the variation in the theory and practice of the concept of human nature. 

  13. Isolation of human adipose-derived stromal cells using laser-assisted liposuction and their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael T; Zimmermann, Andrew S; Paik, Kevin J; Morrison, Shane D; Hyun, Jeong S; Lo, David D; McArdle, Adrian; Montoro, Daniel T; Walmsley, Graham G; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Sorkin, Michael; Rennert, Robert; Chen, Hsin-Han; Chung, Andrew S; Vistnes, Dean; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2013-10-01

    Harvesting adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering is frequently done through liposuction. However, several different techniques exist. Although third-generation ultrasound-assisted liposuction has been shown to not have a negative effect on ASCs, the impact of laser-assisted liposuction on the quality and differentiation potential of ASCs has not been studied. Therefore, ASCs were harvested from laser-assisted lipoaspirate and suction-assisted lipoaspirate. Next, in vitro parameters of cell yield, cell viability and proliferation, surface marker phenotype, osteogenic differentiation, and adipogenic differentiation were performed. Finally, in vivo bone formation was assessed using a critical-sized cranial defect in athymic nude mice. Although ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate and laser-assisted lipoaspirate both successfully underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, the cell yield, viability, proliferation, and frequency of ASCs (CD34(+)CD31(-)CD45(-)) in the stromal vascular fraction were all significantly less with laser-assisted liposuction in vitro (p liposuction appears to negatively impact the biology of ASCs, cell harvest using suction-assisted liposuction is preferable for tissue-engineering purposes.

  14. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policyEuropean Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C.; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogent...

  15. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birth weight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception......Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...

  16. Human short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones decreases computer-assisted visual reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Rouintan, M S; Taeb, S; Dehghan, N; Ghaffarpanah, A A; Sadeghi, Z; Ghafouri, F

    2012-06-01

    The worldwide dramatic increase in mobile phone use has generated great concerns about the detrimental effects of microwave radiations emitted by these communication devices. Reaction time plays a critical role in performing tasks necessary to avoid hazards. As far as we know, this study is the first survey that reports decreased reaction time after exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by a high specific absorption rate mobile phone. It is also the first study in which previous history of mobile phone use is taken into account. The aim of this study was to assess both the acute and chronic effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on reaction time in university students. Visual reaction time (VRT) of young university students was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-VRT test, before and after a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones. Participants were 160 right-handed university students aged 18-31. To assess the effect of chronic exposures, the reaction time in sham-exposed phases were compared among low level, moderate and frequent users of mobile phones. The mean ± SD reaction time after real exposure and sham exposure were 286.78 ± 31.35 ms and 295.86 ± 32.17 ms (P students did not significantly alter the reaction time either in talk or in standby mode. The reaction time either in talk or in standby mode was shorter in male students. The students' VRT was significantly affected by exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone. It can be concluded that these exposures cause decreased reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. In this light, this phenomenon might decrease the chances of human errors and fatal accidents.

  17. Concepções do profissional farmacêutico sobre a assistência farmacêutica na unidade básica de saúde: dificuldades e elementos para a mudança Conceptions of the pharmaceutical professional about the pharmaceutical assistance in basic health care units: difficulties and elements for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aílson da Luz André de Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi feita avaliação da Assistência Farmacêutica em farmácias de Unidades de Saúde do município de Ribeirão Preto, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Partindo-se do referencial de avaliação tecnológica em saúde e suas interfaces, foram realizadas entrevistas com os profissionais farmacêuticos, procurando-se conhecer as concepções desses atores sobre a assistência farmacêutica. Os resultados obtidos mostram um trabalho baseado na gestão burocrática dos medicamentos com objeto no controle de estoque do medicamento. Alguns elementos emergentes que poderão contribuir para a alteração deste quadro foram detectados: voluntarismo, busca pela valorização profissional, iniciativa de integração com a equipe de saúde, percepção do paciente como objeto de trabalho e formação profissional complementar.In the present study we evaluated the Pharmaceutical Assistance in pharmacies of Basic Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering the technological evaluation reference in health and its interfaces, pharmaceutical professionals were interviewed in a way to find out their conceptions about pharmaceutical assistance. The results showed a work based on the bureaucratic management of medicines specially the control of medicine supplies. Some emergent elements were thought to contribute to change this system: voluntarism, professional valorization, integration of the health team, perception of the patient as object of the work and complementary professional formation.

  18. The Filiation by Assisted Human Reproductions Techniques in the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code. An Advance that Allows to Harmonize the Rule with the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí Krasnow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the contributions and changes that the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code introduce in the filiation. The focus of attention is moved to the assisted human reproduction techniques in relation with the informed consent as an exteriorization of the will to procreate. Moreover, it is intended a study space about two proceedings that were silenced in the norm as the gestational surrogacy and the post mortem fertilization.

  19. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Knaepen

    Full Text Available In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support. Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  20. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  1. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  2. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  3. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  4. Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Dental Assistants PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Dental Assistants Do About this section Assistants prepare and ...

  5. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  6. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  7. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  8. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-02-18

    The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective.

  9. OLD CONCEPTS AND NEW SITUATIONS (2): AUGUSTINE'S "HUMAN DEPRAVITY"%旧概念与新环境(二):奥古斯丁的“性恶”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹤年

    2012-01-01

    St. Augustine argued that because of "Original Sin," human beings became depraved, desiring only the pleasures of the flesh, and therefore requiring God's redemption. This became the foundation of western ethical view. After the Reformation, the west became secular, and with it the concept of "human depravity" has been reinterpreted as "human nature," and therefore human actions are no longer regulated by guilt (moral sanction) or shame (societal sanction), but only by law. The planning concepts of zoning, pluralism, and consensus are all products of this culture of "human depravity."%圣·奥古斯丁认为“原罪”的效应使人性堕落、倾向肉欲,是为邪恶,需要救赎.二千年来“性恶”是西方伦理观的基础.现代(宗教改革后)西方摒弃宗教的救赎,但延伸人性倾向肉欲,把“性恶”演绎为“性本”,无需内疚、无需羞耻,只需守法.城市规划中的功能分区、多元化等理念都是“性恶”文化的产品.

  10. Novel concepts in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. There are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. New tests using molecular biology and DNA damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. In the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. Emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. This review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, Y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm DNA in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. Whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the Oxford Center of Evidence-based Medicine.

  11. Image-guided neurosurgery. Global concept of a surgical tele-assistance using obstacle detection robotics; Neurochirurgie guidee par l'image. Concept global d'une tele-assistance chirurgicale a l'aide d'une robotique d'empechement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgeorges, M.; Bellegou, N.; Faillot, Th.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutertre, G.; Blondet, E.; Soultrait, F. de; Boissy, J.M. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-12-01

    Surgical tele-assistance significantly increases accuracy of surgical gestures, especially in the case of brain tumor neurosurgery. The robotic device is tele-operated through a microscope and the surgeon's gestures are guided by real-time overlaying of the X-ray imagery in the microscope. During the device's progression inside the brain, the focus is ensured by the microscope auto-focus feature. The surgeon can thus constantly check his position on the field workstation. Obstacles to avoid or dangerous areas can be previewed in the operation field. This system is routinely used for 5 years in the neurosurgery division of the Val de Grace hospital. More than 400 brain surgery operations have been done using it. An adaptation is used for rachis surgery. Other military hospitals begin to be equipped with similar systems. It will be possible to link them for data transfer. When it will be operational, such a network it will show what could be, in the future, a medical/surgical remote-assistance system designed to take care of wounded/critical conditions people, including assistance to surgical gestures. (authors)

  12. Kategoria godności człowieka w świetle hermeneutyki (The concept of human dignity and the hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bronk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of my elementary semiotical and methodological considerations is the place and the function of the concept of human dignity in the hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. The notion of human dignity is used today frequently – alas, often uncritically – in many political and ideological discussions as a tool to promote certain kinds of social policy. I am above all interested in the many meanings of the notion of human dignity and the philosophical (ontological and epistemologicalpresuppositions that lie at the bottom of its use. What precisely do we mean when we say that human beings are characterized by a dignity? However, I will not determine precisely the different meanings,past and present, of “human dignity”, much less give a projecting definition of this notion. I devote attention – though only indirectly – to objective questions raised by the notion of human dignity and to their answers as well as to arguments in their favour. When we accept the hermeneutics as a philosophical anthropology then we see also that the notion of human dignity plays a peculiar function in it. In conclusionI state that the thesis that the human being has an ontologically distinctive way of existence finds adequate rational explanation and justification only in philosophy and a non-rational explication and a full justification in Christian theology.

  13. Manual vs. computer-assisted sperm analysis: can CASA replace manual assessment of human semen in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarczyk-Desole, Joanna; Berger, Anna; Taszarek-Hauke, Grażyna; Hauke, Jan; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Jedrzejczak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check the quality of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system in comparison to the reference manual method as well as standardization of the computer-assisted semen assessment. The study was conducted between January and June 2015 at the Andrology Laboratory of the Division of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland. The study group consisted of 230 men who gave sperm samples for the first time in our center as part of an infertility investigation. The samples underwent manual and computer-assisted assessment of concentration, motility and morphology. A total of 184 samples were examined twice: manually, according to the 2010 WHO recommendations, and with CASA, using the program set-tings provided by the manufacturer. Additionally, 46 samples underwent two manual analyses and two computer-assisted analyses. The p-value of p CASA and manually. In the group of patients where all analyses with each method were performed twice on the same sample we found no significant differences between both assessments of the same probe, neither in the samples analyzed manually nor with CASA, although standard deviation was higher in the CASA group. Our results suggest that computer-assisted sperm analysis requires further improvement for a wider application in clinical practice.

  14. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aitken

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Methods: Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 South East Asian Tsunami disaster. Results: The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118. Most personnel had deployed to the Asian Tsunami affected areas with DMAT members having significant clinical and international experience. While all except one respondent stated they received a full orientation prior to deployment, only 34% of respondents (20/59 felt their role was clearly defined pre deployment. Approximately 56% (33/59 felt their actual role matched their intended role and that their clinical background was well suited to their tasks. Most respondents were prepared to be available for deployment for 1 month (34%, 20/59. The most common period of notice needed to deploy was 6–12 hours for 29% (17/59 followed by 12–24 hours for 24% (14/59. The preferred period of overseas deployment was 14–21 days (46%, 27/59 followed by 1 month (25%, 15/59 and the optimum shift period was felt to be 12 hours by 66% (39/59. The majority felt that there was both adequate pay (71%, 42/59 and adequate indemnity (66%, 39/59. Almost half (49%, 29/59 stated it was better to work with people from the same hospital and, while most felt their deployment could be easily covered by staff from their workplace (56%, 33/59 and caused an inconvenience to their colleagues (51%, 30/59, it was less likely to interrupt service delivery in their workplace (10%, 6/59 or cause an inconvenience to patients (9%, 5/59. Deployment was felt to

  15. SuperAssist: Personal assistants for cooperative healthcare treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, G. de; Mast, C.A.P.G. van der; Blanson Henkemans, O.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-computer interaction, tele-medicine, supervision, personalization, ambient intelligence, health care, personal assistants, cooperative problem-solving. ABSTRACT This paper describes the research plans in the SuperAssist project, introducing personal assistants in the care of diabetes patients,

  16. Point-and-Command Paradigm for Interaction with Assistive Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Gabriel Boboc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-modal interface for the interaction between a human user and an assistive humanoid robot. The interaction is performed through gestural commands and a dialogue mechanism to provide a ‘natural’ means for the user to command an assistive robot to perform several given tasks. A “Point-and-Command” interaction concept was proposed with the aim of providing the user with an easy-to-use and intuitive interface and to improve the efficiency of human-robot collaboration. Likewise, a decision support system (DSS was implemented based on fuzzy logic, in order to warn the user when an active robot is about to become unusable and should be replaced. Thus, the interaction time, which depends on the robot's battery life, can be increased by replacing the assistant with another more fully charged one, making the interaction seem more natural.

  17. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Course on Laboratory Detection of Malarial Parasites in Human Blood. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzel, Harold E.

    In cooperation with the United States Navy, this project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of computer assisted instruction in clinical malaria recognition, to train a small group of Naval personnel in techniques of creating and presenting such material, and to evaluate the course by giving it to a representative sample of Naval medical…

  18. The Human Side of Change: Towards a Pragmatic, Evolutionary Conception of Cognition and Emotion in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation synthesizes and analyzes an emblematic sample of three prevalent psychological approaches to organizational change and learning, giving particular attention to the conception of cognition and emotion. It also explores some of the philosophical and psychological assumptions undergirding these approaches. A web model depicting…

  19. Lessons that Non-Scientists Can Teach Us about the Concept of Energy: A Human-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Energy is not only a core concept in physics but also a major issue in our post-Kyoto world. When using a constructivist approach to teaching, we need to be aware of students' preconceptions. A palette of alternative frameworks, which includes those used by adults within the community, can facilitate this. An exploration of energy issues with…

  20. Effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment on prognosis of acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with cardiogenic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Zhou Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment on prognosis of acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with cardiogenic shock.Methods: A total of 112 cases of inpatients treated in Cardiology Department of our hospital from March 2013 to March 2015 were selected, all of whom had acute myocardial infarction within 12 hours of onset and received direct PCI treatment. They were divided into observation group and control group according to random number table, each group with 56 cases, control group received conventional interventional treatment and observation group received recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment. Then differences of regional myocardial deformability, myocardial enzyme spectrum indicators, brain natriuretic peptide and inflammatory factors, blood sugar and stress hormones as well as myocardial infarction prognosis-associated indexes, etc, between two groups after treatment were compared.Results:After treatment, LVEF, SRs, SRe and Sra levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, WMSI level was lower than that of control group; serum myocardial enzyme spectrum indicators CK, CK-MB, AST and LDH values were lower than those of control group; serum BNP, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were lower than those of control group; serum cortisol, growth hormone and glucagon levels were lower than those of control group, insulin level was higher than that of control group; FT3 and IGF-1 levels were higher than those of control group, sPLA2 and Hcy levels were lower than those of control group.Conclusion: Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment for acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with cardiogenic shock can reduce myocardial function injury, protect normal myocardial function and optimize patients' long-term prognosis; it has active clinical significance.

  1. The issue of constitutional law legitimacy on "human assisted reproduction" between reasonableness of the choices and effectiveness of the protection of all involved subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This artiche analyzes the constitutionality petition to the constitutional Court against Law 40 of 2004 on "human assisted reproduction", where it prohibits the "preimplantatory genetical diagnosis", because it could be against the mother's right to health (art. 32 Italian Constitution) and the egalitarian protection clause (art. 3 Italian Constitution). In the constitutionally petition the ordinary judge proposes an interpretation in accordance with Constitution of the contested disposition (art. 13 of Law 40 of 2004) and this could be the possibility to teste the "living law" theory and its relation with the "adequate interpretation" of the law and the Constitution.

  2. Pharmacophore modeling, docking, and principal component analysis based clustering: combined computer-assisted approaches to identify new inhibitors of the human rhinovirus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindl, Theodora M; Crump, Carolyn E; Hayden, Frederick G; Langer, Thierry

    2005-10-06

    The development and application of a sophisticated virtual screening and selection protocol to identify potential, novel inhibitors of the human rhinovirus coat protein employing various computer-assisted strategies are described. A large commercially available database of compounds was screened using a highly selective, structure-based pharmacophore model generated with the program Catalyst. A docking study and a principal component analysis were carried out within the software package Cerius and served to validate and further refine the obtained results. These combined efforts led to the selection of six candidate structures, for which in vitro anti-rhinoviral activity could be shown in a biological assay.

  3. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for the determination of ephedrines in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with direct injection. Comparison with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshana, Usama; Göğer, Nilgün G; Ertaş, Nusret

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were compared for extraction of ephedrine, norephedrine, and pseudoephedrine from human urine samples prior to their determination by capillary electrophoresis. Formation of a microemulsion of the organic extract with an aqueous solution (at pH 3.2) containing 10% methanol facilitated the direct injection of the final extract into the capillary. Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized. In order to enhance the sensitivity further, field-amplified sample injection was applied. Under optimum extraction and stacking conditions, enrichment factors of up to 140 and 1750 as compared to conventional capillary zone electrophoresis were obtained resulting in limits of detection of 12-33 μg/L and 1.0-2.8 μg/L with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction when combined with field-amplified sample injection. Calibration graphs showed good linearity for urine samples by both methods with coefficients of determination higher than 0.9973 and percent relative standard deviations of the analyses in the range of 3.4-8.2% for (n = 5). The results showed that the use of ultrasound to assist microextraction provided higher extraction efficiencies than disperser solvents, regarding the hydrophilic nature of the investigated analytes.

  5. Development of a microprocessing-assisted cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method for human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Nomura, Fumimasa; Yasuda, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    We developed a microprocessing-assisted technique to select single-strand DNA aptamers that bind to unknown targets on the cell surface by modifying the conventional systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX). Our technique involves 1) the specific selection of target-cell-surface-bound aptamers without leakage of intracellular components by trypsinization and 2) cloning of aptamers by microprocessing-assisted picking of single cells using magnetic beads. After cell-SELEX, the enriched aptamers were conjugated with magnetic beads. The aptamer-magnetic beads conjugates attached to target cells were collected individually by microassisted procedures using microneedles under a microscope. After that, the sequences of the collected magnetic-bead-bound aptamers were identified. As a result, a specific aptamer for the surface of target cells, e.g., human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), was chosen and its specificity was examined using other cell types, e.g., HeLa cells. The results indicate that this microprocessing-assisted cell-SELEX method for identifying aptamers is applicable in biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  6. Theological Responses to the Concepts of Democracy and Human Rights: The Case of Contemporary Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Masykuri Abdillah

    2014-01-01

    Almost all governments in the world, including authoritarian, claiming that their political system is democratic. However, not all governments in the Muslim world accept this system. Among the 'ulama and Muslim intellectuals themselves there are differences of opinion about the system and the concept of democracy. In general, the modernist Muslim groups accept this system, because he was judged to be compatible with Islam, while Muslim groups "fundamentalist" and mostly conservative Muslim...

  7. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  8. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery on posterior capsule opacification in the human capsular bag in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Christian; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Dirisamer, Martin; Eibl-Lindner, Kirsten; Kook, Daniel; Priglinger, Siegfried; Mayer, Wolfgang J

    2017-03-01

    To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by observing lens epithelial cell growth in the human capsular bag in vitro between conventional lens surgery using phacoemulsification (Phaco) technique and femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery (FLACS). For the in vitro human capsular bag model, 18 cadaver eyes from nine human donors underwent three types of lens surgery. Three groups consisting of six capsular bags were established, that is FLACS, Phaco and extracapsular lens extraction (ECCE). The capsular bag was transferred into equal cell culture conditions after using one of the defined surgical approaches. Cellular growth of lens epithelial cells was observed and photo-documented. The time until full cell-coverage of the capsular bag was measured. The human capsular bag model can be successfully prepared using FLACS. There was no statistically significant difference in time until cell-coverage of the human donor capsular bag in vitro in all three surgical settings (ECCE versus Phaco p = 0.6; ECCE versus FLACS p = 1.0; Phaco versus FLACS p = 1.0). In our in vitro human capsular bag model, we could not observe a statistically significant difference in PCO formation using different surgical approaches of lens extraction. Therefore, PCO formation might not be attributed to the type of surgery. Furthermore, this study shows that FLACS can be used for the human capsular bag model preparation and validates the human capsular bag model for future research. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. To move as a human. Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina

    2016-03-01

    I agree with the authors, that "there have been very few attempts to develop user-centered medical technologies" [1] in the field of rehabilitation for persons with disabilities and wheelchair users in particular. The human-environment context in which humans plan and inhabit their actions as wheelchair users has not been extensively studied. The authors' unique work explores how a person embodies an exoskeleton (robotic legs or a wheelchair) in their everyday life and focuses on proprioception and brain's capacity to enlarge one's body schema in order to understand users' perspectives. Ultimately, Pazzaglia and Molinari wish to support persons who use assistive devices adapt and have successful, meaningful lives. The work is neuro-scientifically grounded, but doesn't forget the emotional or affective aspects of the user.

  10. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  11. 辅助生殖技术助孕与自然受孕双胎妊娠并发妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症的临床分析%Clinical analysis on twin pregnancy with ICP of assisted reproductive techniques conception and natural conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶志云; 陈先侠; 张英; 杨媛媛; 魏兆莲

    2015-01-01

    To analyse intrahepatic cholestasia of pregnancy ( ICP) occurrence in 582 cases of twin pregnancy con-ceived by assisted reproductive techniques and natural conception retrospectively, and to analyse its influence on perinatal complications. The percentage in the group of assisted reproductive techniques twin pregnancies with ICP ( ART group) was 8. 53%, which was 16. 98% in the group of naturally conceived twin pregnancies with ICP( nat-urally conceived group) , and the severity of ICP in ART group was 22. 73%, which was 54. 55% in the naturally conceived group. To compare the two groups in TBA, ALT, AST, hospitalized pregnant weeks, the weeks of deliv-ery, the rate of cesarean section, the Apgar score, premature birth, premature rupture of membranes and fetal dis-tress, 24-hour postpartum hemorrhage volume, there were no statistically significant differences. The neonatal weight of ART group was greater than the naturally conceived group. Twin pregnancies conceived by assisted repro-ductive technology did not increase the incidence of ICP. And there were no differences in complications of perina-tal period.%回顾性分析582 例辅助生殖技术助孕与自然受孕双胎妊娠中妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症( ICP)的发生情况及其对围产期并发症的影响. 结果显示辅助生殖技术助孕双胎妊娠并发 ICP 为 8. 53%,自然受孕双胎妊娠并发 ICP 为16. 98%,发生重度ICP的比例分别为22. 73%、54. 55%. 辅助生殖技术助孕与自然受孕双胎妊娠并发ICP在围产期血清总胆汁酸、丙氨酸转移酶、门冬氨酸转移酶、入院孕周、分娩孕周、剖宫产率、Apgar评分、早产、胎膜早破、胎儿窘迫、产后24 h出血量方面比较,差异均无统计学意义. 辅助生殖技术组双胎妊娠并发ICP的新生儿出生体重大于自然受孕组. 辅助生殖技术助孕双胎妊娠并不增加ICP的发生率,围产期并发症无增加.

  12. Equine and human mutual welfare: a whole subject? Critical aspects and possible strategies in equine-assisted activities and therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Li Destri Nicosia, Dora

    2011-01-01

    General aim of the study is equine welfare, particularly concerning different husbandry methodic and inter-specific relational factors. Specific aim is the evaluation of possible mutual (to humans and to equines) benefits and the analysis of critical factors/strength points, of human-horse relationship within Therapeutic Riding context (TR). The peculiarities of human-horse relationship (compared to the bond with “Pet”) are analyzed, concerning their socio-anthropological, psychological, p...

  13. BrahmVE platform for design and test of Large Scale Multi-agent Human-centric Mission Concepts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I proposal seeks support to extend the BrahmsVE architecture to support a multi-agent human-centric simulation of a hypothetical future ISS which is...

  14. The Nature of Human Disposition: al-Ghazālī's Contribution to an Islamic Concept of Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Husein Ali

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critique of contemporary psychological models of human nature and highlights the contribution of al-Ghazālī towards a better conceptualization of human disposition. A brief outline of the philosophical foundations of the three major psychological approaches–Freudian psychoanalysis, Skinnerian behaviorism, and Rogerian and Maslowvian Humanism– are provided. Consequently, the metaphors they adopted for human nature are discussed. The paper also highlights the shortcomings of these models by looking at their practical implications, particularly for psychology of personality. The last part of the paper dwells on al-Ghazālī’s contribution to an Islamic abstraction of human disposition and personality.

  15. The Development of the Concept of the Crimes against Humanity in the Sources of International Criminal Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Zilinskas

    2001-01-01

      Crimes against Humanity is one of the most dynamic categories in the International Criminal Law since it first appearance in the Charter of Nuremberg Military Tribunal in 1945 as an outgrowth of the war crimes...

  16. INCOMMANDS TDP: Human Factors Design and Evaluation Guide (PDT INCOMMANDS: Guide de Conception et d’Evaluation des Facteurs Humains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Pina , Donmez and Cummings [30]. Since all operator-based measures must take into account individual differences, some form of experimental...validity of this tool, it is not clear how widely it is used. See Pina [30] for other rating scales for measuring human-computer trust. DRDC...Organization. DRDC Toronto TR 2009-062 243 [30] Pina , P. E., Donmez, B., and Cummings, M. L. (2008), Selecting metrics to evaluate human supervisory

  17. Linking Epigenetics to Human Disease and Rett Syndrome: The Emerging Novel and Challenging Concepts in MeCP2 Research

    OpenAIRE

    Robby Mathew Zachariah; Mojgan Rastegar

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics refer to inheritable changes beyond DNA sequence that control cell identity and morphology. Epigenetics play key roles in development and cell fate commitments and highly impact the etiology of many human diseases. A well-known link between epigenetics and human disease is the X-linked MECP2 gene, mutations in which lead to the neurological disorder, Rett Syndrome. Despite the fact that MeCP2 was discovered about 20 years ago, our current knowledge about its molecular function is ...

  18. Evaluating Fault Management Operations Concepts for Next-Generation Spacecraft: What Eye Movements Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; McCann, Robert S.; Beutter, Brent; Spirkovska, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancements associated with selected forms of automation were quantified in a recent human-in-the-loop evaluation of two candidate operational concepts for fault management on next-generation spacecraft. The baseline concept, called Elsie, featured a full-suite of "soft" fault management interfaces. However, operators were forced to diagnose malfunctions with minimal assistance from the standalone caution and warning system. The other concept, called Besi, incorporated a more capable C&W system with an automated fault diagnosis capability. Results from analyses of participants' eye movements indicate that the greatest empirical benefit of the automation stemmed from eliminating the need for text processing on cluttered, text-rich displays.

  19. Employment of the Triple Helix concept for development of regenerative medicine applications based on human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartipy, Peter; Björquist, Petter

    2014-01-01

    Using human pluripotent stem cells as a source to generate differentiated progenies for regenerative medicine applications has attracted substantial interest during recent years. Having the capability to produce large quantities of human cells that can replace damaged tissue due to disease or injury opens novel avenues for relieving symptoms and also potentially offers cures for many severe human diseases. Although tremendous advancements have been made, there is still much research and development left before human pluripotent stem cell derived products can be made available for cell therapy applications. In order to speed up the development processes, we argue strongly in favor of cross-disciplinary collaborative efforts which have many advantages, especially in a relatively new field such as regenerative medicine based on human pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we aim to illustrate how some of the hurdles for bringing human pluripotent stem cell derivatives from bench-to-bed can be effectively addressed through the establishment of collaborative programs involving academic institutions, biotech industries, and pharmaceutical companies. By taking advantage of the strengths from each organization, innovation and productivity can be maximized from a resource perspective and thus, the chances of successfully bringing novel regenerative medicine treatment options to patients increase.

  20. 从义务论谈人权%The Concept of Human Rights in theLight of Deontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎松

    2012-01-01

    Right is the most basic and the most fundamental rights, which itself has with the universal and fundamental characteristics. Perspective on the obligations, human rights would give newmeaning and showthe new features. Connotationfrom the perspective of human rights, human rights is an absolute right; from the point of view of observance of human rights, human-rights is an unconditional right; in the characteristics of the human rights embodied in a self-disciplineand conscious of the right and a necessityand mandatory rights. This is of great value for the right of grasp andunderstanding.%人权即人所平等享有的最基本、最基础的权利,它本身就具有普世性和基础性的特点。从义务论的角度,人权被赋予了新的内涵和特点。从人权获得来看,人权是一种绝对性的权利;从人权遵守的角度来看,人权是一种无条件性权利。从人权呈现的特点来看,人权体现为一种自律性、必然性和强制性的权利。这对于人权的理解和把握将具有重大的价值。

  1. Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  2. Analysis of the conceptions and expectations of students in the courses of pedagogy, administration and human resources about the discipline of science, technology and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alexandre; de Oliveira Neves, Jobert; Ferreira, Orlando Rodrigues; Lúcia Costa Amaral, Carmem; Delourdes Maciel, Maria; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Nascimento, Rômulo Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Provided for the education curricula since 1960, the focus on Science, Technology and Society (STS) has been poorly implemented even until today. Set as a goal to be achieved at all levels of education by 2014, in Brazil it is necessary to undertake specific actions in pursuit of putting into practice what has been stalled over the years in Education. As a result of joint efforts of teachers and students of the Masters in Teaching Science and Mathematics at the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul comes the challenge of providing a specific discipline dealing with the concepts of STS, offered as a optional special, initially for students of Pedagogy and later, due to the interest of some students, for the course of Administration and Human Resources of this institution. The survey of previous conceptions of students enrolled in the Special Discipline Elective Science, Technology and Society (CTS DOP) on the triad of STS showed a great ignorance on the same theme. The reports reveal conceptions of students who approach the linear model of development. As to the generated expectations in terms of discipline, there stand out the desires of expansion of knowledge for possible applications in personal and professional life. This research aims to evaluate the current course, while identifying ways to improve and strengthen the STS movement in education.

  3. The Discontinuity of Human Existence, Part I. The Fundamental Concepts of Human Existence and the Relation between the Singular and the Super Singular. No. 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

    The first in a series of three reports on philosophy of human existence focuses on human activity in the economic context, or more specifically, the role of the entrepreneur. A variety of treatments of entrepreneurship in the literature of economics and cognitive psychology are examined, and it is found that analyses of entrepreneurship are…

  4. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  5. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  6. Laser-assisted hatching in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, H

    1999-09-01

    The use of a 1.48 um diode laser for assisted hatching was investigated in animal experimentation. Laser assisted hatching was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit. Using the Fertilase(r) system we investigated the impact of openings with different size in the zona of mouse embryos on the hatching process, as well as that of two openings. Laser-drilling was performed at the blastocyst stage to look for differences in timing and efficacy of hatching. The possible benefit of assisted hatching was studied in 24 couples with advanced maternal age (38.8+2.1 years) and compared to a control group (37.8+2.5 years) treated in the same time period but without assisted hatching. A certain diameter of a laser drilled opening in the zona pellucida is necessary for efficient hatching. When two openings are present in the zona, the embryo will use both openings for hatching and subsequently become trapped. Laser-drilling at th e expanded blastocyst stage causes an immediate collapse of treated blastocysts and the onset of hatching is retarded. Assisted hatching in 24 patients with advanced maternal age resulted in a significant increase (plaser to drill an opening into the zona pellucida provides a good alternate to conventionally applied techniques. The procedure is efficient and safe as long as it is applied properly. In a human in vitro fertilization program, selected patients will have a benefit form assisted hatching.

  7. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  8. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  9. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  10. Concretization of essence of the concept "health" as a methodological basis for the practice of healing the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikheenko O.І.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions, signs and factors of health of organism of a man are considered. Formulated definitions of concept “health”. The ground of major signs is given, processes and phenomena which determine vital functions and predetermine the state of health. The holistic model of construction of organism is analysed. It is set that a health of man is a difficult multicomponent structure. It is well-proven that treatment can not be equated with making healthy. The complex of various facilities, directed on making healthy of corporalness, psychical, spiritual, cultural, social spheres of vital functions of man can provide most efficiency of health influence. It is marked that holistic approach is given by possibility it is correct to estimate the general state of man, role of health in his life and it is adequate to pick up the most effective methods of influence on an organism.

  11. Driver assistance for automatic parking; Fahrerassistenz zum automatischen Parken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanz, A. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Esslingen (Germany). Abt. Research E/E and Information Technologies]|[Siegen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Echtzeitlernsysteme

    2005-07-01

    In the future, driver assistance systems will continue to grow in importance in automobile manufacture. Car safety and comfort can be increased through their use. The increasing availability of by-wire technologies supports this trend. By complementing these technologies with environment-encompassing sensor systems, such as video, ultrasound or laser scanners, it is possible to realize further-reaching assistance functions. By means of interactions between high-performance software and computer hardware, it is now possible to inform, warn and even actively support the driver. Parking in parking spaces, along the side of the road, at home in the garage or in parking garages and subterranean garages is often a stressful activity. For this reason, the automobile industry has offered systems for a fairly long time which assist the driver in parking. Informational and active systems are currently available. The so-called parking assistance system is among the purely informational systems. By means of optical and acoustical signals, it warns the driver if the distance to an obstacle is too small. There is already a system available on the market which supports the driver during parking by means of a human-machine interface (HMI). The expected movement is calculated from the current steering angle. This is displayed in the camera image of a rear-area camera. This thesis presents an assistance system for automatic parking. A prototype autonomous parking concept was successfully implemented. A new sensor concept for environmental data acquisition and s system concept that realizes several typical parking scenarios is realized. This complete concept has been tested and demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Two kinds of physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartogh, Govert

    2017-08-23

    I argue that the concept 'physician-assisted suicide' covers two procedures that should be distinguished: giving someone access to humane means to end his own life, and taking co-responsibility for the safe and effective execution of that plan. In the first section I explain the distinction, in the following sections I show why it is important. To begin with I argue that we should expect the laws that permit these two kinds of 'assistance' to be different in their justificatory structure. Laws that permit giving access only presuppose that the right to self-determination implies a right to suicide, but laws that permit doctors to take co-responsibility may have to appeal to a principle of mercy or beneficence. Actually this difference in justificatory structure can to some extent be found in existing regulatory systems, though far from consistently. Finally I argue that if one recognizes a right to suicide, as Oregon and other American states implicitly do, and as the European Court of Human Rights has recently done explicitly, one is committed to permit the first kind of 'assistance' under some conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer, Maryam; Horvath, Hacsi; Mmeje, Okeoma; van der Poel, Sheryl; Semprini, Augusto E; Rutherford, George; Brown, Joelle

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Forty single-arm open-label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen. Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI. HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy. No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen among 3,994 women. Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women after 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen. Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission. Overall, 56.3% of couples (2,357/4,184) achieved a clinical pregnancy with the use of washed semen. Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help to further reduce the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Left Ventricular Assist Device and Resident Cardiac Stem Cells in Heart Failure: Human Heart’s Potential Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Peruzzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in Western countries, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. The impact of cardiovascular diseases is influenced by the ability to treat and assist patients surviving acute myocardial infarction (AMI, which has resulted in a nearly epidemic of chronic heart failure (HF, with roughly 5.8 million people with this diagnosis and about 500,000 new cases every year in the U.S.A. Irrespective of the etiology and despite the fact that recent advances in medical and surgical treatments of HF have led to better treatments, 50% of patients die within a month after AMI, and 50% of those with severe HF die within a year. From a pathophysiologic point of view the hemodynamic overload generated by AMI imposes mechanical and neurohormonal challenges on cardiac walls, initially triggering compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy, but eventually activating complex biological responses evolving into maladaptive remodeling, untreatable with conventional therapy.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, K.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Gobinath, C.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-03-01

    CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by microwave-assisted method and characterized by X-ray crystallography (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It exhibits hexagonal cubic structure with an average crystallite size of 27 nm. From the UV-Vis spectra, the bandgap is estimated as 2.92 eV. The fluorescence spectrum shows a near band edge emission at 422 nm. In addition the antibacterial activity of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was carried out in-vitro against two kinds of bacteria: gram negative bacteria (G -ve) i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and gram positive bacteria (G +ve): Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus spp. This study indicates the zone of inhibition of 40 mm has high antibacterial activity towards the gram positive bacterium S. aureus.

  16. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose mediated precipitation inhibition of sirolimus: from a screening campaign to a proof-of-concept human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševska, Marija; Homar, Miha; Petek, Boštjan; Resman, Aleksander; Kocjan, Darko; Urleb, Uroš; Peternel, Luka

    2013-06-03

    The aim of this study was to develop a sirolimus (BCS class II drug substance) solid oral dosage form containing a precipitation inhibitor, which would result in an improved sirolimus absorption in humans compared to the formulation containing nanosized sirolimus without a precipitation inhibitor, i.e., Rapamune. The selection of the precipitation inhibitor was based on the results of a screening campaign that identified two "hit" excipients: HPMC 603 (i.e., Pharmacoat 603) and Poloxamer 407. However, in a confirmatory precipitation inhibitor study using biorelevant media (Fa/FeSSIF) HPMC 603 more effectively inhibited sirolimus precipitation than Poloxamer 407. In the PAMPA assay, HPMC 603, but not Poloxamer 407, significantly increased the flux of the sirolimus across the membrane lipid layer. Additionally, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an infrared (IR) spectroscopy study revealed that interactions between the sirolimus and HPMC 603 were developed that could lead to the observed precipitation inhibition effect. Based on the above data, two formulations with HPMC 603-coated sirolimus particles were developed, namely, formulation A (d (0.5) = 0.21 μm) and formulation B (d (0.5) = 1.7 μm). A human pharmacokinetic study outlined that significantly higher AUC and Cmax were obtained for formulations A and B in comparison to Rapamune. This result could be attributed to the HPMC 603 (Pharmacoat 603) mediated sirolimus precipitation inhibition resulting in improved sirolimus absorption from the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

  17. Development and evaluation of an algorithm for the computer-assisted segmentation of the human hypothalamus on 7-Tesla magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie; Schönknecht, Peter; Schmidt, Laura; Anwander, Alfred; Strauß, Maria; Trampel, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Möller, Harald E; Hegerl, Ulrich; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Post mortem studies have shown volume changes of the hypothalamus in psychiatric patients. With 7T magnetic resonance imaging this effect can now be investigated in vivo in detail. To benefit from the sub-millimeter resolution requires an improved segmentation procedure. The traditional anatomical landmarks of the hypothalamus were refined using 7T T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. A detailed segmentation algorithm (unilateral hypothalamus) was developed for colour-coded, histogram-matched images, and evaluated in a sample of 10 subjects. Test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated in terms of intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) and Dice's coefficient (DC). The computer-assisted segmentation algorithm ensured test-retest reliabilities of ICC≥.97 (DC≥96.8) and inter-rater reliabilities of ICC≥.94 (DC = 95.2). There were no significant volume differences between the segmentation runs, raters, and hemispheres. The estimated volumes of the hypothalamus lie within the range of previous histological and neuroimaging results. We present a computer-assisted algorithm for the manual segmentation of the human hypothalamus using T1-weighted 7T magnetic resonance imaging. Providing very high test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities, it outperforms former procedures established at 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance images and thus can serve as a gold standard for future automated procedures.

  18. Development and evaluation of an algorithm for the computer-assisted segmentation of the human hypothalamus on 7-Tesla magnetic resonance images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schindler

    Full Text Available Post mortem studies have shown volume changes of the hypothalamus in psychiatric patients. With 7T magnetic resonance imaging this effect can now be investigated in vivo in detail. To benefit from the sub-millimeter resolution requires an improved segmentation procedure. The traditional anatomical landmarks of the hypothalamus were refined using 7T T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. A detailed segmentation algorithm (unilateral hypothalamus was developed for colour-coded, histogram-matched images, and evaluated in a sample of 10 subjects. Test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated in terms of intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC and Dice's coefficient (DC. The computer-assisted segmentation algorithm ensured test-retest reliabilities of ICC≥.97 (DC≥96.8 and inter-rater reliabilities of ICC≥.94 (DC = 95.2. There were no significant volume differences between the segmentation runs, raters, and hemispheres. The estimated volumes of the hypothalamus lie within the range of previous histological and neuroimaging results. We present a computer-assisted algorithm for the manual segmentation of the human hypothalamus using T1-weighted 7T magnetic resonance imaging. Providing very high test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities, it outperforms former procedures established at 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance images and thus can serve as a gold standard for future automated procedures.

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Algorithm for the Computer-Assisted Segmentation of the Human Hypothalamus on 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura; Anwander, Alfred; Strauß, Maria; Trampel, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Möller, Harald E.; Hegerl, Ulrich; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Post mortem studies have shown volume changes of the hypothalamus in psychiatric patients. With 7T magnetic resonance imaging this effect can now be investigated in vivo in detail. To benefit from the sub-millimeter resolution requires an improved segmentation procedure. The traditional anatomical landmarks of the hypothalamus were refined using 7T T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. A detailed segmentation algorithm (unilateral hypothalamus) was developed for colour-coded, histogram-matched images, and evaluated in a sample of 10 subjects. Test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated in terms of intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) and Dice's coefficient (DC). The computer-assisted segmentation algorithm ensured test-retest reliabilities of ICC≥.97 (DC≥96.8) and inter-rater reliabilities of ICC≥.94 (DC = 95.2). There were no significant volume differences between the segmentation runs, raters, and hemispheres. The estimated volumes of the hypothalamus lie within the range of previous histological and neuroimaging results. We present a computer-assisted algorithm for the manual segmentation of the human hypothalamus using T1-weighted 7T magnetic resonance imaging. Providing very high test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities, it outperforms former procedures established at 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance images and thus can serve as a gold standard for future automated procedures. PMID:23935821

  20. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  1. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown; Analys av maensklig tillfoerlitlighet. HRA-begreppets tillaempbarhet vid revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenius, Aino (MTO Psykologi AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-08-15

    monotonous work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  2. Assistive Technology Based on Robotics and Rise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; WANG Kaixuan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assistive technology based on robotics,rehabilitation robot and intelligent assistive devices.Domestic intelligence assistive devices include intelligent prosthetics,intelligent orthotics,intelligent walker,assistive devices for smart home environment control,intelligent life assistive devices; Domestic intelligent rehabilitation robot include upper limb rehabilitation robot,hand rehabilitation robot,lower limb rehabilitation robot,robotic smart wheelchair,intelligent nursing bed,daily care robot,the development trend of intelligent assistive devices and rehabilitation robot.

  3. Investigations of the lysophospholipid composition of human neutrophils under different stimulation conditions by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURGEN ARNHOLD

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS is usually used for the analyses of proteins, carbohydrates and oligonucleotides. In spite of the number of advantages that MALDI-TOF MS exhibits for lipid analysis, this method has not often been applied in this field. In this paper we have extended our previous studies on the suitability of MALDI-TOF MS for the investigation of changes in the content of lipid-derived second messengers in organic extracts of human neutrophils. Qualitative differences in the lysophospholipid composition in organic extracts of the human neutrophils under different stimulation conditions could be easily observed by MALDI-TOF MS. Although there are still some methodological problems to be solved before this method can be routinely applied for the quantification of different lipid classes in complex biological mixtures (such as organic extracts of human neutrophils it is shown here that MALDI-TOF MS possesses the capability to be used as a simple screening method for the investigation of the content of lipid-derived second messengers and of signalling pathways in cells.

  4. Rapid Profiling of Bovine and Human Milk Gangliosides by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; An, Hyun Joo; Lerno, Larry A; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2011-08-15

    Gangliosides are anionic glycosphingolipids widely distributed in vertebrate tissues and fluids. Their structural and quantitative expression patterns depend on phylogeny and are distinct down to the species level. In milk, gangliosides are exclusively associated with the milk fat globule membrane. They may participate in diverse biological processes but more specifically to host-pathogen interactions. However, due to the molecular complexities, the analysis needs extensive sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and even chemical reaction, which makes the process very complex and time-consuming. Here, we describe a rapid profiling method for bovine and human milk gangliosides employing matrix-assisted desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS). Prior to the analyses of biological samples, milk ganglioside standards GM3 and GD3 fractions were first analyzed in order to validate this method. High mass accuracy and high resolution obtained from MALDI FTICR MS allow for the confident assignment of chain length and degree of unsaturation of the ceramide. For the structural elucidation, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), specifically as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) were employed. Complex ganglioside mixtures from bovine and human milk were further analyzed with this method. The samples were prepared by two consecutive chloroform/methanol extraction and solid phase extraction. We observed a number of differences between bovine milk and human milk. The common gangliosides in bovine and human milk are NeuAc-NeuAc-Hex-Hex-Cer (GD3) and NeuAc-Hex-Hex-Cer (GM3); whereas, the ion intensities of ganglioside species are different between two milk samples. Kendrick mass defect plot yields grouping of ganglioside peaks according to their structural similarities. Gangliosides were further probed by tandem MS to confirm the compositional and structural assignments

  5. A concept of eliminating nonhomologous recombination for scalable and safe AAV vector generation for human gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Biao; Moore, Andrea R; Dai, Jihong; Roberts, Sean; Chu, Kirk; Kapranov, Philipp; Moss, Bernard; Xiao, Weidong

    2013-07-01

    Scalable and efficient production of high-quality recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) for gene therapy remains a challenge despite recent clinical successes. We developed a new strategy for scalable and efficient rAAV production by sequestering the AAV helper genes and the rAAV vector DNA in two different subcellular compartments, made possible by using cytoplasmic vaccinia virus as a carrier for the AAV helper genes. For the first time, the contamination of replication-competent AAV particles (rcAAV) can be completely eliminated in theory by avoiding ubiquitous nonhomologous recombination. Vector DNA can be integrated into the host genomes or delivered by a nuclear targeting vector such as adenovirus. In suspension HeLa cells, the achieved vector yield per cell is similar to that from traditional triple-plasmid transfection method. The rcAAV contamination was undetectable at the limit of our assay. Furthermore, this new concept can be used not only for production of rAAV, but also for other DNA vectors.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus drug development assisted with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors and binding-site models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yen-Wen; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Hsu, You-Ren; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Huang, Yu-Fen; Sun, Yuh-Chang; Chen, Chih-Chen; Chun Hung, Sheng; Ren, Fan; Andrew Yeh, J.; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-immobilized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and binding-site models were used to find out the dissociation constants of the HIV RT-inhibitor complex and the number of the binding sites on RT for the inhibitor, Efavirenz. One binding site on the RT for the inhibitor is predicted and the dissociation constant extracted from the binding-site model is 0.212 nM. The AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and the binding-site-models are demonstrated to be good tools to assist drug developments by elucidating the dissociation constants and the number of binding sites, which can largely reduce the cost and time for drug developments.

  7. Structural determination of the conjugate of human serum albumin with a mitomycin C derivative, KW-2149, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuzawa, T; Tomer, K B

    1997-01-01

    A new mitomycin C derivative, KW-2149, is known to form a covalent conjugate with human serum albumin (HSA). This conjugate exhibits 1/20 of the anticellular activity of unconjugated KW-2149. Structural studies of this conjugate were carried out using a combination of enzymatic digestion, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The tryptic peptide T5 (residues 21-41) was the only peptide found to be modified by KW-2149 moieties, the [(gamma-L-glutamylamino)ethyl]thio group or the (2-aminoethyl)thio group, through a disulfide bond. Although the latter peptide lost its mitomycin C moiety in the course of tryptic digestion, these data strongly suggest that KW-2149 was bound to Cys-34, the only free cysteine on HSA.

  8. Intuitive Direction Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klippel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and multiple spatial reasoning applications. We detail two experiments using two objects (airplanes systematically located in relation to each other. Participants performed a grouping task to make their intuitive direction concepts explicit. The results reveal an important, so far insufficiently discussed aspect of cognitive direction concepts: Intuitive (natural direction concepts do not follow a one-size-fits-all strategy. The behavioral data only forms a clear picture after participants' competing strategies are identified and separated into categories (groups themselves. The results are important for researchers and designers of spatial formalisms as they demonstrate that modeling cognitive direction concepts formally requires a flexible approach to capture group differences.

  9. 人类精液收集与处理技术改进%Sperm retrieval and preparation for human assisted conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾勇; 宋成; 张微

    2011-01-01

    @@ 辅助生殖技术中精子的准备是极其重要的一个环节.采集并分离得到高活力的精子是保证受孕成功的关键步骤,而精液的冷冻贮存是延续生育力的重要手段之一.目前,精子采集方法,各种精子分离技术和冷冻方式已广泛被临床采用.本文主要就从精液样本的采集、精子优选技术以及精液的冷冻贮存方式进行探讨.%In recent years, very few fields in modern medicine have changed as dramatically as reproductive medicine, especially for the new treatment of male infertility. The technical advances have provided successful treatments for those previously untreatable problems. Prior to a treatment cycle or simply for fertility preservation, the semen sample is retrieved and prepared appropriately. The choice of sperm collection and preparation method varies with the patient's characteristics, semen characteristics and different purposes. In this review, different kinds of sperm retrieval, sperm preparation and spermatozoa cryopreservation techniques are discussed.

  10. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  11. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2003-01-01

    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  12. First Human Use of a Radiopharmaceutical Prepared by Continuous-Flow Microfluidic Radiofluorination: Proof of Concept with the Tau Imaging Agent [18F]T807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive preclinical imaging with radiotracers developed by continuous-flow microfluidics, a positron emission tomographic (PET radiopharmaceutical has not been reported for human imaging studies by this technology. The goal of this study was to validate the synthesis of the tau radiopharmaceutical 7-(6-fluoropyridin-3-yl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole ([18F]T807 and perform first-in-human PET scanning enabled by microfluidic flow chemistry. [18F]T807 was synthesized by our modified one-step method and adapted to suit a commercial microfluidic flow chemistry module. For this proof of concept, the flow system was integrated to a GE Tracerlab FXFN unit for high-performance liquid chromatography purification and formulation. Three consecutive productions of [18F]T807 were conducted to validate this radiopharmaceutical. Uncorrected radiochemical yields of 17 ± 1% of crude [18F]T807 (≈ 500 mCi, radiochemical purity 95% were obtained from the microfluidic device. The crude material was then purified, and > 100 mCi of the final product was obtained in an overall uncorrected radiochemical yield of 5 ± 1% (n = 3, relative to starting [18F]fluoride (end of bombardment, with high radiochemical purity (≥ 99% and high specific activities (6 Ci/μmol in 100 minutes. A clinical research study was carried out with [18F]T807, representing the first reported human imaging study with a radiopharmaceutical prepared by this technology.

  13. Tobacco Causes Human Cancers--A Concept Founded on Epidemiology and an Insightful Experiment Now Requires Translation Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Lawrence A

    2016-02-15

    The recognition that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic led to the most significant and successful effort at reducing cancer incidence in human history. A major milestone of this effort was the publication in Cancer Research by Wynder and colleagues, which demonstrated the ability of tobacco tars to produce tumors in mice. This study provided a powerful link between the epidemiology of cancer and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This commentary asserts that we have a moral obligation to translate our success in reducing lung cancer in the United States to the 1.25 billion smokers throughout the rest of the world. See related article by Wynder et al., Cancer Res 1953;13:855-64.

  14. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  15. Transthoracic single port with peroral assistance: an animal experiment to assess a less invasive technique for human esophageal atresia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Soares, Tony R; Miranda, Alice; Moreira-Pinto, João; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia has becoming the gold standard in many centers because it allows a better cosmetic result and avoids the musculoskeletal sequelae of a thoracotomy. Natural orifice translumenal endocopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical paradigm, and its human application has already been started in some procedures. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of performing an esophagoesophageal anastomosis using a single transthoracic single port combined with a peroral access in a rabbit model to simulate repair of esophageal atresia by hybrid NOTES in a human newborn. Adult male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, n=28) were used to perform the surgical protocol. We used a transthoracic telescope with a 3-mm working channel and a flexible endoscope with a 2.2-mm working channel by peroral access. We performed total esophagotomy with peroral scissors followed by an esophagoesophageal anastomosis achieved with a rigid transthoracic scope helped by the peroral operator. Extracorporeal transthoracic knots were performed to complete the anastomosis. The anastomoses were examined in loco and ex loco, after animal sacrifice. We successfully accomplished a complete esophageal anastomosis in all rabbits using a combination of transthoracic and peroral 3-mm instruments. This study provides important insights for a possible translation of hybrid NOTES to human newborns with esophageal atresia. Forward studies to accomplish their feasibility in human newborns will still be necessary.

  16. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  17. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level.

  18. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs.Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants.While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both existing

  19. Soundscapes/Artabilitation - Evolution of a Hybrid Human Performance Concept, Method & Apparatus Where Digital Interactive Media, The Arts, & Entertainment are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. L.

    'SoundScapes' is a body of empirical research that for almost two decades has focused upon investigating noninvasive gesture control of multi-sensory stimuli and potential uses in therapy and the arts. In this context noninvasive gesture refers to motion in invisible activity zones of a system input device utilizing technology outside of human vision. Especially targeted are disabled people of all ages, and special focus has been on the profoundly impaired who especially have limited opportunities for creative self-articulation and playful interaction. The concept has been explored in various situations including: - live stage performances; interactive room installations for museums, workshops, and festivals; and in health-care sessions at hospitals, institutes and special schools. Multifaceted aspects continuously cross-inform in a systemic manner, and each situation where the motion-sensitive environment is applied is considered as a hybrid system. Whilst simplistic in concept, i.e. learning by playful and creative doings, inherent are complexities of optimizing the interactive system to user-experience and evaluation of same. This chapter presents the system in context to its conceived-for-target community; it also presents the parallel practice-led investigations in performance art. Reciprocal design and reflective cross-analysis of the activities has resulted such that performance informs design and strategies of intervention and evaluation with impaired users, and vice versa.

  20. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.