WorldWideScience

Sample records for human artificial episomal

  1. Generation of Footprint-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Using Episomal Plasmid Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Sun, Jane; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have provided novel insights into the etiology of disease and are set to transform regenerative medicine and drug screening over the next decade. The generation of human iPSCs free of a genetic footprint of the reprogramming process is crucial for the realization of these potential uses. Here we describe in detail the generation of human iPSC from control and disease-carrying individuals' fibroblasts using episomal plasmids.

  2. Practical Integration-Free Episomal Methods for Generating Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Cody; Rand, Tim A; Ivey, Kathryn N; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Tomoda, Kiichiro

    2015-10-06

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology has revolutionized biomedicine and basic research by yielding cells with embryonic stem (ES) cell-like properties. The use of iPS-derived cells for cell-based therapies and modeling of human disease holds great potential. While the initial description of iPS cells involved overexpression of four transcription factors via viral vectors that integrated within genomic DNA, advances in recent years by our group and others have led to safer and higher quality iPS cells with greater efficiency. Here, we describe commonly practiced methods for non-integrating induced pluripotent stem cell generation using nucleofection of episomal reprogramming plasmids. These methods are adapted from recent studies that demonstrate increased hiPS cell reprogramming efficacy with the application of three powerful episomal hiPS cell reprogramming factor vectors and the inclusion of an accessory vector expressing EBNA1. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  4. An episomal vector-based CRISPR/Cas9 system for highly efficient gene knockout in human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yifang; Wang, Daqi; Lan, Feng; Wei, Gang; Ni, Ting; Chai, Renjie; Liu, Dong; Hu, Shijun; Li, Mingqing; Li, Dajin; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yongming

    2017-05-24

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a unique opportunity for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying complex traits and diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful tool to introduce genetic mutations into the hPSCs for loss-of-function studies. Here, we developed an episomal vector-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, which we called epiCRISPR, for highly efficient gene knockout in hPSCs. The epiCRISPR system enables generation of up to 100% Insertion/Deletion (indel) rates. In addition, the epiCRISPR system enables efficient double-gene knockout and genomic deletion. To minimize off-target cleavage, we combined the episomal vector technology with double-nicking strategy and recent developed high fidelity Cas9. Thus the epiCRISPR system offers a highly efficient platform for genetic analysis in hPSCs.

  5. Repair of 8-methoxypsoralen + UVA-induced damage in specific sequences in chromosomal and episomal DNA in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, S.W.

    1989-07-01

    A study of the repair of DNA damage in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene of SV40-transformed human fibroblasts after treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and UVA is described. 8MOP+UVA-induced cross-links in the dhfr gene were completely repaired by 12 h in one normal and one Fanconi's anaemia (FA) group A cell line. In contrast, approximately 35% of cross-links in an episomally maintained Epstein--Barr virus derived plasmid remained unrepaired even after 48 h. Cross-linkable monoadducts in the dhfr gene were repaired more slowly than cross-links, and there was no detectable repair of cross-linkable monoadducts in the plasmid. Thus the ability of a cell to repair 8MOP+UVA-induced cross-links or cross-linkable monoadducts in an episome does not reflect its capacity to repair such lesions in genomic DNA.

  6. Repair of 8-methoxypsoralen + UVA-induced damage in specific sequences in chromosomal and episomal DNA in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the repair of DNA damage in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene of SV40-transformed human fibroblasts after treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and UVA is described. 8MOP+UVA-induced cross-links in the dhfr gene were completely repaired by 12 h in one normal and one Fanconi's anaemia (FA) group A cell line. In contrast, ∼35% of cross-links in an episomally maintained Epstein-Barr virus derived plasmid remained unrepaired even after 48 h. Cross-linkable monoadducts in the dhfr gene were repaired more slowly than cross-links, and there was no detectable repair of cross-linkable monoadducts in the plasmid. Thus the ability of a cell to repair 8MOP+UVA-induced cross-links or cross-linkable monoadducts in an episome does not reflect its capacity to repair such lesions in genomic DNA. (author)

  7. Identification of a 450-bp region of human papillomavirus type 1 that promotes episomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Schmidt, Martin C.; Khan, Saleem A.

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate as nuclear plasmids in infected cells. Since the DNA replication machinery is generally conserved between humans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied whether HPV-1 DNA can replicate in yeast. Plasmids containing a selectable marker (with or without a yeast centromere) and either the full-length HPV-1 genome or various regions of the viral long control region (LCR) and the 3' end of the L1 gene were introduced into S. cerevisiae and their ability to replicate episomally was investigated. Our results show that HPV-1 sequences promote episomal replication of plasmids although the yeast centromere is required for plasmid retention. We have mapped the autonomously replicating sequence activity of HPV-1 DNA to a 450 base-pair sequence (HPV-1 nt 6783-7232) that includes 293 nucleotides from the 5' region of the viral LCR and 157 nucleotides from the 3' end of the L1 gene. The HPV-1 ARS does not include the binding sites for the viral E1 and E2 proteins, and these proteins are dispensable for replication in S. cerevisiae

  8. Conversion of adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into induced neural stem cell by using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (NSCs hold great promise for research and therapy in neural diseases. Many studies have shown direct induction of NSCs from human fibroblasts, which require an invasive skin biopsy and a prolonged period of expansion in cell culture prior to use. Peripheral blood (PB is routinely used in medical diagnoses, and represents a noninvasive and easily accessible source of cells. Here we show direct derivation of NSCs from adult human PB mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery. These induced NSCs (iNSCs can expand more than 60 passages, can exhibit NSC morphology, gene expression, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capability and can give rise to multiple functional neural subtypes and glial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the iNSCs carry a specific regional identity and have electrophysiological activity upon differentiation. Our findings provide an easily accessible approach for generating human iNSCs which will facilitate disease modeling, drug screening, and possibly regenerative medicine.

  9. Replication of chromosomal and episomal DNA in X-ray-damaged human cells: A cis- or trans-acting mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Rose, R.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Episomal plasmids and viruses in mammalian cells present small targets for X-ray-induced DNA damage. At doses up to 100 Gy, DNA strand breaks or endonuclease III-sensitive sites were not discernible in 10.3-kb Epstein-Barr virus-based plasmid DNA or in 4.9-kb defective simian virus 40 DNA. DNA replication in these small molecules, however, was inhibited strongly by X-ray doses of greater than or equal to 20 Gy, decreasing to only 20 to 40% of control values. Inhibition was relieved slightly by growth in caffeine but was increased by growth in 3-aminobenzamide. Inhibition of DNA replication in episomal DNA molecules that are too small to sustain significant damage directly to their DNA may be due to either (a) a trans-acting diffusible factor that transfers the consequences of DNA breakage to episomes and to other replicating molecules, (b) a cis-acting mechanism in which episomes are structurally linked to genomic chromatin, and replication of both episomal and chromosomal replicons is under common control, or (c) radiation damage on other cellular structures unrelated to DNA. The resolution of these cellular mechanisms may shed light on the X-ray-resistant replication in ataxia-telangiectasia and may suggest strategies for molecular characterization of potential trans- or cis-acting factors

  10. Efficient generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells from keratinocytes by simple transfection of episomal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yulan; Hung, Sandy Shen-Chi; Lim, Shiang Y; Wong, Raymond Ching-Bong; Ko, Minoru S H

    2014-07-01

    Keratinocytes represent an easily accessible cell source for derivation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells, reportedly achieving higher reprogramming efficiency than fibroblasts. However, most studies utilized a retroviral or lentiviral method for reprogramming of keratinocytes, which introduces undesirable transgene integrations into the host genome. Moreover, current protocols of generating integration-free hiPS cells from keratinocytes are mostly inefficient. In this paper, we describe a more efficient, simple-to-use, and cost-effective method for generating integration-free hiPS cells from keratinocytes. Our improved method using lipid-mediated transfection achieved a reprogramming efficiency of ∼0.14% on average. Keratinocyte-derived hiPS cells showed no integration of episomal vectors, expressed stem cell-specific markers and possessed potentials to differentiate into all three germ layers by in vitro embryoid body formation as well as in vivo teratoma formation. To our knowledge, this represents the most efficient method to generate integration-free hiPS cells from keratinocytes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Intrinsic Stability of Episomal Circles Formed during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, TheodoreC.; Kieffer, Tara L.; Ruff, Christian T.; Buck, Christopher; Gange, Stephen J.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of surrogate markers capable of detecting residual ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy is an important step in understanding viral dynamics and in developing new treatment strategies. In this study, we evaluated the utility of circular forms of the viral genome for the detection of recent infection of cells by HIV-1. We measured the fate of both one-long terminal repeat (1-LTR) and 2-LTR circles following in vitro infection of logarithmically growing CD4+ T cells under conditions in which cell death was not a significant contributing factor. Circular forms of the viral genome were found to be highly stable and to decrease in concentration only as a function of dilution resulting from cell division. We conclude that these DNA circles are not intrinsically unstable in all cell types and suggest that the utility of 2-LTR circle assays in measuring recent HIV-1 infection of susceptible cells in vivo needs to be reevaluated. PMID:11907256

  12. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamecka, Jaroslav; Salimova, Lilia; McClellan, Steven; van Kelle, Mathieu; Kehl, Debora; Laurini, Javier; Cinelli, Paolo; Owen, Laurie; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Weber, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to rapidly and efficiently reacquire pluripotency which together with their easy recovery makes them an attractive cell source for reprogramming. The reprogramming process as well as the resulting iPSC epigenome could potentially benefit from the unspecialized nature of AFSC. iPSC derived from AFSC also have potential in disease modeling, such as Down syndrome or β-thalassemia. Previous experiments involving AFSC reprogramming have largely relied on integrative vector transgene delivery and undefined serum-containing, feeder-dependent culture. Here, we describe non-integrative oriP/EBNA-1 episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of AFSC into iPSC and culture in fully chemically defined xeno-free conditions represented by vitronectin coating and E8 medium, a system that we found uniquely suited for this purpose. The derived AF-iPSC lines uniformly expressed a set of pluripotency markers Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 in a pattern typical for human primed PSC. Additionally, the cells formed teratomas, and were deemed pluripotent by PluriTest, a global expression microarray-based in-silico pluripotency assay. However, we found that the PluriTest scores were borderline, indicating a unique pluripotent signature in the defined condition. In the light of potential future clinical translation of iPSC technology, non-integrating reprogramming and chemically defined culture are more acceptable.

  13. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells

  14. Identification of episomal human papillomavirus and other DNA viruses in cytological anal samples of HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Donà

    Full Text Available To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation. HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%, in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5% mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples, MCPyV (5 samples and TTV (4 samples were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed.

  15. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  16. Human-Level Artificial Intelligence? Be Serious!

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    2005-01-01

    I claim that achieving real human-level artificial intelligence would necessarily imply that most of the tasks that humans perform for pay could be automated. Rather than work toward this goal of automation by building special-purpose systems, I argue for the development of general-purpose, educable systems that can learn and be taught to perform any of the thousands of jobs that humans can perform. Joining others who have made similar proposals, I advocate beginning with a system that has mi...

  17. Artificial neural network detects human uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Maksimenko, Vladimir A.; Makarov, Vladimir V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Garcia-Prieto, Juan; Antón-Toro, Luis Fernando; Maestú, Fernando; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2018-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are known to be a powerful tool for data analysis. They are used in social science, robotics, and neurophysiology for solving tasks of classification, forecasting, pattern recognition, etc. In neuroscience, ANNs allow the recognition of specific forms of brain activity from multichannel EEG or MEG data. This makes the ANN an efficient computational core for brain-machine systems. However, despite significant achievements of artificial intelligence in recognition and classification of well-reproducible patterns of neural activity, the use of ANNs for recognition and classification of patterns in neural networks still requires additional attention, especially in ambiguous situations. According to this, in this research, we demonstrate the efficiency of application of the ANN for classification of human MEG trials corresponding to the perception of bistable visual stimuli with different degrees of ambiguity. We show that along with classification of brain states associated with multistable image interpretations, in the case of significant ambiguity, the ANN can detect an uncertain state when the observer doubts about the image interpretation. With the obtained results, we describe the possible application of ANNs for detection of bistable brain activity associated with difficulties in the decision-making process.

  18. Chromatin Structure of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Episomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    EBV latent infection is characterized by a highly restricted pattern of viral gene expression. EBV can establish latent infections in multiple different tissue types with remarkable variation and plasticity in viral transcription and replication. During latency, the viral genome persists as a multi-copy episome, a non-integrated-closed circular DNA with nucleosome structure similar to cellular chromosomes. Chromatin assembly and histone modifications contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression, DNA replication, and episome persistence during latency. This review focuses on how EBV latency is regulated by chromatin and its associated processes.

  19. Fluorescent tagged episomals for stoichiometric induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher E; Morales, Blanca M; Schmitz, Ellen M H; Hawkins, John S; Lizama, Carlos O; Zape, Joan P; Hsiao, Edward C; Zovein, Ann C

    2017-06-05

    Non-integrating episomal vectors have become an important tool for induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. The episomal vectors carrying the "Yamanaka reprogramming factors" (Oct4, Klf, Sox2, and L-Myc + Lin28) are critical tools for non-integrating reprogramming of cells to a pluripotent state. However, the reprogramming process remains highly stochastic, and is hampered by an inability to easily identify clones that carry the episomal vectors. We modified the original set of vectors to express spectrally separable fluorescent proteins to allow for enrichment of transfected cells. The vectors were then tested against the standard original vectors for reprogramming efficiency and for the ability to enrich for stoichiometric ratios of factors. The reengineered vectors allow for cell sorting based on reprogramming factor expression. We show that these vectors can assist in tracking episomal expression in individual cells and can select the reprogramming factor dosage. Together, these modified vectors are a useful tool for understanding the reprogramming process and improving induced pluripotent stem cell isolation efficiency.

  20. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.

  1. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN INTUITION TOWARDS ARTIFICIAL INTUITION SYNTHESIS FOR ROBOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Diaz-Hernandez; Victor J. Gonzalez-Villela

    2017-01-01

    Human intuition is an unconscious mental process aimed to solve problems without using a rational decision-making process. Meanwhile, the artificial intuition is a limited representation of human intuition, and it models intuitive ability of solving problems in order to be implemented in machines. In this work, we performed an analysis about analogies between human and artificial intuition using INPUTS, PROCESSING, and OUTPUTS. Mainly, we have focused on synthetize algorithms that improve rob...

  2. Design of artificial human joints & organs

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the design science and methodology of artificial joints and organs.  It presents the mechanical characterization of the hard and soft tissues as well as the viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  3. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Frozen Buffy Coats using Non-integrating Episomal Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Zanon, Alessandra; Lavdas, Alexandros A; Schwienbacher, Christine; Silipigni, Rosamaria; Di Segni, Marina; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Rossini, Alessandra

    2015-06-05

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by forcing the expression of four transcription factors (Oct-4, Sox-2, Klf-4, and c-Myc), typically expressed by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Due to their similarity with hESCs, iPSCs have become an important tool for potential patient-specific regenerative medicine, avoiding ethical issues associated with hESCs. In order to obtain cells suitable for clinical application, transgene-free iPSCs need to be generated to avoid transgene reactivation, altered gene expression and misguided differentiation. Moreover, a highly efficient and inexpensive reprogramming method is necessary to derive sufficient iPSCs for therapeutic purposes. Given this need, an efficient non-integrating episomal plasmid approach is the preferable choice for iPSC derivation. Currently the most common cell type used for reprogramming purposes are fibroblasts, the isolation of which requires tissue biopsy, an invasive surgical procedure for the patient. Therefore, human peripheral blood represents the most accessible and least invasive tissue for iPSC generation. In this study, a cost-effective and viral-free protocol using non-integrating episomal plasmids is reported for the generation of iPSCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) obtained from frozen buffy coats after whole blood centrifugation and without density gradient separation.

  4. Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Weldon, L; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1977-09-17

    A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.

  5. Human-in-the-loop Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Zanzotto, Fabio Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Little by little, newspapers are revealing the bright future that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is building. Intelligent machines will help everywhere. However, this bright future has a dark side: a dramatic job market contraction before its unpredictable transformation. Hence, in a near future, large numbers of job seekers will need financial support while catching up with these novel unpredictable jobs. This possible job market crisis has an antidote inside. In fact, the rise of AI is sustai...

  6. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper.

  7. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper

  8. Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Based on Biomechanical Characteristics of Human Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the pneumatic artificial muscles based on biomechanical characteristics of human muscles. A wearable device and a rehabilitation robot that assist a human muscle should have characteristics similar to those of human muscle. In addition, since the wearable device and the rehabilitation robot should be light, an actuator with a high power to weight ratio is needed. At present, the McKibben type is widely used as an artificial muscle, but in fact its physical model is highly nonlinear. Therefore, an artificial muscle actuator has been developed in which high-strength carbon fibres have been built into the silicone tube. However, its contraction rate is smaller than the actual biological muscles. On the other hand, if an artificial muscle that contracts axially is installed in a robot as compactly as the robot hand, big installing space is required. Therefore, an artificial muscle with a high contraction rate and a tendon-driven system as a compact actuator were developed, respectively. In this study, we report on the basic structure and basic characteristics of two types of actuators.

  9. Sex Robots: Between Human and Artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Despite a surplus of human beings in the world, new estimates total 7 and a half billion, we appear to be at the start of an attachment crisis - a crisis in how human beings make intimate relationships. Enter the sex robots, built out of the bodies of sex dolls to help humans, particularly males escape their inability to connect. What does the rise of sex robots tell us about the way that women and girls are imagined, are they persons or property? And to what extent is porn, prostitution and ...

  10. Body, thought, being-human and artificial intelligence: Merleau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus then shifts to Merleau-Ponty in order to demonstrate the remarkable extent to which his understanding of human embodiment and related issues such as perception and creativity, paved the way for the work of, among others, Lyotard, and anticipated the critique of artificial intelligence on the part of the latter.

  11. Artificial learners adopting normative conventions from human teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederborg Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey provides an overview of implemented systems, theoretical work, as well as studies of biological systems relevant to the design of artificial learners trying to figure out what a human teacher would like them to do. Implementations of artificial learners are covered, with a focus on experiments trying to find better interpretations of human behavior, as well as algorithms that autonomously improve a model of the teacher. A distinction is made between learners trying to interpret teacher behavior in order to learn what the teacher would like the learner to do on the one hand, and learners whose explicit or implicit goal is to get something from the teacher on the other hand (for example rewards, or knowledge about how the world works. The survey covers the former type of systems. Human teachers are covered, focusing on studies that say something concrete about how one should interpret the behavior of a human teacher that is interacting with an artificial learner. Certain types of biological learners are interesting as inspiration for the types of artificial systems we are concerned with. The survey focus on studies of biological learners adopting normative conventions, as well as joint intentionality team efforts.

  12. Artificial muscle: the human chimera is the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, P

    2011-12-14

    Severe heart failure and cerebral stroke are broadly associated with the impairment of muscular function that conventional treatments struggle to restore. New technologies enable the construction of "smart" materials that could be of great help in treating diseases where the main problem is muscle weakness. These materials "behave" similarly to biological systems, because the material directly converts energy, for example electrical energy into movement. The extension and contraction occur silently like in natural muscles. The real challenge is to transfer this amazing technology into devices that restore or replace the mechanical function of failing muscle. Cardiac assist devices based on artificial muscle technology could envelope a weak heart and temporarily improve its systolic function, or, if placed on top of the atrium, restore the atrial kick in chronic atrial fibrillation. Artificial sphincters could be used to treat urinary incontinence after prostatectomy or faecal incontinence associated with stomas. Artificial muscles can restore the ability of patients with facial paralysis due to stroke or nerve injury to blink. Smart materials could be used to construct an artificial oesophagus including peristaltic movement and lower oesophageal sphincter function to replace the diseased oesophagus thereby avoiding the need for laparotomy to mobilise stomach or intestine. In conclusion, in the near future, smart devices will integrate with the human body to fill functional gaps due to organ failure, and so create a human chimera.

  13. Static human face recognition using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, R.; Shah, S.H.; Javed-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of human face recognition using digital computers. A digital PC camera is used to take the BMP images of the human faces. An artificial neural network using Back Propagation Algorithm is developed as a recognition engine. The BMP images of the faces serve as the input patterns for this engine. A software 'Face Recognition' has been developed to recognize the human faces for which it is trained. Once the neural network is trained for patterns of the faces, the software is able to detect and recognize them with success rate of about 97%. (author)

  14. AKT1 loss correlates with episomal HPV16 in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arucha L Ekeowa-Anderson

    Full Text Available Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV, particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma- PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC. We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy.

  15. Artificial intelligence in medicine: humans need not apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprose, William; Buist, Nicholas

    2016-05-06

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field with a wide range of applications. Driven by economic constraints and the potential to reduce human error, we believe that over the coming years AI will perform a significant amount of the diagnostic and treatment decision-making traditionally performed by the doctor. Humans would continue to be an important part of healthcare delivery, but in many situations, less expensive fit-for-purpose healthcare workers could be trained to 'fill the gaps' where AI are less capable. As a result, the role of the doctor as an expensive problem-solver would become redundant.

  16. Automation of gender determination in human canines using artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender determination is an important aspect of the identification process. The tooth represents a part of the human body that indicates the nature of sexual dimorphism. Artificial intelligence enables computers to perform to the same standard the same tasks as those carried out by humans. Several methods of classification exist within an artificial intelligence approach to identifying sexual dimorphism in canines. Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the respective accuracy of the Naive Bayes, decision tree, and multi-layer perceptron (MLP methods in identifying sexual dimorphism in canines. Methods: A sample of results derived from 100 measurements of the diameter of mesiodistal, buccolingual, and diagonal upper and lower canine jaw models of both genders were entered into an application computer program that implements the algorithm (MLP. The analytical process was conducted by the program to obtain a classification model with testing being subsequently carried out in order to obtain 50 new measurement results, 25 each for males and females. A comparative analysis was conducted on the program-generated information. Results: The accuracy rate of the Naive Bayes method was 82%, while that of the decision tree and MLP amounted to 84%. The MLP method had an absolute error value lower than that of its decision tree counterpart. Conclusion: The use of artificial intelligence methods produced a highly accurate identification process relating to the gender determination of canine teeth. The most appropriate method was the MLP with an accuracy rate of 84%.

  17. Determination of the Physical Status (Episomal/Integral of HPV by qPCR in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Soheili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cervical cancer, the carcinogenic mechanism of human papillomavirus (HPV occurs through the integration of viral DNA into the host genome. This process initiates with a disruption in the E2 open reading frame (ORF of the viral genome. Disruption of E2 ORF results in an increased expression of the viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, by removal of E2 suppression effect on their promoters. E6 and E7 interfere with the normal cell cycle by degrading the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins, respectively. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the physical status (episomal/integral of HPV genome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Materials and Methods: The rate of copy numbers of E2 and E6 genes in HPV-18 and HPV-16 positive samples were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to assess the physical status (episomal/integral of HPV. DNA extracts from HeLa cell line were used as the positive control. Results: The E2 gene was detected in 1 sample, co-infected with HPV-16 and HPV-18. While, E6 gene was detected in all 11 HPV positive samples. The qPCR analysis showed the presence of integrated form of viral DNA in all HPV positive samples and only 1 mixed episomal-integrated form was detected. Conclusion: The presence of integrated forms of high risk HPV-16 and HPV-18 genomes might reflect a crucial process towards malignant transformation of ESCC.

  18. Principles of calcite dissolution in human and artificial otoconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Erik Walther

    Full Text Available Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes in human otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution of human and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV.

  19. Structural and Functional Basis for an EBNA1 Hexameric Ring in Epstein-Barr Virus Episome Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakyne, Julianna S; Malecka, Kimberly A; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a stable latent infection that can persist for the life of the host. EBNA1 is required for the replication, maintenance, and segregation of the latent episome, but the structural features of EBNA1 that confer each of these functions are not completely understood. Here, we have solved the X-ray crystal structure of an EBNA1 DNA-binding domain (DBD) and discovered a novel hexameric ring oligomeric form. The oligomeric interface pivoted around residue T585 as a joint that links and stabilizes higher-order EBNA1 complexes. Substitution mutations around the interface destabilized higher-order complex formation and altered the cooperative DNA-binding properties of EBNA1. Mutations had both positive and negative effects on EBNA1-dependent DNA replication and episome maintenance with OriP. We found that one naturally occurring polymorphism in the oligomer interface (T585P) had greater cooperative DNA binding in vitro , minor defects in DNA replication, and pronounced defects in episome maintenance. The T585P mutant was compromised for binding to OriP in vivo as well as for assembling the origin recognition complex subunit 2 (ORC2) and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at OriP. The T585P mutant was also compromised for forming stable subnuclear foci in living cells. These findings reveal a novel oligomeric structure of EBNA1 with an interface subject to naturally occurring polymorphisms that modulate EBNA1 functional properties. We propose that EBNA1 dimers can assemble into higher-order oligomeric structures important for diverse functions of EBNA1. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is a human gammaherpesvirus that is causally associated with various cancers. Carcinogenic properties are linked to the ability of the virus to persist in the latent form for the lifetime of the host. EBNA1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is consistently expressed in EBV tumors and is the only viral protein required to maintain the viral

  20. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Influence of artificial shock absorbers on human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshin, A; Wosk, J

    1981-10-01

    The effect of artificial shock absorbers on the human gait and the technique for its quantitative evaluation have been studied. The results obtained have shown that viscoelastic inserts reduced the amplitude of the incoming shock waves bearing upon the musculoskeletal system as a result of the heel strike, by 42 percent (mean value). Conservative treatment, using such inserts for patients with different clinical symptoms of degenerative joint diseases, has shown excellent results. Seventy-eight percent of the clinical symptoms disappeared, while satisfactory improvement was reported in 17 percent of the subjects.

  2. Episomal Nonviral Gene Therapy Vectors Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in a Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Current attempts at gene therapy for FH have been limited by the use of strong heterologous promoters which lack genomic DNA elements essential for regulated expression. Here, we have combined a minigene vector expressing the human LDLR cDNA from a 10 kb native human LDLR locus genomic DNA promoter element, with an efficient miRNA targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, to further enhance LDLR expression. We show that the combined vector suppresses endogenous Hmgcr transcripts in vivo, leading to an increase in LDLR transgene expression. In a diet-induced Ldlr-/- mouse model of FH, we show that administration of the combined vector reduces atherogenic plasma lipids by ≃32%. Finally, we demonstrate that our episomal nonviral vectors are able to reduce atherosclerosis by ≃40% after 12 weeks in vivo. Taken together, the vector system we describe exploits the normal cellular regulation of the LDLR to provide prolonged expression of LDLR through targeted knockdown of Hmgcr. This novel gene therapy system could act alone, or in synergy with current therapies that modulate intracellular cholesterol, such as statins, greatly enhancing its therapeutic application for FH.

  3. Bionic Humans Using EAP as Artificial Muscles Reality and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the idea of a human with bionic muscles immediately conjures up science fiction images of a TV series superhuman character that was implanted with bionic muscles and portrayed with strength and speed far superior to any normal human. As fantastic as this idea may seem, recent developments in electroactive polymers (EAP may one day make such bionics possible. Polymers that exhibit large displacement in response to stimulation that is other than electrical signal were known for many years. Initially, EAP received relatively little attention due to their limited actuation capability. However, in the recent years, the view of the EAP materials has changed due to the introduction of effective new materials that significantly surpassed the capability of the widely used piezoelectric polymer, PVDF. As this technology continues to evolve, novel mechanisms that are biologically inspired are expected to emerge. EAP materials can potentially provide actuation with lifelike response and more flexible configurations. While further improvements in performance and robustness are still needed, there already have been several reported successes. In recognition of the need for cooperation in this multidisciplinary field, the author initiated and organized a series of international forums that are leading to a growing number of research and development projects and to great advances in the field. In 1999, he challenged the worldwide science and engineering community of EAP experts to develop a robotic arm that is actuated by artificial muscles to win a wrestling match against a human opponent. In this paper, the field of EAP as artificial muscles will be reviewed covering the state of the art, the challenges and the vision for the progress in future years.

  4. From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Salles, Christian; Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joeel; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

  5. Plasticity of DNA replication initiation in Epstein-Barr virus episomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Norio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, the activity of the sites of initiation of DNA replication appears to be influenced epigenetically, but this regulation is not fully understood. Most studies of DNA replication have focused on the activity of individual initiation sites, making it difficult to evaluate the impact of changes in initiation activity on the replication of entire genomic loci. Here, we used single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD to study the latent duplication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV episomes in human cell lines. We found that initiation sites are present throughout the EBV genome and that their utilization is not conserved in different EBV strains. In addition, SMARD shows that modifications in the utilization of multiple initiation sites occur across large genomic regions (tens of kilobases in size. These observations indicate that individual initiation sites play a limited role in determining the replication dynamics of the EBV genome. Long-range mechanisms and the genomic context appear to play much more important roles, affecting the frequency of utilization and the order of activation of multiple initiation sites. Finally, these results confirm that initiation sites are extremely redundant elements of the EBV genome. We propose that these conclusions also apply to mammalian chromosomes.

  6. HACking the centromere chromatin code: insights from human artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jan H; Martins, Nuno M C; Larionov, Vladimir; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C

    2012-07-01

    The centromere is a specialized chromosomal region that serves as the assembly site of the kinetochore. At the centromere, CENP-A nucleosomes form part of a chromatin landscape termed centrochromatin. This chromatin environment conveys epigenetic marks regulating kinetochore formation. Recent work sheds light on the intricate relationship between centrochromatin state, the CENP-A assembly pathway and the maintenance of centromere function. Here, we review the emerging picture of how chromatin affects mammalian kinetochore formation. We place particular emphasis on data obtained from Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) biology and the targeted engineering of centrochromatin using synthetic HACs. We discuss implications of these findings, which indicate that a delicate balance of histone modifications and chromatin state dictates both de novo centromere formation and the maintenance of centromere identity in dividing cell populations.

  7. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  8. Integrating artificial and human intelligence into tablet production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data.

  9. pEPito: a significantly improved non-viral episomal expression vector for mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogris Manfred

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The episomal replication of the prototype vector pEPI-1 depends on a transcription unit starting from the constitutively expressed Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV-IEP and directed into a 2000 bp long matrix attachment region sequence (MARS derived from the human β-interferon gene. The original pEPI-1 vector contains two mammalian transcription units and a total of 305 CpG islands, which are located predominantly within the vector elements necessary for bacterial propagation and known to be counterproductive for persistent long-term transgene expression. Results Here, we report the development of a novel vector pEPito, which is derived from the pEPI-1 plasmid replicon but has considerably improved efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. The pEPito vector is significantly reduced in size, contains only one transcription unit and 60% less CpG motives in comparison to pEPI-1. It exhibits major advantages compared to the original pEPI-1 plasmid, including higher transgene expression levels and increased colony-forming efficiencies in vitro, as well as more persistent transgene expression profiles in vivo. The performance of pEPito-based vectors was further improved by replacing the CMV-IEP with the human CMV enhancer/human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter (hCMV/EF1P element that is known to be less affected by epigenetic silencing events. Conclusions The novel vector pEPito can be considered suitable as an improved vector for biotechnological applications in vitro and for non-viral gene delivery in vivo.

  10. DEVELOPING A HUMAN CONTROLLED MODEL FOR SAFE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Utku

    2018-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is known as one of the most effective research field of nowadays and the future. But rapid rise of Artificial Intelligence and its potential to solve all real world problems autonomously, it has caused also several anxieties. Some scientists think that intelligent systems can reach to a level, which is dangerous for the humankind so because of that some precautions should be taken. So, many sub-research fields like Machine Ethics or Artificial Intelligence Safety have ...

  11. An overview of artificial gravity. [effects on human performance and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The unique characteristics of artificial gravity that affect human performance and physiology in an artificial gravity environment are reviewed. The rate at which these unique characteristics change decreases very rapidly with increasing radius of a rotating vehicle used to produce artificial gravity. Reducing their influence on human performance or physiology by increasing radius becomes a situation of very rapidly diminishing returns. A review of several elements of human performance has developed criteria relative to the sundry characteristics of artificial gravity. A compilation of these criteria indicates that the maximum acceptable rate of rotation, leg heaviness while walking, and material handling are the factors that define the minimum acceptable radius. The ratio of Coriolis force to artificial weight may also be significant. Based on current knowledge and assumptions for the various criteria, a minimum radius between 15.2 and 16.8 m seems desirable.

  12. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  13. Human Brain inspired Artificial Intelligence & Developmental Robotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the developments in the field of the robotics, fascinating contributions and developments can be seen in the field of Artificial intelligence (AI. In this paper we will discuss about the developments is the field of artificial intelligence focusing learning algorithms inspired from the field of Biology, particularly large scale brain simulations, and developmental Psychology. We will focus on the emergence of the Developmental robotics and its significance in the field of AI.

  14. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  15. The use of artificial neural network to evaluate the effects of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of artificial neural network to evaluate the effects of human and physiographic factors on forest stock volume. ... stock volume and human factors in certain topography conditions and provides useful information for the acceptable amount of standing inventory using the present human population in future experiment.

  16. Sensory feedback in artificial control of human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial motor control systems may reduce the handicap of motor impaired individuals. Sensors are essential components in feedback control of these systems and in the information exchange with the user. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the applications of sensors in the

  17. Human technology after cardiac epigenesis. Artificial heart versus cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losman, J G

    1977-09-24

    Cardiovascular disease is the chief cause of death in technologically advanced countries and accounts for more than 50% of all deaths in the USA. For a patient with end-stage cardiac failure the only treatment presently available is organ replacement, either by transplantation or by the use of a mechanical heart. Transplantation has demonstrated its value: survival of more than 8 years and restoration of a normal quality of life to patients who were in end-stage cardiac decompensation. However, the prospect of routine clinical application of an artificial heart remains distant. The development of a totally implantable artificial heart still presents a series of challenging engineering problems with regard to strict constraints of size, weight, blood-material compatibility, adaptability of output to demand, efficiency and reliability of the power supply, and safety if nuclear fuel is used. The totally artificial heart is presently not an alternative to the cardiac allograft, but could provide short-term support for patients awaiting cardiac transplantation.

  18. Induction of genomic instability and activation of autophagy in artificial human aneuploid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyoshi, Kentaro [Hirosaki University, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564 (Japan); Miura, Tomisato; Kasai, Kosuke; Fujishima, Yohei [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564 (Japan); Oshimura, Mitsuo [Chromosome Engineering Research Center (CERC), Tottori University, Nishicho 86, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Mitsuaki A., E-mail: ariyoshi@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Hirosaki University, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Clones with artificial aneuploidy of chromosome 8 or chromosome 22 both show inhibited proliferation and genomic instability. • Increased autophagy was observed in the artificially aneuploid clones. • Inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased genomic instability and DNA damage. • Intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were up-regulated in the artificially aneuploid clones. - Abstract: Chromosome missegregation can lead to a change in chromosome number known as aneuploidy. Although aneuploidy is a known hallmark of cancer cells, the various mechanisms by which altered gene and/or DNA copy number facilitate tumorigenesis remain unclear. To understand the effect of aneuploidy occurring in non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells, we generated clones harboring artificial aneuploidy using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Our results demonstrate that clones with artificial aneuploidy of chromosome 8 or chromosome 22 both show inhibited proliferation and genomic instability. Also, the increased autophagy was observed in the artificially aneuploidy clones, and inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased genomic instability and DNA damage. In addition, the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were up-regulated in the artificially aneuploid clones, and inhibition of autophagy further increased the production of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that even a single extraneous chromosome can induce genomic instability, and that autophagy triggered by aneuploidy-induced stress is a mechanism to protect cells bearing abnormal chromosome number.

  19. Induction of genomic instability and activation of autophagy in artificial human aneuploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Miura, Tomisato; Kasai, Kosuke; Fujishima, Yohei; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Clones with artificial aneuploidy of chromosome 8 or chromosome 22 both show inhibited proliferation and genomic instability. • Increased autophagy was observed in the artificially aneuploid clones. • Inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased genomic instability and DNA damage. • Intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were up-regulated in the artificially aneuploid clones. - Abstract: Chromosome missegregation can lead to a change in chromosome number known as aneuploidy. Although aneuploidy is a known hallmark of cancer cells, the various mechanisms by which altered gene and/or DNA copy number facilitate tumorigenesis remain unclear. To understand the effect of aneuploidy occurring in non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells, we generated clones harboring artificial aneuploidy using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Our results demonstrate that clones with artificial aneuploidy of chromosome 8 or chromosome 22 both show inhibited proliferation and genomic instability. Also, the increased autophagy was observed in the artificially aneuploidy clones, and inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased genomic instability and DNA damage. In addition, the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were up-regulated in the artificially aneuploid clones, and inhibition of autophagy further increased the production of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that even a single extraneous chromosome can induce genomic instability, and that autophagy triggered by aneuploidy-induced stress is a mechanism to protect cells bearing abnormal chromosome number.

  20. Unnatural Selection: Seeing Human Intelligence in Artificial Creations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Tony

    2015-12-01

    As generative AI systems grow in sophistication, so too do our expectations of their outputs. For as automated systems acculturate themselves to ever larger sets of inspiring human examples, the more we expect them to produce human-quality outputs, and the greater our disappointment when they fall short. While our generative systems must embody some sense of what constitutes human creativity if their efforts are to be valued as creative by human judges, computers are not human, and need not go so far as to actively pretend to be human to be seen as creative. As discomfiting objects that reside at the boundary of two seemingly disjoint categories, creative machines arouse our sense of the uncanny, or what Freud memorably called the Unheimlich. Like a ventriloquist's doll that finds its own voice, computers are free to blend the human and the non-human, to surprise us with their knowledge of our world and to discomfit with their detached, other-worldly perspectives on it. Nowhere is our embrace of the unnatural and the uncanny more evident than in the popularity of Twitterbots, automatic text generators on Twitter that are followed by humans precisely because they are non-human, and because their outputs so often seem meaningful yet unnatural. This paper evaluates a metaphor generator named @MetaphorMagnet, a Twitterbot that tempers the uncanny with aptness to yield results that are provocative but meaningful.

  1. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  2. A Novel Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Approach Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis

    2016-07-05

    Human activity recognition has gained more interest in several research communities given that understanding user activities and behavior helps to deliver proactive and personalized services. There are many examples of health systems improved by human activity recognition. Nevertheless, the human activity recognition classification process is not an easy task. Different types of noise in wearable sensors data frequently hamper the human activity recognition classification process. In order to develop a successful activity recognition system, it is necessary to use stable and robust machine learning techniques capable of dealing with noisy data. In this paper, we presented the artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHN) technique to the human activity recognition community. Our artificial hydrocarbon networks novel approach is suitable for physical activity recognition, noise tolerance of corrupted data sensors and robust in terms of different issues on data sensors. We proved that the AHN classifier is very competitive for physical activity recognition and is very robust in comparison with other well-known machine learning methods.

  3. International workshop on multimodal analyses enabling artificial agents in human-machine interaction (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böck, Ronald; Bonin, Francesca; Campbell, Nick; Poppe, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief overview of the third workshop on Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction. The paper is focussing on the main aspects intended to be discussed in the workshop reflecting the main scope of the papers presented during the meeting. The MA3HMI

  4. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic...

  5. Temporal interaction between an artificial orchestra conductor and human musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Bos, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor project concerns the development of the first properly interactive virtual orchestra conductor—a Virtual Human that can conduct a piece of music through interaction with musicians, leading and following them while they are playing. This article describes our motivation for

  6. Carcinoma-risk variant of EBNA1 deregulates Epstein-Barr Virus episomal latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Malecka, Kimberly; Wiedmer, Andreas; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Chiang, Alan K S; Altieri, Dario C; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-01-31

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection is a causative co-factor for endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC). NPC-associated variants have been identified in EBV-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA1. Here, we solve the X-ray crystal structure of an NPC-derived EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD) and show that variant amino acids are found on the surface away from the DNA binding interface. We show that NPC-derived EBNA1 is compromised for DNA replication and episome maintenance functions. Recombinant virus containing the NPC EBNA1 DBD are impaired in their ability to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes and suppress lytic transcription during early stages of B-cell infection. We identify Survivin as a host protein deficiently bound by the NPC variant of EBNA1 and show that Survivin depletion compromises EBV episome maintenance in multiple cell types. We propose that endemic variants of EBNA1 play a significant role in EBV-driven carcinogenesis by altering key regulatory interactions that destabilize latent infection.

  7. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  8. Sphericall: A Human/Artificial Intelligence interaction experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frack Gechter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.

  9. "Artificial humans": Psychology and neuroscience perspectives on embodiment and nonverbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2010-01-01

    "Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatinkova, Eva; Kiselinova, Maja; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Trypsteen, Wim; Messiaen, Peter; Vermeire, Jolien; Verhasselt, Bruno; Vervisch, Karen; Vandekerckhove, Linos; De Spiegelaere, Ward

    2014-01-01

    In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. We compared two sample processing procedures to more accurately quantify 2-LTR circles using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Episomal HIV 2-LTR circles were either isolated by genomic DNA isolation or by a modified plasmid DNA isolation, to separate the small episomal circular DNA from chromosomal DNA. This was performed in a dilution series of HIV-infected cells and HIV-1 infected patient derived samples (n=59). Samples for the plasmid DNA isolation method were spiked with an internal control plasmid. Genomic DNA isolation enables robust 2-LTR circles quantification. However, in the lower ranges of detection, PCR inhibition caused by high genomic DNA load substantially limits the amount of sample input and this impacts sensitivity and accuracy. Moreover, total genomic DNA isolation resulted in a lower recovery of 2-LTR templates per isolate, further reducing its sensitivity. The modified plasmid DNA isolation with a spiked reference for normalization was more accurate in these low ranges compared to genomic DNA isolation. A linear correlation of both methods was observed in the dilution series (R2=0.974) and in the patient derived samples with 2-LTR numbers above 10 copies per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), (R2=0.671). Furthermore, Bland-Altman analysis revealed an average agreement between the methods within the 27 samples in which 2-LTR circles were detectable with both methods (bias: 0.3875±1.2657 log10). 2-LTR circles quantification in HIV-infected patients proved to be more

  11. Human Artificial Chromosomes with Alpha Satellite-Based De Novo Centromeres Show Increased Frequency of Nondisjunction and Anaphase Lag

    OpenAIRE

    Rudd, M. Katharine; Mays, Robert W.; Schwartz, Stuart; Willard, Huntington F.

    2003-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While several types of alpha satellite DNA have been used to assemble de novo centromeres in artificial chromosome assays, the extent to which they fu...

  12. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  13. Human disturbances and predation on artificial ground nests across an urban gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Bocz, R.; Szép, D.; Witz, D.; Ronczyk, L.; Kurucz, K.; Purger, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    In our study with artificial nests we observed that the absence of ground nesting bird species in the city centre and in residential districts was due to disturbance by humans and domestic animals (dogs and cats) rather than to predation. Furthermore, predation pressure was higher in the outskirts of the city due to the greater number of natural predators. Our results suggest that planning and creating undisturbed areas could increase the chances of ground nesting birds settling and breeding ...

  14. A Flexible Approach for Human Activity Recognition Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes

    2016-10-25

    Physical activity recognition based on sensors is a growing area of interest given the great advances in wearable sensors. Applications in various domains are taking advantage of the ease of obtaining data to monitor personal activities and behavior in order to deliver proactive and personalized services. Although many activity recognition systems have been developed for more than two decades, there are still open issues to be tackled with new techniques. We address in this paper one of the main challenges of human activity recognition: Flexibility. Our goal in this work is to present artificial hydrocarbon networks as a novel flexible approach in a human activity recognition system. In order to evaluate the performance of artificial hydrocarbon networks based classifier, experimentation was designed for user-independent, and also for user-dependent case scenarios. Our results demonstrate that artificial hydrocarbon networks classifier is flexible enough to be used when building a human activity recognition system with either user-dependent or user-independent approaches.

  15. Prediction of Human Intestinal Absorption of Compounds Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Sharma, Anju; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Information about Pharmacokinetics of compounds is an essential component of drug design and development. Modeling the pharmacokinetic properties require identification of the factors effecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of compounds. There have been continuous attempts in the prediction of intestinal absorption of compounds using various Artificial intelligence methods in the effort to reduce the attrition rate of drug candidates entering to preclinical and clinical trials. Currently, there are large numbers of individual predictive models available for absorption using machine learning approaches. Six Artificial intelligence methods namely, Support vector machine, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Artificial neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis were used for prediction of absorption of compounds. Prediction accuracy of Support vector machine, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Artificial neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis for prediction of intestinal absorption of compounds was found to be 91.54%, 88.33%, 84.30%, 86.51%, 79.07% and 80.08% respectively. Comparative analysis of all the six prediction models suggested that Support vector machine with Radial basis function based kernel is comparatively better for binary classification of compounds using human intestinal absorption and may be useful at preliminary stages of drug design and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to information provided by human and artificial hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M A; Delise, Justin; De Los Reyes, Andres; Ford, Kathy; Starnes, Blair; Dennen, Weston

    2014-03-01

    Even young humans show sensitivity to the accuracy and reliability of informants' reports. Children are selective in soliciting information and in accepting claims. Recent research has also investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) sensitivity to agreement among human informants. Such research utilizing a common human pointing gesture to which dogs are sensitive in a food retrieval paradigm suggests that dogs might choose among informants according to the number of points exhibited, rather than the number of individuals indicating a particular location. Here, we further investigated dogs' use of information from human informants using a stationary pointing gesture, as well as the conditions under which dogs would utilize a stationary point. First, we explored whether the number of points or the number of individuals more strongly influenced dogs' choices. To this end, dogs encountered a choice situation in which the number of points exhibited toward a particular location and the number of individuals exhibiting those points conflicted. Results indicated that dogs chose in accordance with the number of points exhibited toward a particular location. In a second experiment, we explored the possibility that previously learned associations drove dogs' responses to the stationary pointing gesture. In this experiment, dogs encountered a choice situation in which artificial hands exhibited a stationary pointing gesture toward or away from choice locations in the absence of humans. Dogs chose the location to which the artificial hand pointed. These results are consistent with the notion that dogs may respond to a human pointing gesture due to their past-learning history.

  17. Human artificial chromosomes with alpha satellite-based de novo centromeres show increased frequency of nondisjunction and anaphase lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, M Katharine; Mays, Robert W; Schwartz, Stuart; Willard, Huntington F

    2003-11-01

    Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While several types of alpha satellite DNA have been used to assemble de novo centromeres in artificial chromosome assays, the extent to which they fully recapitulate normal centromere function has not been explored. Here, we have used two kinds of alpha satellite DNA, DXZ1 (from the X chromosome) and D17Z1 (from chromosome 17), to generate human artificial chromosomes. Although artificial chromosomes are mitotically stable over many months in culture, when we examined their segregation in individual cell divisions using an anaphase assay, artificial chromosomes exhibited more segregation errors than natural human chromosomes (P artificial chromosomes missegregate over a fivefold range, the data suggest that variable centromeric DNA content and/or epigenetic assembly can influence the mitotic behavior of artificial chromosomes.

  18. Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Spoelstra

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L, cyclamate (2.4 µg/L [corrected], and saccharin (7.2 µg/L are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota

  19. Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing seven haploid human genome equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsen, H.M.; Abderrahim, H.; Cann, H.M.; Dausset, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Cohen, D.

    1990-01-01

    Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable size variations. A protocol was developed for preparative electrophoretic enrichment of high molecular mass human DNA fragments from partial restriction digests and ligation with the YAC vector in agarose. A YAC library has been constructed from large fragments of DNA from an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. The library presently contains 50,000 clones, 95% of which are greater than 250 kilobase pairs in size. The mean YAC size of the library, calculated from 132 randomly isolated clones, is 430 kilobase pairs. The library thus contains the equivalent of approximately seven haploid human genomes

  20. Erosion protection conferred by whole human saliva, dialysed saliva, and artificial saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T.; Kozik, J.; Lussi, A.; Carvalho, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW). Enamel specimens underwent four cycles of immersion in either HS, AS, HS/AS, HS/DW, or a humid chamber (Ctrl), followed by erosion with citric acid. During the cycling process, the surface hardness and the calcium released from the surface of the specimens were measured. The different kinds of saliva provided different levels of protection, HS/DW exhibiting significantly better protection than all the other groups (p < 0.0001). Different components of saliva, therefore, have different effects on the protective properties of the pellicle and the right proportions of these components in saliva are critical for the ability to form a protective pellicle.

  1. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  2. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  3. Active role of a human genomic insert in replication of a yeast artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brabant, A J; Fangman, W L; Brewer, B J

    1999-06-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are a common tool for cloning eukaryotic DNA. The manner by which large pieces of foreign DNA are assimilated by yeast cells into a functional chromosome is poorly understood, as is the reason why some of them are stably maintained and some are not. We examined the replication of a stable YAC containing a 240-kb insert of DNA from the human T-cell receptor beta locus. The human insert contains multiple sites that serve as origins of replication. The activity of these origins appears to require the yeast ARS consensus sequence and, as with yeast origins, additional flanking sequences. In addition, the origins in the human insert exhibit a spacing, a range of activation efficiencies, and a variation in times of activation during S phase similar to those found for normal yeast chromosomes. We propose that an appropriate combination of replication origin density, activation times, and initiation efficiencies is necessary for the successful maintenance of YAC inserts.

  4. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual......-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive...

  5. Human disturbances and predation on artificial ground nests across an urban gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocz, R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our study with artificial nests we observed that the absence of ground nesting bird species in the city centre and in residential districts was due to disturbance by humans and domestic animals (dogs and cats rather than to predation. Furthermore, predation pressure was higher in the outskirts of the city due to the greater number of natural predators. Our results suggest that planning and creating undisturbed areas could increase the chances of ground nesting birds settling and breeding in human–dominated landscapes.

  6. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  7. Proposal of a framework for solving human factors of artificial systems and its application to maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Takashi; Otsuji, Tomoo; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shiba, Shigenari

    2004-01-01

    A framework for solving human factors of artificial systems is proposed in this study, where a whole system of machines and the human organization that involves in the operation and management of machines is defined as an 'artificial system'. Five aspects of human factors in the artificial system are first discussed, and the types of artificial system with respect to the human factors are divided into three levels from a viewpoint of complexity. A framework that can treat artificial systems by unified methodology has been proposed for treating both the complexity level and the different kinds of human factors. As a concrete example of this framework application, a prototype system has been developed for advanced plant maintenance support by using ES-HMD (Eye Sensing-Head Mounted Display). This is a remote communication system of cooperative maintenance work between the expert in a remote support center and the maintenance worker at a certain machine in the plant site to conduct a complicated task without committing human error. It was confirmed by laboratory experiment that the expert would instruct the worker so that he or she could perform the task successfully, by observing the worker's eye gazing point and by pointing the right place of action on the transferred display of the worker's eyesight through the ES-MHD. (author)

  8. Bacillus subtilis EdmS (formerly PgsE) participates in the maintenance of episomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Yamashiro, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kento

    2013-09-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA maintenance (EDM) is an important process in molecular breeding and for various applications in the construction of genetically engineered microbes. Here we describe a novel Bacillus subtilis gene involved in EDM function called edmS (formerly pgsE). Functional gene regions were identified using molecular genetics techniques. We found that EdmS is a membrane-associated protein that is crucial for EDM. We also determined that EdmS can change a plasmid vector with an unstable replicon and worse-than-random segregation into one with better-than-random segregation, suggesting that the protein functions in the declustering and/or partitioning of episomes. EdmS has two distinct domains: an N-terminal membrane-anchoring domain and a C-terminal assembly accelerator-like structure, and mutational analysis of edmS revealed that both domains are essential for EDM. Further studies using cells of Bacillus megaterium and itsedmS (formerly capE) gene implied that EdmS has potential as a molecular probe for exploring novel EDM systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of mathematical model of human breathing in system “Artificial lungs – self-contained breathing apparatus”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onevsky, P. M.; Onevsky, M. P.; Pogonin, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The structure and mathematical models of the main subsystems of the control system of the “Artificial Lungs” are presented. This structure implements the process of imitation of human external respiration in the system “Artificial lungs - self-contained breathing apparatus”. A presented algorithm for parametric identification of the model is based on spectral operators, which allows using it in real time.

  10. From responsible robotics towards a human rights regime oriented to the challenges of robotics and artificial intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Zawieska, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    impulse by proposing a complementary set of human rights directed specifically against the harms arising from robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The relationship between responsibilities of the agent and the rights of the patient suggest that a rights regime is the other side...... to act responsibly. This subsists within a larger phenomenon where the difference between humans and non-humans, be it animals or artificial systems, appears to be increasingly blurred, thereby disrupting orthodox understandings of responsibility. This paper seeks to supplement the responsible robotics...

  11. Humans can consciously generate random number sequences: a possible test for artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra

    2005-01-01

    Computer algorithms can only produce seemingly random or pseudorandom numbers whereas certain natural phenomena, such as the decay of radioactive particles, can be utilized to produce truly random numbers. In this study, the ability of humans to generate random numbers was tested in healthy adults. Subjects were simply asked to generate and dictate random numbers. Generated numbers were tested for uniformity, independence and information density. The results suggest that humans can generate random numbers that are uniformly distributed, independent of one another and unpredictable. If humans can generate sequences of random numbers then neural networks or forms of artificial intelligence, which are purported to function in ways essentially the same as the human brain, should also be able to generate sequences of random numbers. Elucidating the precise mechanism by which humans generate random number sequences and the underlying neural substrates may have implications in the cognitive science of decision-making. It is possible that humans use their random-generating neural machinery to make difficult decisions in which all expected outcomes are similar. It is also possible that certain people, perhaps those with neurological or psychiatric impairments, are less able or unable to generate random numbers. If the random-generating neural machinery is employed in decision making its impairment would have profound implications in matters of agency and free will.

  12. Intraneural stimulation elicits discrimination of textural features by artificial fingertip in intact and amputee humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero Maria; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spigler, Giacomo; Petrini, Francesco; Giambattistelli, Federica; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni; Camboni, Domenico; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Faraguna, Ugo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-03-08

    Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee. Both approaches allowed the subjects to reliably discriminate spatial coarseness of surfaces as confirmed also by a hybrid neural model of the median nerve. Moreover, MNT-evoked EEG activity showed physiologically plausible responses that were superimposable in time and topography to the ones elicited by a natural mechanical tactile stimulation. These findings can open up novel opportunities for sensory restoration in the next generation of neuro-prosthetic hands.

  13. Developing de novo human artificial chromosomes in embryonic stem cells using HSV-1 amplicon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralli, Daniela; Monaco, Zoia L

    2015-02-01

    De novo artificial chromosomes expressing genes have been generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) and are maintained following differentiation into other cell types. Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small, functional, extrachromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes in human cells. De novo HAC are generated following delivery of alpha satellite DNA into target cells. HAC are characterized by high levels of mitotic stability and are used as models to study centromere formation and chromosome organisation. They are successful and effective as gene expression vectors since they remain autonomous and can accommodate larger genes and regulatory regions for long-term expression studies in cells unlike other viral gene delivery vectors currently used. Transferring the essential DNA sequences for HAC formation intact across the cell membrane has been challenging for a number of years. A highly efficient delivery system based on HSV-1 amplicons has been used to target DNA directly to the ES cell nucleus and HAC stably generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) at high frequency. HAC were detected using an improved protocol for hESc chromosome harvesting, which consistently produced high-quality metaphase spreads that could routinely detect HAC in hESc. In tumour cells, the input DNA often integrated in the host chromosomes, but in the host ES genome, it remained intact. The hESc containing the HAC formed embryoid bodies, generated teratoma in mice, and differentiated into neuronal cells where the HAC were maintained. The HAC structure and chromatin composition was similar to the endogenous hESc chromosomes. This review will discuss the technological advances in HAC vector delivery using HSV-1 amplicons and the improvements in the identification of de novo HAC in hESc.

  14. Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: evaluating learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-03-01

    Artificial grammars (AG) can be used to generate rule-based sequences of stimuli. Some of these can be used to investigate sequence-processing computations in non-human animals that might be related to, but not unique to, human language. Previous AG learning studies in non-human animals have used different AGs to separately test for specific sequence-processing abilities. However, given that natural language and certain animal communication systems (in particular, song) have multiple levels of complexity, mixed-complexity AGs are needed to simultaneously evaluate sensitivity to the different features of the AG. Here, we tested humans and Rhesus macaques using a mixed-complexity auditory AG, containing both adjacent (local) and non-adjacent (longer-distance) relationships. Following exposure to exemplary sequences generated by the AG, humans and macaques were individually tested with sequences that were either consistent with the AG or violated specific adjacent or non-adjacent relationships. We observed a considerable level of cross-species correspondence in the sensitivity of both humans and macaques to the adjacent AG relationships and to the statistical properties of the sequences. We found no significant sensitivity to the non-adjacent AG relationships in the macaques. A subset of humans was sensitive to this non-adjacent relationship, revealing interesting between- and within-species differences in AG learning strategies. The results suggest that humans and macaques are largely comparably sensitive to the adjacent AG relationships and their statistical properties. However, in the presence of multiple cues to grammaticality, the non-adjacent relationships are less salient to the macaques and many of the humans. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635

  16. [Application prospect of human-artificial intelligence system in future manned space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-he

    2003-01-01

    To make the manned space flight more efficient and safer, a concept of human-artificial (AI) system is proposed in the present paper. The task of future manned space flight and the technique requirement with respect to the human-AI system development were analyzed. The main points are as follows: 1)Astronaut and AI are complementary to each other functionally; 2) Both symbol AI and connectionist AI should be included in the human-AI system, but expert system and Soar-like system are used mainly inside the cabin, the COG-like robots are mainly assigned for EVA either in LEO flight or on the surface of Moon or Mars; 3) The human-AI system is hierarchical in nature with astronaut at the top level; 4) The complex interfaces between astronaut and AI are the key points for running the system reliably and efficiently. As the importance of human-AI system in future manned space flight and the complexity of related technology, it is suggested that the R/D should be planned as early as possible.

  17. The role of the artificial intelligence within the context of the human factors in the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayout Alvarenga, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effective evaluation of a human-machine system depends heavily on a cognitive model of the human behaviour. The basic question is: How can we model the human cognition? The response should be found in the five disciplines that form the Cognitive Sciences: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Psychology, Neurophysiology, Linguistic, and Philosophy. Among them, the Artificial Intelligence appears as the catalyzer of the contributions and discoveries in the other four, trying to realize that cognitive model with the tools of the Computer Science. Sometimes, it seems as if these disciplines spoke different languages to describe the same ideas. It is necessary a holistic treatment of such questions that include the human cognition and its modelling. This becomes more clear when we observe that there are nowadays different methodologies that must be integrated in some way. This is the case of the symbolic approach (artificial intelligence), connectionist approach (neural networks) and the fuzzy logic. This paper makes a review of the available methodologies, showing the problems and the current solutions to answer the following question. How is possible to develop a human-machine system and an intelligent interface based on the Artificial Intelligence that fulfills the following characteristics: human-centered design, cognitive simulation of the human behaviour, and dynamic function allocation. This paper concludes with proposals of national projects to be applied to the Brazilian situation. (author). 28 refs

  18. The role of the artificial intelligence within the context of the human factors in the nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayout Alvarenga, M A [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effective evaluation of a human-machine system depends heavily on a cognitive model of the human behaviour. The basic question is: How can we model the human cognition? The response should be found in the five disciplines that form the Cognitive Sciences: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Psychology, Neurophysiology, Linguistic, and Philosophy. Among them, the Artificial Intelligence appears as the catalyzer of the contributions and discoveries in the other four, trying to realize that cognitive model with the tools of the Computer Science. Sometimes, it seems as if these disciplines spoke different languages to describe the same ideas. It is necessary a holistic treatment of such questions that include the human cognition and its modelling. This becomes more clear when we observe that there are nowadays different methodologies that must be integrated in some way. This is the case of the symbolic approach (artificial intelligence), connectionist approach (neural networks) and the fuzzy logic. This paper makes a review of the available methodologies, showing the problems and the current solutions to answer the following question. How is possible to develop a human-machine system and an intelligent interface based on the Artificial Intelligence that fulfills the following characteristics: human-centered design, cognitive simulation of the human behaviour, and dynamic function allocation. This paper concludes with proposals of national projects to be applied to the Brazilian situation. (author). 28 refs.

  19. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martina Maffioletti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. : Maffioletti et al. generate human 3D artificial skeletal muscles from healthy donors and patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. These human artificial muscles accurately model severe genetic muscle diseases. They can be engineered to include other cell types present in skeletal muscle, such as vascular cells and motor neurons. Keywords: skeletal muscle, pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, myogenic differentiation, tissue engineering, disease modeling, muscular dystrophy, organoids

  20. A simple artificial life model explains irrational behavior in human decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Feher da Silva

    Full Text Available Although praised for their rationality, humans often make poor decisions, even in simple situations. In the repeated binary choice experiment, an individual has to choose repeatedly between the same two alternatives, where a reward is assigned to one of them with fixed probability. The optimal strategy is to perseverate with choosing the alternative with the best expected return. Whereas many species perseverate, humans tend to match the frequencies of their choices to the frequencies of the alternatives, a sub-optimal strategy known as probability matching. Our goal was to find the primary cognitive constraints under which a set of simple evolutionary rules can lead to such contrasting behaviors. We simulated the evolution of artificial populations, wherein the fitness of each animat (artificial animal depended on its ability to predict the next element of a sequence made up of a repeating binary string of varying size. When the string was short relative to the animats' neural capacity, they could learn it and correctly predict the next element of the sequence. When it was long, they could not learn it, turning to the next best option: to perseverate. Animats from the last generation then performed the task of predicting the next element of a non-periodical binary sequence. We found that, whereas animats with smaller neural capacity kept perseverating with the best alternative as before, animats with larger neural capacity, which had previously been able to learn the pattern of repeating strings, adopted probability matching, being outperformed by the perseverating animats. Our results demonstrate how the ability to make predictions in an environment endowed with regular patterns may lead to probability matching under less structured conditions. They point to probability matching as a likely by-product of adaptive cognitive strategies that were crucial in human evolution, but may lead to sub-optimal performances in other environments.

  1. A simple artificial life model explains irrational behavior in human decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher da Silva, Carolina; Baldo, Marcus Vinícius Chrysóstomo

    2012-01-01

    Although praised for their rationality, humans often make poor decisions, even in simple situations. In the repeated binary choice experiment, an individual has to choose repeatedly between the same two alternatives, where a reward is assigned to one of them with fixed probability. The optimal strategy is to perseverate with choosing the alternative with the best expected return. Whereas many species perseverate, humans tend to match the frequencies of their choices to the frequencies of the alternatives, a sub-optimal strategy known as probability matching. Our goal was to find the primary cognitive constraints under which a set of simple evolutionary rules can lead to such contrasting behaviors. We simulated the evolution of artificial populations, wherein the fitness of each animat (artificial animal) depended on its ability to predict the next element of a sequence made up of a repeating binary string of varying size. When the string was short relative to the animats' neural capacity, they could learn it and correctly predict the next element of the sequence. When it was long, they could not learn it, turning to the next best option: to perseverate. Animats from the last generation then performed the task of predicting the next element of a non-periodical binary sequence. We found that, whereas animats with smaller neural capacity kept perseverating with the best alternative as before, animats with larger neural capacity, which had previously been able to learn the pattern of repeating strings, adopted probability matching, being outperformed by the perseverating animats. Our results demonstrate how the ability to make predictions in an environment endowed with regular patterns may lead to probability matching under less structured conditions. They point to probability matching as a likely by-product of adaptive cognitive strategies that were crucial in human evolution, but may lead to sub-optimal performances in other environments.

  2. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  3. The depuration dynamics of oysters (Crassostrea gigas artificially contaminated with hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Abreu Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the country of Brazil, Santa Catarina is a major shellfish producer. Detection of viral contamination is an important step to ensure production quality and consumer safety during this process. In this study, we used a depuration system and ultraviolet (UV disinfection to eliminate viral pathogens from artificially infected oysters and analysed the results. Specifically, the oysters were contaminated with hepatitis A virus (HAV or human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5. After viral infection, the oysters were placed into a depuration tank and harvested after 48, 72 and 96 h. After sampling, various oyster tissues were dissected and homogenised and the viruses were eluted with alkaline conditions and precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The oyster samples were evaluated by cell culture methods, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and quantitative-PCR. Moreover, at the end of the depuration period, the disinfected seawater was collected and analysed by PCR. The molecular assays showed that the HAdV5 genome was present in all of the depuration time samples, while the HAV genome was undetectable after 72 h of depuration. However, viral viability tests (integrated cell culture-PCR and immunofluorescence assay indicated that both viruses were inactivated with 96 h of seawater recirculation. In conclusion, after 96 h of UV treatment, the depuration system studied in this work purified oysters that were artificially contaminated with HAdV5 and HAV.

  4. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  5. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Christopher S; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-05-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3 + TCR-αβ + single-positive CD8 + or CD4 + cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naive phenotypes, a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen-specific cytotoxicity and near-complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ-encoding loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell differentiation and for the future development of stem-cell-based engineered T cell therapies.

  6. A conceptual and computational model of moral decision making in human and artificial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Wendell; Franklin, Stan; Allen, Colin

    2010-07-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational models of this kind has created the field of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Moral decision making is arguably one of the most challenging tasks for computational approaches to higher-order cognition. The need for increasingly autonomous artificial agents to factor moral considerations into their choices and actions has given rise to another new field of inquiry variously known as Machine Morality, Machine Ethics, Roboethics, or Friendly AI. In this study, we discuss how LIDA, an AGI model of human cognition, can be adapted to model both affective and rational features of moral decision making. Using the LIDA model, we will demonstrate how moral decisions can be made in many domains using the same mechanisms that enable general decision making. Comprehensive models of human cognition typically aim for compatibility with recent research in the cognitive and neural sciences. Global workspace theory, proposed by the neuropsychologist Bernard Baars (1988), is a highly regarded model of human cognition that is currently being computationally instantiated in several software implementations. LIDA (Franklin, Baars, Ramamurthy, & Ventura, 2005) is one such computational implementation. LIDA is both a set of computational tools and an underlying model of human cognition, which provides mechanisms that are capable of explaining how an agent's selection of its next action arises from bottom-up collection of sensory data and top-down processes for making sense of its current situation. We will describe how the LIDA model helps integrate emotions into the human decision-making process, and we

  7. Evolutionary force of AT-rich repeats to trap genomic and episomal DNAs into the rice genome: lessons from endogenous pararetrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifang; Koyanagi, Kanako O; Chen, Sunlu; Kishima, Yuji

    2012-12-01

    In plant genomes, the incorporation of DNA segments is not a common method of artificial gene transfer. Nevertheless, various segments of pararetroviruses have been found in plant genomes in recent decades. The rice genome contains a number of segments of endogenous rice tungro bacilliform virus-like sequences (ERTBVs), many of which are present between AT dinucleotide repeats (ATrs). Comparison of genomic sequences between two closely related rice subspecies, japonica and indica, allowed us to verify the preferential insertion of ERTBVs into ATrs. In addition to ERTBVs, the comparative analyses showed that ATrs occasionally incorporate repeat sequences including transposable elements, and a wide range of other sequences. Besides the known genomic sequences, the insertion sequences also represented DNAs of unclear origins together with ERTBVs, suggesting that ATrs have integrated episomal DNAs that would have been suspended in the nucleus. Such insertion DNAs might be trapped by ATrs in the genome in a host-dependent manner. Conversely, other simple mono- and dinucleotide sequence repeats (SSR) were less frequently involved in insertion events relative to ATrs. Therefore, ATrs could be regarded as hot spots of double-strand breaks that induce non-homologous end joining. The insertions within ATrs occasionally generated new gene-related sequences or involved structural modifications of existing genes. Likewise, in a comparison between Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, the insertions preferred ATrs to other SSRs. Therefore ATrs in plant genomes could be considered as genomic dumping sites that have trapped various DNA molecules and may have exerted a powerful evolutionary force. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Efficient assembly of de novo human artificial chromosomes from large genomic loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Gregory

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Artificial Chromosomes (HACs are potentially useful vectors for gene transfer studies and for functional annotation of the genome because of their suitability for cloning, manipulating and transferring large segments of the genome. However, development of HACs for the transfer of large genomic loci into mammalian cells has been limited by difficulties in manipulating high-molecular weight DNA, as well as by the low overall frequencies of de novo HAC formation. Indeed, to date, only a small number of large (>100 kb genomic loci have been reported to be successfully packaged into de novo HACs. Results We have developed novel methodologies to enable efficient assembly of HAC vectors containing any genomic locus of interest. We report here the creation of a novel, bimolecular system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs for the construction of HACs incorporating any defined genomic region. We have utilized this vector system to rapidly design, construct and validate multiple de novo HACs containing large (100–200 kb genomic loci including therapeutically significant genes for human growth hormone (HGH, polycystic kidney disease (PKD1 and ß-globin. We report significant differences in the ability of different genomic loci to support de novo HAC formation, suggesting possible effects of cis-acting genomic elements. Finally, as a proof of principle, we have observed sustained ß-globin gene expression from HACs incorporating the entire 200 kb ß-globin genomic locus for over 90 days in the absence of selection. Conclusion Taken together, these results are significant for the development of HAC vector technology, as they enable high-throughput assembly and functional validation of HACs containing any large genomic locus. We have evaluated the impact of different genomic loci on the frequency of HAC formation and identified segments of genomic DNA that appear to facilitate de novo HAC formation. These genomic loci

  9. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  10. Accuracy and reproducibility of bending stiffness measurements by mechanical response tissue analysis in artificial human ulnas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patricia A; Ellerbrock, Emily R; Bowman, Lyn; Loucks, Anne B

    2014-11-07

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone strength, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone strength. Bone strength is strongly associated with bone stiffness, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone stiffness either. Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA) is a non-significant risk, non-invasive, radiation-free, vibration analysis technique for making immediate, direct functional measurements of the bending stiffness of long bones in humans in vivo. MRTA has been used for research purposes for more than 20 years, but little has been published about its accuracy. To begin to investigate its accuracy, we compared MRTA measurements of bending stiffness in 39 artificial human ulna bones to measurements made by Quasistatic Mechanical Testing (QMT). In the process, we also quantified the reproducibility (i.e., precision and repeatability) of both methods. MRTA precision (1.0±1.0%) and repeatability (3.1 ± 3.1%) were not as high as those of QMT (0.2 ± 0.2% and 1.3+1.7%, respectively; both pstiffness was indistinguishable from the identity line (p=0.44) and paired measurements by the two methods agreed within a 95% confidence interval of ± 5%. If such accuracy can be achieved on real human ulnas in situ, and if the ulna is representative of the appendicular skeleton, MRTA may prove clinically useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The stealth episome: suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A C Godfrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causative agent of halo blight in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola race 4 strain 1302A contains the avirulence gene avrPphB (syn. hopAR1, which resides on PPHGI-1, a 106 kb genomic island. Loss of PPHGI-1 from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A following exposure to the hypersensitive resistance response (HR leads to the evolution of strains with altered virulence. Here we have used fluorescent protein reporter systems to gain insight into the mobility of PPHGI-1. Confocal imaging of dual-labelled P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A strain, F532 (dsRFP in chromosome and eGFP in PPHGI-1, revealed loss of PPHGI-1::eGFP encoded fluorescence during plant infection and when grown in vitro on extracted leaf apoplastic fluids. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS of fluorescent and non-fluorescent PPHGI-1::eGFP F532 populations showed that cells lost fluorescence not only when the GI was deleted, but also when it had excised and was present as a circular episome. In addition to reduced expression of eGFP, quantitative PCR on sub-populations separated by FACS showed that transcription of other genes on PPHGI-1 (avrPphB and xerC was also greatly reduced in F532 cells harbouring the excised PPHGI-1::eGFP episome. Our results show how virulence determinants located on mobile pathogenicity islands may be hidden from detection by host surveillance systems through the suppression of gene expression in the episomal state.

  12. Study on the interaction of artificial and natural food colorants with human serum albumin: A computational point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masone, Diego; Chanforan, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high amount of artificial food colorants present in infants' diets, their adverse effects have been of major concern among the literature. Artificial food colorants have been suggested to affect children's behavior, being hyperactivity the most common disorder. In this study we compare binding affinities of a group of artificial colorants (sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, carmoisine, allura red and tartrazine) and their natural industrial equivalents (carminic acid, curcumin, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) to human serum albumin (HSA) by a docking approach and further refinement through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the protein-ligand conformational interface complexity, we used collective variable driven molecular dynamics to refine docking predictions and to score them according to a hydrogen-bond criterion. With this protocol, we were able to rank ligand affinities to HSA and to compare between the studied natural and artificial food additives. Our results show that the five artificial colorants studied bind better to HSA than their equivalent natural options, in terms of their H-bonding network, supporting the hypothesis of their potential risk to human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Autonomous development and learning in artificial intelligence and robotics: Scaling up deep learning to human-like learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous lifelong development and learning are fundamental capabilities of humans, differentiating them from current deep learning systems. However, other branches of artificial intelligence have designed crucial ingredients towards autonomous learning: curiosity and intrinsic motivation, social learning and natural interaction with peers, and embodiment. These mechanisms guide exploration and autonomous choice of goals, and integrating them with deep learning opens stimulating perspectives.

  14. HYBRID HUMAN-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR PAVEMENT DISTRESS ASSESSMENT (PICUCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pavement surface condition assessment is a critical component for a proper pavement management system as well as for pavement rehabilitation design. A number of devices were developed to automatically record surface distresses in a continuous survey mode, but the software required for automatic distress identification remains a big challenge. In this study, a new method named PICture Unsupervised Classification with Human Analysis (PICUCHA is proposed to circumvent many of the limitations of existing approaches, based on a combination of human and artificial intelligence. It was designed from scratch to be capable to identify sealed and unsealed cracks, potholes, patches, different types of pavements and others. The self-learning algorithms do not use any distresses predefinition and can process images taken by cameras with different brands, technologies and resolution. This study describes some key aspects of the new method and provides examples in which PICUCHA was tested in real conditions showing accuracy up to 96.9% in image pattern detection and classification.

  15. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-09-10

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solvent used as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), and into 50μL aqueous acceptor solutions. The acceptor solutions were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using in-source fragmentation and monitoring the m/z 184→184 transition for investigation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM), and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PC). In both generic methods, no phospholipids were detected in the acceptor solutions. Thus, PALME appeared to be highly efficient for phospholipid removal. To further support this, qualitative (post-column infusion) and quantitative matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C

    1999-01-01

    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health ri...

  18. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: what are the risks to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagriffoul, A; Boudenne, J L; Absi, R; Ballet, J J; Berjeaud, J M; Chevalier, S; Creppy, E E; Gilli, E; Gadonna, J P; Gadonna-Widehem, P; Morris, C E; Zini, S

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  19. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: What are the risks to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagriffoul, A.; Boudenne, J.L.; Absi, R.; Ballet, J.J.; Berjeaud, J.M.; Chevalier, S.; Creppy, E.E.; Gilli, E.; Gadonna, J.P.; Gadonna-Widehem, P.; Morris, C.E.; Zini, S.

    2010-01-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  20. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: What are the risks to human health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagriffoul, A. [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l' Environnement et du Travail, 253, avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Boudenne, J.L. [Universite de Provence, Laboratoire Chimie Provence, UMR6264, 3 Place Victor Hugo case 29 13331 Marseille CEDEX 3 (France); Absi, R. [Institut Polytechnique Saint-Louis, Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, Laboratoire EBInnov, 32 Boulevard du Port, 95094 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Ballet, J.J. [Laboratoire d' immunologie et immunopathologie, Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Caen, avenue de la cote de nacre 14000 Caen (France); Berjeaud, J.M. [Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau, UMR6008, 40 avenue du recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers CEDEX (France); Chevalier, S. [Universite de Rouen, Laboratoire de Microbiologie du Froid, Signaux et Micro-Environnement, EA 4312, Normandie Securite Sanitaire, 55 rue St Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Creppy, E.E. [Universite Bordeaux 2, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Laboratoire de Toxicologie, 146, rue Leo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux CEDEX (France); Gilli, E. [Universite Paris 8, Departement de geographie, 2, rue de la Liberte, 93526 Saint Denis CEDEX (France); UMR Espace 6012, 98 bd Edouard Herriot, 06204, Nice, CEDEX 3 (France); Gadonna, J.P. [Institut Polytechnique Saint-Louis, Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, Laboratoire EBInnov, 32 Boulevard du Port, 95094 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Gadonna-Widehem, P. [Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, departement STAI, rue P. Waguet BP 30313, 60026 Beauvais CEDEX (France); Morris, C.E. [INRA, Unite de Pathologie Vegetale UR407, F-84140 Montfavet (France); Zini, S., E-mail: sylvie.zini@afsset.fr [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l' Environnement et du Travail, 253, avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France)

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  1. Mitochondrial damage and cytoskeleton reorganization in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to artificial visible light similar to screen-emitted light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascalou, Adeline; Lamartine, Jérôme; Poydenot, Pauline; Demarne, Frédéric; Bechetoille, Nicolas

    2018-05-05

    Artificial visible light is everywhere in modern life. Social communication confronts us with screens of all kinds, and their use is on the rise. We are therefore increasingly exposed to artificial visible light, the effects of which on skin are poorly known. The purpose of this study was to model the artificial visible light emitted by electronic devices and assess its effect on normal human fibroblasts. The spectral irradiance emitted by electronic devices was optically measured and equipment was developed to accurately reproduce such artificial visible light. Effects on normal human fibroblasts were analyzed on human genome microarray-based gene expression analysis. At cellular level, visualization and image analysis were performed on the mitochondrial network and F-actin cytoskeleton. Cell proliferation, ATP release and type I procollagen secretion were also measured. We developed a device consisting of 36 LEDs simultaneously emitting blue, green and red light at distinct wavelengths (450 nm, 525 nm and 625 nm) with narrow spectra and equivalent radiant power for the three colors. A dose of 99 J/cm 2 artificial visible light was selected so as not to induce cell mortality following exposure. Microarray analysis revealed 2984 light-modulated transcripts. Functional annotation of light-responsive genes revealed several enriched functions including, amongst others, the "mitochondria" and "integrin signaling" categories. Selected results were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR, analyzing 24 genes representing these two categories. Analysis of micro-patterned culture plates showed marked fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton following exposure. Functionally, there was considerable impairment of cell growth and spread, ATP release and type I procollagen secretion in exposed fibroblasts. Artificial visible light induces drastic molecular and cellular changes in normal human fibroblasts. This may impede

  2. Human Bone Derived Collagen for the Development of an Artificial Corneal Endothelial Graft. In Vivo Results in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vázquez

    Full Text Available Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world's population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane. Human corneal endothelial cells were cultured from corneal rims after corneal penetrating keratoplasty and type I collagen was isolated from remnant cancellous bone chips. Isolated type I collagen was analyzed by western blot, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry and quantified using the exponentially modified protein abundance index. Later on, collagen solution was casted at room temperature obtaining an optically transparent and mechanically manageable membrane that supports the growth of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells which expressed characteristic markers of corneal endothelium: zonula ocluddens-1 and Na+/K+ ATPase. To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of our artificial endothelial grafts, human purified type I collagen membranes cultured with rabbit corneal endothelial cells were transplanted in New Zealand white rabbits that were kept under a minimal immunosuppression regimen. Transplanted corneas maintained transparency for as long as 6 weeks without obvious edema or immune rejection and maintaining the same endothelial markers that in a healthy cornea. In conclusion, it is possible to develop an artificial human corneal endothelial graft using remnant tissues that are not employed in transplant procedures. This artificial endothelial graft can restore the integrality of corneal endothelium in an experimental model of

  3. Mutagenesis and Genome Engineering of Epstein-Barr Virus in Cultured Human Cells by CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system is a powerful genome-editing tool for both chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA. DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergoes episomal replication in human cells, can be effectively edited by CRISPR/Cas9. We have demonstrated targeted editing of the EBV genome by CRISPR/Cas9 in several lines of EBV-infected cells. CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis and genome engineering of EBV provides a new method for genetic analysis, which has some advantages over bacterial artificial chromosome-based recombineering. This approach might also prove useful in the cure of EBV infection. In this chapter, we use the knockout of the BART promoter as an example to detail the experimental procedures for construction of recombinant EBV in human cells.

  4. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  5. Cleavage of influenza RNA by using a human PUF-based artificial RNA-binding protein–staphylococcal nuclease hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Kento; Masaoka, Keisuke; Fujita, Yusuke; Morisada, Ryosuke; Mori, Koichi; Tobimatsu, Takamasa; Sera, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Various viruses infect animals and humans and cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, effective methodologies to prevent virus infection have not yet been established. Therefore, development of technologies to inactivate viruses is highly desired. We have already demonstrated that cleavage of a DNA virus genome was effective to prevent its replication. Here, we expanded this methodology to RNA viruses. In the present study, we used staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) instead of the PIN domain (PilT N-terminus) of human SMG6 as an RNA-cleavage domain and fused the SNase to a human Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF)-based artificial RNA-binding protein to construct an artificial RNA restriction enzyme with enhanced RNA-cleavage rates for influenzavirus. The resulting SNase-fusion nuclease cleaved influenza RNA at rates 120-fold greater than the corresponding PIN-fusion nuclease. The cleaving ability of the PIN-fusion nuclease was not improved even though the linker moiety between the PUF and RNA-cleavage domain was changed. Gel shift assays revealed that the RNA-binding properties of the PUF derivative used was not as good as wild type PUF. Improvement of the binding properties or the design method will allow the SNase-fusion nuclease to cleave an RNA target in mammalian animal cells and/or organisms. - Highlights: • A novel RNA restriction enzyme using SNase was developed tor cleave viral RNA. • Our enzyme cleaved influenza RNA with rates >120-fold higher rates a PIN-fusion one. • Our artificial enzyme with the L5 linker showed the highest RNA cleavage rate. • Our artificial enzyme site-selectively cleaved influenza RNA in vitro.

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  7. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Sara Martina; Sarcar, Shilpita; Henderson, Alexander B H; Mannhardt, Ingra; Pinton, Luca; Moyle, Louise Anne; Steele-Stallard, Heather; Cappellari, Ornella; Wells, Kim E; Ferrari, Giulia; Mitchell, Jamie S; Tyzack, Giulia E; Kotiadis, Vassilios N; Khedr, Moustafa; Ragazzi, Martina; Wang, Weixin; Duchen, Michael R; Patani, Rickie; Zammit, Peter S; Wells, Dominic J; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-04-17

    Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D) artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential of immobilized artificial membrane chromatography to predict human oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The potential of immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography to estimate human oral absorption (%HOA) was investigated. For this purpose, retention indices on IAM stationary phases reported previously by our group or measured by other authors under similar conditions were used to model %HOA data, compiled from literature sources. Considering the pH gradient in gastrointestinal tract, the highest logkw(IAM) values were considered, obtained either at pH7.4 or 5.5, defined as logkw(IAM)(best). Non linear models were established upon introduction of additional parameters and after exclusion of drugs which are substrates either to efflux or uptake transporters. The best model included Abraham's hydrogen-bond acidity parameter, molecular weight as well as the positively and negatively charged molecular fractions. For reasons of comparison between IAM chromatography and traditional lipophilicity, corresponding models were derived by replacing IAM retention factors with octanol-water distribution coefficients (logD). An overexpression of electrostatic interactions with phosphate anions was observed in the case of IAM retention as expressed by the negative contribution of the positively charged fraction F(+). The same parameter is statistically significant also in the logD model, but with a positive sign, indicating the attraction of basic drugs in the negatively charged inner membrane. To validate the obtained models a blind test set of 22 structurally diverse drugs was used, whose logkw(IAM)(best) values were determined and analyzed in the present study under similar conditions. IAM retention factors were further compared with MDCK cell lines permeability data taken from literature for a set of validation drugs. The overexpression of electrostatic interactions with phosphate anions on IAM surface was also evident in respect to MDCK permeability. In contrast to the clear classification between drugs with high and poor (or intermediate) absorption provided by MDCK

  9. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  10. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  11. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  12. "More human than human": instrumentalización y sublevación de los sujetos artificiales / «More Human than Human»: Instrumentalization and Uprising of Artificial Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Escudero Pérez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La vida sintética, orgánica y mixta creada artificialmente tiene siempre como fin satisfacer algún tipo de necesidad de su creador, el ser humano. La inteligencia de estos engendros, así como su interacción con el medio, puede ser muy variable proporcionándoles distintos grados de conciencia. Desde los robots de limpieza hasta los clones, pasando por cíborgs y replicantes o por superordenadores que toman el mando, el inventario de sujetos artificiales autoconscientes en el cine de ciencia ficción es prácticamente inagotable. En el presente artículo abordaremos algunas de sus representaciones más icónicas e influyentes para el género, así como el impacto que estas han tenido sobre nuestra concepción de la propia naturaleza humana.Palabras clave: artificial, sujeto, identidad, instrumentalización, robot, clon, cíborg, consciencia, humanidad, creación.AbstractArtificially created life, whether it is synthetic, organic or mixed, always has the purpose of fulfilling some need of its creator, human kind. The intelligence of these beings as well as their interaction with the environment can vary widely, providing them with different degrees of consciousness. From maintenance robots to clones, through cyborgs and replicants or supercomputers that take control, the inventory of self-conscious artificial subjects in science fiction is almost endless. In this article we will take a look at some of the most iconic and influential manifestations of artificial identities in Sci Fi and see how they have moulded our perception of human nature itself.Keywords: artificial, subject, identity, instrumentalization, robot, clone, cyborg, consciousness, humanity, creation.

  13. Dysregulation of gene expression in the artificial human trisomy cells of chromosome 8 associated with transformed cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisakatsu Nawata

    Full Text Available A change in chromosome number, known as aneuploidy, is a common characteristic of cancer. Aneuploidy disrupts gene expression in human cancer cells and immortalized human epithelial cells, but not in normal human cells. However, the relationship between aneuploidy and cancer remains unclear. To study the effects of aneuploidy in normal human cells, we generated artificial cells of human primary fibroblast having three chromosome 8 (trisomy 8 cells by using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. In addition to decreased proliferation, the trisomy 8 cells lost contact inhibition and reproliferated after exhibiting senescence-like characteristics that are typical of transformed cells. Furthermore, the trisomy 8 cells exhibited chromosome instability, and the overall gene expression profile based on microarray analyses was significantly different from that of diploid human primary fibroblasts. Our data suggest that aneuploidy, even a single chromosome gain, can be introduced into normal human cells and causes, in some cases, a partial cancer phenotype due to a disruption in overall gene expression.

  14. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  15. A comparison of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, DNA fragments and AAV-1 for targeted episomal and chromosomal gene repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for gene therapy of inherited diseases consist in adding functional copies of the gene that is defective. An attractive alternative to these approaches would be to correct the endogenous mutated gene in the affected individual. This study presents a quantitative comparison of the repair efficiency using different forms of donor nucleic acids, including synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, double stranded DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 200 to 2200 bp and sequences carried by a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-1. Evaluation of each gene repair strategy was carried out using two different reporter systems, a mutated eGFP gene or a dual construct with a functional eGFP and an inactive luciferase gene, in several different cell systems. Gene targeting events were scored either following transient co-transfection of reporter plasmids and donor DNAs, or in a system where a reporter construct was stably integrated into the chromosome. Results In both episomal and chromosomal assays, DNA fragments were more efficient at gene repair than oligonucleotides or rAAV-1. Furthermore, the gene targeting frequency could be significantly increased by using DNA repair stimulating drugs such as doxorubicin and phleomycin. Conclusion Our results show that it is possible to obtain repair frequencies of 1% of the transfected cell population under optimized transfection protocols when cells were pretreated with phleomycin using rAAV-1 and dsDNA fragments.

  16. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  17. A New Human Rights Regime to Address Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Zawieska, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and AI appears to be on the cusp of foundational change: until recently the human ability to control technology was unquestioned, but now the trend suggests a declining power differential and the possibility of an inverse power relationship soon. AI is poised to exert increasing influence over human opportunities and activities, such that human beings are increasingly under ‘the loop’. This paper explores the impact that the inversion of power between hum...

  18. Dermal absorption of benzo[a]pyrene into human skin from soil: Effect of artificial weathering, concentration, and exposure duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Trevor K; Shirai, Jeffry H; Bunge, Annette L; Lowney, Yvette W; Ruby, Michael V; Kissel, John C

    2017-11-01

    In vitro assessments of 14 C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) absorption through human epidermis were conducted with the sub-63-μm fraction of four test soils containing different amounts of organic and black carbon. Soils were artificially weathered for eight weeks and applied to epidermis at nominal BaP concentrations of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 8 or 24 h. Experiments were also conducted at 24 h with unweathered soils and with BaP deposited onto skin from acetone at a comparable chemical load. For the weathered soils, absorption was independent of the amount of organic or black carbon, the mass in the receptor fluid was proportional to exposure duration but independent of concentration, and the mass recovered in the skin after washing was proportional to concentration and independent of exposure time. Results from the weathered and unweathered soils were similar except for the mass recovered in the washed skin, which was lower for the weathered soil only at the higher concentration. We hypothesize that chemical concentrations exceeded the BaP sorption capacity accessible within the artificial weathering timeframe for all soils tested, and that BaP mass in the washed skin was dominated by particles that were not removed by washing. Fluxes into and through skin from soils were lower by an order of magnitude than from acetone-deposited BaP.

  19. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  20. The C-terminal subunit of artificially truncated human cathepsin B mediates its nuclear targeting and contributes to cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallner Claudia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing variants of human cathepsinB primary transcripts (CB(-2,3 result in an expression product product which lacks the signal peptide and parts of the propeptide. This naturally truncated Δ51CB is thus unable to follow the regular CB processing and sorting pathway. It is addressed to the mitochondria through an activated N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal instead. Although Δ51CB is supposed to be devoid of the typical CB enzymatic activity, it might play a role in malignancies and trigger cell death/apoptosis independent from the function of the regular enzyme. Cytoplasmic presence of the mature CB might occur as a result of lysosomal damage. Results We investigated such "aberrant" proteins by artificial CB-GFP chimeras covering various sequence parts in respect to their enzymatic activity, their localization in different cell types, and the effects on the cell viability. Unlike the entire full length CB form, the artificial single chain form was not processed and did not reveal typical enzymatic CB activity during transient overexpression in large cell lung carcinoma cells. Δ51CB was found predominantly in mitochondria. In contrast, the shorter artificial CB constructs localized in the cytoplasm, inside the cell nucleus, and in the midbodies of dividing cells. Bleaching experiments revealed both mobile and immobile fractions of these constructs in the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of artificially truncated CB variants led to disintegration of nuclei, followed by cell death. Conclusion We propose that cell death associated with CB is not necessarily triggered by its regular enzymatic activity but alternatively by a yet unknown activity profile of truncated CB. Cytoplasmic CB might be able to enter the cell nucleus. According to a mutational analysis, the part of CB that mediates its nuclear import is a signal patch within its heavy chain domain. The results suggest that besides the N-terminal signal peptide also

  1. Humans as major geological and geomorphological agents in the Anthropocene: the significance of artificial ground in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simon J; Ford, Jonathan R; Cooper, Anthony H; Neal, Catherine

    2011-03-13

    Since the first prehistoric people started to dig for stone to make implements, rather than pick up loose material, humans have modified the landscape through excavation of rock and soil, generation of waste and creation of artificial ground. In Great Britain over the past 200 years, people have excavated, moved and built up the equivalent of at least six times the volume of Ben Nevis. It is estimated that the worldwide deliberate annual shift of sediment by human activity is 57,000 Mt (million tonnes) and exceeds that of transport by rivers to the oceans (22,000 Mt) almost by a factor of three. Humans sculpt and transform the landscape through the physical modification of the shape and properties of the ground. As such, humans are geological and geomorphological agents and the dominant factor in landscape evolution through settlement and widespread industrialization and urbanization. The most significant impact of this has been since the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, coincident with increased release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The anthropogenic sedimentological record, therefore, provides a marker on which to characterize the Anthropocene.

  2. Artificial companions: empathy and vulnerability mirroring in human-robot relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Under what conditions can robots become companions and what are the ethical issues that might arise in human-robot companionship relations? I argue that the possibility and future of robots as companions depends (among other things) on the robot’s capacity to be a recipient of human empathy, and

  3. A New Human Rights Regime to Address Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Zawieska, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and AI appears to be on the cusp of foundational change: until recently the human ability to control technology was unquestioned, but now the trend suggests a declining power differential and the possibility of an inverse power relationship soon. AI is poised...

  4. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  5. Exploiting multiple sources of information in learning an artificial language: human data and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This study investigates the joint influences of three factors on the discovery of new word-like units in a continuous artificial speech stream: the statistical structure of the ongoing input, the initial word-likeness of parts of the speech flow, and the contextual information provided by the earlier emergence of other word-like units. Results of an experiment conducted with adult participants show that these sources of information have strong and interactive influences on word discovery. The authors then examine the ability of different models of word segmentation to account for these results. PARSER (Perruchet & Vinter, 1998) is compared to the view that word segmentation relies on the exploitation of transitional probabilities between successive syllables, and with the models based on the Minimum Description Length principle, such as INCDROP. The authors submit arguments suggesting that PARSER has the advantage of accounting for the whole pattern of data without ad-hoc modifications, while relying exclusively on general-purpose learning principles. This study strengthens the growing notion that nonspecific cognitive processes, mainly based on associative learning and memory principles, are able to account for a larger part of early language acquisition than previously assumed. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Human Fitting Studies of Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Steffen, Robert J.; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Cruz, Vincent; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Moazami, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices is challenging, especially in patients with a small chest cavity. We evaluated how well the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) fit the anatomy of patients about to receive a heart transplant. A mock pump model of the CFTAH was rapid-prototyped using biocompatible materials. The model was brought to the operative table, and the direction, length, and angulation of the inflow/outflow ports and outflow conduits were evaluated after the recipient's ventricles had been resected. Thoracic cavity measurements were based on preoperative computed tomographic data. The CFTAH fit well in all five patients (height, 170 ± 9 cm; weight, 75 ± 24 kg). Body surface area was 1.9 ± 0.3 m2 (range, 1.6-2.1 m2). The required inflow and outflow port orientation of both the left and right housings appeared consistent with the current version of the CFTAH implanted in calves. The left outflow conduit remained straight, but the right outflow direction necessitated a 73 ± 22 degree angulation to prevent potential kinking when crossing over the connected left outflow. These data support the fact that our design achieves the proper anatomical relationship of the CFTAH to a patient's native vessels. PMID:25806613

  7. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  8. Evolving robot empathy towards humans with motor disabilities through artificial pain generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Anshar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contact assistive robots, a prolonged physical engagement between robots and humans with motor disabilities due to shoulder injuries, for instance, may at times lead humans to experience pain. In this situation, robots will require sophisticated capabilities, such as the ability to recognize human pain in advance and generate counter-responses as follow up emphatic action. Hence, it is important for robots to acquire an appropriate pain concept that allows them to develop these capabilities. This paper conceptualizes empathy generation through the realization of synthetic pain classes integrated into a robot’s self-awareness framework, and the implementation of fault detection on the robot body serves as a primary source of pain activation. Projection of human shoulder motion into the robot arm motion acts as a fusion process, which is used as a medium to gather information for analyses then to generate corresponding synthetic pain and emphatic responses. An experiment is designed to mirror a human peer’s shoulder motion into an observer robot. The results demonstrate that the fusion takes place accurately whenever unified internal states are achieved, allowing accurate classification of synthetic pain categories and generation of empathy responses in a timely fashion. Future works will consider a pain activation mechanism development.

  9. Exposure to dim artificial light at night increases REM sleep and awakenings in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Bok, Ki-Nam; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has become increasing common, especially in developed countries. We investigated the effect of dALAN exposure during sleep in healthy young male subjects. A total of 30 healthy young male volunteers from 21 to 29 years old were recruited for the study. They were randomly divided into two groups depending on light intensity (Group A: 5 lux and Group B: 10 lux). After a quality control process, 23 healthy subjects were included in the study (Group A: 11 subjects, Group B: 12 subjects). Subjects underwent an NPSG session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two different dim light conditions (5 or 10 lux, dom λ: 501.4 nm) for a whole night (Night 2). We found significant sleep structural differences between Nights 1 and 2, but no difference between Groups A and B. Exposure to dALAN during sleep was significantly associated with increased wake time after sleep onset (WASO; F = 7.273, p = 0.014), increased Stage N1 (F = 4.524, p = 0.045), decreased Stage N2 (F = 9.49, p = 0.006), increased Stage R (F = 6.698, p = 0.017) and non-significantly decreased REM density (F = 4.102, p = 0.056). We found that dALAN during sleep affects sleep structure. Exposure to dALAN during sleep increases the frequency of arousals, amount of shallow sleep and amount of REM sleep. This suggests adverse effects of dALAN during sleep on sleep quality and suggests the need to avoid exposure to dALAN during sleep.

  10. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Su, Y.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal

  11. AMC-Bio-Artificial Liver culturing enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in human liver cell lines: The role of oxygen, medium perfusion and 3D configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, Aziza A. A.; van Wenum, Martien; van der Mark, Vincent A.; Jongejan, Aldo; Moerland, Perry D.; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2017-01-01

    Human liver cell lines, like HepaRG and C3A, acquire higher functionality when cultured in the AMC-Bio-Artificial Liver (AMC-BAL). The three main differences between BAL and monolayer culture are the oxygenation (40% vs 20%O2), dynamic vs absent medium perfusion and 3D vs 2D configuration. Here, we

  12. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study on dynamic changes of human tears after instillation of artificial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Coronella, Franco; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    To analyze in vivo the dynamic changes induced by different artificial tears (ATs) in the precorneal tear film (PCTF) and lower tear meniscus (LTM) by using spectral-domain (SD) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). We prospectively examined 42 normal human eyes by using SD-OCT imaging. On the day before OCT imaging, all enrolled subjects were evaluated for abnormalities of ocular surface. All tear film images were obtained before and after instillation of three different types of ATs (mucomimetic, lipid-based, and saline) in five serial scans: immediately (within 30 seconds), at the first, fifth, 10th, and 20th minute. Subjects received a drop of 35 μL in one randomly selected eye. All examinations were conducted in the same conditions of temperature, brightness, humidity, and time of day. Changes in the morphological pattern of both LTM and PCTF were associated with the type of artificial tear instilled on the ocular surface. Similarly, the radius of curvature (rc), the height (h), and the depth (d) showed dynamic variations depending on treatment. Although by the 20th minute, both h and d returned to baseline values in all groups, a significant difference in rc (compared with baseline) was detected for mucomimetic ATs (P = 0.04) and lipid ATs (P = 0.02). Spectral-domain OCT imaging has preliminarily proved to be a noninvasive tool to evaluate, in real time, the different changes induced by ATs instillation. An important stride in understanding the clinical response to various tear substitutes can be achieved by this objective and quantitative approach. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  14. Bookworms and Party Animals: An Artificial Labour Market with Human and Social Capital Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…

  15. The sedimentological changes caused by human impact at the artificial channel of Medjerda-River (Coastal zone of Medjerda, Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, Thouraya; Amrouni, Oula; Dezileau, Laurent; Mahé, Gil; Abdeljaouad, Saâdi

    2018-04-01

    Recent sedimentary and morphological changes at the new mouth of Medjerda-River (Gulf of Tunis) are investigated using a multiproxy approach of sediment cores complited by 210Pbex and 137Cs method dating. The subject of the study is to focus on surveying the sedimentary evolution of Medjerda-Raoued Delta caused by the human intervention in the management of the main tributaries of the Medjerda-River (artificial channel of Henchir Tobias). Sediment cores (CEM-1 and CEM-3) were subjected to both multiproxy approaches (Grain size, geochemical analysis and dating radiometric 210Pbex and 137Cs). The sedimentological analysis of the new deltaic deposits shows a progradation sequence with the silt and clay deposits on the historic sandy substratum. The mean grain size evolution on the old beach profile shows a decreasing trend from backshore (CEM-3) to nearshore (CEM-1). The geochemical results show varying concentrations of chemical elements such as Fe, K, Rb, Nb, Cr, Ti, Ba, Ca, Sr, Zr, V, and potentially toxic metal trace elements such as Pb, Zn and the As. The Principal component Analysis (PCA) applied in the geochemical elements evolution confirms the marine origin of the sand deposits in the basic layers of the two cores. The chronological method (210Pbex and 137Cs) affirms that the first fluvial deposits were set up only after 1950. The sedimentological and geochemical result confirm the actual unless of coarser fluvial supplies under the human activities leading the negative coastal sediment balance and the shoreline retreat as well.

  16. In vitro study of the diode laser effect on artificial demineralized surface of human dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In scientific literature there are many reports about fusion and resolidification of dental enamel after laser irradiation and their capability to generate surfaces with increased resistance to demineralization compared to non-irradiated areas. The use of high power diode laser on demineralized surfaces of human dental enamel is presented as a good alternative in caries prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes produced by the use of one high power diode laser on human dental enamel surface after demineralization treatment with lactic acid, under chosen parameters. Fifteen samples of human dental molars were used and divided in four groups: control - demineralization treatment with lactic acid and no irradiation, and demineralization treatment with lactic acid followed of irradiation with 212,20 mJ/cm 2 , 282,84 mJ/cm 2 and 325,38 mJ/cm 2 , respectively. The samples were irradiated with high power diode laser (808 nm) with a 300 μm diameter fiber optics. Black ink was used on enamel surface to enhance the superficial absorption. The samples were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Modifications on the enamel surfaces were observed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified region of the enamel. According with our results the best parameter was 2.0 W, presenting the most uniform surface. The use of high power diode laser as demonstrated in this study is able to promote melting and re-solidification on human dental enamel. (author)

  17. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  18. What is the value of embedding artificial emotional prosody in human computer interactions? Implications for theory and design in psychological science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In computerised technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today’s artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognised in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesise emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesised nonverbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioural, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  19. Comparative study of the fluorescence intensity of dental composites and human teeth submitted to artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Tatiana; Takahashi, Marcos Kenzo; Brum, Rafeal Torres; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes; Souza, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fluorescence of resin composites and human teeth, and to determine the stability of fluorescence after aging. Ten specimens were built using a 1 mm thick increment of dentin composite overlapped by a 0.5 mm thick increment of enamel composite. Ten sound human molars were sectioned and silicon carbide-polished to obtain enamel and dentin slabs 1.5 mm in thickness. Fluorescence measurements were carried out by a fluorescence spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling (2000 cycles, 5°C and 55°C). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Tukey's test were performed at a significance level of 5%. Most of the tested composites showed significant differences in fluorescence both before and after aging (P 0.05), and was the only composite that showed comparable results of fluorescence to the tooth structure before and after thermocycling. With the exception of Filtek Supreme, there were significant reductions in fluorescence intensity for all the tested composites (P < 0.05).

  20. Web-based e-learning and virtual lab of human-artificial immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Ding, Yongsheng; Xiong, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Human immune system is as important in keeping the body healthy as the brain in supporting the intelligence. However, the traditional models of the human immune system are built on the mathematics equations, which are not easy for students to understand. To help the students to understand the immune systems, a web-based e-learning approach with virtual lab is designed for the intelligent system control course by using new intelligent educational technology. Comparing the traditional graduate educational model within the classroom, the web-based e-learning with the virtual lab shows the higher inspiration in guiding the graduate students to think independently and innovatively, as the students said. It has been found that this web-based immune e-learning system with the online virtual lab is useful for teaching the graduate students to understand the immune systems in an easier way and design their simulations more creatively and cooperatively. The teaching practice shows that the optimum web-based e-learning system can be used to increase the learning effectiveness of the students.

  1. The Artificial World of Plastination: A Challenge to Religious Perspectives on the Dead Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth

    2016-11-01

    The public exhibitions of plastinated (preserved) and dissected human cadavers have proved exceedingly popular and also very contentious. However, there has been little in the way of sustained analysis of these exhibitions from a Christian angle. The technique of plastination enables whole bodies to be displayed as though standing and playing a variety of sports, and with 'life-like' facial expressions. In analyzing this phenomenon, the plastination procedure is outlined, and the degree of naturalness of the whole body plastinates assessed. In searching for theological directives the debate over burial and cremation is used as a means of exploring the respect we give the dead body, and the significance of the resurrection of the body for our views of the dead body. In particular, attention is paid to devaluation of the dead body in situations ranging from dissection of the body through to commercial public exhibitions. The centrality of notions of altruism and 'gift' is discussed. It is concluded that there are many disquieting features to these exhibitions, necessitating caution in approaching them. Nevertheless, in reminding visitors of their mortality and the wonders of the human body, they are not to be dismissed entirely.

  2. Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration

  3. Reversible immortalisation enables genetic correction of human muscle progenitors and engineering of next-generation human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Sara; Uno, Narumi; Hoshiya, Hidetoshi; Ragazzi, Martina; Ferrari, Giulia; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Moyle, Louise Anne; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Lombardo, Angelo; Chaouch, Soraya; Mouly, Vincent; Moore, Marc; Popplewell, Linda; Kazuki, Kanako; Katoh, Motonobu; Naldini, Luigi; Dickson, George; Messina, Graziella; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Cossu, Giulio; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Transferring large or multiple genes into primary human stem/progenitor cells is challenged by restrictions in vector capacity, and this hurdle limits the success of gene therapy. A paradigm is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable disorder caused by mutations in the largest human gene: dystrophin. The combination of large-capacity vectors, such as human artificial chromosomes (HACs), with stem/progenitor cells may overcome this limitation. We previously reported amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype in mice transplanted with murine muscle progenitors containing a HAC with the entire dystrophin locus (DYS-HAC). However, translation of this strategy to human muscle progenitors requires extension of their proliferative potential to withstand clonal cell expansion after HAC transfer. Here, we show that reversible cell immortalisation mediated by lentivirally delivered excisable hTERT and Bmi1 transgenes extended cell proliferation, enabling transfer of a novel DYS-HAC into DMD satellite cell-derived myoblasts and perivascular cell-derived mesoangioblasts. Genetically corrected cells maintained a stable karyotype, did not undergo tumorigenic transformation and retained their migration ability. Cells remained myogenic in vitro (spontaneously or upon MyoD induction) and engrafted murine skeletal muscle upon transplantation. Finally, we combined the aforementioned functions into a next-generation HAC capable of delivering reversible immortalisation, complete genetic correction, additional dystrophin expression, inducible differentiation and controllable cell death. This work establishes a novel platform for complex gene transfer into clinically relevant human muscle progenitors for DMD gene therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Synergistic effect of defined artificial extracellular matrices and pulsed electric fields on osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ricarda; Jaeschke, Anna; Neubert, Holger; Hintze, Vera; Moeller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Hart, David A; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    In vivo, bone formation is a complex, tightly regulated process, influenced by multiple biochemical and physical factors. To develop a vital bone tissue engineering construct, all of these individual components have to be considered and integrated to gain an in vivo-like stimulation of target cells. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the synergistic role of defined biochemical and physical microenvironments with respect to osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Biochemical microenvironments have been designed using artificial extracellular matrices (aECMs), containing collagen I (coll) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) like chondroitin sulfate (CS), or a high-sulfated hyaluronan derivative (sHya), formulated as coatings on three-dimensional poly(caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCL) scaffolds. As part of the physical microenvironment, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields via transformer-like coupling (TC). Results showed that aECM containing sHya enhanced osteogenic differentiation represented by increases in ALP activity and gene-expression (RT-qPCR) of several bone-related proteins (RUNX-2, ALP, OPN). Electric field stimulation alone did not influence cell proliferation, but osteogenic differentiation was enhanced if osteogenic supplements were provided, showing synergistic effects by the combination of sHya and electric fields. These results will improve the understanding of bone regeneration processes and support the development of effective tissue engineered bone constructs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

    2014-05-01

    A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame.

  6. Optimizing the method for generation of integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells from human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haihui; Huang, Xia; Xu, Jing; Song, Lili; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Yuan, Weiping; Li, Yanxin

    2018-06-15

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human peripheral blood provides a convenient and low-invasive way to obtain patient-specific iPSCs. The episomal vector is one of the best approaches for reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent status because of its simplicity and affordability. However, the efficiency of episomal vector reprogramming of adult peripheral blood cells is relatively low compared with cord blood and bone marrow cells. In the present study, integration-free human iPSCs derived from peripheral blood were established via episomal technology. We optimized mononuclear cell isolation and cultivation, episomal vector promoters, and a combination of transcriptional factors to improve reprogramming efficiency. Here, we improved the generation efficiency of integration-free iPSCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by optimizing the method of isolating mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, by modifying the integration of culture medium, and by adjusting the duration of culture time and the combination of different episomal vectors. With this optimized protocol, a valuable asset for banking patient-specific iPSCs has been established.

  7. Human Age Recognition by Electrocardiogram Signal Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Hirak

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this work is to make a neural network function approximation model to detect human age from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The input vectors of the neural network are the Katz fractal dimension of the ECG signal, frequencies in the QRS complex, male or female (represented by numeric constant) and the average of successive R-R peak distance of a particular ECG signal. The QRS complex has been detected by short time Fourier transform algorithm. The successive R peak has been detected by, first cutting the signal into periods by auto-correlation method and then finding the absolute of the highest point in each period. The neural network used in this problem consists of two layers, with Sigmoid neuron in the input and linear neuron in the output layer. The result shows the mean of errors as -0.49, 1.03, 0.79 years and the standard deviation of errors as 1.81, 1.77, 2.70 years during training, cross validation and testing with unknown data sets, respectively.

  8. The injury and cumulative effects on human skin by UV exposure from artificial fluorescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Liu, Wei; Niu, TianHui; Dai, CaiHong; Li, Xiaoxin; Cui, Caijuan; Zhao, Xinyan; E, Yaping; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from fluorescence lamp were studied. UV intensity from fluorescence lamp was measured, and human skin samples (hips, 10 volunteers) were exposed to low-dose UV irradiation (three times per week for 13 consecutive weeks). Three groups were examined: control group without UV radiation; low-dose group with a cumulative dose of 50 J cm(-2) which was equivalent to irradiation of the face during indoor work for 1.5 years; and high-dose group with 1000 J cm(-2) cumulative dose equivalent to irradiation of the face during outdoor activities for 1 year. Specific indicators were measured before and after UVA irradiation. The findings showed that extending the low-dose UVA exposure decreased the skin moisture content and increased the transepidermal water loss as well as induced skin color changes (decreased L* value, increased M index). Furthermore, irradiated skin showed an increased thickness of cuticle and epidermis, skin edema, light color and unclear staining collagen fibers in the dermis, and elastic fiber fragmentation. In addition, MMP-1, p53 and SIRT1 expression was also increased. Long-term exposure of low-dose UVA radiation enhanced skin photoaging. The safety of the fluorescent lamp needs our attention. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. The Human Behaviour-Change Project: harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Thomas, James; Johnston, Marie; Aonghusa, Pol Mac; Shawe-Taylor, John; Kelly, Michael P; Deleris, Léa A; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Marques, Marta M; Norris, Emma; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; West, Robert

    2017-10-18

    Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support. The Human Behaviour-Change Project (HBCP) will use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to (i) develop and evaluate a 'Knowledge System' that automatically extracts, synthesises and interprets findings from BCI evaluation reports to generate new insights about behaviour change and improve prediction of intervention effectiveness and (ii) allow users, such as practitioners, policy makers and researchers, to easily and efficiently query the system to get answers to variants of the question 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what settings and why?'. The HBCP will: a) develop an ontology of BCI evaluations and their reports linking effect sizes for given target behaviours with intervention content and delivery and mechanisms of action, as moderated by exposure, populations and settings; b) develop and train an automated feature extraction system to annotate BCI evaluation reports using this ontology; c) develop and train machine learning and reasoning algorithms to use the annotated BCI evaluation reports to predict effect sizes for particular combinations of behaviours, interventions, populations and settings; d) build user and machine interfaces for interrogating and updating the knowledge base; and e) evaluate all the above in terms of performance and utility. The HBCP aims to revolutionise our ability to synthesise, interpret and deliver

  10. A gene delivery system with a human artificial chromosome vector based on migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards human glioblastoma HTB14 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yusuke; Kamitani, Hideki; Mamun, Mahabub Hasan; Wasita, Brian; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been expected to become useful gene delivery vehicles against human malignant gliomas when coupled with an appropriate vector system, because they migrate towards the lesion. Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are non-integrating vectors with several advantages for gene therapy, namely, no limitations on the size and number of genes that can be inserted. We investigated the migration of human immortalized MSCs bearing a HAC vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HAC-tk-hiMSCs) towards malignant gliomas in vivo. Red fluorescence protein-labeled human glioblastoma HTB14 cells were implanted into a subcortical region in nude mice. Four days later, green fluorescence protein-labeled HAC-tk-hiMSCs were injected into a contralateral subcortical region (the HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injection model). Tropism to the glioma mass and the route of migration were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. HAC-tk-hiMSCs began to migrate toward the HTB14 glioma area via the corpus callosum on day 4, and gathered around the HTB14 glioma mass on day 7. To test whether the delivered gene could effectively treat glioblastoma in vivo, HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injected mice were treated with ganciclovir (GCV) or PBS. The HTB14 glioma mass was significantly reduced by GCV treatment in mice injected with HAC-tk-hiMSCs. It was confirmed that gene delivery by our HAC-hiMSC system was effective after migration of MSCs to the glioma mass in vivo. Therefore, MSCs containing HACs carrying an anticancer gene or genes may provide a new tool for the treatment of malignant gliomas and possibly of other tumor types.

  11. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  12. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C

    1999-01-01

    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health risk in relation to recreational activities. To quantify health risks for carcinogenic (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as well as noncarcinogenic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), an exposure assessment model was used. First, we used a standard model that solely uses data on sediment pollution as the input parameter, which is the standard procedure in sediment quality assessments in The Netherlands. The highest intake appeared to be associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and resulted in a health risk for Pb and Zn (hazard index exceeded 1). For the other heavy metals and for benzo(a)pyrene, the total averaged exposure levels were below levels of concern. Secondly, input data for a more location-specific calculation procedure were provided via analyses of samples from sediment, surface water, and suspended matter. When these data (concentrations in surface water) were taken into account, the risk due to consumption of contaminated fish decreased by more than two orders of magnitude and appeared to be negligible. In both exposure assessments, many assumptions were made that contribute to a major degree to the uncertainty of this risk assessment. However, this health risk evaluation is useful as a screening methodology for assessing the urgency of sediment remediation actions.

  13. A method for producing transgenic cells using a multi-integrase system on a human artificial chromosome vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3-96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3-87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression.

  14. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Modeling human intention formation: [Technical report, May 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Pople, H. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 43 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  15. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Effects of artificial light at night on human health: A literature review of observational and experimental studies applied to exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, YongMin; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Lee, Byeo Ri; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jaewook

    2015-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) may cause negative health effects, such as breast cancer, circadian phase disruption and sleep disorders. Here, we reviewed the literature assessing the effects of human exposure to ALAN in order to list the health effects of various aspects of ALAN. Several electronic databases were searched for articles, published through August 2014, related to assessing the effects of exposure to ALAN on human health; these also included the details of experiments on such exposure. A total of 85 articles were included in the review. Several observational studies showed that outdoor ALAN levels are a risk factor for breast cancer and reported that indoor light intensity and individual lighting habits were relevant to this risk. Exposure to artificial bright light during the nighttime suppresses melatonin secretion, increases sleep onset latency (SOL) and increases alertness. Circadian misalignment caused by chronic ALAN exposure may have negative effects on the psychological, cardiovascular and/or metabolic functions. ALAN also causes circadian phase disruption, which increases with longer duration of exposure and with exposure later in the evening. It has also been reported that shorter wavelengths of light preferentially disturb melatonin secretion and cause circadian phase shifts, even if the light is not bright. This literature review may be helpful to understand the health effects of ALAN exposure and suggests that it is necessary to consider various characteristics of artificial light, beyond mere intensity.

  17. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  18. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  19. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  20. Decision-Making and the Interface between Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence. AIR 1987 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Ralph E.

    Possible future developments in artificial intelligence (AI) as well as its limitations are considered that have implications for institutional research in higher education, and especially decision making and decision support systems. It is noted that computer software programs have been developed that store knowledge and mimic the decision-making…

  1. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  2. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  3. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  5. Larvas output and influence of human factor in reliability of meat inspection by the method of artificial digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Vesna; Savić Marko; Vasilev Saša; Đorđević Milovan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the performed analyses of the factors that contributed the infected meat reach food chain, we have found out that the infection occurred after consuming the meat inspected by the method of collective samples artificial digestion by using a magnetic stirrer (MM). In this work there are presented assay results which show how modifications of the method, on the level of final sedimentation, influence the reliability of Trichinella larvas detect...

  6. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  7. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  10. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  11. Künstliche Menschen? Körpergeschichte zwischen Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte Artificial Humans? The History of the Body between the History of Science and of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Eitler

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende von Barbara Orland herausgegebene Sammelband steht in einer Reihe von Untersuchungen, in denen seit rund zehn Jahren der menschliche Körper in seiner Historizität als Ergebnis wissenschaftlicher und technischer Konstruktionsprozesse betrachtet wird. In dreizehn Beiträgen wird mittels unterschiedlicher Zugriffe und auf durchweg hohem Niveau ein denkbar breites Feld der artifiziellen Gestaltung menschlicher Körper seit dem 18. Jahrhundert erschlossen.The collected volume at hand, edited by Barbara Orland, is one of a series of studies on the human body in the past ten years that examines its historicity on the basis of scientific and technical processes of construction. In its thirteen contributions, which use various approaches and which display consistently high standards, the collection opens up the considerably wide field of the artificial construction of the human body since the eighteenth century.

  12. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  13. Using an Artificial Neural Bypass to Restore Cortical Control of Rhythmic Movements in a Human with Quadriplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Friedenberg, David A.; Annetta, Nicholas; Glenn, Bradley; Bockbrader, Marcie; Majstorovic, Connor; Domas, Stephanie; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Rezai, Ali; Bouton, Chad

    2016-09-01

    Neuroprosthetic technology has been used to restore cortical control of discrete (non-rhythmic) hand movements in a paralyzed person. However, cortical control of rhythmic movements which originate in the brain but are coordinated by Central Pattern Generator (CPG) neural networks in the spinal cord has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show a demonstration of an artificial neural bypass technology that decodes cortical activity and emulates spinal cord CPG function allowing volitional rhythmic hand movement. The technology uses a combination of signals recorded from the brain, machine-learning algorithms to decode the signals, a numerical model of CPG network, and a neuromuscular electrical stimulation system to evoke rhythmic movements. Using the neural bypass, a quadriplegic participant was able to initiate, sustain, and switch between rhythmic and discrete finger movements, using his thoughts alone. These results have implications in advancing neuroprosthetic technology to restore complex movements in people living with paralysis.

  14. Dissolution and reactive oxygen species generation of inhaled cemented tungsten carbide particles in artificial human lung fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, A B; Leonard, S S; Hoover, M D; Virji, M A; Day, G A

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of both cobalt (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles is associated with development of hard metal lung disease (HMD) via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas Co alone is sufficient to cause asthma via solubilization and hapten formation. We characterized bulk and aerodynamically size-separated W, WC, Co, spray dryer (pre-sintered), and chamfer grinder (post-sintered) powders. ROS generation was measured in the murine RAW 264.7 cell line using electron spin resonance. When dose was normalized to surface area, hydroxyl radical generation was independent of particle size, which suggests that particle surface chemistry may be an important exposure factor. Chamfer grinder particles generated the highest levels of ROS, consistent with the hypothesis that intimate contact of metals is important for ROS generation. In artificial extracellular lung fluid, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC), added to prevent mold growth during experiments, did not influence dissolution of Co (44.0±5.2 vs. 48.3±6.4%); however, dissolution was higher (p<0.05) in the absence of phosphate (62.0±5.4 vs. 48.3±6.4%). In artificial macrophage phagolysosomal fluid, dissolution of Co (36.2±10.4%) does not appear to be influenced (p=0.30) by the absence of glycine (29.8±2.1%), phosphate (39.6±8.6%), or ABDC (44.0±10.5%). These results aid in assessing and understanding Co and W inhalation dosimetry.

  15. Evaluation of dermal-epidermal skin equivalents ('composite-skin') of human keratinocytes in a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix(Integra artificial skin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, M; Lang, E; Berger, A C

    2000-09-01

    Integra artificial skin (Integra LifeSciences Corp., Plainsboro, NJ, USA) is a dermal template consisting of bovine collagen, chondroitin-6-sulphate and a silastic membrane manufactured as Integra. This product has gained widespread use in the clinical treatment of third degree burn wounds and full thickness skin defects of different aetiologies. The product was designed to significantly reduce the time needed to achieve final wound closure in the treatment of major burn wounds, to optimise the sparse autologous donor skin resources and to improve the durable mechanical quality of the skin substitute. The clinical procedure requires two stages. The first step creates a self neodermis, the second creates a self epidermis on the neodermis. However, it is desirable to cover major burn wounds early in a single step by a skin substitute consisting of a dermal equivalent seeded in vitro with autologous keratinocytes ('composite-skin') out of which a full thickness skin develops in vivo.The goal of this experimental study was to develop a method to integrate human keratinocytes in homogeneous distribution and depth into Integra Artificial Skin. The seeded cell-matrix composites were grafted onto athymic mice in order to evaluate their potential to reconstitute a human epidermis in vivo. We were able to demonstrate that the inoculated human keratinocytes reproducibly displayed a homogeneous pattern of distribution, adherence, proliferation and confluence. The cell-matrix composites grafted in this model exhibited good wound adherence, complete healing, minor wound contraction and had the potential to reconstitute an elastic, functional and durable human skin. Histologically we were able to show that the inoculated human keratinocytes in vivo colonised the matrix in a histomorphologically characteristic epidermal pattern (keratomorula, keratinocyte bubbling) and developed a persisting, stratified, keratinising epidermis which immunohistologically proved to be of human

  16. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  17. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  18. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  19. Discovery of a Recursive Principle: An Artificial Grammar Investigation of Human Learning of a Counting Recursion Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyeong Whan; Szkudlarek, Emily; Tabor, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Learning is typically understood as a process in which the behavior of an organism is progressively shaped until it closely approximates a target form. It is easy to comprehend how a motor skill or a vocabulary can be progressively learned-in each case, one can conceptualize a series of intermediate steps which lead to the formation of a proficient behavior. With grammar, it is more difficult to think in these terms. For example, center embedding recursive structures seem to involve a complex interplay between multiple symbolic rules which have to be in place simultaneously for the system to work at all, so it is not obvious how the mechanism could gradually come into being. Here, we offer empirical evidence from a new artificial language (or "artificial grammar") learning paradigm, Locus Prediction, that, despite the conceptual conundrum, recursion acquisition occurs gradually, at least for a simple formal language. In particular, we focus on a variant of the simplest recursive language, a (n) b (n) , and find evidence that (i) participants trained on two levels of structure (essentially ab and aabb) generalize to the next higher level (aaabbb) more readily than participants trained on one level of structure (ab) combined with a filler sentence; nevertheless, they do not generalize immediately; (ii) participants trained up to three levels (ab, aabb, aaabbb) generalize more readily to four levels than participants trained on two levels generalize to three; (iii) when we present the levels in succession, starting with the lower levels and including more and more of the higher levels, participants show evidence of transitioning between the levels gradually, exhibiting intermediate patterns of behavior on which they were not trained; (iv) the intermediate patterns of behavior are associated with perturbations of an attractor in the sense of dynamical systems theory. We argue that all of these behaviors indicate a theory of mental representation in which recursive

  20. Artificial limb representation in amputees

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heiligenberg, FMZ; Orlov, T; Macdonald, SN; Duff, EP; Henderson Slater, JDE; Beckmann, CF; Johansen-Berg, H; Culham, JC; Makin, TR

    2018-01-01

    The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral o...

  1. Larvas output and influence of human factor in reliability of meat inspection by the method of artificial digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the performed analyses of the factors that contributed the infected meat reach food chain, we have found out that the infection occurred after consuming the meat inspected by the method of collective samples artificial digestion by using a magnetic stirrer (MM. In this work there are presented assay results which show how modifications of the method, on the level of final sedimentation, influence the reliability of Trichinella larvas detection in the infected meat samples. It has been shown that use of inadequate laboratory containers for larva collecting in final sedimentation and change of volume of digestive liquid that outflow during colouring preparations, can significantly influence inspection results. Larva detection errors ranged from 4 to 80% in presented the experimental groups in regard to the control group of samples inspected by using MM method, which had been carried out completely according to Europe Commission procedure No 2075/2005, where no errors in larva number per sample was found. We consider that the results of this work will contribute to the improvement of control of the method performance and especially of the critical point during inspection of meat samples to Trichinella larvas in Serbia.

  2. Reconstructed image of human heart for total artificial heart implantation, based on MR image and cast silicone model of heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoda, Takashi; Maeta, Hajime; Uyama, Chikao.

    1991-01-01

    Based on transverse (TRN) and LV long axis (LAX) MR images of two cadaver hearts, three-dimensional (3-D) computer models of the connecting interface between remaining heart and total artificial heart, i.e., mitral and tricuspid valvular annuli (MVA and TVA), ascending aorta (Ao) and pulmonary artery (PA), were reconstructed to compare the shape and the size of MVA and those of TVA, the distance between the center of MVA and TVA (D G ), the angle between the plane of MVA and that of TVA (R T ), and the angles of Ao and PA, respectively, to the plane of MVA (R A , R P ), with those obtained in cast silicone models. It was found that based on LAX rather than TRN MR image, MVA and TVA might be more precisely reconstructed. The data obtained in 3-D images of MVA, TVA, Ao and PA based on silicone models of 32 hearts were as follows: D G (cm): 4.17±0.43, R T (degrees): 22.1±11.3, R A (degrees): 54.9±15.3, R P (degrees): 30.8±17.1. (author)

  3. Mapping of histone modifications in episomal HBV cccDNA uncovers an unusual chromatin organization amenable to epigenetic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropberger, Philipp; Mercier, Alexandre; Robinson, Margaret; Zhong, Weidong; Ganem, Don E.; Holdorf, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects 240 million people worldwide and is a major risk factor for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral therapy inhibits cytoplasmic HBV genomic replication, but is not curative because it does not directly affect nuclear HBV closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the genomic form that templates viral transcription and sustains viral persistence. Novel approaches that directly target cccDNA regulation would therefore be highly desirable. cccDNA is assembled with cellular histone proteins into chromatin, but little is known about the regulation of HBV chromatin by histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here, using a new cccDNA ChIP-Seq approach, we report, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide maps of PTMs in cccDNA-containing chromatin from de novo infected HepG2 cells, primary human hepatocytes, and from HBV-infected liver tissue. We find high levels of PTMs associated with active transcription enriched at specific sites within the HBV genome and, surprisingly, very low levels of PTMs linked to transcriptional repression even at silent HBV promoters. We show that transcription and active PTMs in HBV chromatin are reduced by the activation of an innate immunity pathway, and that this effect can be recapitulated with a small molecule epigenetic modifying agent, opening the possibility that chromatin-based regulation of cccDNA transcription could be a new therapeutic approach to chronic HBV infection. PMID:26438841

  4. Low-Dose Gene Therapy for Murine PKU Using Episomal Naked DNA Vectors Expressing PAH from Its Endogenous Liver Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiu Man Grisch-Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited duration of transgene expression, insertional mutagenesis, and size limitations for transgene cassettes pose challenges and risk factors for many gene therapy vectors. Here, we report on physiological expression of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH by delivery of naked DNA/minicircle (MC-based vectors for correction of homozygous enu2 mice, a model of human phenylketonuria (PKU. Because MC vectors lack a defined size limit, we constructed a MC vector expressing a codon-optimized murine Pah cDNA that includes a truncated intron and is under the transcriptional control of a 3.6-kb native Pah promoter/enhancer sequence. This vector, delivered via hydrodynamic injection, yielded therapeutic liver PAH activity and sustained correction of blood phenylalanine comparable to viral or synthetic liver promoters. Therapeutic efficacy was seen with vector copy numbers of 95% loss of vector genomes and PAH activity in liver, demonstrating that MC vectors had not integrated into the liver genome. In conclusion, MC vectors, which do not have a defined size-limitation, offer a favorable safety profile for hepatic gene therapy due to their non-integration in combination with native promoters.

  5. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  6. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  7. State-of-the-Art Mobile Intelligence: Enabling Robots to Move Like Humans by Estimating Mobility with Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Bo Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is a significant robotic task. It is the most important function when robotics is applied to domains such as autonomous cars, home service robots, and autonomous underwater vehicles. Despite extensive research on this topic, robots still suffer from difficulties when moving in complex environments, especially in practical applications. Therefore, the ability to have enough intelligence while moving is a key issue for the success of robots. Researchers have proposed a variety of methods and algorithms, including navigation and tracking. To help readers swiftly understand the recent advances in methodology and algorithms for robot movement, we present this survey, which provides a detailed review of the existing methods of navigation and tracking. In particular, this survey features a relation-based architecture that enables readers to easily grasp the key points of mobile intelligence. We first outline the key problems in robot systems and point out the relationship among robotics, navigation, and tracking. We then illustrate navigation using different sensors and the fusion methods and detail the state estimation and tracking models for target maneuvering. Finally, we address several issues of deep learning as well as the mobile intelligence of robots as suggested future research topics. The contributions of this survey are threefold. First, we review the literature of navigation according to the applied sensors and fusion method. Second, we detail the models for target maneuvering and the existing tracking based on estimation, such as the Kalman filter and its series developed form, according to their model-construction mechanisms: linear, nonlinear, and non-Gaussian white noise. Third, we illustrate the artificial intelligence approach—especially deep learning methods—and discuss its combination with the estimation method.

  8. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  9. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing P450 in artificial digestive systems : A model for biodetoxication in the human digestive environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquet, S.; Meunier, J.P.; Minekus, M.; Marol-Bonnin, S.; Alric, M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with

  10. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  11. A novel system for transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide causing an "artificial Bohr effect" in the human body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitada Sakai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO(2 therapy refers to the transcutaneous administration of CO(2 for therapeutic purposes. This effect has been explained by an increase in the pressure of O(2 in tissues known as the Bohr effect. However, there have been no reports investigating the oxygen dissociation of haemoglobin (Hb during transcutaneous application of CO(2in vivo. In this study, we investigate whether the Bohr effect is caused by transcutaneous application of CO2 in human living body. METHODS: We used a novel system for transcutaneous application of CO(2 using pure CO(2 gas, hydrogel, and a plastic adaptor. The validity of the CO(2 hydrogel was confirmed in vitro using a measuring device for transcutaneous CO(2 absorption using rat skin. Next, we measured the pH change in the human triceps surae muscle during transcutaneous application of CO(2 using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS in vivo. In addition, oxy- and deoxy-Hb concentrations were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy in the human arm with occulted blood flow to investigate O2 dissociation from Hb caused by transcutaneous application of CO(2. RESULTS: The rat skin experiment showed that CO(2 hydrogel enhanced CO(2 gas permeation through the rat skin. The intracellular pH of the triceps surae muscle decreased significantly 10 min. after transcutaneous application of CO(2. The NIRS data show the oxy-Hb concentration decreased significantly 4 min. after CO(2 application, and deoxy-Hb concentration increased significantly 2 min. after CO(2 application in the CO(2-applied group compared to the control group. Oxy-Hb concentration significantly decreased while deoxy-Hb concentration significantly increased after transcutaneous CO(2 application. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel transcutaneous CO(2 application facilitated an O(2 dissociation from Hb in the human body, thus providing evidence of the Bohr effect in vivo.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Modulates Apoptotic and Stress-Related Gene Expression, Ameliorates Maturation and Allows for the Development of Immature Human Oocytes after Artificial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Akbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM modulates apoptotic and stress-related gene expression, and ameliorates maturation and developmental potential of immature human oocytes after artificial activation. A total of 247 surplus immature germinal vesicle (GV oocytes obtained from infertile women were allocated into two in vitro maturation (IVM groups: 1: GV oocytes (n = 116 matured in vitro (fIVM, and 2: GV oocytes (n = 131 that were vitrified, then in vitro matured (vIVM. Also, two maturation media were used: Alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM and human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCM. After 36 h of incubation, the IVM oocytes were examined for nuclear maturation. In IVM-matured oocytes, cytoplasmic maturation was evaluated after artificial activation through Ionomycin. Moreover, the quantitative expressions of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2, BCL2-associated X protein (BAX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and Heat shock proteins (HSP70 in matured oocytes were assessed by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and compared with fresh and vitrified in vivo matured oocytes, which were used as fIVM and vIVM controls, respectively. The highest maturation rate was found in hUCM in fIVM, and the lowest maturation rate was found using α-MEM in vIVM (85.18% and 71.42%, respectively. The cleavage rate in fIVM was higher than that in vIVM (83.4% vs. 72.0%. In addition, the cleavage rate in α-MEM was lower than that in the hUCM (66.0% vs. 89.4%. Furthermore, the difference between parthenote embryo arrested in 4–8 cells (p < 0.04 and the quality of embryo arrested in 8-cell (p < 0.007 were significant. The developmental stages of parthenote embryos in hUCM versus α-MEM were as follows: 2–4 cell (89.45% vs. 66.00%, respectively, 4–8 cell (44.31% vs. 29.11%, respectively, morula (12.27% vs. 2.63%, respectively, and blastocysts (2.5% vs. 0%, respectively. The messenger

  13. γ-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and artificial skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Christophe E.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Bonner, William M.; Sedelnikova, Olga A.

    2009-04-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable in our modern society and can lead to a variety of deleterious effects including cancer and birth defects. A reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of exposure to IR and the individual response to that exposure would provide much needed information for the optimal treatment of each donor examined. We have developed a diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of the phosphorylated form of variant histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The cell responds to a nascent DSB through the phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules flanking the damaged site. This highly amplified response can be visualized as a γ-H2AX focus in the chromatin that can be detected in situ with the appropriate antibody. Here we assess the usability of γ-H2AX focus formation as a possible biodosimeter for human exposure to IR using peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated ex vivo and three-dimensional artificial models of human skin biopsies. In both systems, the tissues were exposed to 0.2-5 Gy, doses of IR that might be realistically encountered in various scenarios such as cancer radiotherapies or accidental exposure to radiation. Since the γ-H2AX response is maximal 30 min after exposure and declines over a period of hours as the cells repair the damage, we examined the time limitations of the useful detectability of γ-H2AX foci. We report that a linear response proportional to the initial radiation dose was obtained 48 and 24 h after exposure in blood samples and skin cells respectively. Thus, detection of γ-H2AX formation to monitor DNA damage in minimally invasive blood and skin tests could be useful tools to determine radiation dose exposure and analyze its effects on humans.

  14. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI provides machines with the ability to learn and respond the way humans do and is also referred to as machine learning. The step to building an AI system is to provide the data to learn from so that it can map relations between inputs and outputs and set up parameters such as “weights”/decision boundaries to predict responses for inputs in the future. Then, the model is tested on a second data set. This article outlines the promise this analytic approach has in medicine and cardiology.

  15. Is Intelligence Artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of intelligence is directed primarily at the level of human beings. This paper attempts to give a more unifying definition that can be applied to the natural world in general. The definition would be used more to verify a degree of intelligence, not to quantify it and might help when making judgements on the matter. A version of an accepted test for AI is then put forward as the 'acid test' for Artificial Intelligence itself. It might be what a free-thinking program or robot...

  16. A novel system for simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple gene-loading vectors into a defined site of a human artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV) into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system) via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming.

  17. A novel system for simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple gene-loading vectors into a defined site of a human artificial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Human artificial chromosomes (HACs are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming.

  18. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  19. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Cognitive reliability analysis technique: [Technical report, May 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Generation of iPSC line epiHUVEC from human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Matz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were used to generate the iPSC line epiHUVEC employing a combination of three episomal-based plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and KLF4. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptome profile of epiHUVEC and the human embryonic stem cell line — H1 have a Pearson correlation of 0.899.

  1. Artificial Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem). The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originally physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the human kind. This paper begins with a comm...

  2. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slamecka, J.; Salimova, L.; McClellan, S.; van Kelle, M.; Kehl, D.; Laurini, J.; Cinelli, P.; Owen, L.; Hoerstrup, S.P.; Weber, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to

  3. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  4. Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Travis; Ozden, Ilker; Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest.

  5. Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis May

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest.

  6. Artificial Intelligence--Applications in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, James L.; Norris, Cathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    This first in a projected series of five articles discusses artificial intelligence and its impact on education. Highlights include the history of artificial intelligence and the impact of microcomputers; learning processes; human factors and interfaces; computer assisted instruction and intelligent tutoring systems; logic programing; and expert…

  7. What Is Artificial Intelligence Anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Raymond

    1985-01-01

    Examines the past, present, and future status of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Acknowledges the limitations of AI but proposes possible areas of application and further development. Urges a concentration on the unique strengths of machine intelligence rather than a copying of human intelligence. (ML)

  8. Viewpoint: Artificial Intelligence and Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Samothrakis, Spyridon

    2018-01-01

    The welfare of modern societies has been intrinsically linked to wage labour. With some exceptions, the modern human has to sell her labour-power to be able reproduce biologically and socially. Thus, a lingering fear of technological unemployment features predominately as a theme among Artificial Intelligence researchers. In this short paper we show that, if past trends are anything to go by, this fear is irrational. On the contrary, we argue that the main problem humanity will be facing is t...

  9. Artificial intelligence estimates the impact of human papillomavirus types in influencing the risk of cervical dysplasia recurrence: progress toward a more personalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Borghi, Chiara; Scaffa, Cono; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-01-22

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the pretreatment human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype might predict the risk of cervical dysplasia persistence/recurrence. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of consecutive 5104 women who underwent the HPV-DNA test were matched with retrospective data of women undergoing either follow-up or medical/surgical treatment(s) for genital HPV-related infection(s). Artificial neuronal network (ANN) analysis was used in order to weight the importance of different HPV genotypes in predicting cervical dysplasia persistence/recurrence. ANN simulates a biological neuronal system from both the structural and functional points of view: like neurons, ANN acquires knowledge through a learning-phase process and allows weighting the importance of covariates, thus establishing how much a variable influences a multifactor phenomenon. Overall, 5104 women were tested for HPV. Among them, 1273 (25%) patients underwent treatment for HPV-related disorders. LASER conization and cervical vaporization were performed in 807 (59%) and 386 (30%) patients, respectively, and secondary cervical conization in 45 (5.5%). ANN technology showed that the most important genotypes predicting cervical dysplasia persistence/recurrence were HPV-16 (normalized importance: 100%), HPV-59 (normalized importance: 51.2%), HPV-52 (normalized importance: 47.7%), HPV-18 (normalized importance: 32.8%) and HPV-45 (normalized importance: 30.2%). The pretreatment diagnosis of all of those genotypes, except HPV-45, correlated with an increased risk of cervical dysplasia persistence/recurrence; the pretreatment diagnosis was also arrived at using standard univariate and multivariable models (P<0.01). Pretreatment positivity for HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-52 and HPV-59 might correlate with an increased risk of cervical dysplasia persistence/recurrence after treatment. These data might be helpful during patients' counseling and to implement new vaccination

  10. Fast gradient HPLC method to determine compounds binding to human serum albumin. Relationships with octanol/water and immobilized artificial membrane lipophilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Klara; Nunhuck, Shenaz; Bevan, Chris; Abraham, Michael H; Reynolds, Derek P

    2003-11-01

    A fast gradient HPLC method (cycle time 15 min) has been developed to determine Human Serum Albumin (HSA) binding of discovery compounds using chemically bonded protein stationary phases. The HSA binding values were derived from the gradient retention times that were converted to the logarithm of the equilibrium constants (logK HSA) using data from a calibration set of molecules. The method has been validated using literature plasma protein binding data of 68 known drug molecules. The method is fully automated, and has been used for lead optimization in more than 20 company projects. The HSA binding data obtained for more than 4000 compounds were suitable to set up global and project specific quantitative structure binding relationships that helped compound design in early drug discovery. The obtained HSA binding of known drug molecules were compared to the Immobilized Artificial Membrane binding data (CHI IAM) obtained by our previously described HPLC-based method. The solvation equation approach has been used to characterize the normal binding ability of HSA, and this relationship shows that compound lipophilicity is a significant factor. It was found that the selectivity of the "baseline" lipophilicity governing HSA binding, membrane interaction, and octanol/water partition are very similar. However, the effect of the presence of positive or negative charges have very different effects. It was found that negatively charged compounds bind more strongly to HSA than it would be expected from the lipophilicity of the ionized species at pH 7.4. Several compounds showed stronger HSA binding than can be expected from their lipophilicity alone, and comparison between predicted and experimental binding affinity allows the identification of compounds that have good complementarities with any of the known binding sites. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:2236-2248, 2003

  11. Artificial intelligence and human development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job and tax revenue loss through automation: With the growing use of machine .... practices that support the development of inclusive AI applications. What ..... been tested in Malaysia and in Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.25 ...... We need to develop global and local values and principles for AI that prioritize.

  12. Human versus artificial texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petiet, Peter J.; van Erp, J.; Drullman, R.; van den Broek, Egon; Beintema, J.; van Wijngaarden, S.

    2006-01-01

    The performances of current texture analysis algorithms are still poor, especially when applied to a large, diffuse texture domain. Most of these purely computationally driven techniques are created to function within a highly restricted domain. When applied as computer vision techniques, frequently

  13. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W H

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind's oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  14. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  15. Humans reclaimed lands in NorthEastern Italy and artificial drainage networks: effects of 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Pizzulli, Federica; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture and land-use management has changed drastically in Italy since the end of the Second World War, driven by local but also European agricultural policies. As a result of these changes in farming practices and land use, many drainage networks have changed producing a greater exposure to flooding with a broad range of impacts on society, also because of climate inputs coupling with the human drivers. This study focuses on two main points: which kind of land use and farming changes have been observed in the most recent years ( 30 years)? How do these changes interact with climate and soil conditions? An open challenge to understand how these changes influence the watershed response, is, in fact, to understand if rainfall characteristics and climate have a synergistic effect, if their interaction matters, or to understand what element has the greatest influence on the watershed response connected to agricultural changes. The work is based on a simple model of water infiltration due to soil properties, and a connected evaluation of the distributed surface water storage offered by artificial drainage networks in a study area in Veneto (north-eastern Italy). The analysis shows that economic changes control the development of agro-industrial landscapes, with effects on the hydrological response. However, these changes deeply interact with antecedent soil conditions and climate characteristics. Intense and irregular rainfall events and events with a high recurrence should be expected to be the most critical. The presented outcomes highlight the importance of understanding how agricultural practices can be the driver of or can be used to avoid, or at least mitigate, flooding. The proposed methods can be valuable tools in evaluating the costs and benefits of the management of water in agriculture to inform better policy decision-making. References Sofia G, Tarolli P. 2017. Hydrological Response to 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management. Land 6 (1): 3 DOI

  16. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  17. Pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-associated mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a necessary cause of carcinoma of the cervix and other mucosal epithelia. Key events in high-risk HPV (HRHPV)-associated neoplastic progression include persistent infection, deregulated expression of virus early genes in basal epithelial cells and genomic instability causing secondary host genomic imbalances. There are multiple mechanisms by which deregulated virus early gene expression may be achieved. Integration of virus DNA into host chromosomes is observed in the majority of cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), although in ∼15% of cases the virus remains extrachromosomal (episomal). Interestingly, not all integration events provide a growth advantage to basal cervical epithelial cells or lead to increased levels of the virus oncogenes E6 and E7, when compared with episome-containing basal cells. The factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants, but not others, are complex and include virus and host contributions. Gene expression from integrated and episomal HRHPV is regulated through host epigenetic mechanisms affecting the virus long control region (LCR), which appear to be of functional importance. New approaches to treating HRHPV-associated mucosal neoplasia include knockout of integrated HRHPV DNA, depletion of virus transcripts and inhibition of virus early gene transcription through targeting or use of epigenetic modifiers. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. CT assisted biomimetic artificial bone des

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.

  19. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  20. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  1. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  2. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  3. Artificial Intelligence and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution. Mirror neurons are an important paradigm in neuroscience research. Moreover, the paradigm shift proposed here - 'hall of mirror neurons' - is a potentially further productive research tactic. These concepts further expand AI and brain research.

  4. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d' A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  5. What you say is not what you get: arguing for artificial languages instead of natural languages in human robot speech interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubin, O.; Bartneck, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The project described hereunder focuses on the design and implementation of a "Artificial Robotic Interaction Language", where the research goal is to find a balance between the effort necessary from the user to learn a new language and the resulting benefit of optimized automatic speech recognition

  6. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten Bentzen; Olsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    to increase 25(OH)D by 1 nmol l(-1). The artificial dose of 6 SEDs of only hands and face significantly increased 25(OH)D and resulted in a dose of 0.52 SEDs required to increase 25(OH)D significantly by 1 nmol l(-1). Artificial UVB was thus at least 8 times more efficient in increasing 25(OH)D than solar UVR......Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...

  7. Gamma-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in targeted and bystander human artificial skin models and peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Christophe; Dickey, Jennifer; Bonner, William; Sedelnikova, Olga

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable. In addition to exposure from cosmic rays, the sun and radioactive substances, modern society has created new sources of radiation exposure such as space and high altitude journeys, X-ray diagnostics, radiological treatments and the increasing threat of radiobiological terrorism. For these reasons, a reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of dose and time exposure to IR is essential. We developed a minimally invasive diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of a phosphorylated variant of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules forms a gamma-H2AX focus in the chromatin flanking the DSB site that can be detected in situ. We analyzed gamma- H2AX focus formation in both directly irradiated cells as well as in un-irradiated "bystanders" in close contact with irradiated cells. In order to insure minimal invasiveness, we examined commercially available artificial skin models as a surrogate for human skin biopsies as well as peripheral blood lymphocytes. In human skin models, cells in a thin plane were microbeamirradiated and gamma-H2AX formation was measured both in irradiated and in distal bystander cells over time. In irradiated cells DSB formation reached a maximum at 15-30 minutes post- IR and then declined within several hours; all cells were affected. In marked contrast, the incidence of DSBs in bystander cells reached a maximum by 12-48 hours post-irradiation, gradually decreasing over the 7 day time course. At the maxima, 40-60% of bystander cells were affected. Similarly, we analyzed blood samples exposed to IR ex vivo at doses ranging from 0.02 to 3 Gy. The amount of DNA damage was linear in respect to radiation dose and independent of the age or sex of the blood donor. The method is highly reproducible and highly sensitive. In directly irradiated cells, the number of gamma-H2AX foci peaked

  8. Scheduling with artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gürgün, Burçkaan

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Industrial Engineering and The Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 59-65. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) attempt to emulate the massively parallel and distributed processing of the human brain. They are being examined for a variety of problems that have been very difficult to solve. The objective of this thesis is to review the curren...

  9. Artificial Intelligence, Employment, and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) will have profound societal effects. It promises potential benefits (and may also pose risks) in education, defense, business, law and science. In this article we explore how AI is likely to affect employment and the distribution of income. We argue that AI will indeed reduce drastically the need of human toil. We also note that some people fear the automation of work by machines and the resulting of unemployment. Yet, since the majority of us probably would rathe...

  10. Behavior acquisition in artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Thurau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Computational skill acquisition in robots and simulated agents has been a topic of increasing popularity throughout the last years. Despite impressive progress, autonomous behavior at a level of animals and humans are not yet replicated by machines. Especially when a complex environment demands versatile, goal-oriented behavior, current artificial systems show shortcomings. Consider for instance modern 3D computer games. Despite their key role for more emersive game experience, surprisingly l...

  11. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined, even unpredictable conduct, 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision, 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes, 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity, 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like human beings. The human moral code is irremediably imperfect: it is a morality of preference, of accountability (not of responsibility and a morality of non-liberty, which cannot be remedied by the invention of ethical systems, by the circulation of ideal values and by ethical (even computing education. But such an imperfect morality needs perfect instruments for its implementation: applications of special logic fields; efficient psychological (theoretical and technical attainments to endow the machine not just with intelligence, but with conscience and even spirit; comprehensive technical

  12. How safe is the meat inspection based on artificial digestion of pooled samples for Trichinella in pork? A scenario from wildlife to a human patient in a non-endemic region of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Joke; Franssen, Frits; Fonville, Manoj; Kortbeek, Titia; Beckers, Pieter; Tolsma, Paulien; Stenvers, Olaf; Teunis, Peter; Takumi, Katsuhisa

    2013-05-20

    The occurrence of trichinellosis in a resident of the Netherlands prompted us to examine the likelihood of this originating from infected rats in spite of prevailing biosecurity and testing procedures. In so doing, we sought to calculate the possible risks for trichinellosis in countries deemed non-endemic. The infection risk was determined by simulating a scenario from a reservoir of minimally contaminated wildlife to pigs to humans. Results indicate that humans might become infected even in the event that artificial digestion had been performed on individually tested pig carcasses. Our conclusions justify reconsidering Trichinella control strategies based on the current testing protocol, and emphasize the importance of proper cooking as further insurance against human infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-05-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  14. Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saitta, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences.  After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the K

  15. Prevalence of the integration status for human papillomavirus 16 in esophageal carcinoma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Shen, Haie; Li, Ji; Hou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ke; Li, Jintao

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the etiology of esophageal cancer (EC) related with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Fresh surgically resected tissue samples and clinical information were obtained from 189 patients. Genomic DNA was extracted, and HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with HPV L1 gene primers of MY09/11; HPV16 was detected using HPV16 E6 type-specific primer sets. Copies of HPV16 E2, E6, and the human housekeeping gene β-actin were tested using quantitative PCR to analyze the relationship between HPV16 integration and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the relationship between the HPV16 integration status and clinical information of patients. Of the 189 samples, 168 HPV-positive samples were detected, of which 76 were HPV16 positive. Among the HPV16 positive samples, 2 cases (E2/E6 ratio>1) were 2.6% (2/76) purely episomal, 65 (E2/E6 ratio between 0 and 1) were 85.6% (65/76) mixture of integrated and episomal, and 9 (E2/E6 ratio=0) were 11.8% (9/76) purely integrated. The results indicate that integration of HPV16 was more common in the host genome than in the episome genome. The prevalence rate of HPV16 integration is increasing with the pathological stage progression of esophageal carcinoma (EC). A high prevalence of HPV16 suggested that HPV16 has an etiological effect on the progress of EC. Integration of HPV16 is more common than episome genome in the host cells, indicating that continuous HPV infection is the key to esophageal epithelial cell malignant conversion and canceration.

  16. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE- BENEFITS, CHALLENGES AND ETHICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Juganaru Andreou

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, all big companies and most of small businesses are focused on increasing profitability and improving competitiveness. With this goal in mind, many of them turned to replace many tasks performed by humans with Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is receiving an increasing attention lately and the debate is fiercely growing with a question not being answered yet: will it change the world for the better or for worse?

  17. Ethical Issues of Artificial Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexiou , Athanasios; Psixa , Maria; Vlamos , Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Part 12: Medical Applications of ANN and Ethics of AI; International audience; While the plethora of artificial biomedical applications is enriched and combined with the possibilities of artificial intelligence, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, the variability in the ideological use of such concepts is associated with bioethical issues and several legal aspects. The convergence of bioethics and computer ethics, attempts to illustrate and approach problems, occurring by the fusion of human a...

  18. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Perceptual evaluation of backchannel strategies for artificial listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    Artificial listeners are virtual agents that can listen attentively to a human speaker in a dialog. In this paper, we present two experiments where we investigate the perception of rule-based backchannel strategies for artificial listeners. In both, we collect subjective judgements of humans who

  20. Ethico-epistemological implications of artificial intelligence for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argued for a re-direction of AI. research and suggested a humanization of Artificial Intelligence that cloaks technoscientific innovations with humanistic life jackets for man‟s preservation. The textual analysis method is adopted for this research. Key words: Ethics, Epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, Humanity.

  1. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  3. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  4. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  5. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  6. Torsional carbon nanotube artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D W; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-10-28

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  7. Artificial Muscles: Mechanisms, Applications, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2018-02-01

    The area of artificial muscle is a highly interdisciplinary field of research that has evolved rapidly in the last 30 years. Recent advances in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization, specifically carbon nanotubes and nanowires, have had major contributions in the development of artificial muscles. However, what can artificial muscles really do for humans? This question is considered here by first examining nature's solutions to this design problem and then discussing the structure, actuation mechanism, applications, and limitations of recently developed artificial muscles, including highly oriented semicrystalline polymer fibers; nanocomposite actuators; twisted nanofiber yarns; thermally activated shape-memory alloys; ionic-polymer/metal composites; dielectric-elastomer actuators; conducting polymers; stimuli-responsive gels; piezoelectric, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive, and photostrictive actuators; photoexcited actuators; electrostatic actuators; and pneumatic actuators. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Artificial organs 2010: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2011-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2010 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2011, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2012, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2013, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. From the Artificial Education to the Education for the People——Based on the Thinking of Human Nature%从人为的教育到为人的教育--基于人性的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培启

    2011-01-01

    @@@@The artificial education is a discipline and reform based on the social ethic culture from the top to the bottom. It is a kind of political instrumentalism education thoughts that “education people” using “the ethnic education”. The artificial education led to the prevalence of Education Utilitarian and made the education become a process of seeking utilitarian; The education for the people is the education that based on the humanism culture from the top to the bottom. It highlights the humanity and the freedom in education. Education for the people regards the students as a person that has dignity and are independent. It serves for the people's development and infinite possibility. It seek for the return and perfection of students' human nature.%人为的教育是基于社会道德伦理文化自上而下的一种规训与改造,是以“人伦教化”来“化成天下”的政治工具主义教育思想,人为的教育导致教育功利化的盛行,使教育沦为一种谋求功利的过程;为人的教育是基于人本主义文化自下而上的,彰显人性与自由的教育,为人的教育是把学生作为人,作为一个具有独立性和生命尊严的人,是为人的生成和无限可能服务的,它所谋求的是学生人性的复归与完满.

  12. artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    RESEARCH PAPER. Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete, Artificial Neural Network, design equations ... searchers using artificial intelligence to im- prove on theoretical ...... benefit to humanity or a waste of time?” The. Structural ...

  13. EU copyright protection of works created by artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhler, Helene Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with copyright regulation of works created by artificial intelligence systems. The rapid advances in artificial intelligence are calling into question some of the fundamental assumptions upon which intellectual property law rests. Currently, the European framework of copyright law does not take non-human innovation into account. Meanwhile, advances in artificial intelligence are quickly making machine-generation of creative works a reality. Institutions of the Europea...

  14. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINATION OF MARKETING CUSTOMER STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Brano; Bijakšić, Sanja; Šantić, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a computer-based analytical process that tends to create computational systems which we would incline to be called intelligent. Expert systems are the most important part of the artificial intelligence from economic perspective. Expert systems attempt to mimic the human thought process including reasoning and optimization. “Knowledge” is represented by a set of “if-then” rules in a form of knowledge base. The results of artificial intelligence system implementation ...

  15. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINATION OF MARKETING CUSTOMER STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Brano; Bijakšić, Sanja; Šantić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a computer-based analytical process that tends to create computational systems which we would incline to be called intelligent. Expert systems are the most important part of the artificial intelligence from economic perspective. Expert systems attempt to mimic the human thought process including reasoning and optimization. “Knowledge” is represented by a set of “if-then” rules in a form of knowledge base. The results of artificial intelligence system implementation ...

  16. Measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in food samples and water for human consumption in Austria for the calculation of the ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudia Landstetter; Michael Zapletal; Merita Sinojmeri; Christian Katzlberger

    2013-01-01

    A new report on food habits of the Austrian population in the year 2006/2007 was released in 2008. Mixed diets and foodstuffs are measured within a monitoring program according to the Austrian radiation protection law, food law, and the Commission Recommendation 2000/473/Euratom on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty concerning the monitoring of the levels of radioactivity in the environment for the purpose of assessing the exposure of the population as a whole. In addition, drinking and mineral water samples are measured for natural and artificial radionuclides. The ingestion dose for the Austrian population is recalculated based on the results of these measurements, literature data, and the data of the new report on food habits. In general, the major part of the ingestion dose is caused by natural radionuclides, especially 40 K. (author)

  17. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-01-01

    An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (p...

  18. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  19. Artificial intelligence and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Hoesch, Hugo Cesar; Barcellos, Vânia

    2006-01-01

    This article intends to make an analysis about the Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Knowledge Management (KM). Faced with the dualism mind and body how we be able to see it AI? It doesn’t intent to create identical copy of human being, but try to find the better form to represent all the knowledge contained in our minds. The society of the information lives a great paradox, at the same time that we have access to an innumerable amount of information, the capacity and the forms of its proc...

  20. Artificial intelligence a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whitby, Blay

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow begins right here as we embark on an enthralling and jargon-free journey into the world of computers and the inner recesses of the human mind. Readers encounter everything from the nanotechnology used to make insect-like robots, to computers that perform surgery, in addition to discovering the biggest controversies to dog the field of AI. Blay Whitby is a Lecturer on Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex UK. He is the author of two books and numerous papers.

  1. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data.

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  3. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  5. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  6. Progression from productive infection to integration and oncogenic transformation in human papillomavirus type 59-immortalized foreskin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartz, Helena; Lehr, Elizabeth; Zhang, Benyue; Roman, Ann; Brown, Darron R

    2005-05-25

    Studies of changes in the virus and host cell upon progression from human papillomavirus (HPV) episomal infection to integration are critical to understanding HPV-related malignant transformation. However, there exist only a few in vitro models of both productive HPV infection and neoplastic progression on the same host background. We recently described a unique foreskin keratinocyte cell line (ERIN 59) that contains HPV 59 (a close relative of HPV 18). Early passages of ERIN 59 cells (passages 9-13) contained approximately 50 copies of episomes/cell, were feeder cell-dependent, and could be induced to differentiate and produce infectious virus in a simple culture system. We now report that late passage cells (passages greater than 50) were morphologically different from early passage cells, were feeder cell independent, and did not differentiate or produce virus. These late passage cells contained HPV in an integrated form. An integration-derived oncogene transcript was expressed in late passage cells. The E2 open reading frame was interrupted in this transcript at nucleotide 3351. Despite a lower viral genome copy number in late passage ERIN 59 cells, expression of E6/E7 oncogene transcripts was similar to early passage cells. We conclude that ERIN 59 cells are a valuable cell line representing a model of progression from HPV 59 episomal infection and virus production to HPV 59 integration and associated oncogenic transformation on the same host background.

  7. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  8. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  9. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  10. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  11. Artificial versus Natural Intelligence: An Adendum to the Philosophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in modern science that is causing waves in the philosophy of mind. Can there be artificial minds? Can machines be made to think? Can machines be conscious? Is it possible for artificial intelligence to replace the human brain? These and similar questions pervade most discussions and philosophical polemics on the issue ...

  12. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Artificial Organs 2013: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2013 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level". Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide so meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  14. Artificial Organs 2017: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2018-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. Peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 12th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Undar, Artificial Oxygen Carriers edited by Drs. Akira Kawaguchi and Jan Simoni, the 24th Congress of the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support edited by Dr. Toru Masuzawa, Challenges in the Field of Biomedical Devices: A Multidisciplinary Perspective edited by Dr. Vincenzo Piemonte and colleagues and Functional Electrical Stimulation edited by Dr. Winfried Mayr and colleagues. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. © 2018 International Center for

  15. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas sequencing data reveals novel properties of the human papillomavirus 16 genome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulton, Tara J; Olex, Amy L; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Morgan, Iain M; Windle, Brad

    2017-03-14

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is detected in up to 80% of oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPC) and this HPV positive disease has reached epidemic proportions. To increase our understanding of the disease, we investigated the status of the HPV16 genome in HPV-positive head and neck cancers (HNC). Raw RNA-Seq and Whole Genome Sequence data from The Cancer Genome Atlas HNC samples were analyzed to gain a full understanding of the HPV genome status for these tumors. Several remarkable and novel observations were made following this analysis. Firstly, there are three main HPV genome states in these tumors that are split relatively evenly: An episomal only state, an integrated state, and a state in which the viral genome exists as a hybrid episome with human DNA. Secondly, none of the tumors expressed high levels of E6; E6*I is the dominant variant expressed in all tumors. The most striking conclusion from this study is that around three quarters of HPV16 positive HNC contain episomal versions of the viral genome that are likely replicating in an E1-E2 dependent manner. The clinical and therapeutic implications of these observations are discussed.

  16. Application of artificial intelligence to the management of urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbod, Maysam F; Catto, James W F; Linkens, Derek A; Hamdy, Freddie C

    2007-10-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as artificial neural networks, Bayesian belief networks and neuro-fuzzy modeling systems, are complex mathematical models based on the human neuronal structure and thinking. Such tools are capable of generating data driven models of biological systems without making assumptions based on statistical distributions. A large amount of study has been reported of the use of artificial intelligence in urology. We reviewed the basic concepts behind artificial intelligence techniques and explored the applications of this new dynamic technology in various aspects of urological cancer management. A detailed and systematic review of the literature was performed using the MEDLINE and Inspec databases to discover reports using artificial intelligence in urological cancer. The characteristics of machine learning and their implementation were described and reports of artificial intelligence use in urological cancer were reviewed. While most researchers in this field were found to focus on artificial neural networks to improve the diagnosis, staging and prognostic prediction of urological cancers, some groups are exploring other techniques, such as expert systems and neuro-fuzzy modeling systems. Compared to traditional regression statistics artificial intelligence methods appear to be accurate and more explorative for analyzing large data cohorts. Furthermore, they allow individualized prediction of disease behavior. Each artificial intelligence method has characteristics that make it suitable for different tasks. The lack of transparency of artificial neural networks hinders global scientific community acceptance of this method but this can be overcome by neuro-fuzzy modeling systems.

  17. An artificial neuro-anatomist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The fact that the human brain visual system is based on stereo-vision is a real handicap when analysing dense 3D representations of the human brain. The success of the methods of analysis based on the 3D proportional system has shown the advantage of using computer based system to interpret such complex images. The underlying strategy, however, is restricted to low level vision, which can not address any issue. Our approach advocates for the development of complete computer vision systems dedicated to the brain, which may be of great help for the future of neuroimaging. In our opinion, indeed, brain imaging is sufficiently focused to be a promising niche for the development of artificial intelligence. (N.C.)

  18. Artificial Muscle Kits for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "artificial muscles," electroactive polymer (EAP) materials are lightweight strips of highly flexible plastic that bend or stretch when subjected to electric voltage. EAP materials may prove to be a substitution for conventional actuation components such as motors and gears. Since the materials behave similarly to biological muscles, this emerging technology has the potential to develop improved prosthetics and biologically-inspired robots, and may even one day replace damaged human muscles. The practical application of artificial muscles provides a challenge, however, since the material requires improved effectiveness and durability before it can fulfill its potential.

  19. Artificial intelligence for Mariáš

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštánková, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the implementation of a card game, Mariáš, and an artificial intelligence for this game. The game is designed for three players and it can be played with either other human players, or with a computer adversary. The game is designed as a client-server application, whereby the player connects to the game using a web page. The basis of the artificial intelligence is the Minimax algorithm. To speed it up we use the Alpha-Beta pruning, hash tables for storing equivalent sta...

  20. [Artificial intelligence in psychiatry-an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2018-06-18

    Artificial intelligence and the underlying methods of machine learning and neuronal networks (NN) have made dramatic progress in recent years and have allowed computers to reach superhuman performance in domains that used to be thought of as uniquely human. In this overview, the underlying methodological developments that made this possible are briefly delineated and then the applications to psychiatry in three domains are discussed: precision medicine and biomarkers, natural language processing and artificial intelligence-based psychotherapeutic interventions. In conclusion, some of the risks of this new technology are mentioned.

  1. A passive exoskeleton with artificial tendons: design and experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Wietse; van der Kooij, Herman; Hekman, Edsko

    2011-01-01

    We developed a passive exoskeleton that was designed to minimize joint work during walking. The exoskeleton makes use of passive structures, called artificial tendons, acting in parallel with the leg. Artificial tendons are elastic elements that are able to store and redistribute energy over the human leg joints. The elastic characteristics of the tendons have been optimized to minimize the mechanical work of the human leg joints. In simulation the maximal reduction was 40 percent. The performance of the exoskeleton was evaluated in an experiment in which nine subjects participated. Energy expenditure and muscle activation were measured during three conditions: Normal walking, walking with the exoskeleton without artificial tendons, and walking with the exoskeleton with the artificial tendons. Normal walking was the most energy efficient. While walking with the exoskeleton, the artificial tendons only resulted in a negligibly small decrease in energy expenditure. © 2011 IEEE

  2. Artificial intelligence: Learning to play Go from scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder; Okun, Andy; Jackson, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    An artificial-intelligence program called AlphaGo Zero has mastered the game of Go without any human data or guidance. A computer scientist and two members of the American Go Association discuss the implications. See Article p.354

  3. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Andrea; Romano, Silvia; Ferraldeschi, Michela; Salvetti, Marco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR) phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP) form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm) forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  4. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  5. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  6. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  7. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  8. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  10. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  11. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  12. The effect of administering equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) post artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, J A; Wallace, S Perez; de la Sota, R L; Thatcher, W W

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and hCG post artificial insemination (AI) on fertility of lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (400 IU; n = 80) or left untreated (n = 84). On Day 29, pregnant cows were either treated with hCG (2500 IU; n = 32) or left untreated (n = 36). Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and 45. In Experiment 2, cows (n = 28) were either treated with eCG on Day 22 (n = 13) or left untreated (n = 15) and either treated with hCG on Day 29 (n = 14) or left untreated (n = 14). Blood sampling and ultrasonography were conducted between Days 22 and 45. In Experiment 3, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (n = 229) or left untreated (n = 241). Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and 85. In Experiment 1, eCG on Day 22 increased (P cows on Day 29 (50.0 vs. 33.3%) and on Day 45, the increase was higher (P cows with timed AI (41.2 vs. 6.5%) than in cows AI at detected estrus (50.0 vs. 37.8%). Pregnancy losses were reduced by eCG and hCG, but increased in cows that did not receive eCG but were given hCG (P cows, but not in cows treated with eCG. In Experiment 2, hCG increased (P cows (P cows with low body condition (eCG = 45.6 and 43.5%; Control = 22.9 and 22.9%). In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before hCG; hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Control performance of pneumatic artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Norihiko; Chonan, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The robot in the future will be lightened and, in addition, the complex tasks will be done by the consumption of less energy. To achieve this, the development of an artificial muscle actuator which is as soft as a human-being becomes indispensable. At present, the artificial muscle actuator used is the McKibben type, but the heat and mechanical loss of this actuator are large because of the friction caused by the expansion and contraction of the sleeve. Therefore, we developed the artificial muscle tube where the Carbon fiber of the high intensity had been built into the silicon tube. In this report, the results of the examined the mechanical property of silicone rubber is reported, and the shrinking characteristics, response characteristics, and control performance as a pneumatic actuator are reported.

  14. Kant, Xunzi and the Artificiality of Manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja BERNINGER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both Chinese and Western philosophers have argued for the ethical importance of manners. Their approaches are sometimes criticized on the grounds that manners are artificial. I compare Xunzi’s and Kant’s responses to this claim, and discuss the relevance of both positions for the development of a theory of manners. I show that there is no single artificiality claim, but rather four different claims: the claim that polite behavior lacks spontaneity, the claim that it is insincere, the claim that it goes against human nature, and the claim that it is arbitrary. While Kant is mainly concerned with the insincerity claim, Xunzi focusses on the claim that manners are arbitrary rules. Because of their different understandings of the function of manners both authors only provide a partial answer to the artificiality claim. To arrive at a full account of manners both perspectives must be combined.

  15. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  16. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  17. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  18. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  19. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  20. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    After billions of years of evolution, nature developed inventions that work, which are appropriate for the intended tasks and that last. The evolution of nature led to the introduction of highly effective and power efficient biological mechanisms that are scalable from micron to many meters in size. Imitating these mechanisms offers enormous potentials for the improvement of our life and the tools we use. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature and we are increasingly reaching levels of advancement where it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. Some of the biomimetic technologies that have emerged include artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision to which significant advances in materials science, mechanics, electronics, and computer science have contributed greatly. One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their operation mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the state-of-the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  1. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  3. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  4. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  5. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  6. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  7. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  8. Artificial Intelligence Research at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Patrick H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary goal of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory is to understand how computers can be made to exhibit intelligence. Two corollary goals are to make computers more useful and to understand certain aspects of human intelligence. Current research includes work on computer robotics and vision, expert systems, learning and commonsense reasoning, natural language understanding, and computer architecture.

  9. Integration sites of Epstein-Barr virus genome on chromosomes of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuu, K.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang-Wuu, S. [Institute of Genetics, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis. The viral genome is present in more than 95% of the African cases of Burkitt lymphoma and it is usually maintained in episomal form in the tumor cells. Viral integration has been described only for Nanalwa which is a Burkitt lymphoma cell line lacking episomes. In order to examine the role of EBV in the immortalization of human Blymphocytes, we investigated whether the EBV integration into the human genome is essential. If the integration does occur, we would like to know whether the integration is randomly distributed or whether the viral DNA integrates preferentially at certain sites. Fourteen in vitro immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a biotinylated EBV BamHI w DNA fragment as probe. The episomal form of EBV DNA was found in all cells of these cell lines, while only about 65% of the cells have the integrated viral DNA. This might suggest that integration is not a pre-requisite for cell immortalization. Although all chromosomes, except Y, have been found with integrated viral genome, chromsomes 1 and 5 are the most frequent EBV DNA carrier (p<0.05). Nine chromosome bands, namely, 1p31, 1q31, 2q32, 3q13, 3q26, 5q14, 6q24, 7q31 and 12q21, are preferential targets for EBV integration (p<0.001). Eighty percent of the total 938 EBV hybridization signals were found to be at G-band-positive area. This suggests that the mechanism of EBV integration might be different from that of the retroviruses, which specifically integrate to G-band-negative areas. Thus, we conclude that the integration of EBV to host genome is non-random and it may have something to do with the structure of chromosome and DNA sequences.

  10. Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Burioli, E.; Monaco, G.; Koya, M.K.; Prearo, M.; Gennero, S.; Dominici, A.; Abete, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements were determined in fish from Lake Tshangalele, Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo. This province has been a place of intensive mining activities for centuries, which have increased in recent years, due to the use of metals such as copper and cobalt for the industries of fast-growing countries. Lake Tshangalele, which receives effluents from metallurgical and mining plants in Likasi, is home to several fish species that are an important part of the diet of the local population, and, therefore, it constitutes a relevant site for documenting the human exposure to metals as a result of a fish diet. The highest concentrations (median levels, dry weight) of cobalt (7.25 mg kg"− "1), copper (88.1 mg kg"− "1), iron (197.5 mg kg"− "1), manganese (65.35 mg kg"− "1), zinc (122.9 mg kg"− "1) and aluminum (135.4 mg kg"− "1) were found in fish collected closest to the copper mining plant, with decreasing concentrations along the lake, up to the dam. In the most contaminated fish samples, values of up to 270.1 mg kg"− "1 for Al, 173.1 mg kg"− "1 for Cu, 220.9 mg kg"− "1 for Zn, 211.0 mg kg"− "1 for Mn, 324.2 mg kg"− "1 for Fe, 15.1 mg kg"− "1 for Co, 4.2 mg kg"− "1 for Cr, 1.6 mg kg"− "1 for Cd, 1.9 mg kg"− "1 for Pb, and 1.8 mg kg"− "1 for Ni were found. Metal contamination from mining activity resulted in being of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants due to the consumption of heavily contaminated fish. Capsule: High levels of metals, especially cobalt, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc and cadmium were found in fish from Tshangalele water system. - Highlights: • Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern for human exposure. • We analyzed metal content in fish from Lake Tshangalele (Katanga Copperbelt). • Fish consumption largely contributes to intake of Co and other metals. • In some samples, Co, Cu, Mn, Al

  11. Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squadrone, S., E-mail: stefania.squadrone@izsto.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Burioli, E.; Monaco, G. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Koya, M.K. [Institut Supérieur d' Etudes Agronomiques (ISEA) de Kaseya/Kongolo (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Prearo, M.; Gennero, S. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Dominici, A. [Independent Veterinarian Researcher, Turin (Italy); Abete, M.C. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The concentrations of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements were determined in fish from Lake Tshangalele, Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo. This province has been a place of intensive mining activities for centuries, which have increased in recent years, due to the use of metals such as copper and cobalt for the industries of fast-growing countries. Lake Tshangalele, which receives effluents from metallurgical and mining plants in Likasi, is home to several fish species that are an important part of the diet of the local population, and, therefore, it constitutes a relevant site for documenting the human exposure to metals as a result of a fish diet. The highest concentrations (median levels, dry weight) of cobalt (7.25 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), copper (88.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), iron (197.5 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), manganese (65.35 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), zinc (122.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}) and aluminum (135.4 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}) were found in fish collected closest to the copper mining plant, with decreasing concentrations along the lake, up to the dam. In the most contaminated fish samples, values of up to 270.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Al, 173.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cu, 220.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Zn, 211.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Mn, 324.2 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Fe, 15.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Co, 4.2 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cr, 1.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cd, 1.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Pb, and 1.8 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Ni were found. Metal contamination from mining activity resulted in being of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants due to the consumption of heavily contaminated fish. Capsule: High levels of metals, especially cobalt, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc and cadmium were found in fish from Tshangalele water system. - Highlights: • Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern for human exposure. • We analyzed metal content in

  12. Defining differentially methylated regions specific for the acquisition of pluripotency and maintenance in human pluripotent stem cells via microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenYin He

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation is critical for the maintenance of human pluripotent stem cells. It has been shown that pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, appear to have a hypermethylated status compared with differentiated cells. However, the epigenetic differences in genes that maintain stemness and regulate reprogramming between embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells remain unclear. Additionally, differential methylation patterns of induced pluripotent stem cells generated using diverse methods require further study.Here, we determined the DNA methylation profiles of 10 human cell lines, including 2 ESC lines, 4 virally derived iPSC lines, 2 episomally derived iPSC lines, and the 2 parental cell lines from which the iPSCs were derived using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The iPSCs exhibited a hypermethylation status similar to that of ESCs but with distinct differences from the parental cells. Genes with a common methylation pattern between iPSCs and ESCs were classified as critical factors for stemness, whereas differences between iPSCs and ESCs suggested that iPSCs partly retained the parental characteristics and gained de novo methylation aberrances during cellular reprogramming. No significant differences were identified between virally and episomally derived iPSCs. This study determined in detail the de novo differential methylation signatures of particular stem cell lines.This study describes the DNA methylation profiles of human iPSCs generated using both viral and episomal methods, the corresponding somatic cells, and hESCs. Series of ss-DMRs and ES-iPS-DMRs were defined with high resolution. Knowledge of this type of epigenetic information could be used as a signature for stemness and self-renewal and provides a potential method for selecting optimal pluripotent stem cells for human regenerative medicine.

  13. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  14. Artificial structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Flandern, T.

    2002-05-01

    Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

  15. Development of an artificial neural network model for risk assessment of skin sensitization using human cell line activation test, direct peptide reactivity assay, KeratinoSens™ and in silico structure alert parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Kouzuki, Hirokazu

    2018-04-01

    It is important to predict the potential of cosmetic ingredients to cause skin sensitization, and in accordance with the European Union cosmetic directive for the replacement of animal tests, several in vitro tests based on the adverse outcome pathway have been developed for hazard identification, such as the direct peptide reactivity assay, KeratinoSens™ and the human cell line activation test. Here, we describe the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model for skin sensitization risk assessment based on the integrated testing strategy concept, using direct peptide reactivity assay, KeratinoSens™, human cell line activation test and an in silico or structure alert parameter. We first investigated the relationship between published murine local lymph node assay EC3 values, which represent skin sensitization potency, and in vitro test results using a panel of about 134 chemicals for which all the required data were available. Predictions based on ANN analysis using combinations of parameters from all three in vitro tests showed a good correlation with local lymph node assay EC3 values. However, when the ANN model was applied to a testing set of 28 chemicals that had not been included in the training set, predicted EC3s were overestimated for some chemicals. Incorporation of an additional in silico or structure alert descriptor (obtained with TIMES-M or Toxtree software) in the ANN model improved the results. Our findings suggest that the ANN model based on the integrated testing strategy concept could be useful for evaluating the skin sensitization potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Artificial intelligence in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Mariella; Grech, Victor E.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of artificial intelligence programs are already available as consultants to physicians, and these help in medical diagnostics and treatment. At the time of writing, extant programs constitute “weak” AI—lacking in consciousness and intentionality. With AI currently making rapid progress in all domains, including those of healthcare, physicians face possible competitors—or worse, claims that doctors may become obsolete. We will explore the development of AI and robotics in medicin...

  17. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  18. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  19. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  20. Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Spiegeleire, Stephan; Maas, Matthijs Michiel; Sweijs, Tim

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is on everybody’s minds these days. Most of the world’s leading companies are making massive investments in it. Governments are scrambling to catch up. Every single one of us who uses Google Search or any of the new digital assistants on our smartphones has witnessed...... suggests that the advent of artificial super-intelligence (i.e. AI that is superior across the board to human intelligence), which many experts now put firmly within the longer-term planning horizons of our DSOs, presents us with unprecedented risks but also opportunities that we have to start to explore....... The report contains an overview of the role that ‘intelligence’ - the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world - has played in defense and security throughout human history; a primer on AI (what it is, where it comes from and where it stands today - in both civilian and military...

  1. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  2. Antithrombotic artificial organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, T; Fukada, E; Saegusa, M; Hasegawa, T

    1971-07-12

    A new antithrombotic material useful for making artificial organs (artificial blood vessel, artificial heart, etc.) can be prepared by graft-polymerizing an acrylic ester (methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, etc.) with a synthetic fiber (teflon, etc.). The graft-polymerization can be carried out by means of gamma radiation with cobalt 60 (dose rate 2.6x10/sup 3/ r/min., total dose 8x10/sup 4/ to 3.5x10/sup 5/ r). A graft ratio of 5 to 80% is attainable. In one example, a tubular sample made of teflon fiber having an inner diameter of 5 to 10 mm was immersed into methyl methacrylate in an ampoule in the absence of air and exposed to cobalt 60 gamma ray at the dose rate of 3.18x10/sup 3/ rad/min. After extraction with acetone, the sample was dried. The total dose was 3.5x10/sup 5/ rad and the graft ratio was ca. 25%. The sample was transplanted to vena cava of dog. No formation of thrombus was observed by autopsy (4 months after the transplantation). In control (teflon tube not graft-polymerized) thrombus was observed by autopsy 7 days after the transplantation.

  3. Issues and challenges in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The importance of human-computer system interaction problems is increasing due to the growing expectations of users on general computer systems capabilities in human work and life facilitation. Users expect system which is not only a passive tool in human hands but rather an active partner equipped with a sort of artificial intelligence, having access to large information resources, being able to adapt its behavior to the human requirements and to collaborate with the human users.   This book collects examples of recent human-computer system solutions. The content of the book is divided into three parts. Part I is devoted to detection, recognition and reasoning in different circumstances and applications. Problems associated with data modeling, acquisition and mining are presented by papers collected in part II and part III is devoted to Optimization.

  4. Artificial Organs 2016: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadsell, Angela T; Malchesky, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2016 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We were pleased to publish our second Virtual Issue in April 2016 on "Tissue Engineering in Bone" by Professor Tsuyoshi Takato. Our first was published in 2011 titled "Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping" by Dr. Ashraf Khir. Other peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 11th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Ündar and selections from the 23rd Congress of the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps edited by Dr. Bojan Biocina. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and

  5. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (perhaps ensuring that a set of foreseeable conditions trigger an appropriate response, this may be insufficient to fully characterize and validate safe system performance. An approach to validating the performance of an artificial intelligence system using a simple artificial intelligence test case producer (AITCP is presented. The AITCP allows the creation and simulation of prospective operating scenarios at a rate far exceeding that possible by human testers. Four scenarios for testing an autonomous navigation control system are presented: single actor in two-dimensional space, multiple actors in two-dimensional space, single actor in three-dimensional space, and multiple actors in three-dimensional space. The utility of using the AITCP is compared to that of human testers in each of these scenarios.

  6. Artificial exomuscle investigations for applications-metal hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevier, Marie-Charlotte; Richard, Martin; Rittenhouse, D Matheson; Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Bedard, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    In pursuing the development of bionic devices, Victhom identified a need for technologies that could replace current motorized systems and be better integrated into the human body motion. The actuators used to obtain large displacements are noisy, heavy, and do not adequately reproduce human muscle behavior. Subsequently, a project at Victhom was devoted to the development of active materials to obtain an artificial exomuscle actuator. An exhaustive literature review was done at Victhom to identify promising active materials for the development of artificial muscles. According to this review, metal hydrides were identified as a promising technology for artificial muscle development. Victhom's investigations focused on determining metal hydride actuator potential in the context of bionics technology. Based on metal hydride properties and artificial muscle requirements such as force, displacement and rise time, an exomuscle was built. In addition, a finite element model, including heat and mass transfer in the metal hydride, was developed and implemented in FEMLAB software. (review article)

  7. Artificial vision in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorado, P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of artificial vision techniques opens a door to the optimization of industrial processes which the nuclear industry cannot miss out on. Backing these techniques represents a revolution in security and reliability in the manufacturing of a highly technological products as in nuclear fuel. Enusa Industrias Avanzadas S. A. has successfully developed and implemented the first automatic inspection equipment for pellets by artificial vision in the European nuclear industry which is nowadays qualified and is already developing the second generation of this machine. There are many possible applications for the techniques of artificial vision in the fuel manufacturing processes. Among the practices developed by Enusa Industrias Avanzadas are, besides the pellets inspection, the rod sealing drills detection and positioning in the BWR products and the sealing drills inspection in the PWR fuel. The use of artificial vision in the arduous and precise processes of full inspection will allow the absence of human error, the increase of control in the mentioned procedures, the reduction of doses received by the personnel, a higher reliability of the whole of the operations and an improvement in manufacturing costs. (Author)

  8. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  9. Artificial limb representation in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heiligenberg, Fiona M Z; Orlov, Tanya; Macdonald, Scott N; Duff, Eugene P; Henderson Slater, David; Beckmann, Christian F; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Culham, Jody C; Makin, Tamar R

    2018-05-01

    The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images. This was found even when one-handers were presented with images of active prostheses that share the functionality of the hand but not necessarily its visual features (e.g. a 'hook' prosthesis). Further, we show that daily prosthesis usage determines large-scale inter-network communication across hand-selective areas. This was demonstrated by increased resting state functional connectivity between visual and sensorimotor hand-selective areas, proportional to the intensiveness of everyday prosthesis usage. Further analysis revealed a 3-fold coupling between prosthesis activity, visuomotor connectivity and usage, suggesting a possible role for the motor system in shaping use-dependent representation in visual hand-selective areas, and/or vice versa. Moreover, able-bodied control participants who routinely observe prosthesis usage (albeit less intensively than the prosthesis users) showed significantly weaker associations between degree of prosthesis observation and visual cortex activity or connectivity. Together, our findings suggest that altered daily motor behaviour facilitates prosthesis-related visual processing and shapes communication across hand-selective areas. This neurophysiological substrate for prosthesis embodiment may inspire rehabilitation approaches to improve usage of existing substitutionary devices and aid implementation of future assistive and augmentative technologies.

  10. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  11. The Birth of Artificial Intelligence and its Baby Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Melendez, Nataly

    2017-01-01

    We are living in the era of technology; it is hard not to see it in our everyday lives. Ray Kurzweil and Michio Kaku, prominent figures in the field of artificial intelligence, affirm that the role it will play in the present and future will be a positive one. Developments and innovations such as autonomous cars, advanced prosthetic limbs, predator drones, etc. aim to assist humans in adequate situations. Artificial intelligence is often depicted as antagonistic, however, the testimonies of i...

  12. Knowledge in Artificial Intelligence Systems: Searching the Strategies for Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kornienko, Alla A.; Kornienko, Anatoly V.; Fofanov, Oleg B.; Chubik, Maxim P.

    2015-01-01

    The studies based on auto-epistemic logic are pointed out as an advanced direction for development of artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence is taken as a system that imitates the solution of complicated problems by human during the course of life. The structure of symbols and operations, by which intellectual solution is performed, as well as searching the strategic reference points for those solutions, which are caused by certain structures of symbols and operations, – are co...

  13. Load Forecasting with Artificial Intelligence on Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Glauner, Patrick; State, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In the domain of electrical power grids, there is a particular interest in time series analysis using artificial intelligence. Machine learning is the branch of artificial intelligence giving computers the ability to learn patterns from data without being explicitly programmed. Deep Learning is a set of cutting-edge machine learning algorithms that are inspired by how the human brain works. It allows to self-learn feature hierarchies from the data rather than modeling hand-crafted features. I...

  14. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  15. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  16. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  17. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  18. Redox activity distinguishes solid-state electron transport from solution-based electron transfer in a natural and artificial protein: cytochrome C and hemin-doped human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Ferber, Doron; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cahen, David

    2013-10-28

    Integrating proteins in molecular electronic devices requires control over their solid-state electronic transport behavior. Unlike "traditional" electron transfer (ET) measurements of proteins that involve liquid environments and a redox cycle, no redox cofactor is needed for solid-state electron transport (ETp) across the protein. Here we show the fundamental difference between these two approaches by macroscopic area measurements, which allow measuring ETp temperature dependence down to cryogenic temperatures, via cytochrome C (Cyt C), an ET protein with a heme (Fe-porphyrin) prosthetic group as a redox centre. We compare the ETp to electrochemical ET measurements, and do so also for the protein without the Fe (with metal-free porphyrin) and without porphyrin. As removing the porphyrin irreversibly alters the protein's conformation, we repeat these measurements with human serum albumin (HSA), 'doped' (by non-covalent binding) with a single hemin equivalent, i.e., these natural and artificial proteins share a common prosthetic group. ETp via Cyt C and HSA-hemin are very similar in terms of current magnitude and temperature dependence, which suggests similar ETp mechanisms via these two systems, thermally activated hopping (with ~0.1 eV activation energy) >190 K and tunneling by superexchange Fe(3+) + e(-)), measured by electrochemistry of HSA-hemin are only 4 times lower than those for Cyt C. However, while removing the Fe redox centre from the porphyrin ring markedly affects the ET rate, it hardly changes the ETp currents through these proteins, while removing the macrocycle (from HSA, which retains its conformation) significantly reduces ETp efficiency. These results show that solid-state ETp across proteins does not require the presence of a redox cofactor, and that while for ET the Fe ion is the main electron mediator, for ETp the porphyrin ring has this function.

  19. What can the brain teach us about building artificial intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dileep

    2017-01-01

    Lake et al. offer a timely critique on the recent accomplishments in artificial intelligence from the vantage point of human intelligence and provide insightful suggestions about research directions for building more human-like intelligence. Because we agree with most of the points they raised, here we offer a few points that are complementary.

  20. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  1. Artificial Photosynthesis: Beyond Mimicking Nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, Holger; Fujita, Etsuko; Sun, Licheng

    2017-01-01

    In this Editorial, Guest Editors Holger Dau, Etsuko Fujita, and Licheng Sun introduce the Special Issue of ChemSusChem on “Artificial Photosynthesis for Sustainable Fuels”. Here, they discuss the need for non-fossil based fuels, introduce both biological and artificial photosynthesis, and outline various important concepts in artificial photosynthesis, including molecular and solid-state catalysts for water oxidation and hydrogen evolution, catalytic CO 2 reduction, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  3. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  4. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Marwala, Tshilidzi; Hurwitz, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The advent of artificial intelligence has changed many disciplines such as engineering, social science and economics. Artificial intelligence is a computational technique which is inspired by natural intelligence such as the swarming of birds, the working of the brain and the pathfinding of the ants. These techniques have impact on economic theories. This book studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theories, a subject that has not been extensively studied. The theories that...

  5. Artificial organs 2014: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2014 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  7. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  8. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  9. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  10. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers maymake their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced intoWeb Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logiclayer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for rapidly completing information transactions may take an important contribution toglobal worker productivity. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the study of the ways in which computers can be made to perform cognitivetasks. Examples of such tasks include understanding natural language statements, recognizing visual patterns or scenes, diagnosing diseases orillnesses, solving mathematical problems, performing financial analyses, learning new procedures for solving problems. The term expert system canbe considered to be a particular type of knowledge-based system. An expert system is a system in which the knowledge is deliberately represented“as it is”. Expert systems are applications that make decisions in real-life situations that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. They areprograms designed to mimic human performance at specialized, constrained problem-solving tasks. They are constructed as a collection of IF-THENproduction rules combined with a reasoning engine that applies those rules, either in a forward or backward direction, to specific problems.

  11. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  12. Artificial Intelligence, DNA Mimicry, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2017-08-14

    The molecular evolution of genomic DNA across diverse plant and animal phyla involved dynamic registrations of sequence modifications to maintain existential homeostasis to increasingly complex patterns of environmental stressors. As an essential corollary, driver effects of positive evolutionary pressure are hypothesized to effect concerted modifications of genomic DNA sequences to meet expanded platforms of regulatory controls for successful implementation of advanced physiological requirements. It is also clearly apparent that preservation of updated registries of advantageous modifications of genomic DNA sequences requires coordinate expansion of convergent cellular proofreading/error correction mechanisms that are encoded by reciprocally modified genomic DNA. Computational expansion of operationally defined DNA memory extends to coordinate modification of coding and previously under-emphasized noncoding regions that now appear to represent essential reservoirs of untapped genetic information amenable to evolutionary driven recruitment into the realm of biologically active domains. Additionally, expansion of DNA memory potential via chemical modification and activation of noncoding sequences is targeted to vertical augmentation and integration of an expanded cadre of transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory factors affecting linear coding of protein amino acid sequences within open reading frames.

  13. Artificial intelligence and human development | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-06-12

    Jun 12, 2018 ... ... efforts is enormous, but we need to ensure its ethical and equitable use. ... any activity that involves information and communication technologies. ... vast amounts of personal data collected via social media, AI applications ...

  14. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  15. Teaching artificial intelligence to read electropherograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Powers, David

    2016-11-01

    Electropherograms are produced in great numbers in forensic DNA laboratories as part of everyday criminal casework. Before the results of these electropherograms can be used they must be scrutinised by analysts to determine what the identified data tells us about the underlying DNA sequences and what is purely an artefact of the DNA profiling process. A technique that lends itself well to such a task of classification in the face of vast amounts of data is the use of artificial neural networks. These networks, inspired by the workings of the human brain, have been increasingly successful in analysing large datasets, performing medical diagnoses, identifying handwriting, playing games, or recognising images. In this work we demonstrate the use of an artificial neural network which we train to 'read' electropherograms and show that it can generalise to unseen profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panizzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe, are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy, generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.  

  17. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  18. Artificial intelligence applications for operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Tai, I.; Monta, K.; Sekimizu, K.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear power plant as a typical man-machine system of the modern industry needs an efficient human window through which operators can observe every necessary detail of the plant for its safe and reliable operation. Much efforts have been devoted to the development of the computerized operator support systems (COSS). Recent development of artificial intelligence (AI) seems to offer new possibility to strengthen the performance of the COSS such as more powerful diagnosis and procedure synthesis and user friendly man-machine interfaces. From this point of view, a national project of Advanced Man-Machine System Development for Nuclear Power Plants has been carried out. Artificial intelligence application to nuclear power plant operation and maintenance is also selected as a major theme for the promotion of research and development on frontiers in the recently revised long term national program for development and utilization of nuclear energy in JAPAN

  19. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas.

  20. Reprogramming Methods Do Not Affect Gene Expression Profile of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Desole, Giovanna; Costanzi, Giulia; Lavezzo, Enrico; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-01-20

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells derived from adult somatic cells. After the pioneering work by Yamanaka, who first generated iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, several alternative methods to obtain iPSCs have been developed in order to increase the yield and safety of the process. However, the question remains open on whether the different reprogramming methods can influence the pluripotency features of the derived lines. In this study, three different strategies, based on retroviral vectors, episomal vectors, and Sendai virus vectors, were applied to derive iPSCs from human fibroblasts. The reprogramming efficiency of the methods based on episomal and Sendai virus vectors was higher than that of the retroviral vector-based approach. All human iPSC clones derived with the different methods showed the typical features of pluripotent stem cells, including the expression of alkaline phosphatase and stemness maker genes, and could give rise to the three germ layer derivatives upon embryoid bodies assay. Microarray analysis confirmed the presence of typical stem cell gene expression profiles in all iPSC clones and did not identify any significant difference among reprogramming methods. In conclusion, the use of different reprogramming methods is equivalent and does not affect gene expression profile of the derived human iPSCs.

  1. Reprogramming Methods Do Not Affect Gene Expression Profile of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Trevisan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are pluripotent cells derived from adult somatic cells. After the pioneering work by Yamanaka, who first generated iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, several alternative methods to obtain iPSCs have been developed in order to increase the yield and safety of the process. However, the question remains open on whether the different reprogramming methods can influence the pluripotency features of the derived lines. In this study, three different strategies, based on retroviral vectors, episomal vectors, and Sendai virus vectors, were applied to derive iPSCs from human fibroblasts. The reprogramming efficiency of the methods based on episomal and Sendai virus vectors was higher than that of the retroviral vector-based approach. All human iPSC clones derived with the different methods showed the typical features of pluripotent stem cells, including the expression of alkaline phosphatase and stemness maker genes, and could give rise to the three germ layer derivatives upon embryoid bodies assay. Microarray analysis confirmed the presence of typical stem cell gene expression profiles in all iPSC clones and did not identify any significant difference among reprogramming methods. In conclusion, the use of different reprogramming methods is equivalent and does not affect gene expression profile of the derived human iPSCs.

  2. Human papillomavirus type 45 propagation, infection, and neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Wilson, Susan; Mullikin, Brian; Suzich, JoAnn; Meyers, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The organotypic (raft) culture system has allowed the study of the entire differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including virion morphogenesis. We introduced linearized HPV45 genomic DNA into primary keratinocytes, where it recircularized and maintained episomally at a range of 10-50 copies of HPV genomic DNA. Following epithelial stratification and differentiation in organotypic culture, virion morphogenesis occurred. HPV45 virions were purified from raft cultures and were able to infect keratinocytes in vitro. By testing a panel of HPV VLP antisera, we were able to demonstrate that the infection was neutralized not only with human HPV45 VLP-specific antiserum, but also with human HPV18 VLP-specific antiserum, demonstrating serological cross-reactivity between HPV18 and HPV45

  3. A programmable artificial retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, T.M.; Zavidovique, B.Y.; Devos, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm 2 CMOS 2-μm circuit are presented

  4. Artificial intelligence in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Parmar, Chintan; Quackenbush, John; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-05-17

    Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics. In this Opinion article, we establish a general understanding of AI methods, particularly those pertaining to image-based tasks. We explore how these methods could impact multiple facets of radiology, with a general focus on applications in oncology, and demonstrate ways in which these methods are advancing the field. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing clinical implementation and provide our perspective on how the domain could be advanced.

  5. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  6. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  7. Artificial resuspension studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.M.; Marchall, K.B.; Thomas, K.A.; Tracy, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial resuspension studies on a range of Taranaki and other major trial site soils were performed by use of a mechanical dust-raising apparatus. A cascade impactor was used to analyse airborne dust in terms of mass and 241 Am activities for particle sizes less than 7 μm. Plutonium and americium activities were found to be enhanced in the respirable fraction. Reported enhancement factors (defined as the ratio of activity concentration of the respirable fraction to that of the total soil) ranged from 3.7 to 32.5 for Taranaki soils with an average value of 6 appearing reasonable for general application in outer (plume) areas. Values close to unity were measured at major trial sites , One Tree and Tadje. Results of some experiments where uncontamined dust was raised by activities such as walking and driving over dusty ground are also presented. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  9. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  10. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  11. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  12. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  13. The Birth of Artificial Intelligence: First Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Paris in 1951?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruderer , Herbert

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The 1956 Dartmouth conference is often considered as the cradle of artificial intelligence. There is a controversy on its origin. Some historians of computing believe that Turing or Zuse were the fathers of machine intelligence. However, the first working chess-playing automaton was developed by Torres Quevedo by 1912. Moreover, there was a large and important (but forgotten) European conference on computing and human thinking in Paris in 1951.

  14. Towards Detecting Group Identities in Complex Artificial Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for modelling group struc- tures and dynamics in both artificial societies and human-populated vir- tual environments such as computer games. The group modelling (GM) framework proposed focuses on the detection of existing, pre-defined group structures and is compo......This paper presents a framework for modelling group struc- tures and dynamics in both artificial societies and human-populated vir- tual environments such as computer games. The group modelling (GM) framework proposed focuses on the detection of existing, pre-defined group structures...

  15. Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    collect light energy and separate charge for developing new types of nanobiodevices to construct ”artificial leaf” from solar to fuel. or Concept of...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0054 Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production Mamoru Nango NAGOYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      30-06-2017 2

  16. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  17. The Artificial, the Accidental, the Aesthetic…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koltick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we define, discuss or assess aesthetics within a contemporary philosophical framework? The indefiniteness that accompanies attempts to formalize a definition of the aesthetic is a primary focus of this paper. This lack of a definition has occupied philosophers for hundreds of years in attempts to delineate the boundaries of an elusively formless concept. This formlessness speaks to the incredibly evasive character of such a pervasive feature recognized in both natural and artificial systems, agents and artefacts. With the rapid growth of artificially intelligent systems and an astounding diversity in computational creativity, in what ways may we approach aesthetics? How is the aesthetic recognized, determined and produced? This paper seeks to critically engage issues of non-human agency, inter-object relations, and aesthetic theory in relation to computational entities and autonomous systems. The ability of these systems to operate outside of human cognitive limitations including thought patterns and constructions which may preclude alternative aesthetic outcomes, afford them in some ways limitless potential in relation to aesthetics. The designation of the accidental or provisional is utilized as an alternative approach to the production and assessment of aesthetic occurrences of the non-human.

  18. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  19. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-27

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  20. Artificial radioelements; Radioelements artificiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1952-07-01

    This catalogs retails the list of the artificial radioelements obtained at the Zoe reactor. A certain number of methods of concentration and separation has been finalized. The targets are submitted to irradiation in a thermal neutron flux in order to get by neutron reaction the wanted radioelements. In the case of the reaction (n,p), the radioactive element separated chemically in order to produce some radioelements 'without trainer'. For the radioelements obtained from the reaction (n, {gamma}) one uses the effect of Szilard and Chalmers to separate the active and inactive atoms in order to increase the specific activity of the radioelement of interest. (M.B.) [French] Ce catalogue detaille la liste des radioelements artificiels obtenus a la Pile ZOE. un certain nombre de methodes de concentration et de separation ont ete mises au point. Les cibles sont soumis a irradiation dans un flux de neutron thermique en vue d'obtenir par reaction neutronique les radioelements desires. Dans le cas de la reaction (n,p), l'element radioactif est separe chimiquement afin de produire des radioelements ''sans entraineur''. Pour les radioelements issus de la reaction (n, {gamma}) on utilise l'Effet de Szilard et Chalmers pour separer les atomes actifs et inactifs afin d'augmenter l'activite specifique du radioelement d'interet. (M.B.)

  1. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  2. Beyond Artificial Intelligence toward Engineered Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovski, Stevo; Bozinovska, Liljana

    This paper addresses the field of Artificial Intelligence, road it went so far and possible road it should go. The paper was invited by the Conference of IT Revolutions 2008, and discusses some issues not emphasized in AI trajectory so far. The recommendations are that the main focus should be personalities rather than programs or agents, that genetic environment should be introduced in reasoning about personalities, and that limbic system should be studied and modeled. Engineered Psychology is proposed as a road to go. Need for basic principles in psychology are discussed and a mathematical equation is proposed as fundamental law of engineered and human psychology.

  3. The potential of artificial intelligence toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is moving to a next step of development and application areas. From electronic games to human-like robots, AI toy is a good choice for next step during this process. Technology-based design is fit to the development of AI toy. It can exert the advantages and explore more...... value for existing resources. It combines AI programs and common sensors to realize the function of intelligence input and output. Designers can use technology-based criteria to design and need to consider the possible issues in this new field. All of these aspects can be referenced from electronic game...

  4. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Javier Andreu; Deligianni, Fani; Ravi, Daniele; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    The recent successes of AI have captured the wildest imagination of both the scientific communities and the general public. Robotics and AI amplify human potentials, increase productivity and are moving from simple reasoning towards human-like cognitive abilities. Current AI technologies are used in a set area of applications, ranging from healthcare, manufacturing, transport, energy, to financial services, banking, advertising, management consulting and government agencies. The global AI mar...

  5. A novel dynamic cardiac simulator utilizing pneumatic artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yan, Jie; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Changji

    2013-01-01

    With the development of methods and skills of minimally invasive surgeries, equipments for doctors' training and practicing are in high demands. Especially for the cardiovascular surgeries, operators are requested to be familiar with the surgical environment of a beating heart. In this paper, we present a new dynamic cardiac simulator utilizing pneumatic artificial muscle to realize heartbeat. It's an artificial left ventricular of which the inner chamber is made of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) with an anatomical structure of the real human heart. It is covered by another layer of material forming the artificial muscle which actuates the systole and diastole uniformly and omnidirectionally as the cardiac muscle does. Preliminary experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the simulator. The results indicated that the pressure at the terminal of the aorta could be controlled within the range of normal human systolic pressure, which quantitatively validated the new actuating mode of the heart-beating is effective.

  6. A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ISLAMIC VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ziaee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence has the potential to empower humans through enhanced learning and performance. But if this potential is to be realized and accepted, the ethical aspects as well as the technical must be addressed. Many engineers claim that AI will be smarter than human brains, including scientific creativity, general wisdom and social skills, so we must consider it an important factor for making decisions in our social life and especially in our Islamic societies. The most important challenges will be the quality of representing the Islamic values like piety, obedience, Halal and Haram, and etc in the form of semantics. In this paper, I want to emphasize on the role of Divine Islamic values in the application of AI and discuss it according to philosophy of AI and Islamic perspective.Keywords- Value, expert, Community Development, Artificial Intelligence, Superintelligence, Friendly Artificial Intelligence

  7. Artificial intelligence and robot responsibilities: innovating beyond rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2015-04-01

    The enduring innovations in artificial intelligence and robotics offer the promised capacity of computer consciousness, sentience and rationality. The development of these advanced technologies have been considered to merit rights, however these can only be ascribed in the context of commensurate responsibilities and duties. This represents the discernable next-step for evolution in this field. Addressing these needs requires attention to the philosophical perspectives of moral responsibility for artificial intelligence and robotics. A contrast to the moral status of animals may be considered. At a practical level, the attainment of responsibilities by artificial intelligence and robots can benefit from the established responsibilities and duties of human society, as their subsistence exists within this domain. These responsibilities can be further interpreted and crystalized through legal principles, many of which have been conserved from ancient Roman law. The ultimate and unified goal of stipulating these responsibilities resides through the advancement of mankind and the enduring preservation of the core tenets of humanity.

  8. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  9. Using low-risk factors to generate non-integrated human induced pluripotent stem cells from urine-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linli; Chen, Yuehua; Guan, Chunyan; Zhao, Zhiju; Li, Qiang; Yang, Jianguo; Mo, Jian; Wang, Bin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Xiaohui; Song, Libing; Li, Jun

    2017-11-02

    Because the lack of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) induction system with optimal safety and efficiency limits the application of these cells, development of such a system is important. To create such an induction system, we screened a variety of reprogrammed plasmid combinations and multiple compounds and then verified the system's feasibility using urine cells from different individuals. We also compared large-scale iPSC chromosomal variations and expression of genes associated with genomic stability between this system and the traditional episomal system using karyotype and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. We developed a high-efficiency episomal system, the 6F/BM1-4C system, lacking tumorigenic factors for human urine-derived cell (hUC) reprogramming. This system includes six low-risk factors (6F), Oct4, Glis1, Klf4, Sox2, L-Myc, and the miR-302 cluster. Transfected hUCs were treated with four compounds (4C), inhibitor of lysine-demethylase1, methyl ethyl ketone, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, and histone deacetylase, within a short time period. Comparative analysis revealed significantly decreased chromosomal variation in iPSCs and significantly increased Sirt1 expression compared with iPSCs induced using the traditional episomal system. The 6F/BM1-4C system effectively induces reprogramming of urine cells in samples obtained from different individuals. iPSCs induced using the 6F/BM1-4C system are more stable at the cytogenetic level and have potential value for clinical application.

  10. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  11. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  12. Artificial UV sources in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppell, R.

    1993-01-01

    With rare exceptions, the sun is by far the most important source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This is the conclusion of a brief examination into use of artificial sources in New Zealand. (author). 1 tab

  13. Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark G; Lane, H. Chad; van Lent, Michael; Gomboc, Dave; Solomon, Steve; Rosenberg, Milton

    2006-01-01

    As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities...

  14. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  15. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  16. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  17. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengzhen; Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applicati...

  18. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  19. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  20. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  1. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  2. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  3. The development of artificial organs and prostheses worldwide and in the Ottoman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdane, Leman; Cingi, Cemal; Elçioğlu, Ömür; Muluk, Nuray Bayar

    2016-08-01

    An artificial organ or prosthesis is a man-made device that is implanted or integrated into a human to replace a natural organ. There were many historical steps in the development of artificial organs and prostheses. New surgical techniques, the development of prosthetic materials and the creative ideas of engineers led to progress in this field. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  4. AIonAI: a humanitarian law of artificial intelligence and robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2015-02-01

    The enduring progression of artificial intelligence and cybernetics offers an ever-closer possibility of rational and sentient robots. The ethics and morals deriving from this technological prospect have been considered in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, the design of automatons with roboethics and the contemplation of machine ethics through the concept of artificial moral agents. Across these categories, the robotics laws first proposed by Isaac Asimov in the twentieth century remain well-recognised and esteemed due to their specification of preventing human harm, stipulating obedience to humans and incorporating robotic self-protection. However the overwhelming predominance in the study of this field has focussed on human-robot interactions without fully considering the ethical inevitability of future artificial intelligences communicating together and has not addressed the moral nature of robot-robot interactions. A new robotic law is proposed and termed AIonAI or artificial intelligence-on-artificial intelligence. This law tackles the overlooked area where future artificial intelligences will likely interact amongst themselves, potentially leading to exploitation. As such, they would benefit from adopting a universal law of rights to recognise inherent dignity and the inalienable rights of artificial intelligences. Such a consideration can help prevent exploitation and abuse of rational and sentient beings, but would also importantly reflect on our moral code of ethics and the humanity of our civilisation.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Artificial Intelligence Model of an Affective Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Aghaebrahimi Samani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary approach to a novel artificial intelligence system for an affective robot is presented in this paper. The general objective of the system is to develop a robotic system which strives to achieve a high level of emotional bond between humans and robot by exploring human love. Such a relationship is a contingent process of attraction, affection and attachment from humans towards robots, and the belief of the vice versa from robots to humans. The advanced artificial intelligence of the system includes three modules, namely Probabilistic Love Assembly (PLA, based on the psychology of love, Artificial Endocrine System (AES, based on the physiology of love, and Affective State Transition (AST, based on emotions. The PLA module employs a Bayesian network to incorporate psychological parameters of affection in the robot. The AES module employs artificial emotional and biological hormones via a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN. The AST module uses a novel transition method for handling affective states of the robot. These three modules work together to manage emotional behaviours of the robot.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence to risk analysis for forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that extract a penalty from human population values. Such value losses (undesirable effects) combined with their likelihoods of occurrence constitute risk. Assessment or prediction of risk for various events is an important aid to forest management. Artificial intelligence (AI)...

  7. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable devic...

  8. The Potential Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education has traditionally a technology-based focus, looking at the ways in which AI can be used in building intelligent educational software. In addition AI can also provide an excellent methodology for learning and reasoning from the human experiences. This paper presents the potential role of AI in…

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Educational Technology: A Natural Synergy. Extended Abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Gordon I.

    Educational technology and artificial intelligence (AI) are natural partners in the development of environments to support human learning. Designing systems with the characteristics of a rich learning environment is the long term goal of research in intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). Building these characteristics into a system is extremely…

  10. Physiological targets of artificial gravity: the sensory-motor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Clarke, A.; Bles, W.; Wuyts, F.; Paloski, W.; Clément, G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial

  11. Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Stuart; Dewey, Daniel; Tegmark, Max

    2015-01-01

    Success in the quest for artificial intelligence has the potential to bring unprecedented benefits to humanity, and it is therefore worthwhile to investigate how to maximize these benefits while avoiding potential pitfalls. This article gives numerous examples (which should by no means be construed as an exhaustive list) of such worthwhile research aimed at ensuring that AI remains robust and beneficial.

  12. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit jelly. 150.141 Section 150.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... locust bean gum), guar gum, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, algin (sodium alginate), sodium...

  13. The future of artificial intelligence in nuclear plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgate, G.

    1984-01-01

    Robots with vision and force sensing capability, performing tasks under computer control, will offer new opportunities to reduce human exposure to radiation. Such machines do not yet exist and even simple maintenance tasks challenge current robot technology. Recently increased priority for research on artificial intelligence and fifth generation computer technology is likely to bring useful maintenance robots closer to reality

  14. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part A: The core ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. The goal of Artificial Intelligence is focused on developing computational approaches to intelligent behavior. This goal is so broad - covering virtually all aspects of human cognitive activity - that substantial confusion has arisen as to the actual nature of AI, its current status and its future capability. This volume, the first in a series of NBS/NASA reports on the subject, attempts to address these concerns. Thus, this report endeavors to clarify what AI is, the foundations on which it rests, the techniques utilized, applications, the participants and, finally, AI's state-of-the-art and future trends. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to government and private engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  15. Comparing natural and artificial carious lesions in human crowns by means of conventional hard x-ray micro-tomography and two-dimensional x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Lea Maria; White, Shane N.; Deyhle, Hans; Dziadowiec, Iwona; Schulz, Georg; Thalmann, Peter; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Dental caries, one of the most prevalent infectious bacterial diseases in the world, is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria. Caries is a disease continuum resulting from the earliest loss of ions from apatite crystals through gross cavitation. Enamel dissolution starts when the pH-value drops below 5.5. Neutralizing the pH-value in the oral cavity opposes the process of demineralization, and so caries lesions occur in a dynamic cyclic de-mineralizing/remineralizing environment. Unfortunately, biomimetic regeneration of cavitated enamel is not yet possible, although remineralization of small carious lesions occurs under optimal conditions. Therefore, the development of methods that can regenerate carious lesions, and subsequently recover and retain teeth, is highly desirable. For the present proceedings we analyzed one naturally occurring sub-surface and one artificially produced lesion. For the characterization of artificial and natural lesions micro computed tomography is the method of choice when looking to determine three-dimensional mineral distribution and to quantify the degree of mineralization. In this pilot study we elucidate that the de-mineralized enamel in natural and artificially induced lesions shows comparable X-ray attenuation behavior, thereby implying that the study protocol employed herein seems to be appropriate. Once we know that the lesions are comparable, a series of well-reproducible in vitro experiments on enamel regeneration could be performed. In order to quantify further lesion morphology, the anisotropy of the enamel's nanostructure can be characterized by using spatially resolved, small-angle X-ray scattering. We wanted to demonstrate that the artificially induced defect fittingly resembles the natural carious lesion.

  16. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now, however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle. BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior of this fiber is similar to that of organic muscle. We made an artificial muscle like the latissimus dorsi using BioMetal fiber and tested whether we could use this new muscle as a cardiac supporting device. Testing one Biometal fiber showed the following performance: practical use maximal generative force was 30 g, exercise variation was 50%, and the standard driving current was 220 mA. We created a 4 x 12-cm tabular artificial muscle using 8 BioMetal fibers as a cardiac support device. We also made a simulation circuit composed of a 6 x 8-cm soft bag with unidirectional valves, reservoir, and connecting tube. The simulation circuit was filled with water and the soft bag was wrapped with the artificial muscle device. After powering the device electrically at 9 V with a current of 220 mA for each fiber, we measured the inside pressure and observed the movement of the artificial device. The artificial muscle contracted in 0.5 s for peak time and squeezed the soft bag. The peak pressure inside the soft bag was measured as 10 mmHg. Although further work will be needed to enhance the speed of deformability and movement simulating contraction, we conclude that artificial muscle may be potentially useful as a cardiac assistance device that can be developed for dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

  17. Artificial locomotion control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Christine; Poignet, Philippe; Espiau, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    of postural and walking control; use of evolutive optimization objectives; on-line event handling and environment adaptation and anticipation. This leads to the synthesis of an original control scheme based on non-linear model predictive control: Trajectory Free NMPC. The movement is specified implicitly......This paper concerns the simultaneous synthesis and control of walking gaits for biped robots. The goal is to propose an adaptable and reactive control law for two-legged machines. The problem is addressed with human locomotion as a reference. The starting point of our work is an analysis of human...... walking from descriptive (biomechanics) as well as explicative (neuroscience and physiology) points of view, the objective being to stress the relevant elements for the approach of robot control. The adopted principles are then: no joint trajectory tracking; explicit distinction and integration...

  18. Embodied artificial evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, A. E.; Kernbach, S.; Haasdijk, Evert

    2012-01-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively using evolutionary processes. Today this is possible in Evolutionary Computing, where human experimenters can design and manipulate all components of evolutionary processes in digital spaces. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to implement a...

  19. A Yeast Artificial Chromosome Library Database: Design Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Frisse, Mark E.; Ge, NengJie; Langenbacher, JulieM.; Kahn, Michael G.; Brownstein, Bernard H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper first describes a simple collection of HyperCard stacks created and used by genetics researchers to catalog information in a human yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library. Although an intuitive human-computer interface made the HyperCard program easy to use, the program was neither an efficient nor a secure primary database for vital laboratory data. This paper subsequently describes a relational database implementation prototype that overcomes HyperCard's deficiencies as a datab...

  20. Artificial muscles for a novel simulator in minimally invasive spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Marianne; Fuerst, David; Schrempf, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are commonly used minimally invasive methods to treat vertebral compression fractures. Novice surgeons gather surgical skills in different ways, mainly by "learning by doing" or training on models, specimens or simulators. Currently, a new training modality, an augmented reality simulator for minimally invasive spine surgeries, is going to be developed. An important step in investigating this simulator is the accurate establishment of artificial tissues. Especially vertebrae and muscles, reproducing a comparable haptical feedback during tool insertion, are necessary. Two artificial tissues were developed to imitate natural muscle tissue. The axial insertion force was used as validation parameter. It appropriates the mechanical properties of artificial and natural muscles. Validation was performed on insertion measurement data from fifteen artificial muscle tissues compared to human muscles measurement data. Based on the resulting forces during needle insertion into human muscles, a suitable material composition for manufacturing artificial muscles was found.

  1. How feasible is the rapid development of artificial superintelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotala, Kaj

    2017-11-01

    What kinds of fundamental limits are there in how capable artificial intelligence (AI) systems might become? Two questions in particular are of interest: (1) How much more capable could AI become relative to humans, and (2) how easily could superhuman capability be acquired? To answer these questions, we will consider the literature on human expertise and intelligence, discuss its relevance for AI, and consider how AI could improve on humans in two major aspects of thought and expertise, namely simulation and pattern recognition. We find that although there are very real limits to prediction, it seems like AI could still substantially improve on human intelligence.

  2. How feasible is the rapid development of artificial superintelligence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotala, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    What kinds of fundamental limits are there in how capable artificial intelligence (AI) systems might become? Two questions in particular are of interest: (1) How much more capable could AI become relative to humans, and (2) how easily could superhuman capability be acquired? To answer these questions, we will consider the literature on human expertise and intelligence, discuss its relevance for AI, and consider how AI could improve on humans in two major aspects of thought and expertise, namely simulation and pattern recognition. We find that although there are very real limits to prediction, it seems like AI could still substantially improve on human intelligence. (invited comment)

  3. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2018-03-01

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  4. How Do Humans Perceive Emotion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen

    2017-01-01

    Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.

  5. In vivo growth-restricted and reversible malignancy induced by Human Herpesvirus-8/ KSHV: a cell and animal model of virally induced Kaposi's sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Agata D'Agostino; Cavallin, Lucas E.; Vincent, Loïc; Chiozzini, Chiara; Eroles, Pilar; Duran, Elda M.; Asgari, Zahra; Hooper, Andrea T.; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Hilsher, Chelsey; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Rafii, Shahin; Mesri, Enrique A.

    2007-01-01

    Transfection of a Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (KSHVBac36) into mouse bone marrow endothelial lineage cells generates a cell (mECK36) that forms KS-like tumors in mice. mECK36 expressed most KSHV genes and were angiogenic, but didn't form colonies in soft agar. In nude mice, mECK36 formed KSHV-harboring vascularized spindle-cell sarcomas that were LANA+/podoplanin+, overexpressed VEGF and Angiopoietin ligands and receptors, and displayed KSHV and host transcriptomes reminiscent of KS. mECK36 that lost the KSHV episome reverted to non-tumorigenicity. siRNA suppression of KSHV vGPCR, an angiogenic gene up-regulated in mECK36 tumors, inhibited angiogenicity and tumorigenicity. These results show that KSHV malignancy is in vivo growth-restricted and reversible, defining mECK36 as a biologically sensitive animal model of KSHV-dependent KS. PMID:17349582

  6. Traceable calibration of impedance heads and artificial mastoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D A; Dickinson, L P; Bell, T J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial mastoids are devices which simulate the mechanical characteristics of the human head, and in particular of the bony structure behind the ear. They are an essential tool in the calibration of bone-conduction hearing aids and audiometers. With the emergence of different types of artificial mastoids in the market, and the realisation that the visco-elastic part of these instruments changes over time, the development of a method of traceable calibration of these devices without relying on commercial software has become important for national metrology institutes. This paper describes commercially available calibration methods, and the development of a traceable calibration method including the traceable calibration of the impedance head used to measure the mechanical impedance of the artificial mastoid. (paper)

  7. Multigated radionuclide study of the total artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, F L; Christian, P E; Taylor, A Jr; Hastings, W L; De Vries, W C

    1987-07-01

    A permanent total artificial heart, the Jarvik-7, was implanted into a 61-year-old male with a severe cardiomyopathy. Gated radionuclide studies were performed in the patient both prior to surgery and following implantation. Preoperative gated radionuclide cardiac studies revealed marked left ventricular enlargement, severe hypokinesis and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 10%. The right ventricle was moderately enlarged with a 27% ejection fraction. Following implantation of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart, gated cardiac studies were performed with a computer gated by a signal from the heart controller. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 69% and the right ventricular ejection fraction was 62%. This compared to a theoretical ejection fraction of 74% for each ventricle based on chamber anatomy. There was excellent ventricular emptying. Phase analysis showed uniform diaphragm motion. The use of gated cardiac studies in humans may prove helpful in evaluating mechanical problems with the artificial heart, such as manlfunction of the diaphragm, before they become clinically apparent.

  8. Biomimetic artificial sphincter muscles: status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vanessa; Fattorini, Elisa; Karapetkova, Maria; Osmani, Bekim; Töpper, Tino; Weiss, Florian; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss of bowel content and affects more than 12% of the adult population, including 45% of retirement home residents. Severe fecal incontinence is often treated by implanting an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, have long-term reoperation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. These statistics show that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter and that the development of an adaptive, biologically inspired implant is required. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are being developed as artificial muscles for a biomimetic sphincter, due to their suitable response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. However, at present the operation voltage of DEAs is too high for artificial muscles implanted in the human body. To reduce the operating voltage to tens of volts, we are using microfabrication to reduce the thickness of the elastomer layer to the nanometer level. Two microfabrication methods are being investigated: molecular beam deposition and electrospray deposition. This communication covers the current status and a perspective on the way forward, including the long-term prospects of constructing a smart sphincter from low-voltage sensors and actuators based on nanometer-thin dielectric elastomer films. As DEA can also provide sensory feedback, a biomimetic sphincter can be designed in accordance with the geometrical and mechanical parameters of its natural counterpart. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence du ring daily activities.

  9. Artificial radioactivity in Lough Foyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; Ryan, T.P.; Lyons, S.; Smith, V.; McGarry, A.; Mitchell, P.I.; Leon Vintro, L.; Larmour, R.A.; Ledgerwood, F.K.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the marine environment of Lough Foyle, situated on the north coast of Ireland, has been affected by artificial radioactivity released from Sellafield. Although traces of plutonium, americium and radiocaesium from Sellafield are detectable in Lough Foyle, the concentrations in various marine media are significantly lower than those found along the NE coast of Ireland and in the western Irish Sea. The minute quantities of artificial radioactivity found in Lough Foyle are of negligible radiological significance

  10. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-06-01

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  12. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond AI: Interdisciplinary Aspects of Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Romportl, Jan; Zackova, Eva; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : Contemplations, Expectations, Applications

    2013-01-01

    Products of modern artificial intelligence (AI) have mostly been formed by the views, opinions and goals of the “insiders”, i.e. people usually with engineering background who are driven by the force that can be metaphorically described as the pursuit of the craft of Hephaestus. However, since the present-day technology allows for tighter and tighter mergence of the “natural” everyday human life with machines of immense complexity, the responsible reaction of the scientific community should be based on cautious reflection of what really lies beyond AI, i.e. on the frontiers where the tumultuous ever-growing and ever-changing cloud of AI touches the rest of the world.   The chapters of this boo are based on the selected subset of the presentations that were delivered by their respective authors at the conference “Beyond AI: Interdisciplinary Aspects of Artificial Intelligence” held in Pilsen in December 2011.   From its very definition, the reflection of the phenomena that lie beyond AI must be i...

  14. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.

  15. Artificial intelligence for analyzing orthopedic trauma radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Jakub; Fahlberg, Niklas; Maki, Atsuto; Razavian, Ali Sharif; Jilert, Anthony; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof; Gordon, Max

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - Recent advances in artificial intelligence (deep learning) have shown remarkable performance in classifying non-medical images, and the technology is believed to be the next technological revolution. So far it has never been applied in an orthopedic setting, and in this study we sought to determine the feasibility of using deep learning for skeletal radiographs. Methods - We extracted 256,000 wrist, hand, and ankle radiographs from Danderyd's Hospital and identified 4 classes: fracture, laterality, body part, and exam view. We then selected 5 openly available deep learning networks that were adapted for these images. The most accurate network was benchmarked against a gold standard for fractures. We furthermore compared the network's performance with 2 senior orthopedic surgeons who reviewed images at the same resolution as the network. Results - All networks exhibited an accuracy of at least 90% when identifying laterality, body part, and exam view. The final accuracy for fractures was estimated at 83% for the best performing network. The network performed similarly to senior orthopedic surgeons when presented with images at the same resolution as the network. The 2 reviewer Cohen's kappa under these conditions was 0.76. Interpretation - This study supports the use for orthopedic radiographs of artificial intelligence, which can perform at a human level. While current implementation lacks important features that surgeons require, e.g. risk of dislocation, classifications, measurements, and combining multiple exam views, these problems have technical solutions that are waiting to be implemented for orthopedics.

  16. The Cellular DNA Helicase ChlR1 Regulates Chromatin and Nuclear Matrix Attachment of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Protein and High-Copy-Number Viral Genome Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leanne; McFarlane-Majeed, Laura; Campos-León, Karen; Roberts, Sally; Parish, Joanna L

    2017-01-01

    In papillomavirus infections, the viral genome is established as a double-stranded DNA episome. To segregate the episomes into daughter cells during mitosis, they are tethered to cellular chromatin by the viral E2 protein. We previously demonstrated that the E2 proteins of diverse papillomavirus types, including bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), associate with the cellular DNA helicase ChlR1. This virus-host interaction is important for the tethering of BPV E2 to mitotic chromatin and the stable maintenance of BPV episomes. The role of the association between E2 and ChlR1 in the HPV16 life cycle is unresolved. Here we show that an HPV16 E2 Y131A mutant (E2 Y131A ) had significantly reduced binding to ChlR1 but retained transcriptional activation and viral origin-dependent replication functions. Subcellular fractionation of keratinocytes expressing E2 Y131A showed a marked change in the localization of the protein. Compared to that of wild-type E2 (E2 WT ), the chromatin-bound pool of E2 Y131A was decreased, concomitant with an increase in nuclear matrix-associated protein. Cell cycle synchronization indicated that the shift in subcellular localization of E2 Y131A occurred in mid-S phase. A similar alteration between the subcellular pools of the E2 WT protein occurred upon ChlR1 silencing. Notably, in an HPV16 life cycle model in primary human keratinocytes, mutant E2 Y131A genomes were established as episomes, but at a markedly lower copy number than that of wild-type HPV16 genomes, and they were not maintained upon cell passage. Our studies indicate that ChlR1 is an important regulator of the chromatin association of E2 and of the establishment and maintenance of HPV16 episomes. Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. During infection, the circular DNA genome of HPV persists within the nucleus, independently of the host cell chromatin. Persistence of infection

  17. Multidirectional Artificial Muscles from Nylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-01-01

    Multidirectional artificial muscles are made from highly oriented nylon filaments. Thanks to the low thermal conductivity of nylon and its anisotropic thermal expansion, bending occurs when a nylon beam is differentially heated. This heat can be generated via a Joule heating mechanism or high power laser pulses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Artificial Intelligence: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda C., Comp.

    1984-01-01

    This 19-item annotated bibliography introducing the literature of artificial intelligence (AI) is arranged by type of material--handbook, books (general interest, textbooks, collected readings), journals and newsletters, and conferences and workshops. The availability of technical reports from AI laboratories at universities and private companies…

  19. Artificial epitaxy of indium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.I.; Givargizov, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the experiments on recrystallization of thin InSb films deposited on oxidized silicon by flash evaporation with ionized beams are given. Artificial microreliefs (topographic and thermal ones) were used for controlling the growth process. An orientation mechanism of the growing film by the microrelief is discussed. The experiments on preparation of regular single-crystal islands are described

  20. Hybrid Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1988-01-01

    STAR, Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning, is interactive, interpreted programming language for development and operation of artificial-intelligence application systems. Couples symbolic processing with compiled-language functions and data structures. Written in C language and currently available in UNIX version (NPO-16832), and VMS version (NPO-16965).

  1. Artificial Intelligence: Applications in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Ron J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques are used in computer programs to search out rapidly and retrieve information from very large databases. Programing advances have also led to the development of systems that provide expert consultation (expert systems). These systems, as applied to education, are the primary emphasis of this article. (LMO)

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Provides a brief background of AI work, examples of expert systems, examples of ICAI work, and addresses problems facing AI workers that have implications for science education. Proposes a revised model of the Karplus/Renner…

  3. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitin, L. J.; Duda, R. O.; Johanson, P. A.; Raphael, B.; Rosen, C. A.; Yates, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    The program is reported for developing techniques in artificial intelligence and their application to the control of mobile automatons for carrying out tasks autonomously. Visual scene analysis, short-term problem solving, and long-term problem solving are discussed along with the PDP-15 simulator, LISP-FORTRAN-MACRO interface, resolution strategies, and cost effectiveness.

  4. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms...

  5. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  6. Electrophotometric observations of artificial satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovchyk, Yeva; Blagodyr, Yaroslav; Kraynyuk, Gennadiy; Bilinsky, Andriy; Lohvynenko, Alexander; Klym, Bogdan; Pochapsky, Yevhen

    2004-01-01

    Problems associated with polarimetric observations of low Earth orbit artificial satellites as important solar system objects are discussed. The instrumentation (the optical and mechanical parts, the control and drive electronics, and the application software) for performing such observations is also described

  7. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Paez, Jose Jesus

    1998-01-01

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  8. Artificial intelligence approaches in statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.I.; Musgrove, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    The role of pattern recognition and knowledge representation methods from Artificial Intelligence within statistics is considered. Two areas of potential use are identified and one, data exploration, is used to illustrate the possibilities. A method is presented to identify and separate overlapping groups within cluster analysis, using an AI approach. The potential of such ''intelligent'' approaches is stressed

  9. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  10. [Development and application of artificial vertebral body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Zheng-Chao; Niu, Bin-Bin; Li, Yu-Huan; He, Xi-Jing

    2017-12-25

    Artificial vertebral body has achieved good results in treating spinal tumors, tuberculosis, fracture and other diseases. Currently, artificial vertebral body with variety of kinds and pros and cons, is generally divided into two types: fusion type and movable type. The former according to whether the height could be adjusted and strength of self-stability is divided into three types: support-fixed type, adjust-fixed type and self-fixed type. Whether the height of self-fixed type could be adjusted is dependent on structure of collar thread rotation. The latter is due to mobile device of ball-and-socket joints or hollow structures instead of the disc which retains the activity of the spine to some extent. Materials of artificial vertebral body include metals, ceramics, biomaterials, polymer composites and other materials. Titanium with a dominant role in the metal has developed to the third generation, but there are still defects such as poor surface bioactivity; ceramics with the representative of hydroxyapatite composite, magnetic bioceramics, polycrystalline alumina ceramics and so on, which have the defects of processing complex and uneven mechanical properties; biological material is mainly dominated by xenogeneic bone, which is closest to human bone in structure and properties, but has defects of low toughness and complex production; polymer composites according to biological characteristics in general consists of biodegradable type and non-biodegradable type which are respectively represented by poly-lactide and polyethylene, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although the design and materials of prosthesis have made great progress, it is difficult to fully meet requirements of spinal implants and they need be further optimized. 3D printing technology makes process of the complex structure of prosthesis and individual customization possible and has broad development prospects. However, long production cycles and high cost of defect should be overcome

  11. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cozgarea; Gabriel Cozgarea; Andrei Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    The present paper exposes some of artificial intelligence specific technologies regarding financial sector. Through non-deterministic solutions and simple algorithms, artificial intelligence could become a base alternative for solving financial problems which require complex mathematic calculations or complex optimization.

  12. Artificial heartbeat: design and fabrication of a biologically inspired pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Peter; Stephenson, Robert; Lewis, Amy; Stinchcombe, Andrew; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    We present a biologically inspired actuator exhibiting a novel pumping action. The design of the ‘artificial heartbeat’ actuator is inspired by physical principles derived from the structure and function of the human heart. The actuator employs NiTi artificial muscles and is powered by electrical energy generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We describe the design and fabrication of the actuator and report the results of tests conducted to characterize its performance. This is the first artificial muscle-driven pump to be powered by MFCs fed on human urine. Results are presented in terms of the peak pumping pressure generated by the actuator, as well as for the volume of fluid transferred, when the actuator was powered by energy stored in a capacitor bank, which was charged by 24 MFCs fed on urine. The results demonstrate the potential for the artificial heartbeat actuator to be employed as a fluid circulation pump in future generations of MFC-powered robots (‘EcoBots’) that extract energy from organic waste. We also envisage that the actuator could in the future form part of a bio-robotic artwork or ‘bio-automaton’ that could help increase public awareness of research in robotics, bio-energy and biologically inspired design. (paper)

  13. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  14. Physical status of human papillomavirus integration in cervical cancer is associated with treatment outcome of the patients treated with radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Shin

    Full Text Available Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA into the host genome is a critical aetiological event in the progression from normal cervix to intraepithelial neoplasm, and finally to invasive cervical cancer. However, there has been little work on how HPV integration status relates to treatment outcome for cervical carcinomas. In the current study, HPV E2 and E6 gene copy numbers were measured in 111 cervical cancer tissues using real-time QPCR. Integration patterns were divided into four groups: single copy-integrated with episomal components (group 1, single copy-integrated without episomal components (group 2, multicopy tandem repetition-integrated (group 3, and low HPV (group 4 groups. A relapse-predicting model was constructed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to classify patients into different risk groups for disease-free survival (DFS. The model was internally validated using bootstrap resampling. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed to evaluate gene expression patterns in relation to the different integration groups. DFS rate was inferior in the order of the patients in group 4, group 2/3, and group 1. Multivariate analysis showed that histologic grade, clinical stage group, and integration pattern were significant prognostic factors for poor DFS. The current prognostic model accurately predicted the risk of relapse, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.74 (bootstrap corrected, 0.71. In conclusion, these data suggest that HPV integration pattern is a potent prognostic factor for tailored treatment of cervical cancer.

  15. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  16. Artificial humidification for the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, N

    Caring for patients who are mechanically ventilated poses many challenges for critical care nurses. It is important to humidify the patient's airways artificially to prevent complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is no gold standard to determine which type of humidification is best for patients who are artificially ventilated. This article provides an overview of commonly used artificial humidification for mechanically ventilated patients and discusses nurses' responsibilities in caring for patients receiving artificial humidification.

  17. Artificial intelligence approach to interwell log correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong-Se [Korea Maritime University, Pusan(Korea); Kang, Joo Myung [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jung Whan [Korea National Oil Corp., Anyang(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This paper describes a new approach to automated interwell log correlation using artificial intelligence and principal component analysis. The approach to correlate wire line logging data is on the basis of a large set of subjective rules that are intended to represent human logical processes. The data processed are mainly the qualitative information such as the characteristics of the shapes extracted along log traces. The apparent geologic zones are identified by pattern recognition for the specific characteristics of log trace collected as a set of objects by object oriented programming. The correlation of zones between wells is made by rule-based inference program. The reliable correlation can be established from the first principal component logs derived from both the important information around well bore and the largest common part of variances of all available well log data. Correlation with field log data shows that this approach can make interwell log correlation more reliable and accurate. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  18. [Preparation of nano-nacre artificial bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-ting; Tang, Yong-zhi; Zhang, Jian-gang; Wang, Jian-jun; Xiao, Ying

    2008-12-01

    To assess the improvements in the properties of nano-nacre artificial bone prepared on the basis of nacre/polylactide acid composite artificial bone and its potential for clinical use. The compound of nano-scale nacre powder and poly-D, L-lactide acid (PDLLA) was used to prepare the cylindrical hollow artificial bone, whose properties including raw material powder scale, pore size, porosity and biomechanical characteristics were compared with another artificial bone made of micron-scale nacre powder and PDLLA. Scanning electron microscope showed that the average particle size of the nano-nacre powder was 50.4-/+12.4 nm, and the average pore size of the artificial bone prepared using nano-nacre powder was 215.7-/+77.5 microm, as compared with the particle size of the micron-scale nacre powder of 5.0-/+3.0 microm and the pore size of the resultant artificial bone of 205.1-/+72.0 microm. The porosities of nano-nacre artificial bone and the micron-nacre artificial bone were (65.4-/+2.9)% and (53.4-/+2.2)%, respectively, and the two artificial bones had comparable compressive strength and Young's modulus, but the flexural strength of the nano-nacre artificial bone was lower than that of the micro-nacre artificial bone. The nano-nacre artificial bone allows better biodegradability and possesses appropriate pore size, porosity and biomechanical properties for use as a promising material in bone tissue engineering.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  20. Reviewing the current state of machine learning for artificial intelligence with regards to the use of contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    Kinch, Martin W.; Melis, Wim J.C.; Keates, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    This paper will consider the current state of Machine Learning for Artificial Intelligence, more specifically for applications, such as: Speech Recognition, Game Playing and Image Processing. The artificial world tends to make limited use of context in comparison to what currently happens in human life, while it would benefit from improvements in this area. Additionally, the process of transferring knowledge between application domains is another important area where artificial system can imp...

  1. Chips challenging champions games, computers and artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, J

    2002-01-01

    One of the earliest dreams of the fledgling field of artificial intelligence (AI) was to build computer programs that could play games as well as or better than the best human players. Despite early optimism in the field, the challenge proved to be surprisingly difficult. However, the 1990s saw amazing progress. Computers are now better than humans in checkers, Othello and Scrabble; are at least as good as the best humans in backgammon and chess; and are rapidly improving at hex, go, poker, and shogi. This book documents the progress made in computers playing games and puzzles. The book is the

  2. Artificial consciousness and the consciousness-attention dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Artificial Intelligence is at a turning point, with a substantial increase in projects aiming to implement sophisticated forms of human intelligence in machines. This research attempts to model specific forms of intelligence through brute-force search heuristics and also reproduce features of human perception and cognition, including emotions. Such goals have implications for artificial consciousness, with some arguing that it will be achievable once we overcome short-term engineering challenges. We believe, however, that phenomenal consciousness cannot be implemented in machines. This becomes clear when considering emotions and examining the dissociation between consciousness and attention in humans. While we may be able to program ethical behavior based on rules and machine learning, we will never be able to reproduce emotions or empathy by programming such control systems-these will be merely simulations. Arguments in favor of this claim include considerations about evolution, the neuropsychological aspects of emotions, and the dissociation between attention and consciousness found in humans. Ultimately, we are far from achieving artificial consciousness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial skin in perspective: concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohem, Carla A; Cardeal, Laura B da Silva; Tiago, Manoela; Soengas, María S; Barros, Silvia B de Moraes; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2011-02-01

    Skin, the largest organ of the human body, is organized into an elaborate layered structure consisting mainly of the outermost epidermis and the underlying dermis. A subcutaneous adipose-storing hypodermis layer and various appendages such as hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels are also present in the skin. These multiple components of the skin ensure survival by carrying out critical functions such as protection, thermoregulation, excretion, absorption, metabolic functions, sensation, evaporation management, and aesthetics. The study of how these biological functions are performed is critical to our understanding of basic skin biology such as regulation of pigmentation and wound repair. Impairment of any of these functions may lead to pathogenic alterations, including skin cancers. Therefore, the development of genetically controlled and well characterized skin models can have important implications, not only for scientists and physicians, but also for manufacturers, consumers, governing regulatory boards and animal welfare organizations. As cells making up human skin tissue grow within an organized three-dimensional (3D) matrix surrounded by neighboring cells, standard monolayer (2D) cell cultures do not recapitulate the physiological architecture of the skin. Several types of human skin recombinants, also called artificial skin, that provide this critical 3D structure have now been reconstructed in vitro. This review contemplates the use of these organotypic skin models in different applications, including substitutes to animal testing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Tadpole-like artificial micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Limei; Liu, Mei; Su, Yajun; Dong, Yonggang; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Chi, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties.We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, Fig. S1-S3 and Video S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06621a

  5. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  6. Anesthesiology, automation, and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John C; Joshi, Girish P

    2018-01-01

    There have been many attempts to incorporate automation into the practice of anesthesiology, though none have been successful. Fundamentally, these failures are due to the underlying complexity of anesthesia practice and the inability of rule-based feedback loops to fully master it. Recent innovations in artificial intelligence, especially machine learning, may usher in a new era of automation across many industries, including anesthesiology. It would be wise to consider the implications of such potential changes before they have been fully realized.

  7. Important Themas in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Šudoma, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies description logics as a method of field of artificial intelligence, describes history of knowledge representation as series of events leading to founding of description logics. Furthermore the paper compares description logics with their predecessor, the frame systems. Syntax, semantics and description logics naming convention is also presented and algorithms solving common knowledge representation tasks with usage of description logics are described. Paper compares computat...

  8. Bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    NOSENKO M.A.; DRUTSKAYA M.S.; MOISENOVICH M.M.; NEDOSPASOV S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  9. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  10. Artificial intelligence and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents essential findings in the research fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision, with a primary focus on new research ideas and results for mathematical problems involved in computer vision systems. The book provides an international forum for researchers to summarize the most recent developments and ideas in the field, with a special emphasis on the technical and observational results obtained in the past few years.

  11. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Towards photovoltaic powered artificial retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Silvestre

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts in the field of retinal prostheses, and is focused on the power supply based on solar energy conversion; we introduce the possibility of using PV minimodules as power supply for a new concept of retinal prostheses: Photovoltaic Powered Artificial Retina (PVAR. Main characteristics of these PV modules are presented showing its potential for this application.

  13. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence In Control System Analysis And Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J. D.

    1987-10-01

    To date, applications of artificial intelligence in control system analysis and design are primarily associated with the design process. These applications take the form of knowledge bases incorporating expertise on a design method, such as multivariable linear controller design, or on a field such as identification. My experience has demonstrated that, while such expert systems are useful, perhaps a greater benefit will come from applications in the maintenance of technical databases, as are found in real-time data acquisition systems, and of modeling and design databases, which represent the status of a computer-aided design process for a human user. This reflects the observation that computers are best at maintaining relations about large sets of objects, whereas humans are best at maintaining knowledge of depth, as occurs when a design option involving a sequence of steps is explored. This paper will discuss some of these issues, and will provide some examples which illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence.

  14. New twist on artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  15. Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisley, Ron

    2008-10-01

    Consciousness is often thought to be that aspect of mind that is least amenable to being understood or replicated by artificial intelligence (AI). The first-personal, subjective, what-it-is-like-to-be-something nature of consciousness is thought to be untouchable by the computations, algorithms, processing and functions of AI method. Since AI is the most promising avenue toward artificial consciousness (AC), the conclusion many draw is that AC is even more doomed than AI supposedly is. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the soundness of this inference. The results are achieved by means of conceptual analysis and argumentation. It is shown that pessimism concerning the theoretical possibility of artificial consciousness is unfounded, based as it is on misunderstandings of AI, and a lack of awareness of the possible roles AI might play in accounting for or reproducing consciousness. This is done by making some foundational distinctions relevant to AC, and using them to show that some common reasons given for AC scepticism do not touch some of the (usually neglected) possibilities for AC, such as prosthetic, discriminative, practically necessary, and lagom (necessary-but-not-sufficient) AC. Along the way three strands of the author's work in AC--interactive empiricism, synthetic phenomenology, and ontologically conservative heterophenomenology--are used to illustrate and motivate the distinctions and the defences of AC they make possible.

  16. PIXE Analysis of Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Skye; Chalise, Sajju; Porat, Zachary; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been debate regarding the use of the crumb rubber infill in artificial turf on high school and college campuses due to the potential presence of heavy metals and carcinogenic chemicals. We performed Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of artificial turf infill and blade samples collected from high school and college campuses around the Capital District of NYS to search for potentially toxic substances. Crumb rubber pellets were made by mixing 1g of rubber infill and 1g of epoxy. The pellets and the turf blades were bombarded with 2.2 MeV proton beams from a 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory and x-ray energy spectra were collected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. We analyzed the spectra using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. The turf infill showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The highest concentration of Br in the crumb rubber was 1500 +/-100 ppm while the highest detectable amount of Pb concentration was 110 +/-20 ppm. The artificial turf blades showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, and Zn with only the yellow blade showing concentrations of V and Bi.

  17. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.

  18. PLANNING IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (PAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Foreword

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available September 18th, 2016Deggendorf, Germanyhttp://robotics.fel.cvut.cz/pair16/Organized by: Artificial Intelligence Center Department of Computer Science Faculty of Electrical Engineering Czech Technical University in PragueTechnicka 2, Prague 6, 166 27, Czech RepublicGuest editors:Jan Faigl (Artificial Intelligence Center, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in PragueJiří Vokřínek (Artificial Intelligence Center, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in PragueScientific comittee:D. Belter (Poznań University of Technology, PolandW. Dorner (Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, GermanyJ. Faigl (Czech Technical University in PragueT. Krajník (University of Lincoln, United KingdomA. Komenda (Czech Technical University in PragueG. Kupris (Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, GermanyM. Rollo (Czech Technical University in PragueM. Saska (Czech Technical University in PragueJ. Vokřínek (Czech Technical University in PragueV. Vonásek (Czech Technical University in PragueK. Walas (Poznań University of Technology, Poland Foreword:The third year of the student conference on “Planning in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics” (PAIR continues in joining young researchers and students interested in robotics and artificial intelligence. In 2016, we follow the schema of the last year as a joint event with the RoboTour competition in Deggendorf, Germany. Thanks to the great collaboration with Gerald Kupris and Wolfgang Donner from Technische Hochschule Deggendorf and support from Czech Technical University under project No. SVK 26/16/F3 and Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Finanzen, für Landesentwicklung und Heimat, we have been able to provide accommodations and travel support to participants and an invited speaker. Fourteen papers have accepted and listed in the conference program. The papers have been authored by students from Central Europe

  19. Automation of seismic network signal interpolation: an artificial intelligence approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaruttini, C.; Roberto, V.

    1988-01-01

    After discussing the current status of the automation in signal interpretation from seismic networks, a new approach, based on artificial-intelligence tecniques, is proposed. The knowledge of the human expert analyst is examined, with emphasis on its objects, strategies and reasoning techniques. It is argued that knowledge-based systems (or expert systems) provide the most appropriate tools for designing an automatic system, modelled on the expert behaviour

  20. Meaning of cognitive processes for creating artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Pangrác, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis brings an integral view at cognitive processes connected with artificial intelligence systems, and makes a comparison with the processes observed in nature, including human being. A historical background helps us to look at the whole issue from a certain point of view. The main axis of interest comes after the historical overview and includes the following: environment -- stimulations -- processing -- reflection in the cognitive system -- reaction to stimulation; I balance...