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Sample records for human apical sodium-dependent

  1. Stimulation of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter expands the bile acid pool and generates bile acids with positive feedback properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudling, Mats; Bonde, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis has been considered a prototype for how a physiological process is controlled by end product feedback inhibition. By this feedback inhibition, bile acid concentrations are kept within safe ranges. However, careful examination of published rodent data strongly suggests that bile acid synthesis is also under potent positive feedback control by hydrophilic bile acids. Current concepts on the regulation of bile acid synthesis are derived from mouse models. Recent data have shown that mice have farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic bile acids capable of quenching responses elicited by FXR agonistic bile acids. This is important to recognize to understand the regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse, and in particular to clarify if mouse model findings are valid also in the human situation. In addition to classic end product feedback inhibition, regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse largely appears also to be driven by changes in hepatic levels of murine bile acids such as α- and β-muricholic acids. This has not been previously recognized. Stimulated bile acid synthesis or induction of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in the intestine, increase the availability of chenodeoxycholic acid in the liver, thereby promoting hepatic conversion of this bile acid into muricholic acids. Recognition of these mechanisms is essential for understanding the regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse, and for our awareness of important species differences in the regulation of bile acid synthesis in mice and humans. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A 96-well automated method to study inhibitors of human sodium-dependent D-glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Francisco; Kinne, Rolf K-H

    2005-12-01

    The sodium-dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT) family is involved in glucose uptake via intestinal absorption (SGLT1) or renal reabsorption (SGLT1 and SGLT2). Current methods for the screening of inhibitors of SGLT transporters are complex, expensive and very labor intensive, and have not been applied to human SGLT transporters. The purpose of the present study was to develop an alternative 96-well automated method to study the activity of human SGLT1 and SGLT2. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Flp-In cells were stably transfected with pcDNA5-SGLT1 or pcDNA5-SGLT2 plasmid and maintained in hygromycin-selection Ham's F12 culture medium until hygromycin-resistant clones were developed. SGLT1 and SGLT2 gene expression was evaluated by relative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) quantification, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical analysis. The clones with higher expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 were used for transport studies using [14C]-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside ([14C]AMG). The advantage of using the 96-well format is the low amount of radioactive compounds and inhibitory substances required, and its ability to establish reproducibility because repetition into the assay. This method represents an initial approach in the development of transport-based high-throughput screening in the search for inhibitors of glucose transport. The proposed method can easily be performed to yield quantitative data regarding key aspects of glucose membrane transport and kinetic studies of potential inhibitors of human SGLT1 and SGLT2.

  3. Ascorbic acid transported by sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 stimulates steroidogenesis in human choriocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ximei; Iguchi, Takuma; Itoh, Norio; Okamoto, Kousuke; Takagi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Keiichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Reduced vitamin C [ascorbic acid (AA)], which is taken up into cells by sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) 1 and 2, is believed to be important for hormone synthesis, but its role in generating placental steroids needed to maintain pregnancy and fetal development is not clear. To determine the steroidogenic effect of AA and the role of SVCT2 in AA-induced steroidogenesis, we tested the effects of AA treatment and SVCT2 knockdown on steroidogenesis in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. AA treatment of JEG-3, BeWo, and JAR cells for 48-h dose dependently increased progesterone and estradiol levels. In JEG-3 cells, AA increased the mRNA expression of P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and aromatase, key enzymes for steroidogenesis. Stable knockdown of SVCT2 in JEG-3 cells by retrovirally mediated RNA interference decreased the maximal velocity of AA uptake by approximately 50%, but apparent affinity values were not affected. SVCT2 knockdown in JEG-3 cells significantly suppressed the AA-induced mRNA expression of placental P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and aromatase. This suppression of the AA-induced mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes subsequently decreased progesterone and estradiol production. In addition, inhibition of MAPK kinase-ERK signaling, which is a major pathway for AA-regulated gene expression, failed to affect AA-induced steroidogenesis. Our observations indicate that SVCT2-mediated AA uptake into cells is necessary for AA-induced steroidogenesis in human choriocarcinoma cell, but MAPK kinase-ERK signaling is not involved in AA-induced steroidogenesis.

  4. Structural requirements of the human sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT): Role of 3- and 7-OH moieties on binding and translocation of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo M.; Lagos, Carlos F.; Ward, Weslyn C.; Polli, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are the end products of cholesterol metabolism. One of the critical steps in their biosynthesis involves the isomerization of the 3β-hydroxyl (-OH) group on the cholestane ring to the common 3α-configuration on BAs. BAs are actively recaptured from the small intestine by the human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (hASBT) with high affinity and capacity. Previous studies have suggested that no particular hydroxyl group on BAs is critical for binding or transport by hASBT, even though 3β-hydroxylated BAs were not examined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the 3α-OH group on BAs binding and translocation by hASBT. Ten 3β-hydroxylated BAs (Iso-bile acids, iBAs) were synthesized, characterized, and subjected to hASBT inhibition and uptake studies. hASBT inhibition and uptake kinetics of iBAs were compared to that of native 3α-OH BAs. Glycine conjugates of native and isomeric BAs were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations in order to identify topological descriptors related to binding and translocation by hASBT. Iso-BAs bound to hASBT with lower affinity and exhibited reduced translocation than their respective 3α-epimers. Kinetic data suggests that, in contrast to native BAs where hASBT binding is the rate-limiting step, iBAs transport was rate-limited by translocation and not binding. Remarkably, 7-dehydroxylated iBAs were not hASBT substrates, highlighting the critical role of 7-OH group on BA translocation by hASBT, especially for iBAs. Conformational analysis of gly-iBAs and native BAs identified topological features for optimal binding as: concave steroidal nucleus, 3-OH “on-” or below-steroidal plane, 7-OH below-plane, and 12-OH moiety towards-plane. Our results emphasize the relevance of the 3α-OH group on BAs for proper hASBT binding and transport and revealed the critical role of 7-OH group on BA translocation, particularly in the absence of a 3α-OH group. Results have implications for BA

  5. Association of human herpesvirus 6 subtypes with symptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Katinka; Csoma, Eszter; Adám, Balázs; Szalmás, Anita; Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Veress, György; Ildikó-Márton; Kónya, József

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 subtypes A and B in apical periodontitis was determined. The relationship of HHV-6 subtypes to other disease associated herpesviruses, i.e., Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus, was also investigated. Forty apical periodontitis samples (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) and 40 healthy pulp control samples were collected. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HHV-6 DNA. HHV-6 DNA was observed in significantly higher frequencies in apical periodontitis samples than in control samples (20% vs. 2.5%; P = .03). Further classification of apical lesions revealed that subtype B of HHV-6 was significantly associated with large-sized and symptomatic lesions (P apical lesions (77%) harbored ≥1 of the tested herpesviruses: EBV was the most frequent herpesvirus (72.5%) in apical periodontitis, followed by HHV-6 (20%). Our findings suggest that EBV and HHV-6B infections can be associated with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. in human apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, M; Ranta, H; Ranta, K; Shah, H

    1986-07-01

    The incidence of black-pigmented (BP) Bacteroides spp. in 62 human dental root canal infections (35 acute and 27 clinically asymptomatic cases of apical periodontitis) in 57 adults was studied. Altogether 37 strains of BP Bacteroides were found in 31 infections, always in mixed anaerobic infections. Two different BP Bacteroides species were present in six infections. B. intermedius was most frequently isolated (15 of 62 canals; 24%) followed by B. denticola which was present in 12 cases. Asaccharolytic BP Bacteroides species, B. gingivalis and B. endodontalis, were found in eight cases. BP Bacteroides species were found both from symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, but there were also several symptomatic cases from which BP Bacteroides species were not isolated. B. gingivalis and B. endodontalis were present only in acute infections, B. intermedius was found both in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, and B. denticola occurred mostly in asymptomatic infections. BP Bacteroides species were isolated initially from 9 of the 11 teeth with symptoms at 1 week, but only from 22 of the 51 teeth that were symptomless at 1 week. Two strains of B. denticola were resistant to penicillin G at a concentration of 2.4 micrograms/ml, but the MIC of penicillin G for all other strains was 0.6 micrograms/ml or lower. Forty-two randomly selected patients received penicillin V (oral administration, 650 mg, three times daily) during the first week of endodontic therapy. Penicillin had no effect on the occurrence of symptoms after 1 week compared with the control group (20 patients).

  7. External apical root resorption diagnosis by using FII human dentine fraction and salivary IGg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Costa, Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Lima, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tanaka, Evelise Ono; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2018-06-01

    External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment. The total dentinal extract, obtained from human third molars, was fractioned by gel filtration chromatography in three fractions denominated FI, FII and FIII. The root resorption analysis of the upper central incisors was performed by digital image subtraction method. Reactivity of salivary IgG to antigenic fractions of dentine was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Regardless of treatment, FI dentin fraction with high MM (root resorptions were detected. Our results suggest that FII human dentine fraction and salivary IgG have potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring of external apical root resorption. The development of a practical and accessible biochemical test using saliva and FII dentine fraction may help in the prevention of severe root resorption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Relationship between human cytomegalovirus transcription and symptomatic apical periodontitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, K A; Sabeti, M; Jabalameli, F; Eman eini, M; Kolahdouzan, S A; Slots, J

    2008-12-01

    Apical periodontitis of endodontic origin may develop as a result of cooperative interactions among herpesviruses, specific pathogenic bacteria and tissue-destructive inflammatory mediators. This study sought to identify the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transcripts in symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions of individuals living in Iran. Fifty endodontic patients (28 with symptomatic periapical lesions and 22 with asymptomatic periapical lesions) were included in the study. In each study subject, a microbiological periapical sample was collected using a curette in conjunction with periapical surgery. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to identify transcripts of EBV and HCMV. Human cytomegalovirus transcript was detected in 15 of the 28 (53.6%) symptomatic and in six of the 22 (27.3%) asymptomatic periapical study lesions (significant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions; P = 0.03, chi-square test). Epstein-Barr virus transcript was identified in one symptomatic and in two asymptomatic periapical lesions. This study establishes that HCMV transcription is common in apical periodontitis and is most frequent in symptomatic lesions. The high frequency of active herpesvirus infections in severe apical periodontitis changes the pathogenic paradigm of the disease and may also have preventive and therapeutic implications.

  9. Histologic study of a human immature permanent premolar with chronic apical abscess after revascularization/revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Patricia; Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Lin, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    Histologic studies of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization are available; however, specimens from human studies are lacking. The nature of tissues formed in the canal of human revascularized/revitalized teeth was not well established. An immature mandibular premolar with infected necrotic pulp and a chronic apical abscess was treated with revascularization/revitalization procedures. At both the 18-month and 2-year follow-up visits, radiographic examination showed complete resolution of the periapical lesion, narrowing of the root apex without root lengthening, and minimal thickening of the canal walls. The revascularized/revitalized tooth was removed because of orthodontic treatment and processed for histologic examination. The large canal space of revascularized/revitalized tooth was not empty and filled with fibrous connective tissue. The apical closure was caused by cementum deposition without dentin. Some cementum-like tissue was formed on the canal dentin walls. Inflammatory cells were observed in the coronal and middle third of revascularized/revitalized tissue. In the present case, the tissue formed in the canal of a human revascularized/revitalized tooth was soft connective tissue similar to that in the periodontal ligament and cementum-like or bone-like hard tissue, which is comparable with the histology observed in the canals of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in etiopathogenesis of apical periodontitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Andric, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, a hypothesis has been established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. The aim of this review was to analyze the available evidence that indicates that HCMV and EBV can actually contribute to the pathogenesis of periapical lesions and to answer the following focused question: is there a relationship between HCMV and EBV DNA and/or RNA detection and the clinical features of human periapical lesions? The literature search covered MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIexpanded), Scopus, and The Cochrane Library database. Quantitative statistical analysis was performed on the pooled data of HCMV and EBV messenger RNA transcripts in tissues of symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions. The electronic database search yielded 48 hits from PubMed, 197 hits from Scopus, 40 hits from Web of Science, and 1 from the Cochrane Library. Seventeen cross-sectional studies have been included in the final review. The pooled results from quantitative systematic method analysis showed no statistically significant relationship between the presence of HCMV and EBV messenger RNA transcripts (P = .083 and P = .306, respectively) and the clinical features of apical periodontitis. The findings of HCMV and EBV transcripts in apical periodontitis were controversial among the included studies. Herpesviruses were common in symptomatic and large-size periapical lesions, but such results failed to reach statistical significance. Further studies, including those based on an experimental animal model, should provide more data on herpesviruses as a factor in the pathogenesis of periapical inflammation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and activity of Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Katinka; Szalmás, Anita; Mogyorósi, Richárd; Czompa, Levente; Veress, György; Csoma, Eszter; Márton, Ildikó; Kónya, József

    2010-09-01

    Apical periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammation with a dominant flora of opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria; however, a pathogenic role of human herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been implicated recently. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, activity, and disease association of EBV and HCMV in apical periodontitis in an Eastern Hungarian population. Forty samples with apical periodontitis (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) and 40 healthy pulp controls were collected. EBV and HCMV prevalences were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the viral DNA and viral activity was tested by reverse-transcription PCR amplification of viral messenger RNA. EBV DNA and EBNA-2 messenger RNA were found in apical periodontitis lesions at significantly (p apical lesions (10%) and controls (0%). The presence of EBV DNA in apical lesions was associated significantly with large (> or = 5 mm) lesion size (p = 0.02) but not with symptoms (p = 0.30). Symptomatic manifestation was significantly associated with the co-occurrence (odds ratio [OR], 8.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-45.76) but not the sole occurrences of EBNA-2 messenger RNA (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.48-11.06) and large lesion size (OR, 4.02; 95% CI, 0.81-19.89). EBV infection is a frequent event in apical periodontitis, whereas the involvement of HCMV still remains to be elucidated. This study showed that symptomatic manifestation was likely to occur if a large-sized apical periodontitis lesion is aggravated with active EBV infection. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in human apical periodontitis: Correlation with clinical and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Knezevic, Aleksandra; Karalic, Danijela; Soldatovic, Ivan; Popovic, Branka; Milasin, Jelena; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) between apical periodontitis lesions with different clinical and histological features. Based on clinical data and history of disease, 100 human apical periodontitis lesions were categorised as either asymptomatic or symptomatic lesions. According to histological examination, lesions were divided into periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. Pulp tissues of 25 impacted wisdom teeth were used as controls. Homogenised tissue samples were centrifuged and supernatants were used for the determination of cytokine levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significantly higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were found in symptomatic lesions compared with asymptomatic lesions and control tissues (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of IL-1β was significantly higher in radicular cysts compared with periapical granulomas (P = 0.003). Symptomatic lesions, as judged by high local production of IL-1β and IL-6, represent an immunologically active stage of the disease. © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  13. Apical cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-01-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices

  14. Clinical, radiographic, and histological observation of a human immature permanent tooth with chronic apical abscess after revitalization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Emi; Ricucci, Domenico; Albert, Jeffrey; Alobaid, Adel S; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Huang, George T-J; Lin, Louis M

    2013-08-01

    Revitalization procedures have been widely used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. The treatment procedures appear to be capable of encouraging continued root development and thickening of the canal walls. The nature of tissues formed in the canal space and at the root apex after revitalization has been shown histologically in several animal studies; similar studies in humans were recently reported. A 9-year-old boy had a traumatic injury to his upper anterior teeth. Tooth #9 suffered a complicated crown fracture with a pulp exposure, which was restored with a composite resin. The tooth developed a chronic apical abscess. Revitalization procedures were performed on tooth #9 because it was an immature permanent tooth with an open apex and thin canal walls. Twenty-six months after revitalization, the tooth had a horizontal crown fracture at the cervical level and could not be restored. The tooth was extracted and processed for routine histological and immunohistochemical examination to identify the nature of tissues formed in the canal space. Clinically and radiographically, the revitalization of the present case was successful because of the absence of signs and symptoms and the resolution of periapical lesion as well as thickening of the canal walls and continued root development. The tissue formed in the canal was well-mineralized cementum- or bone-like tissue identified by routine histology and immunohistochemistry. No pulp-like tissue characterized by the presence of polarized odontoblast-like cells aligning dentin-like hard tissue was observed. The tissues formed in the canal of revitalized human tooth are similar to cementum- or bone-like tissue and fibrous connective tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect of KH2PO4 on the odonto- and osteogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells from apical papillae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-ping; Wu, Jin-tao; Wang, Zi-lu; Zheng, Yang-yu; Zhang, Guang-dong; Yu, Jin-hua

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of KH2PO4 on the odonto- and osteogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells from apical papillae (SCAP) in vitro. SCAP were isolated and cultured respectively in alpha minimum essential medium (α-MEM) or α-MEM containing 1.8 mmol/L KH2PO4. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the odonto and osteogenic potential of SCAP in the two media. SCAP cultured in α-MEM containing 1.8 mmol/L KH2PO4 exhibited a higher ALP activity [(0.370 ± 0.013) Sigma unit×min(-1)×mg(-1)] at day 3 than control group [(0.285 ± 0.008) Sigma unit×min(-1)×mg(-1)] and KH2PO4-treated SCAP formed more calcified nodules at day 5 [(0.539 ± 0.007) µg/g] and day 7 [(1.617 ± 0.042) µg/g] than those in normal medium [(0.138 ± 0.037) µg/g, P odonto- and osteogenic markers were significantly up-regulated after the stimulation of KH2PO4 at day 3 and 7 respectively, as compared with control group. 1.8 mmol/L KH2PO4 can promote the odonto and osteogenic differentiation potential of human SCAP.

  16. Detection of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions by real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbek, Selcuk M.; Ozbek, Ahmet; Yavuz, Muhammed Selim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have investigated the occurrence of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in samples from apical periodontitis lesions and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. Because genotype distribution and seroprevalence of EBV and HCMV differ among populations, it is important to determine the presence of these viruses in endodontic periapical lesions of different populations. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of HCMV and EB...

  17. Persistent extraradicular infection in root-filled asymptomatic human tooth: scanning electron microscopic analysis and microbial investigation after apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Endo, Marcos S; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Montagner, Francisco; Tosello, Fernanda B; Jacinto, Rogério C

    2011-12-01

    Procedural accidents have a negative effect on healing and might contribute to the persistence of infections in inaccessible apical areas, requiring surgical intervention. This report describes a case of persistent apical periodontitis of a lower left first molar associated with the sinus tract and a periapical lesion that required nonsurgical endodontic retreatment and apical surgery for resolution. The tooth had received endodontic treatment 3 years ago and had to be retreated using the crown-down technique with chemical auxiliary substance (2% chlorhexidine gel), foramen patency, and enlargement and was filled in a single appointment. The occlusal access cavity was immediately restored with composite resin. After 1 month, it could be observed that the sinus tract persisted and, radiographically, the lesion remained unaltered. Therefore, endodontic microsurgery was indicated. Apical microsurgery was performed under magnification with the use of a dental operating microscope including apicectomy, root end with ultrasound, and sealing with mineral trioxide aggregate. A microbiological sample was collected from the apical lesion. The resected distal root apex was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The following species were detected: Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces meyeri, Propionibacterium propionicum, Clostridium botullinum, Parvimonas micra, and Bacteroides ureolyticus; scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed bacterial biofilm surrounding the apical foramen and external radicular surface. Gutta-percha overfilling at the apex because of a zip caused during initial endodontic treatment could be observed. A 6-month follow-up showed apparent radiographic periapical healing, which progressed after 24 months. Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and extraradicular biofilm seem to participate in the maintenance of persistent periapical pathology, and endodontic retreatment followed by periapical microsurgery proved to be a successful alternative in the

  18. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Detection of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Selcuk-M; Ozbek, Ahmet; Yavuz, Muhammed-Selim

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have investigated the occurrence of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in samples from apical periodontitis lesions and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. Because genotype distribution and seroprevalence of EBV and HCMV differ among populations, it is important to determine the presence of these viruses in endodontic periapical lesions of different populations. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of HCMV and EBV DNAs in samples from Turkish patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions using real-time polymerase chain reaction method and to evaluate their presence in both symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions. Periapical samples were collected from 12 asymptomatic and 16 symptomatic periapical lesions in conjunction with apicectomy. HCMV and EBV DNAs were identified in the samples by real-time PCR. The chi-squared test with Yates's correction or the Fisher's exact test was used to analyse the significance of differences. HCMV DNA was detected in 10 of the 16 (62.5%) symptomatic and in five of the 12 (41.7 %) asymptomatic periapical study lesions. The EBV DNA was identified in seven of the 16 (43.7 %) symptomatic and three of the 12 (25 %) asymptomatic periapical lesions. The difference in occurrence of HCMV and EBV DNA between symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions was not statistically significant. (All comparisons have p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that HCMV and EBV is a frequent inhabitant of both symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions of endodontic origin in Turkish population.

  20. A specific pharmacophore model of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Dandan; Zan, Xin; Yang, Baowei; Li, Ying; Du, Xiaoyong; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining glucose equilibrium in the human body, emerging as one of the most promising targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pharmacophore models of SGLT2 inhibitors have been generated with a training set of 25 SGLT2 inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. The best hypothesis (Hypo1(SGLT2)) contains one hydrogen bond donor, five excluded volumes, one ring aromatic and three hydrophobic features, and has a correlation coefficient of 0.955, cost difference of 68.76, RMSD of 0.85. This model was validated by test set, Fischer randomization test and decoy set methods. The specificity of Hypo1(SGLT2) was evaluated. The pharmacophore features of Hypo1(SGLT2) were different from the best pharmacophore model (Hypo1(SGLT1)) of SGLT1 inhibitors we developed. Moreover, Hypo1(SGLT2) could effectively distinguish selective inhibitors of SGLT2 from those of SGLT1. These results indicate that a highly predictive and specific pharmacophore model of SGLT2 inhibitors has been successfully obtained. Then Hypo1(SGLT2) was used as a 3D query to screen databases including NCI and Maybridge for identifying new inhibitors of SGLT2. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five. And several compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  1. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems.

  2. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J.; He, Wenxi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs

  3. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Stomatologic Hospital & College, Anhui Medical University, Key Lab of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Hefei (China); Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Niu, Zhongying [Treatment center of oral diseases, The 306th Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, B4 6NN (United Kingdom); He, Wenxi, E-mail: hewenxi@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  4. Apical pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Ferrer, Cesar A; Serrano Vasquez, Francisco O

    2004-01-01

    We presented the case of a 54 year-old man with bilateral apical pulmonary abscess who consults due to fever and bronchorrhoea, isolating moraxella catharralis that is managed with ampicillin-sulbactam with an adequate clinical and radiological evolution

  5. Comparison of osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human adult dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla in the presence of platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuarqoub, Duaa; Awidi, Abdalla; Abuharfeil, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Human dental pulp cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla have been used for the repair of damaged tooth tissues. Human platelet lysate (PL) has been suggested as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for large scale expansion of dental stem cells. However, biological effects and optimal concentrations of PL for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells remain to be elucidated. DPSCs and SCAP cells were isolated from impacted third molars of young healthy donors, at the stage of root development and identified by markers using flow cytometry. For comparison the cells were cultured in media containing PL (1%, 5% and 10%) and FBS, with subsequent induction for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for; morphology, growth characteristics, mineralization potential (Alizarin Red method) and differentiation markers using ELISA and real time -polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The proliferation rates of DPSCs and SCAP significantly increased when cells were treated with 5% PL (7X doubling time) as compared to FBS. 5% PL also enhanced mineralized differentiation of DPSCs and SCAP, as indicated by the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and osteopontin, calcium deposition and q-PCR. Our findings suggest that using 5% platelet lysate, proliferation and osteo/odontogenesis of DPSCs and SCAP for a short period of time (15 days), was significantly improved. This may imply its use as an optimum concentration for expansion of dental stem cells in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The breast cancer resistance protein transporter ABCG2 is expressed in the human kidney proximal tubule apical membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huls, M.; Brown, C.D.; Windass, A.S.; Sayer, R.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Heemskerk, S.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. This transporter is highly expressed in many tissues; however, in human kidney, only the mRNA was found in contrast to the mouse kidney,

  7. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using reciprocating (WaveOne, Reciproc, SafeSider) or rotary ... and cross‑sections, and kinematics, and this situation may influence the amount of apically extruded debris through the apical foramen.[15]. The aim of this ...

  8. Cellular ATP synthesis mediated by type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter Pit-1 is critical to chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Atsushi; Kawai, Shinji; Hayashibara, Tetsuyuki; Amano, Atsuo; Ooshima, Takashi; Michigami, Toshimi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-28

    Disturbed endochondral ossification in X-linked hypophosphatemia indicates an involvement of P(i) in chondrogenesis. We studied the role of the sodium-dependent P(i) cotransporters (NPT), which are a widely recognized regulator of cellular P(i) homeostasis, and the downstream events in chondrogenesis using Hyp mice, the murine homolog of human X-linked hypophosphatemia. Hyp mice showed reduced apoptosis and mineralization in hypertrophic cartilage. Hyp chondrocytes in culture displayed decreased apoptosis and mineralization compared with WT chondrocytes, whereas glycosaminoglycan synthesis, an early event in chondrogenesis, was not altered. Expression of the type III NPT Pit-1 and P(i) uptake were diminished, and intracellular ATP levels were also reduced in parallel with decreased caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity in Hyp chondrocytes. The competitive NPT inhibitor phosphonoformic acid and ATP synthesis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate disturbed endochondral ossification with reduced apoptosis in vivo and suppressed apoptosis and mineralization in conjunction with reduced P(i) uptake and ATP synthesis in WT chondrocytes. Overexpression of Pit-1 in Hyp chondrocytes reversed P(i) uptake and ATP synthesis and restored apoptosis and mineralization. Our results suggest that cellular ATP synthesis consequent to P(i) uptake via Pit-1 plays an important role in chondrocyte apoptosis and mineralization, and that chondrogenesis is ATP-dependent.

  9. The Apical Localization of Na+, K+-ATPase in Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Depends on Expression of the β2 Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato-Álvarez, Jorge A; Roldán, María L; López-Murillo, Teresa Del Carmen; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Shoshani, Liora

    2016-01-01

    Na + , K + -ATPase, or the Na + pump, is a key component in the maintenance of the epithelial phenotype. In most epithelia, the pump is located in the basolateral domain. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the β 1 subunit of Na + , K + -ATPase plays an important role in this mechanism because homotypic β 1 -β 1 interactions between neighboring cells stabilize the pump in the lateral membrane. However, in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the Na + pump is located in the apical domain. The mechanism of polarization in this epithelium is unclear. We hypothesized that the apical polarization of the pump in RPE cells depends on the expression of its β 2 subunit. ARPE-19 cells cultured for up to 8 weeks on inserts did not polarize, and Na + , K + -ATPase was expressed in the basolateral membrane. In the presence of insulin, transferrin and selenic acid (ITS), ARPE-19 cells cultured for 4 weeks acquired an RPE phenotype, and the Na + pump was visible in the apical domain. Under these conditions, Western blot analysis was employed to detect the β 2 isoform and immunofluorescence analysis revealed an apparent apical distribution of the β 2 subunit. qPCR results showed a time-dependent increase in the level of β 2 isoform mRNA, suggesting regulation at the transcriptional level. Moreover, silencing the expression of the β 2 isoform in ARPE-19 cells resulted in a decrease in the apical localization of the pump, as assessed by the mislocalization of the α 2 subunit in that domain. Our results demonstrate that the apical polarization of Na + , K + -ATPase in RPE cells depends on the expression of the β 2 subunit.

  10. Water permeation through the sodium-dependent galactose cotransporter vSGLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seungho; Rosenberg, John M; Abramson, Jeff; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2010-10-06

    It is well accepted that cotransporters facilitate water movement by two independent mechanisms: osmotic flow through a water channel in the protein and flow driven by ion/substrate cotransport. However, the molecular mechanism of transport-linked water flow is controversial. Some researchers believe that it occurs via cotransport, in which water is pumped along with the transported cargo, while others believe that flow is osmotic in response to an increase in intracellular osmolarity. In this letter, we report the results of a 200-ns molecular dynamics simulation of the sodium-dependent galactose cotransporter vSGLT. Our simulation shows that a significant number of water molecules cross the protein through the sugar-binding site in the presence as well as the absence of galactose, and 70-80 water molecules accompany galactose as it moves from the binding site into the intracellular space. During this event, the majority of water molecules in the pathway are unable to diffuse around the galactose, resulting in water in the inner half of the transporter being pushed into the intracellular space and replaced by extracellular water. Thus, our simulation supports the notion that cotransporters act as both passive water channels and active water pumps with the transported substrate acting as a piston to rectify the motion of water. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Genç

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. RESULTS: All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05. Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups.

  12. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  13. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  14. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors has been plugged using modified white Portland cement. 3 to 6 months follow up revealed absence of clinical symptoms and disappearance of peri-apical rarefactions. The positive clinical outcome may encourage the future use of white Portland cement as an apical plug material in case of non vital open apex tooth as much cheaper substitute of MTA.

  15. Dental Apical Papilla as Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berdt, P; Vanacker, J; Ucakar, B; Elens, L; Diogenes, A; Leprince, J G; Deumens, R; des Rieux, A

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) represent great promise regarding treatment of neural tissue damage, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). They derive from the neural crest, express numerous neurogenic markers, and mediate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. The goal of the present work was to investigate for the first time their potential to promote motor recovery after SCI in a rat hemisection model when delivered in their original stem cell niche-that is, by transplantation of the human apical papilla tissue itself into the lesion. Control groups consisted of animals subjected to laminectomy only (shams) and to lesion either untreated or injected with a fibrin hydrogel with or without human SCAP. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scores at 1 and 3 d postsurgery confirmed early functional decline in all SCI groups. This significant impairment was reversed, as seen in CatWalk analyses, after transplantation of apical papilla into the injured spinal cord wound, whereas the other groups demonstrated persistent functional impairment. Moreover, tactile allodynia did not develop as an unwanted side effect in any of the groups, even though the SCAP hydrogel group showed higher expression of the microglial marker Iba-1, which has been frequently associated with allodynia. Notably, the apical papilla transplant group presented with reduced Iba-1 expression level. Masson trichrome and human mitochondria staining showed the preservation of the apical papilla integrity and the presence of numerous human cells, while human cells could no longer be detected in the SCAP hydrogel group at the 6-wk postsurgery time point. Altogether, our data suggest that the transplantation of a human apical papilla at the lesion site improves gait in spinally injured rats and reduces glial reactivity. It also underlines the potential interest for the application of delivering SCAP in their original niche, as compared with use of a fibrin hydrogel. © International & American

  16. Measurement of open apices in tooth roots in Colombian children as a tool for human identification in asylum and criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Marcela; De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Dental age estimation was recognized as an imperative issue in clinical and medico-legal practice. However, very few studies on dental age estimation in children have been published in Colombia. This study evaluated the accuracy of Cameriere's method of measurement of open apices on tooth roots in a sample of 526 digital panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of children (274 boys and 252 girls), aged between 6 and 14 years, from Bogotá, Valle del Cauca, Buga and Villavicencio, in Southwest Colombia. Only first seven permanent lower teeth, except third molar, from the left side of mandible were studied. Difference between dental age and chronological age was evaluated for boys and girls across nine age classes. Intra-class correlation coefficient and Kappa score was used to test intra- and inter-observer agreement error rate. Dental age was overestimated by 0.08 years and standard deviation (±SD) of 0.68 years in boys which was not statistically significant (p = 0.06), while in girls dental age underestimated by -0.25 ± 0.65 years which was statistically significant difference (p Colombian children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of canonical NF-κB signaling pathway on the proliferation and odonto/osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells from apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjun; Yan, Ming; Wang, Zilu; Jing, Shuanglin; Li, Yao; Liu, Genxia; Yu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    NF-κB signaling pathway plays a complicated role in the biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the effects of NF-κB pathway on the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of canonical NF-κB pathway on the osteo/odontogenic capacity of SCAPs in vitro. Western blot results demonstrated that NF-κB pathway in SCAPs was successfully activated by TNF-α or blocked by BMS-345541. NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs presented a higher proliferation activity compared with control groups, as indicated by dimethyl-thiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) and flow cytometry assay (FCM). Wound scratch assay revealed that NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs presented an improved migration capacity, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and upregulated mineralization capacity of SCAPs, as compared with control groups. Meanwhile, the odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP/ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, OPN/OPN, BSP/BSP, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1) in NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs were also significantly upregulated as compared with control groups at both protein and mRNA levels. However, NF-κB pathway-inhibited SCAPs exhibited a lower proliferation/migration capacity, and decreased odonto/osteogenic ability in comparison with control groups. Our findings suggest that classical NF-κB pathway plays a paramount role in the proliferation and committed differentiation of SCAPs.

  18. Oral peptide specific egg antibody to intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter-2b is effective at altering phosphate transport in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Hellestad, Erica M; Sand, Jordan M; Piccione, Michelle L; Bishop, Jeff W; Helvig, Christian; Petkovich, Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Hyperimmunized hens are an effective means of generating large quantities of antigen specific egg antibodies that have use as oral supplements. In this study, we attempted to create a peptide specific antibody that produced outcomes similar to those of the human pharmaceutical, sevelamer HCl, used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (a sequela of chronic renal disease). Egg antibodies were generated against 8 different human intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b) peptides, and hNaPi2b peptide egg antibodies were screened for their ability to inhibit phosphate transport in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Antibody produced against human peptide sequence TSPSLCWT (anti-h16) was specific for its peptide sequence, and significantly reduced phosphate transport in human Caco-2 cells to 25.3±11.5% of control nonspecific antibody, when compared to nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of phosphate transport (P≤0.05). Antibody was then produced against the mouse-specific peptide h16 counterpart (mouse sequence TSPSYCWT, anti-m16) for further analysis in a murine model. When anti-m16 was fed to mice (1% of diet as dried egg yolk powder), egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was detected using immunohistochemical staining in mouse ileum, and egg anti-m16 IgY colocalized with a commercial goat anti-NaPi2b antibody. The effectiveness of anti-m16 egg antibody in reducing serum phosphate, when compared to sevelamer HCl, was determined in a mouse feeding study. Serum phosphate was reduced 18% (Pegg yolk powder) and 30% (Pegg immunoglobulin. The methods described and the findings reported show that oral egg antibodies are useful and easy to prepare reagents for the study and possible treatment of select diseases. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Human intestinal absorption of imidacloprid with Caco-2 cells as enterocyte model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Jean-Luc; Maresca, Marc; Fantini, Jacques; Belzunces, Luc P.

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the risk to mammals of a chronic exposure to imidacloprid (IMI), we investigated its absorption with the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Measurements of transepithelial transport revealed an apparent permeability coefficient of 21.6 x 10 -6 ± 3.2 x 10 -6 cm/s reflecting a 100% absorption. The comparison of apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) transports showed that the monolayer presents a basal to apical polarized transport. Studies of apical uptake demonstrated that the transport was concentration-dependent and not saturable from 5 to 200 μM. Arrhenius plot analysis revealed two apparent activation energies, E a(4-12deg . C) = 63.8 kJ/mol and E a(12-37deg. C) 18.2 kJ/mol, suggesting two temperature-dependent processes. IMI uptake was equivalent when it was performed at pH 6.0 or 7.4. Depletion of Na + from the transport buffer did not affect the uptake, indicating that a sodium-dependent transporter was not involved. Decrease of uptake with sodium-azide or after cell surface trypsin (Ti) treatment suggested the involvement of a trypsin-sensitive ATP-dependent transporter. Investigations on apical efflux demonstrated that initial velocities paralleled the increase of loading concentrations. A cell surface trypsin treatment did not affect the apical efflux. The lack of effect when the efflux was performed against an IMI concentration gradient suggested that an energy-dependent transporter was involved. However, the inhibition of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) by taxol, vincristine, and daunorubicine had no effect on IMI intracellular accumulation suggesting the involvement of transporters distinct from classical ATP binding cassette transport (ABC-transport) systems. All results suggest that IMI is strongly absorbed in vivo by inward and outward active transporters

  20. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  1. Definitions of apical vaginal support loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Melanie R L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Lowder, Jerry L

    2017-03-01

    We sought to identify and summarize definitions of apical support loss utilized for inclusion, success, and failure in surgical trials for treatment of apical vaginal prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting more than 3 million women in the US, and the prevalence is increasing. Prolapse may occur in the anterior compartment, posterior compartment or at the apex. Apical support is considered paramount to overall female pelvic organ support, yet apical support loss is often underrecognized and there are no guidelines for when an apical support procedure should be performed or incorporated into a procedure designed to address prolapse. A systematic literature search was performed in 8 search engines: PubMed 1946-, Embase 1947-, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Review Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and FirstSearch Proceedings, using key words for apical pelvic organ prolapse and apical suspension procedures through April 2016. Searches were limited to human beings using human filters and articles published in English. Study authors (M.R.L.M., J.L.L.) independently reviewed publications for inclusion based on predefined variables. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they satisfied any of the following criteria: (1) apical support loss was an inclusion criterion in the original study, (2) apical support loss was a surgical indication, or (3) an apical support procedure was performed as part of the primary surgery. A total of 4469 publications were identified. After review, 35 articles were included in the analysis. Prolapse-related inclusion criteria were: (1) apical prolapse (n = 20, 57.1%); (2) overall prolapse (n = 8, 22.8%); or (3) both (n = 6, 17.1%). Definitions of apical prolapse (relative to the hymen) included: (1) apical prolapse >-1 cm (n = 13, 50.0%); (2) apical prolapse >+1 cm (n = 7, 26.9%); (3) apical

  2. Effect of the angle of apical resection on apical leakage, measured with a computerized fluid filtration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Hasan; Garip, Yıldız; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Hatipoğlu, Seda

    2011-03-01

    We determined the effect of the angle of apical resection on apical leakage using a computerized fluid filtration meter with a laser system and a digital air pressure regulator in 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth. Orthograde endodontic treatment was performed. The root canals were prepared up to a size 50 K-type file with 17% EDTA solution (Roth International, Chicago, IL) and 5% NaOCl solution as the irrigant. Gates Glidden burs (Maillefer Instruments, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used to flare the coronal two thirds of the canal. All canals were dried with paper points and then obturated using cold lateral condensation (except for the positive controls) of gutta-percha points and AH plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). All 40 roots were sectioned 3 mm from the apex. Forty teeth were assigned randomly into 1 of 4 experimental groups of 10 teeth each: in group 1, the teeth were resected apically (90° angle) and the cavities were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); in group 2, after apical resection (90° angle), a root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic diamond retrotips and the cavities were obturated with MTA; in group 3, the teeth were resected apically (∼45° angle) and the cavities were obturated with MTA; and in group 4, after apical resection (∼45° angle), a root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic diamond retrotips and the cavities were obturated with MTA. An additional 6 teeth were used as controls (3 each, negative and positive controls). Apical leakage was measured using a computerized fluid filtration meter with a laser system. The mean apical microleakage was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-4), 1.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-4), 1.6 ± 0.9 × 10(-4), and 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10(-4) μL/cmH(2)O/min(-1) at 1.2 atm, in groups 1 to 4, respectively. Although the mean apical microleakage was greater in group 1, the differences among the 4 groups were not statistically significant (P > .05). The results of these in vitro studies showed that when an

  3. Quantitative assessment of apical debris extrusion and intracanal debris in the apical third, using hand instrumentation and three rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H K, Sowmya; T S, Subhash; Goel, Beena Rani; T N, Nandini; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2014-02-01

    Decreased apical extrusion of debris and apical one third debris have strong implications for decreased incidence of postoperative inflammation and pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the apical extrusion of debris and intracanal debris in the apical third during root canal instrumentation using hand and three different types of rotary instruments. Sixty freshly extracted single rooted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Canal preparation was done using step-back with hand instrumentation, crown-down technique with respect to ProTaper and K3, and hybrid technique with LightSpeed LSX. Irrigation was done with NaOCl, EDTA, and normal saline and for final irrigation, EndoVac system was used. The apically extruded debris was collected on the pre-weighed Millipore plastic filter disk and weighed using microbalance. The teeth were submitted to the histological processing. Sections from the apical third were analyzed by a trinocular research microscope that was coupled to a computer where the images were captured and analyzed using image proplus V4.1.0.0 software. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group and intracanal debris in the root canal was statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. The result showed that, hand instrumentation using K files showed the highest amount of debris extrusion apically when compared to ProTaper, K3 and LightSpeed LSX. The result also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third. Based on the results, all instrumentation techniques produced debris extrusion. The engine driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than hand instrumentation. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third.

  4. Variation in the Sodium-Dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 Gene Is Associated with Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome among Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Vogel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease possibly due to its anti-oxidative effects, beneficial effects on endothelial function and importance in collagen synthesis. The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is responsible for the transport of vitamin C into various...... cells and malfunction of this protein leads to reduced vitamin C in tissue, including the arterial wall. We tested the hypothesis that candidate variations rs6139591 and rs1776964 in the gene coding for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 are associated with development of acute coronary syndrome....

  5. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  6. Defective enamel and bone development in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando R Irizarry

    Full Text Available There has been growing recognition of the essential roles of citrate in biomechanical properties of mineralized tissues, including teeth and bone. However, the sources of citrate in these tissues have not been well defined, and the contribution of citrate to the regulation of odontogenesis and osteogenesis has not been examined. Here, tooth and bone phenotypes were examined in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient C57BL/6 mice at 13 and 32 weeks of age. Slc13a5 deficiency led to defective tooth development, characterized by absence of mature enamel, formation of aberrant enamel matrix, and dysplasia and hyperplasia of the enamel organ epithelium that progressed with age. These abnormalities were associated with fragile teeth with a possible predisposition to tooth abscesses. The lack of mature enamel was consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta. Furthermore, Slc13a5 deficiency led to decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone formation in 13-week-old mice but not in older mice. The findings revealed the potentially important role of citrate and Slc13a5 in the development and function of teeth and bone.

  7. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  8. Impaired sodium-dependent adaptation of arterial stiffness in formerly preeclamptic women: the RETAP-vascular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Paauw, Nina D; Toering, Tsjitske J; Feelisch, Martin; Faas, Marijke M; Sutton, Thomas R; Minnion, Magdalena; Lefrandt, Joop D; Scherjon, Sicco A; Franx, Arie; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia

    2016-06-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases later in life. Persistent vascular alterations in the postpartum period might contribute to this increased risk. The current study assessed arterial stiffness under low sodium (LS) and high sodium (HS) conditions in a well-characterized group of formerly early-onset preeclamptic (fPE) women and formerly pregnant (fHP) women. Eighteen fHP and 18 fPE women were studied at an average of 5 yr after pregnancy on 1 wk of LS (50 mmol Na(+)/day) and 1 wk of HS (200 mmol Na(+)/day) intake. Arterial stiffness was measured by pulse-wave analysis (aortic augmentation index, AIx) and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV). Circulating markers of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), extracellular volume (ECV), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured in an effort to identify potential mechanistic elements underlying adaptation of arterial stiffness. AIx was significantly lower in fHP women on LS compared with HS while no difference in AIx was apparent in fPE women. PWV remained unchanged upon different sodium loads in either group. Comparable sodium-dependent changes in RAAS, ECV, and NO/H2S were observed in fHP and fPE women. fPE women have an impaired ability to adapt their arterial stiffness in response to changes in sodium intake, independently of blood pressure, RAAS, ECV, and NO/H2S status. The pathways involved in impaired adaptation of arterial stiffness, and its possible contribution to the increased long-term risk for cardiovascular diseases in fPE women, remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Floating retained root lesion mimicking apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Pang; Chen, Chih-Ping; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2009-10-01

    A case of a retained root tip simulating apical periodontitis on radiographic examination is described. The retained root tip, originating from the left lower first molar, floated under the left lower second premolar apical region mimicking apical periodontitis. It appeared as an ill-defined periapical radiolucency containing a smaller radiodense mass on radiograph. The differential diagnosis included focal sclerosing osteomyelitis (condensing osteitis) and ossifying fibroma. Upon exicisional biopsy, a retained root associated with granulation tissue was found. After 1-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular lesion was healing. Meanwhile, the associated tooth showed a normal response to stimulation testing.

  12. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  13. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  14. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7 HIGH -polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium

  15. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  16. Apically-extruded debris using the ProTaper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi; Ebrahimi, Gholamreza

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the quantity of debris and irrigant extruded apically using the ProTaper system compared to ProFiles and K-Flexofiles. Thirty-six mesio-buccal root canals of human mandibular molars were selected and divided into three groups of twelve canals. Two groups were instrumented with ProFiles and ProTapers according to the manufacturer's instructions. The other group was instrumented with K-Flexofiles using the step-back technique. A standard amount of irrigant was used for each canal. Apically-extruded debris and irrigant was collected in pre-weighed vials. The mean weight of extruded debris and irrigant for each group was statistically analysed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. All instrumentation techniques produced extruded debris and irrigant. Although the mean amount of extrusion with the step-back technique was higher than the two rotary systems, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p > 0.05). NiTi rotary systems were associated with less apical extrusion, but were not significantly better than hand file instrumentation. All techniques extruded debris.

  17. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Mittal; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah; R M Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: T wenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the establis...

  18. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  19. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  20. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes, E-mail: bruna_paloma@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Heck, Richard John [Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  1. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Heck, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  2. Ossifying fibroma misdiagnosed as chronic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria; Soares, Ulysses Nicida; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; da Cruz Perez, Danyel Elias

    2010-03-01

    Ossifying fibroma mimicking chronic apical periodontitis is extremely rare. This report describes a case of ossifying fibroma located in the periapical region of the mandibular right canine that was misdiagnosed as chronic apical periodontitis. A 40-year-old woman complained of slight pain in the right anterior mandibular region without mucosal abnormalities or swelling. Radiographically, a well-circumscribed, unilocular, radiolucent lesion was observed that was located in the periapical region of the mandibular right canine, which presented an endodontically treated root canal. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was fully excised. Microscopically, there was fibrocellular connective tissue associated with a mineralized component, which consisted of lamellar or trabecular and woven bone, compatible with the diagnosis of ossifying fibroma. Although it is very rare, ossifying fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual or persistent apical radiolucencies. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  4. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  5. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  6. Variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 gene is associated with risk of acute coronary syndrome among women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dalgård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease possibly due to its anti-oxidative effects, beneficial effects on endothelial function and importance in collagen synthesis. The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is responsible for the transport of vitamin C into various cells and malfunction of this protein leads to reduced vitamin C in tissue, including the arterial wall. We tested the hypothesis that candidate variations rs6139591 and rs1776964 in the gene coding for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 are associated with development of acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN: In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study, we performed a case-cohort study among 57,053 subjects aged 50-64 years. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years, we identified 936 cases and randomly selected a sub-cohort (n = 1,580 with full information on genotypes and covariates. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that women with the rs6139591 TT genotype and a lower than median dietary vitamin C intake had a higher risk of acute coronary syndrome compared with those with the CC genotype (adjusted HR 5.39, 95% confidence interval, 2.01-14.50. We also observed a not as strong but positive although inconsistent association for women at a higher than median intake of vitamin C rich food. For the rs1776964 polymorphism, we found a higher risk (adjusted HR 3.45, 95% CI, 1.16-10.28 among TT-homozygous women with higher than median vitamin C intake compared with the CC genotype and low vitamin C intake. Among men, weaker and non-significant associations were observed for both polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is associated with risk of incident acute coronary syndrome in women. The genotype effects may not be fully compensated by a higher intake of vitamin C rich food.

  7. Chronic vitamin C deficiency promotes redox imbalance in the brain but does not alter sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paidi, Maya Devi; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C (VitC) has several roles in the brain acting both as a specific and non-specific antioxidant. The brain upholds a very high VitC concentration and is able to preferentially retain VitC even during deficiency. The accumulation of brain VitC levels much higher than in blood is primarily...... achieved by the sodium dependent VitC transporter (SVCT2). This study investigated the effects of chronic pre-and postnatal VitC deficiency as well as the effects of postnatal VitC repletion, on brain SVCT2 expression and markers of oxidative stress in young guinea pigs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated...... significantly decreased total VitC and an increased percentage of dehydroascorbic acid, as well as increased lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde), in the brains of VitC deficient animals (p C repleted animals were not significantly different from controls. No significant changes...

  8. Influence of cervical preflaring on apical file size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, J D; Capelli, A; Guerisoli, D M Z; Spanó, J C E; Estrela, C

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the influence of cervical preflaring with different instruments (Gates-Glidden drills, Quantec Flare series instruments and LA Axxess burs) on the first file that binds at working length (WL) in maxillary central incisors. Forty human maxillary central incisors with complete root formation were used. After standard access cavities, a size 06 K-file was inserted into each canal until the apical foramen was reached. The WL was set 1 mm short of the apical foramen. Group 1 received the initial apical instrument without previous preflaring of the cervical and middle thirds of the root canal. Group 2 had the cervical and middle portion of the root canals enlarged with Gates-Glidden drills sizes 90, 110 and 130. Group 3 had the cervical and middle thirds of the root canals enlarged with nickel-titanium Quantec Flare series instruments. Titanium-nitrite treated, stainless steel LA Axxess burs were used for preflaring the cervical and middle portions of root canals from group 4. Each canal was sized using manual K-files, starting with size 08 files with passive movements until the WL was reached. File sizes were increased until a binding sensation was felt at the WL, and the instrument size was recorded for each tooth. The apical region was then observed under a stereoscopic magnifier, images were recorded digitally and the differences between root canal and maximum file diameters were evaluated for each sample. Significant differences were found between experimental groups regarding anatomical diameter at the WL and the first file to bind in the canal (P Flare instruments were ranked in an intermediary position, with no statistically significant differences between them (0.093 mm average). The instrument binding technique for determining anatomical diameter at WL is not precise. Preflaring of the cervical and middle thirds of the root canal improved anatomical diameter determination; the instrument used for preflaring played a major role in determining the

  9. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  10. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present radiographic study was to analyse the resection angle in apical surgery and its correlation with treatment outcome, type of treated tooth, surgical depth and level of root-end filling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the context of a prospective clinical...... study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and 1 year after apical surgery to measure the angle of the resection plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the root. Further, the surgical depth (distance from the buccal cortex to the most lingual/palatal point of the resection...... or with the retrofilling length. CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant differences were observed comparing resection angles of different tooth groups. However, the angle had no significant effect on treatment outcome. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Contrary to common belief, the resection angle in maxillary anterior teeth...

  11. Comparison of apical debris extrusion using a conventional and two rotary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, Alireza; Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Niknam, Mahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Preparation techniques and instruments produce and push debris out of canals. This can induce inflammation within the periapical area. Therefore, instrumentation that causes less extrusion of debris is more desirable. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation by using one hand, and two rotary instrumentation techniques. Three different groups each with 12 mesiobuccal roots of human maxillary first molar were instrumented using either step-back technique with hand instruments, FlexMaster or Mtwo rotary system. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation was collected. The mean dry weights of debris were compared using one-way ANOVA. Step-back group had a significantly greater mean weight of debris compared to the other two groups (Pengine driven techniques were associated with less apical debris extrusion. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):135-8].

  12. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anwen; Francis, Nick; Wood, Fiona; Mann, Mala K; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-06-26

    Dental pain can have a considerable detrimental effect on an individual's quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis or an acute apical abscess should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics for these conditions. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies both within the individual and within the community as a whole. To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 October 2013); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 October 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 October 2013) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 1 October 2013). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) on 1 October 2013 to identify ongoing trials. We searched for grey literature using OpenGrey (to 1 October 2013) and ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 1 October 2013). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of

  13. Effects of loxoprofen on the apical root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Taeko; Kaku, Masato; Sumi, Hiromi; Yashima, Yuka; Izumino, Jin; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Studies have revealed that severe apical root resorption during tooth movement is caused by the noninfective inflammatory reaction of apical root tissues. We hypothesized that loxoprofen can suppress apical root resorption during tooth movement. Cyclic tensile force (CTF) of 10 kPa was applied to the human pulp cells for 48 hours by the Flexcell Strain Unit. Loxoprofen (10 and 100 μM) was added to the culture cells, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were examined. To determine the effects of loxoprofen sodium on apical root reabsorption during tooth movement, the upper first molars of 7-week-old rats were subjected to mesial movement by 10g force for 30 days with or without the oral administration of loxoprofen. Gene expression and protein concentration of COX-1, COX-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF were significantly higher in the CTF group than in the control group. However, these levels were decreased by loxoprofen administration. After orthodontic tooth movement, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF decreased in the loxoprofen group than in the control group by immunohistochemical staining. In comparison to control group, less number of odontoclasts and a decrease in the amount of apical root resorption was observed in the loxoprofen group. Many osteoclasts became visible on the pressure side of the alveolar bone in the both groups, and the amount of tooth movement did not show a significant difference. These findings demonstrate that severe apical root resorption may be suppressed by loxoprofen administration, without a disturbance of tooth movement.

  14. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T-J

    2010-10-05

    The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.

  15. Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination using Three different Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anand; Deore, Rahul B; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Nanda, Zinnie; Baig, Mirza Osman; Fareez, Md Adil

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the formation of air bubbles in the apical region of root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and (ii) comparative evaluation of the elimination of an established vapor lock by EndoActivator, ultrasonics, and manual dynamic agitation (MDA), using CBCT. A total of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were equally divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. The samples were decoronated 17 mm from the apex, cleaned, and shaped to size F4 Protaper using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite + cesium chloride radiopaque dye, and preoperative CBCT images were obtained. After formation of apical vapor lock in the scanned teeth, EndoActivator (group I), passive ultrasonic irrigation (group II), and MDA with K-file (group III) were performed and the teeth were again placed in CBCT scanner and results analyzed using the chi-square test. The apical vapor lock was formed in all the samples. Out of the 20 teeth in each group, the apical vapor lock was eliminated in 18 samples of EndoActivator group (90%), 16 samples of ultrasonic group (80%), while it was eliminated in 10 samples by MDA (50%). It is concluded that (1) apical vapor lock is consistently formed during endodontic irrigation in closed canal systems and (2) sonic activation performs better than the ultrasonics and MDA in eliminating the apical vapor lock, with statistically significant difference between all the three groups (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the apical vapor lock (dead water zone) is consistently formed during routine endodontic irrigation which impedes irrigant penetration till the working length, thereby leading to inefficient debridement. Hence, to eliminate this vapor lock, techniques, such as sonics or ultrasonics should be used along with the irrigant after shaping and cleaning of the root canal.

  16. A Comparison of Apical Transportation in Severely Curved Canals Induced by Reciproc and BioRaCe Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khojastepour, Leila; Amirhosseini, Mohsen; Kiani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the apical root structure during cleaning and shaping of the canal has always been a challenge in endodontics particularly when the root canals are curved. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the apical transportation induced by the Reciproc and BioRaCe rotary systems in preparing the mesiobuccal root canal of the human maxillary molars. The mesiobuccal canals of sixty extracted maxillary molars with curvature angle of 25˚-35˚ were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Each canal was prepared by either Reciproc or BioRaCe rotary systems. A double-digital radiographic technique and AutoCAD software were used to compare the apical transportation at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm distances from the working length (WL). The distance between the master apical rotary file and the initial K-file in the superimposed radiographs determined the amount of apical transportation. An independent t-test was used to compare the groups. The statistical significant level was set at 0.05. Apical transportation of the Reciproc group was significantly greater than the BioRaCe group in all distances (P<0.001). The maximum apical transportation occurred in the Reciproc group at 0.5 mm from the WL (0.048±0.0028 mm) and the minimum occurred for BioRaCe at 5 mm from the WL (0.010±0.0005 mm). The Reciproc system produced significantly more apical transportation than the BioRaCe, but this fact does not seem to negatively alter the clinical success or quality of root canal treatment.

  17. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2 expression and activity in brain capillary endothelial cells after transient ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Gess

    Full Text Available Expression and transport activity of Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 (SVCT2 was shown in various tissues and organs. Vitamin C was shown to be cerebroprotective in several animal models of stroke. Data on expression, localization and transport activity of SVCT2 after cerebral ischemia, however, has been scarce so far. Thus, we studied the expression of SVCT2 after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in mice by immunohistochemistry. We found an upregulation of SVCT2 after stroke. Co-stainings with Occludin, Von-Willebrand Factor and CD34 demonstrated localization of SVCT2 in brain capillary endothelial cells in the ischemic area after stroke. Time-course analyses of SVCT2 expression by immunohistochemistry and western blots showed upregulation in the subacute phase of 2-5 days. Radioactive uptake assays using (14C-labelled ascorbic acid showed a significant increase of ascorbic acid uptake into the brain after stroke. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the expression and transport activity of SVCT2 in brain capillary endothelial cells after transient ischemia in mice. These results may lead to the development of novel neuroprotective strategies in stroke therapy.

  18. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  19. Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-09-01

    The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endodontic medicine: connections between apical periodontitis and systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, J J; Martín-González, J; Castellanos-Cosano, L

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in Europe has been reported to affect 61% of individuals and 14% of teeth, and increase with age. Likewise, the prevalence of root canal treatment (RCT) in Europe is estimated to be around 30-50% of individuals and 2-9% of teeth with radiographic evidence of chronic persistent AP in 30-65% of root filled teeth (RFT). AP is not only a local phenomenon and for some time the medical and dental scientific community have analysed the possible connection between apical periodontits and systemic health. Endodontic medicine has developed, with increasing numbers of reports describing the association between periapical inflammation and systemic diseases. The results of studies carried out both in animal models and humans are not conclusive, but suggest an association between endodontic variables, that is AP and RCT, and diabetes mellitus (DM), tobacco smoking, coronary heart disease and other systemic diseases. Several studies have reported a higher prevalence of periapical lesions, delayed periapical repair, greater size of osteolityc lesions, greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections and poorer prognosis for RFT in diabetic patients. On the other hand, recent studies have found that a poorer periapical status correlates with higher HbA1c levels and poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting a causal effect of periapical inflammation on diabetes metabolic control. The possible association between smoking habits and endodontic infection has also been investigated, with controversial results. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the association between endodontic variables and systemic health (especially DM and smoking habits). © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18 exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design: Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA. Results: The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9. Conclusions: Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which

  2. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2016-01-01

    Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly identified in endodontic abscesses between the

  3. On the causes of persistent apical periodontitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R

    2006-04-01

    Apical periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of periradicular tissues caused by aetiological agents of endodontic origin. Persistent apical periodontitis occurs when root canal treatment of apical periodontitis has not adequately eliminated intraradicular infection. Problems that lead to persistent apical periodontitis include: inadequate aseptic control, poor access cavity design, missed canals, inadequate instrumentation, debridement and leaking temporary or permanent restorations. Even when the most stringent procedures are followed, apical periodontitis may still persist as asymptomatic radiolucencies, because of the complexity of the root canal system formed by the main and accessory canals, their ramifications and anastomoses where residual infection can persist. Further, there are extraradicular factors -- located within the inflamed periapical tissue -- that can interfere with post-treatment healing of apical periodontitis. The causes of apical periodontitis persisting after root canal treatment have not been well characterized. During the 1990s, a series of investigations have shown that there are six biological factors that lead to asymptomatic radiolucencies persisting after root canal treatment. These are: (i) intraradicular infection persisting in the complex apical root canal system; (ii) extraradicular infection, generally in the form of periapical actinomycosis; (iii) extruded root canal filling or other exogenous materials that cause a foreign body reaction; (iv) accumulation of endogenous cholesterol crystals that irritate periapical tissues; (v) true cystic lesions, and (vi) scar tissue healing of the lesion. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the causative factors of non-resolving periapical lesions that are seen as asymptomatic radiolucencies post-treatment.

  4. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  5. [The accidental detection of apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, P R

    2011-04-01

    Accidental detection of an asymptomatic apical periodontitis raises the question whether this lesion should be treated or not. Arguments favouring treatment are that the inflammation may cause pain in the future, may enlarge or may negatively affect the host's resistance. Reasons for not treating may be that treatment weakens the tooth, may cause iatrogenic damage and that treatment is expensive and burdensome for the patient and does not lead in all cases to complete healing. Scientific evidence supporting either choice, whether treating the lesion or not, is lacking. In making such decisions, therefore, personal judgments by the patient and the dentist concerning the impact on the quality of life of the patient play an important role.

  6. Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Sudheep, N; Biswas, Krishna P; Gowtham, K; Pujari, Sudarshan; Singh, Padam

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis usually results from bacterial accumulation and contamination occurring in the root-canal system, and extending beyond the apical foramen to involve the periapical tissues. Literature has a paucity of the studies that stress on the division and analysis of the pulp canal segments. The reason for this disparity might be the technique used for collecting the samples from the pulp canals. Hence, we carried out the present study to evaluate the microbial flora in the apical part of the roots with necrotic pulp canals. The present study included the assessment of 40 freshly extracted teeth that had necrotized pulpal tissue along with the presence of periapical periodontal lesions. Removal of the soft tissue lesions attached to the root portion of the teeth along with apical periodontal lesions was done with the help of scalpel blade, after rinsing them with a sterile solution of saline. Thorough cleaning of the root surfaces was done with hydrogen peroxide followed by rapid disinfection with the help of sodium hypochlorite at varying concentrations. Sectioning of the root portion of all the specimens with the help of a disk was done perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth at a distance of roughly 5 to 6 mm from the teeth's apicalmost point. Cryotubes were used for transferring the specimens of apical portions containing 1 mL of buffer and were subjected to immediate frozen processing at a temperature of -20°C. A 10 K-type file was used for the initial collection of the samples followed by subsequent incubation of the files and paper pints in the incubation cabinet. Subsequent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from the samples was done following the procedure described by Siqueira et al. Paster et al's modification of the reverse-capture checkerboard assay was used in the present study. Semiquantitative data were used for overcoming the difficulties arising due to obtaining the counts of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of

  7. Revascularization and Apical Plug in an Immature Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghanizadeh, Leyla; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2018-01-01

    Managing of necrotic permanent teeth with immature apices is a treatment challenges. Treatment of such teeth includes apexification, apical plug and more recently, revascularization technique with the probable advantage of continuation of root development. In the present case report the referred patient had discomfort with a necrotic immature mandibular first molar. Periapical radiography showed a rather large apical lesion around immature roots. Revascularization protocol using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was indicated for the mesial root. However, in distal canal apical plug technique was applied. At 2-year follow-up, both procedures were successful in relieving patient’s symptoms. Dentin formation and increase in length of the mesial root was obvious. Apical plug and revascularization technique proved to be successful in management of necrotic immature teeth; moreover, revascularization carried the advantage of continuation of root development. PMID:29692851

  8. Effects of diuretics on sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor-induced changes in blood pressure in obese rats suffering from the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Sufiun, Abu; Rafiq, Kazi; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Nakano, Daisuke; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate whether diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide + furosemide) impact on the effects of a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor on glucose metabolism and blood pressure (BP) in metabolic syndrome SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp). Male 13-week-old SHRcp were treated with: vehicle; the SGLT2-inhibitor luseogliflozin (10 mg/kg per day); diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide; 10 mg/kg/day + furosemide; 5 mg/kg per day); or luseogliflozin + diuretics (n = 5-8 for each group) daily by oral gavage for 5 weeks. BP and glucose metabolism were evaluated by a telemetry system and oral glucose tolerance test, respectively. Vehicle-treated SHRcp developed nondipper type hypertension (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 148.6 ± 0.7 and 148.0 ± 0.7 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.2) and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, luseogliflozin-treated rats showed an approximately 4000-fold increase in urinary excretion of glucose and improved glucose metabolism. Luseogliflozin also significantly decreased BP and turned the circadian rhythm of BP from a nondipper to dipper pattern (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 138.0 ± 1.6 and 132.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, respectively, P diuretics did not influence luseogliflozin-induced improvement of glucose metabolism and circadian rhythm of BP in SHRcp. These data suggest that a SGLT2 inhibitor elicits its beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and hypertension in study participants with metabolic syndrome undergoing treatment with diuretics.

  9. Topological studies of hSVCT1, the human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter and the influence of N-glycosylation on its intracellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velho, Albertina M. [Department of Biosciences University of Kent, CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Simon M., E-mail: S.M.Jarvis@westminster.ac.uk [Department of Biosciences University of Kent, CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); University of Westminster, School of Biosciences, London W1W 6UW (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    The Na{sup +}-dependent transporters, hSVCT1 and hSVCT2, were assessed in COS-1 cells for their membrane topology. Antibodies to N- and C-termini of hSVCT1 and C-terminus of hSVCT2 identified positive immunofluorescence only after permeabilisation, suggesting these regions are intracellular. PNGase F treatment confirmed that WT hSVCT1 ({approx} 70-100 kDa) is glycosylated and site-directed mutagenesis of the three putative N-glycosylation sites, Asn138, Asn144, Asn230, demonstrated that mutants N138Q and N144Q were glycosylated ({approx} 68-90 kDa) with only 31-65% of WT L-ascorbic acid (AA) uptake while the glycosylation profile of N230Q remained unaltered ({approx} 98% of WT activity). However, the N138Q/N144Q double mutant displayed barely detectable membrane expression at {approx} 65 kDa, no apparent glycosylation and minimal AA uptake (< 10%) with no discernible improvement in expression or activity when cultured at 28 {sup o}C or 37 {sup o}C. Marker protein immunocytochemistry with N138Q/N144Q identified intracellular aggregates with hSVCT1 localised at the nuclear membrane but absent at the plasma membrane thus implicating its role as a possible intracellular transporter and suggesting N-glycosylation is required for hSVCT1 membrane targeting. Also, Lys242 on the same putative hydrophilic loop as Asn230 after biotinylation was inaccessible from the extracellular side when analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. A new hSVCT1 secondary structure model supporting these findings is proposed.

  10. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  11. Polymorphisms in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes and plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus ascorbate concentrations in an ascorbate depleted setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumari, Srinivasan; Talwar, Badri; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Jayanthi, Ramamurthy; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Saravanan, Charu; Young, Ian S; Dangour, Alan D; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2014-07-01

    We have previously reported low concentrations of plasma ascorbate and low dietary vitamin C intake in the older Indian population and a strong inverse association of these with cataract. Little is known about ascorbate levels in aqueous humor and lens in populations habitually depleted of ascorbate and no studies in any setting have investigated whether genetic polymorphisms influence ascorbate levels in ocular tissues. Our objectives were to investigate relationships between ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens and whether these relationships are influenced by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2). We enrolled sixty patients (equal numbers of men and women, mean age 63 years) undergoing small incision cataract surgery in southern India. We measured ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus using high performance liquid chromatography. SLC23A1 SNPs (rs4257763, rs6596473) and SLC23A2 SNPs (rs1279683 and rs12479919) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. Patients were interviewed for lifestyle factors which might influence ascorbate. Plasma vitamin C was normalized by a log10 transformation. Statistical analysis used linear regression with the slope of the within-subject associations estimated using beta (β) coefficients. The ascorbate concentrations (μmol/L) were: plasma ascorbate, median and inter-quartile range (IQR), 15.2 (7.8, 34.5), mean (SD) of aqueous humor ascorbate, 1074 (545) and lens nucleus ascorbate, 0.42 (0.16) (μmol/g lens nucleus wet weight). Minimum allele frequencies were: rs1279683 (0.28), rs12479919 (0.30), rs659647 (0.48). Decreasing concentrations of ocular ascorbate from the common to the rare genotype were observed for rs6596473 and rs12479919. The per allele difference in aqueous humor ascorbate for rs6596473 was -217 μmol/L, p humor ascorbate were higher for the GG genotype of rs6596473: GG, β = 1460 compared to

  12. Virus interaction with the apical junctional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Garay, Erika; Lechuga, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In order to infect pathogens must breach the epithelial barriers that separate the organism from the external environment or that cover the internal cavities and ducts of the body. Epithelia seal the passage through the paracellular pathway with the apical junctional complex integrated by tight and adherens junctions. In this review we describe how viruses like coxsackie, swine vesicular disease virus, adenovirus, reovirus, feline calcivirus, herpes viruses 1 and 2, pseudorabies, bovine herpes virus 1, poliovirus and hepatitis C use as cellular receptors integral proteins present at the AJC of epithelial cells. Interaction with these proteins contributes in a significant manner in defining the particular tropism of each virus. Besides these proteins, viruses exhibit a wide range of cellular co-receptors among which proteins present in the basolateral cell surface like integrins are often found. Therefore targeting proteins of the AJC constitutes a strategy that might allow viruses to bypass the physical barrier that blocks their access to receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.

  13. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials.......-week post-sampling, a power calculation revealed that over 900 patients are needed to show a difference of 9% between the two protocols tested. Conclusions. Future trials should be conducted using stringent protocols and as multi-centre trials for reaching the required information size....

  14. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... Objective: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during retreatment (with or without solvent) of root canals filled by two ... These filling materials can be used with several obturation .... The tip of the master cone.

  15. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Noelle George; Erin Flamiatos; Kellie Kawasaki; Namgu Kim; Charles Carriere; Brian Phan; Raphael Joseph; Shay Strauss; Richie Kohli; Dongseok Choi; J. Craig Baumgartner; Christine Sedgley; Tom Maier; Curtis A. Machida

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other re...

  17. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3: possible involvement in apical periodontitis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, A; Osorio, C; Mardones, J; Mundi, V; Dutzan, N; Franco, M; Gamonal, J; Oyarzún, A; Overall, C M; Hernández, M

    2010-10-01

    To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, also known as chemokine CCL-7) in tissue from apical lesions (AL) and to associate MCP-3 expression with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis. To determine the expression of MCP-3 in AL, biopsies obtained during tooth extraction procedures were fixed, subjected to routine processing and diagnosed as apical granuloma (AG) (n = 7) or radicular cyst (RC) (n = 5). As controls, apical periodontal ligament (PDL) specimens from healthy premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons were included (n = 7). All specimens were immunostained for MCP-3 and examined under a light microscope. In addition, homogenates from AL (n = 14) and healthy PDL samples (n = 7) were studied through immunowestern blot. Finally, periapical exudates samples were collected from root canals of teeth having diagnosis of symptomatic (n = 14) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 14) during routine endodontic treatments and analysed by immunowestern blot and densitometry.   MCP-3 was detected in AG and RC and localized mainly to inflammatory leucocytes, whereas no expression was observed in healthy PDLs. MCP-3 was also detected in periapical exudate, and its levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MCP-3 was expressed in AL and its levels associated with clinical symptoms. MCP-3 might play a role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by stimulating mononuclear chemotaxis. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  18. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  19. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses an...

  20. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Pandey, R M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Twenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the established working length. Group II (ACT, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater than the MAF that was followed by dry reaming. Root canal therapy was accomplished in single-visit for all the teeth. They were pursued radiographically at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Pre- and post-treatment PAI scores were compared. To ascertain the proportion of healed teeth between the two groups, McNemar Chi-square test was applied. At 3, 6, and 9 months' time interval the proportion of healed teeth for Group II (ACT) was greater in comparison to Group I (CAP) (P < 0.05). However, at 12 months follow-up period this difference was not significant (P = 0.08). ACT enhanced the healing kinetics. However, the long-term (12 months) radiographic outcome was similar for either technique.

  1. Integrins beta 5, beta 3 and alpha v are apically distributed in endometrial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, J D; Spanswick, C; Behzad, F; Kimber, S J; Vićovac, L

    1996-07-01

    Several adhesion molecules have been shown to occur at the surface of endometrial cells. One of these is the integrin alpha v subunit which associates with various beta chains including beta 5. We demonstrate the presence of integrin beta 5 polypeptide in human endometrial epithelial cells throughout the menstrual cycle using immunocytochemistry with monospecific antibodies, and at the mRNA level by thermal amplification from endometrial cDNA. Integrin beta 5 is also found in a population of bone marrow-derived cells. A notable feature of the distribution of the beta 5 subunit in the glandular and luminal epithelium is its apical localization, which may suggest an involvement in implantation. However, no evidence was found for regulated expression of epithelial beta 5. In mouse, the beta 5 subunit is found at both the apical and basal surface of epithelial cells and expression is essentially oestrous cycle-independent. Comparisons are made in both species with the distribution of the alpha v and beta 3 subunits which also localize to the apical epithelium.

  2. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  3. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

  4. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30, which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4. The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Soi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no peri-apical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical fo-ramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal prepa-ration using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30. The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calcu-lated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001. The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg. Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a sig-nificantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  6. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L 0 ) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N 0 ) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p 1 ) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N 1 ) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p 2 ) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N 2 ) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  7. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings Efeito da irradiação de laser de diodo no selamento apical em retrobturações com MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barbosa de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical sealing is essential for the success of paraendodontic surgery, so any procedure that may favor an adequate sealing of the apical remainder should be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of root-end cavities with MTA retrofillings. Root canals in twenty extracted human teeth were shaped with K-files and filled with gutta-percha. The apexes were cut off and root-end preparations were performed. The roots were divided randomly in 2 groups. Group 1 (ten specimens was retrofilled with MTA. Group 2 was irradiated with diode laser, with 1 W for 20 seconds, on the apical surface and root end cavity before retrofilling with MTA. The specimens had their external surfaces impermeabilized with cyanoacrylate, except for the apical surface, and were then immersed in 1% rhodamine B dye for 72 h and placed in plaster stone. After that, the specimens were submitted to longitudinal abrasion until half of the root remained. The linear dye leakage was observed in these mid-roots between the root canal wall and retrofilling. The linear dye leakage was measured with Image Lab software, and the results were statistically analyzed with Student's t test. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05. The diode laser irradiation did not improve the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings under the conditions of this in vitro study.O selamento apical é fundamental para o sucesso da cirurgia parendodôntica. Assim, procedimentos que melhorem o selamento do remanescente apical devem ser utilizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a irradiação de laser de diodo poderia aumentar o selamento apical em cavidades retrógradas obturadas com MTA. Foram utilizadas 20 raízes de dentes humanos extraídos que, após preparo com lima tipo K, tiveram seus canais obturados com guta-percha. Os ápices foram cortados e sofreram preparo de cavidades retr

  8. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pacífico Lucisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11 had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.

  9. Determining the apical terminus of root-end resected teeth using three modern apex locators: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAyouti, A; Kimionis, I; Chu, A-L; Löst, C

    2005-11-01

    To assess ex vivo the accuracy of various electronic apex locators in locating the apical terminus of root-end resected teeth. Ninety extracted human posterior teeth (182 root canals) were prepared to a minimum size of 40 and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. After resection of the apical 3 mm of the root, the root canal filling was removed using HERO rotary instruments. The size of the root canal at the apical terminus after removal of the filling ranged from size 50 to 90. The root canal length to the apical terminus was determined using 3 apex locators (Root ZX, Raypex4 and Apex Pointer). A new mounting model that utilized a micrometer was used to perform the measurements and to visually determine the actual position of the apical terminus. The frequency of locating the apical terminus and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally, the coefficient of repeatability of each apex locator and the limits of inter-operator agreement were determined. All apex locators showed an acceptable repeatability (0.02-0.03 mm coefficient of repeatability) and narrow limits of inter-operator agreement (+0.07 and -0.07 mm). The accuracy of determining the apical terminus within 1 mm in the root canal was as follows: Root ZX 90% (164/182 root-canals) [95%CI: 86-94%], Raypex4 74% (135/182 root-canals) [95%CI: 68-80%], and Apex Pointer 71% (129/182 root canals) [95%CI: 65-77%]. No over-instrumentation resulted when the Root ZX device was used. In contrast, using the Raypex4 or the Apex Pointer device resulted in over-instrumentation in 8 of 182 root canals (4%). Under the conditions of this study all three apex locators were able to detect the apical terminus of root-end resected teeth with an acceptable range. The Root ZX device was the most accurate without over-instrumentation of the root canals.

  10. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.; Ekim, H.; Gunes, Y.; Simsek, H.

    2010-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively uncommon inherited disease. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is also uncommonly observed, which often occurs in pregnant or post partum women but is rare in men. This report describes a 38 years old man with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who developed SCAD leading to acute inferior myocardial infarction. After emergent appendectomy operation at another hospital, he was immediately transferred to the Cardiology Department of our hospital due to acute myocardial infarction. He emergently underwent coronary angiography which showed a long dissection involving the right coronary. He underwent an emergent CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and he was discharged. According to our knowledge, no case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy unrelated to postpartum period or oral contraceptive use has been reported so far. (author)

  11. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  12. Revascularization and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using apical negative pressure irrigation versus conventional irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing in dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Flores, Daniel Silva Herzog; Heilborn, Carlos; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo the revascularization and the apical and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using 2 techniques for root canal disinfection (apical negative pressure irrigation versus apical positive pressure irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing) in immature dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis. Two test groups of canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were evaluated according to the disinfection technique: Group 1, apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), and Group 2, apical positive pressure irrigation (conventional irrigation) plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing. In Group 3 (positive control), periapical lesions were induced, but no endodontic treatment was done. Group 4 (negative control) was composed of sound teeth. The animals were killed after 90 days and the maxillas and mandibles were subjected to histological processing. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory Trichrome and examined under light microscopy. A description of the apical and periapical features was done and scores were attributed to the following histopathological parameters: newly formed mineralized apical tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, dentin resorption, and bone tissue resorption. Intergroup comparisons were done by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (alpha = 0.05). Although statistically significant difference was found only for the inflammatory infiltrate (P irrigation with the EndoVac system can be considered as a promising disinfection protocol in immature teeth with apical periodontitis, suggesting that the use of intracanal antibiotics might not be necessary. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems- An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppolu Madhusudhana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. Conclusions: The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  14. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems − An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Mathew, Vinod Babu; Reddy, Nelaturi Madhusudhan

    2010-10-01

    Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  15. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems– An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Mathew, Vinod Babu; Reddy, Nelaturi Madhusudhan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. Conclusions: The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy. PMID:22114427

  16. Comparison of apical centring ability between incisal-shifted access and traditional lingual access for maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Yoshio; Masuda, Yoshiko; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the apical centring ability of incisal-shifted access (ISA) with that of traditional lingual access (TLA). Fifteen three-dimensional printed resin models were prepared from the computed tomography data for a human maxillary central incisor and divided into ISA (n = 7), TLA (n = 7) and control (n = 1) groups. After access preparation, these models were shaped to the working length using K-files up to #40, followed by step-back procedures. An apical portion of the model was removed at 0.5 mm coronal to the working length. Microscopic images of each cutting surface were taken to measure the preparation area and the distance of transportation. TLA created a larger preparation area than ISA (P < 0.05). The distance of transportation (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.4 ± 0.1 mm for ISA and 0.7 ± 0.1 mm for TLA (P < 0.05). Access cavity preparation has a significant effect on apical centring ability. ISA is beneficial to maintaining apical configuration. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  17. IN VIVO ANALYSIS OF SOME KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APICAL ZONE IN TEETH WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogenesis of internal and external resorptive processes in the dental tissues and those of the periapical zone is not fully understood, but the main purpose, either in teeth with internal resorption or in teeth with periapical lesions, is decontamination of the endodontic space and subsequent three-dimensional obturation in order to isolate periapical and oral tissues and prevent reinfection. Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze in vivo some key characteristics of the apical zone in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: To facilitate the clinical protocol after the radiographic analysis and assessment of patency, the working lengths of 153 root canals (n = 153 in 106 teeth were determined. The clinical widths of the apical narrowing were measured by using the last instrument (ISO 0.02 tapered file, which can move freely through the apical narrowing after electrometric determination of the working length (Raypex 5 /VDW, Germany/. Results and Discussion: Determination of working width and working length is important for realizing the first stage of decontamination – maximum instrumentation of the endodontic space and choice of a clinical protocol. The classification of root canals in a particular group according to the relative patency or lysed apical opening is important for the selection of obturation technique, which is essential for reducing the microleakage in the zone. Conclusion: Since the target of this work were teeth with CAP, in the majority of the cases with clinical findings of root canals with preexisting filling, radicular pins, obliteration, separated canal instruments, perforations at different levels, via falsa or thresholds, the access to the apical zone was not subjected to a closely observed instrumental clinical protocol. In the treatment of each case, however, the clinical principles of modern endodontic treatment were closely observed.

  18. In vitro comparison of apical microleakage following canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... The purpose of this study was to compare apical microleakage following canal obturation with lateral ..... heat-induced bone tissue injury: A vital microscopic study in the rabbit. J. Prosthet. ... In: Pathways of the Pulp. 9th Ed ...

  19. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  20. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apical membrane Antigen-1(AMA-1), an asexual blood stage antigen of Plasmodium cynomolgi, is an important candidate for testing as a component of malarial vaccine. The degree of conservation of. AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of Plasmodium. Since the AMA-1 ...

  1. Apical dominance and growth in vitro of Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.

    2012-01-01

    In Alstroemeria, micropropagation is achieved by axillary bud outgrowth. However, the multiplication rate is rather low (1.2–2.0 per cycle of 4 weeks) due to strong apical dominance. Even though several factors (i.e. culture media, growth regulators, and environmental conditions) have

  2. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  3. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  4. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibel, M.A.; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V.; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J.; Sailer, L.K.; Ozpeynirci, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  5. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  6. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris using three rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tasdemir

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, all instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris through the apical foramen. However, the BioRaCe instruments induced less extruded debris than the ProTaper Universal and Mtwo rotary systems.

  7. [A retrospective study of 180 cases of apical microsurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanguo; Li, Dan; Tian, Yu; Yu, Qing

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome and the potential prognostic factors of apical microsurgery. The teeth with persistent periapical diseases were treated by microsurgery using micro instruments, ultrasonic retrotips and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) under dental operate microscope. The procedure includes incision and flap retraction, osteotomy, apicoectomy, retro- preparation and retro- filling of root canal. Patients were recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12- month intervals. The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examinations, and the potential prognostic factors were analyzed. One hundred and eighty cases (240 teeth), including 132 upper anterior teeth, 22 lower anterior teeth, 31 upper premolars, 18 lower premolars, 19 upper molars and 18 lower molars, were treated by microsurgery between July 2010 and December 2012. A total of 152 cases (207 teeth) were recalled. The application of the apical microsurgery included failure of previous endodontic treatment, periapical lesion with post, periapical cyst, calcified canals, separated instruments, overfilling, open apex, root facture, failure of previous apical surgery, apical fenestration, and special root canal system. The success rate was 90.8% (188/207). Age, sex, tooth position, type of periapical radiolucency, fistula and clinical application type appeared to have a negative effect on the outcome. Endo-perio lesion was a significant factor. Eighteen cases (19 teeth) failed mainly because of periodontally involved lesion and vertical root fracture. Apical microsurgery, which combines the magnification and illumination provided by the microscope with the proper use of micro instruments, can treat the teeth with persistent periapical diseases precisely and less traumatically with high success rate. Case selection and standardized operations play a key role for success.

  8. Immediate Implant Placement in Sockets with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of granulation tissue in asymptomatic apical periodontitis compromised immediate implant placement. Patients requiring extraction of one tooth (maxillary and mandibular incisive, canine or premolar) with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, were recruited for this prospective study. They were randomly scheduled into two groups: in first group (A) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was debrided before implant placement, and in second group (B) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was left in the apical lesion. Implants were positioned immediately after tooth extraction, and were loaded after 3 months in both groups. Cone beam computed tomography was performed before tooth extraction and at 1-year follow-up to evaluate the radiolucency around the root apex and the implant, bucco-lingual bone levels were also checked. Sixty patients were included in this study. Sixty implants were placed immediately after tooth extraction and, at 1-year follow-up, a survival rate of 100% was reported. After one year both groups showed absence of radiolucent zone at the apical region of implants. All fresh sockets presented a buccal-palatal bone reduction in both groups after one year, even if not statistically significant differences were found between baseline bone levels and within groups. Within the limitations of the present study, the immediate placement of implants into the extraction sockets with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, in presence of primary stability, did not lead to an increased rate of complications and rendered an equally favorable type of tissue integration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001). The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems. PMID:26697144

  10. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (PProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  11. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: a dye extraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Monika; Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control group and four experimental groups. Group A: No intracanal medicament. Group B: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with distilled water. Group C: Calcium hydroxide gutta percha points (calcium hydroxide points). Group D: 1% chlorhexidine gel (hexigel). Group E: Chlorhexidine gutta percha points (Roeko Activ Points). The medication was left in canals for 14 days. Following removal of the intracanal medicament, all the groups were obturated with lateral compaction technique. The apical leakage was then evaluated using dye extraction method with the help of a spectrophotometer. RESULTS were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test, which showed statistically significant difference among the five groups tested. It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  12. Apical serine protease activity is necessary for assembly of a high-resistance renal collecting duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Tinning, Anne R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract AIM: We hypothesized that the serine protease prostasin is necessary for differentiation of a high resistance renal collecting duct epithelium governed by glucocorticoid. METHODS: Postnatal rat kidney and adult human kidney was used to study expression and localization of prostasin......-cadherin distribution did not change. CONCLUSION: Apical, GPI-anchored, lipid raft-associated serine protease activity, compatible with prostasin, is necessary for development of a high-resistance collecting duct epithelium....

  13. Root Canal Microorganism Profiles on Upper Anterior Teeth of Apical Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Riuwpassa, E. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance.this study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscess. Samples we...

  14. Determination of apical constriction and apical foramen using electronic apex locator in vivo: Comparison between vital and nonvital teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The study supports that EAL measures the location of AC and apical foramen with similar accuracy in vital and nonvital teeth. Furthermore, the distance between the two is reliable when compared with the actual distance observed under stereomicroscope supporting its widespread usage in clinical endodontics.

  15. Participation of gibberellin in the control of apical dominance in soybean and redwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddat, M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1966-01-01

    Loss of apical dominance in soybeans and redwood was increased when the plants were treated with the growth retardant AMO-1618. Simultaneous application of gibberellin reduced the number of elongating buds and promoted growth of the first or second uppermost auxillary bud, thus restoring apical dominance. It is concluded that gibberellin participates in the expression of apical dominance. 30 references, 2 tables.

  16. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  17. Apical extrusion of bacteria when using reciprocating single-file and rotary multifile instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, J M; De-Deus, G; Tinoco, E M B; Saavedra, F; Fidel, R A S; Sassone, L M

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate ex vivo, apical bacterial extrusion associated with two reciprocating single-file systems (WaveOne and Reciproc) compared with a conventional multifile rotary system (BioRace). Forty-five human single-rooted mandibular incisors were used. Endodontic access cavities were prepared, and root canals were contaminated with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension. Following incubation at 37 °C for thirty days, the contaminated teeth were divided into three groups of 15 specimens each (G1 - Reciproc, G2 - WaveOne and G3 - BioRace). Positive and negative controls consisted of 5 infected teeth and 3 uninfected incisors that were instrumented with one of the tested NiTi systems, respectively. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials containing 0.9% NaCl. The microbiological samples were taken from the vials and incubated in brain heart agar medium for 24 h. The resulting bacterial titre, in colony-forming units (CFU) per mL, was determined, and these data were analysed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. No significant difference was found in the number of CFU between the two reciprocating systems (P = 0.41). The conventional multifile rotary system group was associated with significantly higher CFU than both of the two reciprocating groups (P = 0.01). All instrumentation systems extruded bacteria beyond the foramen. However, both reciprocating single-file systems extruded fewer bacteria apically than the conventional multifile rotary system. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva e Souza, P A R; das Dores, R S E; Tartari, T; Pinheiro, T P S; Tuji, F M; Silva e Souza, M H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation. Forty-five roots of human mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-25° were embedded in acrylic resin to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The pre-instrumentation radiographs of the mesiobuccal canal of each root were taken using a radiograph digital sensor with a size 15 K-file in the canal. The canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), using one of the following irrigation regimens during the instrumentation (n = 15): G1 - irrigation with 20 mL of saline solution (control); G2 - alternating irrigation with 2.5% hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) (15 mL); and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5 mL). During instrumentation, the canal was filled with NaOCl and then between each exchange of instrument filled with EDTA for 1 min, and G3 - irrigation with 20 mL of 5% NaOCl and 18% etidronate solution (HEBP) mixed in equal parts. The postinstrumentation radiographs were made with a F3 instrument in the canal. The images were magnified and superposed with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA). Apical transportation was determined with AutoCAD 2012 software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by measuring the distance in millimetres between the tips of the instruments. The results were subjected to the nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis test (α < 0.05). The median transportation and interquartile range values were 0.00 ± 0.05 for G1, 0.08 ± 0.23 for G2 and 0.13 ± 0.14 for G3. Comparison between groups showed that apical transportation in G3 was significantly greater than in G1 (P < 0.05). The use of NaOCl associated with etidronate increased apical transportation in the canals of extracted teeth. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  20. Blunt apical dissection during anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Saif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meticulous apical dissection during a radical prostatectomy is imperative to achieve desirable pathologic and quality of life outcomes. Findings We describe a novel technique using careful blunt dissection to better delineate the apex of the prostate, providing a simple means to potentially lessen positive surgical margins at the apex and promote better continence and erectile function in men undergoing an anatomic radical prostatectomy. Median operative time and blood loss were 190 minutes and 675 mL, respectively. Only 10 percent of the patients with positive surgical margins were found to have apical positive surgical margins. Ninety-three percent of patients reported no urinary leakage. Conclusion We believe our technique of isolating the DVC with blunt dissection and then ligating and transecting the DVC to be feasible approach that requires larger studies to truly confirm its utility.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Haghanifar; Valiollah Arash; Farhad Soboti; Nasim Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption...

  2. Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of endodontic failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R

    2004-11-01

    Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system. It is viewed as a dynamic encounter between microbial factors and host defenses at the interface between infected radicular pulp and periodontal ligament that results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. The treatment of apical periodontitis, as a disease of root canal infection, consists of eradicating microbes or substantially reducing the microbial load from the root canal and preventing re-infection by orthograde root filling. The treatment has a remarkably high degree of success. Nevertheless, endodontic treatment can fail. Most failures occur when treatment procedures, mostly of a technical nature, have not reached a satisfactory standard for the control and elimination of infection. Even when the highest standards and the most careful procedures are followed, failures still occur. This is because there are root canal regions that cannot be cleaned and obturated with existing equipments, materials, and techniques, and thus, infection can persist. In very rare cases, there are also factors located within the inflamed periapical tissue that can interfere with post-treatment healing of the lesion. The data on the biological causes of endodontic failures are recent and scattered in various journals. This communication is meant to provide a comprehensive overview of the etio-pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of failed endodontic treatments that can be visualized in radiographs as asymptomatic post-treatment periapical radiolucencies.

  3. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  4. Bone resorptive activity in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions of endodontic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Muñoz, M; Garrido-Flores, M; Baeza, M; Huamán-Chipana, P; García-Sesnich, J; Bologna, R; Vernal, R; Hernández, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels and diagnostic accuracy of a set of bone resorption biomarkers, including TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions and controls. Apical tissues from symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis patients and periodontal ligaments from healthy teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were processed for tissue homogenization and the levels of TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG were determined by multiplex assay. Marker levels were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test, and diagnostic accuracy was analyzed with ROC curves. Higher levels of RANKL, OPG, and RANKL/OPG ratio were determined in both types of apical lesions compared to healthy periodontal ligament, whereas higher TRAP-5 levels were found only in symptomatic apical lesions (p apical lesions versus healthy controls (AUC = 0.69, p asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AUC = 0.71, p Apical lesions showed higher RANKL and OPG levels than healthy tissues. TRAP-5 levels were the highest in symptomatic apical lesions, suggesting that these represent a progressive state, and showed diagnostic potential. Clinically symptomatic apical periodontitis might represent biologically progressive apical lesions based on TRAP5 levels. TRAP5 has diagnostic potential to identify these lesions, representing a candidate prognostic biomarker.

  5. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot apices of Oxalis tuberosa Mol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Mendoza-Condori, V H; Molina-Garcia, A D

    2007-01-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) is an under-utilized tuber crop from the Andean region. Cryopreservation would allow the safe and long-term preservation of the genetic resources of this crop. A protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoots has been developed using the vitrification solution PVS2. Two genotypes were studied (G1 and G27). Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium and incubated at 10 degree C with 16 h photoperiod and 10 mol per square meter per second irradiance, for two weeks. Apices were then excised and cultured on MS+0.15 M sucrose for 3 days at 5 degree C in darkness. Subsequently, apices were immersed in a loading solution (liquid MS medium+2 M glycerol+0.4 M sucrose), and then treated with the vitrification solution PVS2 for 0 to 40 minutes. Cryovials were then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Four weeks after rewarming and culture on recovery medium, genotype G1 showed approximately 60 percent recovery (normal growth) with 20 min PVS2 treatment. Genotype G27 showed lower recovery (30 percent). Differential scanning calorimetry yielded a Tg midpoint for PSV2 solution of ca. -120 degree C. Calorimetric studies on apices at different stages of the cryopreservation protocol showed a change in calorimetric parameters consistent with a decrease in the amount of frozen water as the protocol advanced.

  6. Root canal microbiota of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, I N; Siqueira, J F

    2008-11-01

    Samples from infected root canals of 43 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were analyzed for the presence and relative levels of 83 oral bacterial species and/or phylotypes using a reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay. Associations between the most frequently detected taxa were also recorded. The most prevalent taxa were Olsenella uli (74%), Eikenella corrodens (63%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (56%), Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (54%), and Bacteroidetes oral clone X083 (51%). When prevalence was considered only for bacteria present at levels >10(5), Bacteroidetes clone X083 was the most frequently isolated bacterium (37%), followed by Parvimonas micra (28%), E. corrodens (23%), and Tannerella forsythia (19%). The number of target taxa per canal was directly proportional to the size of the apical periodontitis lesion, with lesions >10 mm in diameter harboring a mean number of approximately 20 taxa. Several positive associations for the most prevalent taxa were disclosed for the first time and may have important ecological and pathogenic implications. In addition to strengthening the association of several cultivable named species with chronic apical periodontitis, the present findings using a large-scale analysis allowed the inclusion of some newly named species and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes in the set of candidate pathogens associated with this disease.

  7. Apically extruded debris with reciprocating single-file and full-sequence rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, Sebastian; Schäfer, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the 2 reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the 2 full-sequence rotary Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. The reciprocating files produced significantly more debris compared with both rotary systems (P rotary instruments (P > .05), the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared with all other instruments (P Instrumentation was significantly faster using Reciproc than with all other instrument (P rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Herpesviruses viral loads and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, A; Knezevic, A; Nikolic, N; Soldatovic, I; Jovanovic, T; Milasin, J; Andric, M

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) viral loads in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions, to determine levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in these lesions and to investigate a possible correlation between herpesviral copy numbers and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. A total of 100 samples of apical periodontitis were subjected to HCMV and EBV copy numbers analysis by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of EBV and HCMV between symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions (p = .686, p = .879, respectively). Only 12 of 74 EBV (16.2%) and four of 54 HCMV (13.5%) nested PCR-positive samples showed increased viral copy numbers above the limit of 125 copies/ml. There was no significant correlation between the levels of analysed proinflammatory cytokines and herpesviral copy numbers in our sample. The observed low viral loads point to a relatively rare occurrence of active EBV and HCMV infection in our sample. Latent herpesviral infection does not enhance the production of investigated proinflammatory cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Methods Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (pabscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms. PMID:29293651

  10. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-01-01

    Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (p<0.05). None of the target species/phylotypes were associated with abscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms.

  11. Apical extrusion of intracanal debris using two engine driven and step-back instrumentation techniques: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustarci, Alper; Akdemir, Neslihan; Siso, Seyda Herguner; Altunbas, Demet

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in-vitro the amount of debris extruded apically from extracted teeth, using K3, Protaper rotary instruments and manual step-back technique. Forty five human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. The teeth in 3 groups were instrumented until reaching the working length with K3, Protaper rotary instruments and K-type stainless steel instruments with manual step-back technique, respectively. Debris extruded from the apical foramen was collected into centrifuge tubes and the amount was determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests, with P=.05 as the level for statistical significance. Statistically significant difference was observed between K3, Protaper and step-back groups in terms of debris extrusion (PStep-back group had the highest mean debris weight, which was significantly different from the K3 and Protaper groups (Pengine-driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than step-back technique. However, Protaper rotary instruments extruded significantly more debris than K3 rotary instruments.

  12. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using ProTaper™, Hyflex™ and Waveone™ rotary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Venkata, Ravi Chandra Polavarapu; Vemisetty, Hari Kumar; Dandolu, Ram Kiran; Jaya, Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Thota, Shirisha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extrusion of any debris during endodontic treatment may potentially cause post-operative complications such as flare-ups. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 human mandibular first premolars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20 teeth/group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the Reciprocating single-file system WaveOne™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and full-sequence rotary Hyflex CM™ (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. The canals were then irrigated using bidistilled water. The debris that was extruded apically was collected in preweighed eppendorf tubes and assessed with an electronic balance and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The debris extrusion was compared and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The WaveOne™ and ProTaper™ rotary instruments produced significantly more debris compared with Hyflex CM™ rotary instruments (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all systems that were used resulted in extrusion of apical debris. Full-sequence rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. PMID:24778507

  13. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  14. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  15. Rac1 controls epithelial tube length through the apical secretion and polarity pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Sollier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric parameters of epithelial tubes are critical to the physiology and homeostasis of most organs. In addition, many human diseases are associated with tube-size defects. Here, we show that Rac1 limits epithelial tube elongation in the developing fly trachea by promoting Rab5-dependent endocytosis of the apical determinant Crumbs. Rac1 is also involved in a positive feedback loop with the septate junction protein Coracle. Thereby, Rac1 precludes paracellular diffusion and contributes to the septate junction-dependent secretion of the chitin-modifying enzymes Vermiform and Serpentine, which restrict epithelial tube length independently of Crumbs. Thus, Rac1 is a critical component of two important pathways controlling epithelial tube morphogenesis.

  16. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sect...

  17. Bone resorptive activity in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions of endodontic origin

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Muñoz, M.; Garrido-Flores, M.; Baeza, M.; Huamán-Chipana, P.; García-Sesnich, J.; Bologna, R.; Vernal, R.; Hernández, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to assess the levels and diagnostic accuracy of a set of bone resorption biomarkers, including TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions and controls. Materials and methods Apical tissues from symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis patients and periodontal ligaments from healthy teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were processed for tissue homogenization and the levels of TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG were determined by m...

  18. ROOT CANAL MICROORGANISMS PROFILES O F UPPER ANTERIOR TEETH WITH APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanumihardja, Maria; Riewpassa, Irene E; Mansjurnasir; Burhanuddin, DP

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance. This study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and ch ronic api...

  19. Conversion of proteins from a non-polarized to an apical secretory pattern in MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Lotte K.; Larsen, Jakob E.; Hansen, Martin; Truffer, Renato

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that fusion proteins containing the amino terminus of an apical targeted member of the serpin family fused to the corresponding carboxyl terminus of the non-polarized secreted serpin, antithrombin, are secreted mainly to the apical side of MDCK cells. The present study shows that this is neither due to the transfer of an apical sorting signal from the apically expressed proteins, since a sequence of random amino acids acts the same, nor is it due to the deletion of a conserved signal for correct targeting from the non-polarized secreted protein. Our results suggest that the polarity of secretion is determined by conformational sensitive sorting signals

  20. Parathyroid hormone in sodium-dependent hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doris, P.A.; Harvey, S.; Pang, P.K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma parathyroid hormone (pPTH) levels have been assessed in three separate radioimmunoassay systems in samples from Wistar-Kyoto rats. The animals were subjected to one of three dietary regimens throughout the study period: Group 1 animals consumed normal rat chow and drank tap water; Group 2 animals consumed normal rat chow and tap water was replaced with 0.05% saline solution; Group 3 animals consumed normal rat chow to which 2.5% CaCO 3 had been added and also drank 0.5% saline solution. Three assay systems were used to measure pPTH levels from trunk blood samples obtained by guillotine decapitation. One assay used an antiserum directed toward the vasoactive N terminal fragment 1-34 and produced pPTH measurements of 0.74 +/- 0.05 ng/ml in Gp 1 animals, 1.04 +/- 0.07 ng/ml in Gp 2 animals and 1.12 +/- 0.08 ng/ml in Gp 3 animals. This pattern was consistent with that obtained by another antiserum which had been raised against the intact 1-84 PTH molecule and produced values of 0.25 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in Gp 1 animals, 0.55 +/- 0.07 ng/ml in Gp 2 animals and 0.74 +/- 0.04 ng/ml in Gp 3 animals. Antiserum raised against the C-terminal did not show any difference in pPTH across groups. The authors conclude that saline consumption may increase some portions of circulating PTH. 26 references, 2 tables

  1. Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Dewiyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal infection and periapical diseases are caused by bacteria and their products. Long term infection may spread bacteria throughout the root canal system. Apical periodontitis caused by infectious microbe that persistent in root canals can cause radiographic and histopathology periapical changes. Chemomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing then are recommended to be conducted and used in between visits to eliminate microbes in root canals. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 can be used as intracanal dressing since it can be used as musical physical defense barrier to eliminate re-infection in root canal and to disturb nutrition supply for bacterial development. Purpose: The aim of this study is observe the effectiveness of Ca(OH2 in treating endodontic teeth with apical periodontitis. Cases: Case 1 and 3 are about patients whose left posterior mandibular teeth had spontaneous intermittent pain. Case 2 is about a patient whose left posterior maxillary teeth had gingival abscess and fracture history. Based on the radiographic examination, it was known that the filling of root canal was incomplete and there was radiolucency in the apical area. Case management: The cases were treated with triad endodontics, which involves preparation, disinfection by using 2.5% NaOCl as irrigation substance and calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing, and then the filling of root canal with gutta percha and endomethasone root canal cement. Evaluations were conducted one month, 12 months, and 24 months after the treatment. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide is effective to be used as intracanal dressing in apical periodontitis cases.Latar belakang: Infeksi saluran akar dan penyakit periapeks disebabkan oleh mikroba dan produknya. Infeksi yang berlangsung lama memungkinkan bakteri masuk ke dalam seluruh sistem saluran akar. Periodontitis apikal disebabkan oleh infeksi persisten mikroba di dalam sistem saluran akar disertai perubahan radiografik dan

  2. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Logani Ajay; Shah Naseem

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water wer...

  3. Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Instrumentation with Reciproc Blue, HyFlex EDM, and XP-endo Shaper Nickel-titanium Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Gündoğar, Mustafa; Plotino, Gianluca

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of apically extruded debris by Reciproc Blue (REC Blue; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), and XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) files during root canal preparation at body temperature. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The canals were instrumented using 1 of the following instruments: REC Blue, HEDM, or XPS. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. All the procedures were performed at 35°C. The amount of extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the weight value of the tooth-free apparatus from the postpreparation weight value. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5% significance level. All the instruments tested caused extrusion of some debris from the apical foramen. XPS extruded significantly less debris from the apex than REC Blue (P  .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the amount of apically extruded debris registered for the different files tested was REC Blue > HEDM > XPS, with a statistical difference only between XPS and REC Blue. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation in primary molar teeth using three different rotary systems and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Akpek, Firdevs

    2016-09-01

    To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel titanium instrumentation systems and hand files in primary molar teeth. Sixty extracted primary first mandibular molar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Revo-S, Mtwo, ProTaper Next, and hand files. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. ProTaper Next files were associated with less apically extruded debris than the Mtwo, Revo-S, and hand files (P Hand files extruded more debris than Mtwo and Revo-S instruments (P 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. ProTaper Next files caused less debris extrusion compared to the other systems used. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted and hand K-file system: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghogre, Priyanka; Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Agarwal, Manish; Singh, M P; Gurav, Sandeep; Ghogre, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of intracanal bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted, and hand K-file system. Seventy extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared and the teeth were mounted in glass vials. Root canals were then contaminated with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The contaminated roots were divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Group 1: ProTaper; Group 2: K3XF; Group 3: Twisted file; Group 4: Hand K-file; Group 5: Control group. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Colonies of bacteria were counted and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests. There was a significant difference between the rotary and hand instrumentation system related to the apically extruded intracanal bacteria. Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.

  6. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with several NiTi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, A N; Er, O; Canakci, B C

    2015-12-01

    To compare the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal retreatment using ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc instruments with hand H-files. In total, 60 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were used. All root canals were prepared with a Reciproc R25 file than filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral condensation before being assigned randomly to four groups (n = 15 each). In group 1, root fillings were removed with the Protaper Universal retreatment system; ProTaper Universal F3 and F4 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 2, root fillings were removed with the Mtwo retreatment system; Mtwo size 30, .06 taper, size 35, .06 taper and size 40, .06 taper files were used for the final preparation. In group 3, root fillings were removed with Reciproc R25 instruments; Reciproc R40 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 4, the root fillings were removed with Gates Glidden burs and sizes 35, 30 and 25 H-files; for final preparation, a size 40 H-file was used. Glass vials were used for debris collection. The vials were weighed before and after Gutta-percha removal. Additionally, the times required for the retreatment procedures were recorded. Data were analysed statistically using one-way analysis of variance. The Reciproc system produced significantly smaller amounts of apical extruded debris than the other groups (P ProTaper groups. The ProTaper and Reciproc groups required significantly less time than the Mtwo and H-file groups (P hand filing. Use of the ProTaper and Reciproc instruments required less time for retreatment procedures than use of the Mtwo or H-file. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

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    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  8. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shemesh, Hagay; Wesselink, Paul R; Hou, Benxiang; Wu, Min-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with rotary and hand files, namely K3, ProTaper, and nickel-titanium Flex K files to the major apical foramen (AF), short AF, or beyond AF. Digital images of the apical surface of every tooth were taken during the apical enlargement at each file change. Development of dentinal defects was determined by comparing these images with the baseline image. Multinomial logistic regression test was performed to identify influencing factors. Apical crack developed in 1 of 80 teeth (1.3%) with hand files and 31 of 160 teeth (19.4%) with rotary files. Apical dentinal detachment developed in 2 of 80 teeth (2.5%) with hand files and 35 of 160 teeth (21.9%) with rotary files. Instrumentation with rotary files terminated 2 mm short of AF and did not cause any cracks. Significantly less cracks and detachments occurred when instrumentation with rotary files was terminated short of AF, as compared with that terminated at or beyond AF (P hand instruments; instrumentation short of AF reduced the risk of dentinal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C

    1990-01-01

    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...

  10. Auditory brainstem activity and development evoked by apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K A; Papsin, B C; Harrison, R V

    2007-08-01

    The role of apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation on central auditory development was examined. We hypothesized that, in children with early onset deafness, auditory development evoked by basal electrode stimulation would differ from that evoked more apically. Responses of the auditory nerve and brainstem, evoked by an apical and a basal implant electrode, were measured over the first year of cochlear implant use in 50 children with early onset severe to profound deafness who used hearing aids prior to implantation. Responses at initial stimulation were of larger amplitude and shorter latency when evoked by the apical electrode. No significant effects of residual hearing or age were found on initial response amplitudes or latencies. With implant use, responses evoked by both electrodes showed decreases in wave and interwave latencies reflecting decreased neural conduction time through the brainstem. Apical versus basal differences persisted with implant experience with one exception; eIII-eV interlatency differences decreased with implant use. Acute stimulation shows prolongation of basally versus apically evoked auditory nerve and brainstem responses in children with severe to profound deafness. Interwave latencies reflecting neural conduction along the caudal and rostral portions of the brainstem decreased over the first year of implant use. Differences in neural conduction times evoked by apical versus basal electrode stimulation persisted in the caudal but not rostral brainstem. Activity-dependent changes of the auditory brainstem occur in response to both apical and basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation.

  11. An unusual ST-segment elevation: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shows the ace up its sleeve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Francesco; Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Pero, Gaetano; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is part of the broad clinical and morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities in whom acute coronary syndrome was excluded and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was demonstrated by careful differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  13. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  14. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  15. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  17. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Okishige, Kaoru; Sasano, Tetsuo; Yano, Kei; Azegami, Kouji; Suzuki, Kou; Itoh, Kuniyasu [Yokohama Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an {sup 123}I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  18. Risk variables of external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Maria Carolina Feio Barroso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: External apical root resorption (EARR is an adverse outcome of the orthodontic treatment. So far, no single or associated factor has been identified as responsible for EARR due to tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of risk variables (age, gender, extraction for orthodontic treatment and Angle classification with EARR and orthodontic treatment. METHOD: The sample (n=72 was divided into two groups according to presence (n=32 or absence (n=40 of EARR in maxillary central and lateral incisors after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in EARR according to age, gender, extraction or type of malocclusion (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The risk variables examined were not associated with EARR in the study population.

  19. Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann

    2016-01-01

    When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors and disease status all can influence a patients’ overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as is observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR). PMID:27766484

  20. Traumatic bone cyst suggestive of large apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth; Estrela, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    This case report shows the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis to provide the appropriate treatment options The traumatic bone cyst is a pseudocyst, usually asymptomatic and found by a routine radiographic examination. Unicystic radiolucency is almost always observed, which can involve the periradicular area of teeth, simulating an inflammatory lesion of endodontic origin. Differential diagnosis should include other pathologies, such as odontogenic keratocyst, central giant cell granuloma, and unicystic ameloblastoma. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not yet definitely established. In the present study, after review of the medical and dental histories and clinical and radiographic examination of teeth #24-27 (pulpal vitality test showed positive), the primary diagnosis was traumatic bone cyst. The planning was excisional biopsy. After surgical exploration, only one small blood clot was observed in the intraosseous socket, which was carefully curetted and filled with blood. A clinical and radiographic examination after 6 months showed apical formation and pulpal vitality preserved.

  1. Case of cheilitis granulomatosa associated with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Sowa, Junko; Ishii, Masamitsu; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Koutetsu

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of cheilitis granulomatosa is unknown. In some cases, rapid improvement and/or complete elimination of swelling of the lips after dental treatment has been reported. Here, we describe another case of improvement following dental treatment. A 57-year-old woman had developed asymptomatic swelling of the lower lip 2 months previously. Histological examination revealed non-caseous giant cell granulomas. Neither facial nerve palsy nor fissuring of the tongue was present. Patch testing for metal allergy revealed only mild irritation to zinc ion. Although topical corticosteroid ointment and oral tranilast for 4 months were ineffective, rapid and remarkable improvement of the swelling was noted soon after treatment of two lesions of apical periodontitis. Thorough examination for foci of infection is necessary when treating a patient with cheilitis granulomatosa.

  2. Complicated untreated apical periodontitis causing paraesthesia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this article was to report a case of untreated apical periodontitis resulting in severe late complications. A patient with an asymptomatic crowned root canal-treated mandibular molar revealing a radiographic substandard endodontic treatment and a slight periapical radiolucency was made aware of the treatment options and opted for no treatment. The lesion slightly increased in size after 6 years, but the tooth remained asymptomatic and endodontic retreatment was again refused. After 4 more years, the patient presented with an abscess and severe pain, complicated by paraesthesia of the left chin and lip. Radiographic examination revealed that the lesion had increased considerably to involve the mandibular canal. The treatment protocol included long-term intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and follow-ups revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucency and the paraesthesia had completely subsided. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  3. Russell body apical periodontitis: an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo Silva; Barros, Adna Conceição; de Freitas, André Carlos; Crusoé-Rebello, Iêda Maria

    2008-12-01

    Russell bodies (RBs) changes in chronic apical lesions have rarely been reported in the literature. We describe a case of a periapical lesion abundantly and extensively composed of RB. Microscopic examination showed accumulation of plasma cells containing globular, spherical, polygonal, and eosinophilic structures against fibrous connective tissue. Initial diagnostic considerations based on a smaller magnification included hypersecretory plasmocytoma, although there was no evidence of infiltrative growth, mitotic activity, nuclear atypia, or cellular pleomorphism. Then, a panel of immunohistochemical markers was applied and the cells showed positivity with both kappa and lambda chains demonstrating their polyclonal origin. The extensive accumulation of RBs involving the periapical region represents an unreported and significant histologic change, as it was mimicking a malignant neoplasm.

  4. Laparoscopic pectopexy: initial experience of single center with a new technique for apical prolapse surgery

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    Ahmet Kale

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To share our first experience with laparoscopic pectopexy, a new technique for apical prolapse surgery, and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with apical prolapse underwent surgery with laparoscopic pectopexy. The lateral parts of the iliopectineal ligament were used for a bilateral mesh fixation of the descended structures. The medical records of the patients were reviewed, and the short-term clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: The laparoscopic pectopexy procedures were successfully performed, without intraoperative and postoperative complications. De novo apical prolapse, de novo urgency, de novo constipation, stress urinary incontinence, anterior and lateral defect cystoceles, and rectoceles did not occur in any of the patients during a 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Although laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy has shown excellent anatomical and functional long-term results, laparoscopic pectopexy offers a feasible, safe, and comfortable alternative for apical prolapse surgery. Pectopexy may increase a surgeon's technical perspective for apical prolapse surgery.

  5. "In vitro" evaluation of the apical sealing of root canals obturated with different techniques Avaliação "in vitro" do selamento apical dos canais radiculares em função de diferentes técnicas de obturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Haiub Brosco

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apical sealing of root canals obturated with different techniques. One hundred-six human mandibular incisors were submitted to instrumentation by means of the step-back technique. After instrumentation, one hundred teeth received an impermeable coating on the external surfaces of the crown and root (except for the area nearby the apical foramen. Afterwards, they were divided in five groups containing twenty elements each, according to the obturation technique employed: 1. lateral condensation with Kerr file; 2. continuous wave of condensation technique with System B; 3. thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha technique with the Ultrafil system; 4. mechanically thermoplasticized gutta-percha with the JS Quick-Fill system and 5. thermoplasticized gutta-percha associated to a master cone with the Microseal system. The six remaining teeth were employed as negative and positive controls. After obturation, the access cavities were sealed and the teeth were immersed in aqueous 2% methylene blue dye for 72 hours at 37ºC. After that, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and the apical microleakage was evaluated in a stereomicroscope. The Microseal system presented the best apical sealing ability, followed by System B, JS Quick-Fill, Ultrafil and the lateral condensation technique. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that: 1. the Microseal system presented an apical sealing similar to System B and better than the other groups; 2. System B presented better apical sealing than the lateral condensation technique, being similar to the other groups; and 3. the lateral condensation, Ultrafil and JS Quick-Fill groups demonstrated similar sealing ability.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o selamento apical de canais radiculares obturados por diferentes técnicas. Cento e seis incisivos inferiores humanos tiveram seus canais instrumentados através da técnica escalonada regressiva. Após a

  6. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

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    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  7. Effect of Nd:YAG and Diode Lasers on Apical Seal of Root Canals Filled with AH Plus and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-Based Sealers

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    Elham Khoshbin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, may increase the success rate of endodontic treatments. This study aimed to assess the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG and diode lasers on the apical seal of the root canals filled with AH Plus® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 96 single-rooted, single-canal extracted human teeth with closed apices. The root canals were prepared by using ProTaper® rotary instruments and were randomly divided into six groups (n=16: 940-nm diode laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 1, Nd:YAG laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 2, AH Plus® sealer (group 3, 940-nm diode laser and MTA-based sealer (group 4, Nd:YAG laser and MTA-based sealer (group 5, MTA-based sealer (group 6, as well as positive and negative control groups. A bacterial leakage model was used for microleakage assessment. Qualitative assessment was done by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the significance level of 0.05.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P=0.002. The laser-treated groups showed a lower apical microleakage compared to the non-laser-treated groups, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. No significant differences were noted between the two lasers in terms of the apical microleakage, irrespective of the type of sealer (P>0.05.Conclusions: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, has no significant effect on the level of apical microleakage.

  8. Cimentos endodônticos - selamento marginal apical imediato e após armazenamento de seis meses Endodontic cements - immediate apical sealing and after a six-month storage

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    Marcia Carneiro VALERA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o selamento marginal apical de canais radiculares obturados com os cimentos endodônticos Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26 e Ketac Endo. Utilizaram-se 136 raízes, cujos canais radiculares, após o preparo biomecânico, foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral ativa com os cimentos em estudo. Metade das amostras, imediatamente após as obturações, foram imersas na solução de azul de metileno a 2% e a outra metade após 6 meses de armazenamento em plasma sangüíneo humano. Observou-se que os cimentos Sealapex e Sealer 26 apresentaram infiltrações médias estatisticamente iguais entre si e menores que as observadas para os demais cimentos (p The aim of this study was to verify the apical sealing of root canals obturated with Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26, and Ketac Endo cements. A hundred and thirty six dental roots were used for the experiment. After biomechanical preparation and lateral condensation filling, half of the roots were placed in human blood plasma storage medium for 6 months. The remaining samples were immediately placed in methylene blue, under a temporary vacuum, and after one week the amount of dye penetration measured. The stored samples were similarly treated after the 6-month storage period. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the groups obturated with Sealapex and Sealer 26 showed the smallest amount of apical leakage (p < 0.05. There were significant differences in the amount of dye penetration after 6 months of storage (1.275 mm, when compared to the results found without storage (0.829 mm (p < 0.05.

  9. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

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    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  10. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, Andrea; Madrid, Sonia; Mundi, Verónica; Valenzuela, María A; Garrido, Mauricio; Paredes, Rodolfo; García-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Ortega, Ana V; Gamonal, Jorge; Hernández, Marcela

    2012-03-21

    Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP)-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic of apical status in GCF.

  11. Intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Smith, Tovia M; Luo, Jiajia; Kolenic, Giselle E; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown how initial cervix location and cervical support resistance to traction, which we term "apical support stiffness," compare in women with different patterns of pelvic organ support. Defining a normal range of apical support stiffness is important to better understand the pathophysiology of apical support loss. The aims of our study were to determine whether: (1) women with normal apical support on clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, but with vaginal wall prolapse (cystocele and/or rectocele), have the same intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness as women with normal pelvic support; and (2) all women with apical prolapse have abnormal intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness. A third objective was to identify clinical and biomechanical factors independently associated with clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C. We conducted an observational study of women with a full spectrum of pelvic organ support scheduled to undergo gynecologic surgery. All women underwent a preoperative clinic examination, including Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification. Cervix starting location and the resistance (stiffness) of its supports to being moved steadily in the direction of a traction force that increased from 0-18 N was measured intraoperatively using a computer-controlled servoactuator device. Women were divided into 3 groups for analysis according to their pelvic support as classified using the clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification: (1) "normal/normal" was women with normal apical (C -5 cm and Ba and/or Bp ≥ 0 cm). Demographics, intraoperative cervix locations, and apical support stiffness values were then compared. Normal range of cervix location during clinic examination and operative testing was defined by the total range of values observed in the normal/normal group. The proportion of women in each group with cervix locations within and outside the normal range was determined. Linear regression

  12. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in an apical anaerobic model of the intestinal epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulluwishewa, Dulantha; Anderson, Rachel C; Young, Wayne; McNabb, Warren C; van Baarlen, Peter; Moughan, Paul J; Wells, Jerry M; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-02-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant member of the human commensal microbiota, has been proposed to have a protective role in the intestine. However, it is an obligate anaerobe, difficult to co-culture in viable form with oxygen-requiring intestinal cells. To overcome this limitation, a unique apical anaerobic model of the intestinal barrier, which enabled co-culture of live obligate anaerobes with the human intestinal cell line Caco-2, was developed. Caco-2 cells remained viable and maintained an intact barrier for at least 12 h, consistent with gene expression data, which suggested Caco-2 cells had adapted to survive in an oxygen-reduced atmosphere. Live F. prausnitzii cells, but not ultraviolet (UV)-killed F. prausnitzii, increased the permeability of mannitol across the epithelial barrier. Gene expression analysis showed inflammatory mediators to be expressed at lower amounts in Caco-2 cells exposed to live F. prausnitzii than UV-killed F. prausnitzii, This, consistent with previous reports, implies that live F. prausnitzii produces an anti-inflammatory compound in the culture supernatant, demonstrating the value of a physiologically relevant co-culture system that allows obligate anaerobic bacteria to remain viable. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Apical extrusion of debris in four different endodontic instrumentation systems: A meta-analysis.

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    Western, J Sylvia; Dicksit, Daniel Devaprakash

    2017-01-01

    All endodontic instrumentation systems tested so far, promote apical extrusion of debris, which is one of the main causes of postoperative pain, flare ups, and delayed healing. Of this meta-analysis was to collect and analyze in vitro studies quantifying apically extruded debris while using Hand ProTaper (manual), ProTaper Universal (rotary), Wave One (reciprocating), and self-adjusting file (SAF; vibratory) endodontic instrumentation systems and to determine methods which produced lesser extrusion of debris apically. An extensive electronic database search was done in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, and Google Scholar from inception until February 2016 using the key terms "Apical Debris Extrusion, extruded material, and manual/rotary/reciprocating/SAF systems." A systematic search strategy was followed to extract 12 potential articles from a total of 1352 articles. The overall effect size was calculated from the raw mean difference of weight of apically extruded debris. Statistically significant difference was seen in the following comparisons: SAF ProTaper. Apical extrusion of debris was invariably present in all the instrumentation systems analyzed. SAF system seemed to be periapical tissue friendly as it caused reduced apical extrusion compared to Rotary ProTaper and Wave One.

  15. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

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    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  16. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  17. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, F.; Zangouie Booshehri, M.; Behniafar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  18. A comparison of apical transportation between FlexMaster and Twisted Files rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; García, Marc; Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Mercadé, Montse; Morelló, Sergio; Roig, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apical transportation in root canals after the use of Twisted Files (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and FlexMaster (VDW, Munich, Germany) #40/04 rotary files. A double-digital radiographic technique was used to compare apical transportation between the TF and FlexMaster systems. Each rotary system was used to instrument mesial canals from 80 extracted mandibular molars. The central axes of the file imaged before instrumentation (#15 K-file) and the master apical rotary file (#40/04) were superimposed digitally. AutoCAD 2008 (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure apical transportation at 0.5 mm from the working length (WL). The data were analyzed using the Student's t test, and significance was set at P < .05. The mean amount of apical transportation at 0.5 mm from the WL was 0.17 ± 0.09 mm for the FlexMaster group and 0.19 ± 0.12 mm for the TF group. No statistically significant differences in apical transportation were found between the 2 groups. Under the conditions of the study, no statistically significant differences in apical transportation were observed between FlexMaster and TF rotary files. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

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    Gurudutt Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  20. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet; Shetty, Shashit; Dahiya, Surya

    2014-05-01

    Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20) were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One) and one rotary (One Shape) single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05). Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05). Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  1. Determination of the Apical Sealing Abilities of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Portland Cement, and Bioaggregate After Irrigation with Different Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, H Melike; Saklar, Feridun; Bayram, Emre; Orucoglu, Hasan; Bozkurt, Alperen

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sealing ability of root-end filling materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Portland cement, and bioaggregate (BA) after irrigation with different solutions. We examined 130 human maxillar central teeth. After cutting the teeth at the cementoenamel junction, the root canals were expanded using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canals were filled with AH-plus and gutta-percha. Then, the roots were cut apically, and 3 mm deep retrograde cavities were prepared. The roots were divided 12 experimental groups, consisting 10 teeth each; the positive and negative control groups contained five teeth each. The retrograde cavities were rinsed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), chlorhexidine (CHX), BioPure(™) mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD), or distilled water. Next, groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were sealed with MTA; groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 were sealed with Portland cement; and groups 9, 10, 11, and 12 were sealed with BA. Then, apical microleakage was evaluated by using a computerized fluid filtration method. The results of the leakage test were statistically evaluated by the post-hoc Tukey's test. MTA, Portland cement, and BA root-end filling materials showed the least leakage in the CHX and distilled water groups. The highest leakage was observed in the EDTA and MTAD groups. The sealing ability of BA was as good as that of MTA. EDTA and MTAD increased the apical leakage and CHX and distilled water decreased the leakage of the root-end filling materials examined in this study.

  2. Neuroelectric Tuning of Cortical Oscillations by Apical Dendrites in Loop Circuits

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    David LaBerge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bundles of relatively long apical dendrites dominate the neurons that make up the thickness of the cerebral cortex. It is proposed that a major function of the apical dendrite is to produce sustained oscillations at a specific frequency that can serve as a common timing unit for the processing of information in circuits connected to that apical dendrite. Many layer 5 and 6 pyramidal neurons are connected to thalamic neurons in loop circuits. A model of the apical dendrites of these pyramidal neurons has been used to simulate the electric activity of the apical dendrite. The results of that simulation demonstrated that subthreshold electric pulses in these apical dendrites can be tuned to specific frequencies and also can be fine-tuned to narrow bandwidths of less than one Hertz (1 Hz. Synchronous pulse outputs from the circuit loops containing apical dendrites can tune subthreshold membrane oscillations of neurons they contact. When the pulse outputs are finely tuned, they function as a local “clock,” which enables the contacted neurons to synchronously communicate with each other. Thus, a shared tuning frequency can select neurons for membership in a circuit. Unlike layer 6 apical dendrites, layer 5 apical dendrites can produce burst firing in many of their neurons, which increases the amplitude of signals in the neurons they contact. This difference in amplitude of signals serves as basis of selecting a sub-circuit for specialized processing (e.g., sustained attention within the typically larger layer 6-based circuit. After examining the sustaining of oscillations in loop circuits and the processing of spikes in network circuits, we propose that cortical functioning can be globally viewed as two systems: a loop system and a network system. The loop system oscillations influence the network system’s timing and amplitude of pulse signals, both of which can select circuits that are momentarily dominant in cortical activity.

  3. A reappraisal of the role of abscisic acid and its interaction with auxin in apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris G; Oh, Choonseok

    2006-10-01

    Evidence from pea rms1, Arabidopsis max4 and petunia dad1 mutant studies suggest an unidentified carotenoid-derived/plastid-produced branching inhibitor which moves acropetally from the roots to the shoots and interacts with auxin in the control of apical dominance. Since the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), known to inhibit some growth processes, is also carotenoid derived/plastid produced, and because there has been indirect evidence for its involvement with branching, a re-examination of the role of ABA in apical dominance is timely. Even though it has been determined that ABA probably is not the second messenger for auxin in apical dominance and is not the above-mentioned unidentified branching inhibitor, the similarity of their derivation suggests possible relationships and/or interactions. The classic Thimann-Skoog auxin replacement test for apical dominance with auxin [0.5 % naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] applied both apically and basally was combined in similar treatments with 1 % ABA in Ipomoea nil (Japanese Morning Glory), Solanum lycopersicum (Better Boy tomato) and Helianthus annuus (Mammoth Grey-striped Sunflower). Auxin, apically applied to the cut stem surface of decapitated shoots, strongly restored apical dominance in all three species, whereas the similar treatment with ABA did not. However, when ABA was applied basally, i.e. below the lateral bud of interest, there was a significant moderate repression of its outgrowth in Ipomoea and Solanum. There was also some additive repression when apical auxin and basal ABA treatments were combined in Ipomoea. The finding that basally applied ABA is able partially to restore apical dominance via acropetal transport up the shoot suggests possible interactions between ABA, auxin and the unidentified carotenoid-derived branching inhibitor that justify further investigation.

  4. Evaluation of apical microleakage of teeth sealed with four different root canal sealers Avaliação da microinfiltração apical em dentes obturados com quatro diferentes cimentos endodônticos

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    Fábio Dultra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare the apical sealing ability of four root canal sealers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty extracted human maxillary canines were instrumented 1 mm short of the anatomical apex and randomly assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root canal sealer used for obturation: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ and Epiphany. Root canals were obturated with gutta-percha points, except for the Epiphany group, in which resin points (Resilon were used. The teeth were immersed in India ink for seven days and clarified using methyl salicylate. The extent of apical dye penetration was measured with a measuroscope in all aspects of the canal. RESULTS: AH Plus (0.02 mm ± 0.07, Epiphany (0.00 mm ± 0.00 and EndoREZ (0.32 mm ± 0.62 did not differ statistically to each other (p>0.01. EndoFill presented the highest dye penetration mean (0.83 mm ± 0.73 and was statistically different from the other sealers (pOBJETIVOS: comparar a capacidade de selamento apical de quatro cimentos endodônticos. MÉTODOS: quarenta caninos superiores humanos extraídos foram instrumentados 1 mm aquém do ápice anatômico e distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=10, de acordo com o cimento endodôntico utilizado para a obturação: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ e Epiphany. Os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral com os cimentos e com cones de guta-percha, exceto o grupo do Epiphany, no qual os cones de resina (Resilon foram utilizados. Os dentes foram imersos em nanquim por sete dias e submetidos ao processo de diafanização e, então, clarificados empregando-se o salicilato de metila. A extensão de penetração via apical do corante foi medida por meio de um microscópio de mensuração em todas as faces do terço apical. RESULTADOS: AH Plus (0,02 mm ± 0,07, Epiphany (0,00 mm ± 0,00 e EndoREZ (0,32 mm ± 0,62 não diferiram estatisticamente entre si (p>0,01. EndoFill apresentou a maior média de penetração do corante (0

  5. Characterizing and evaluating the expression of the type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (slc34a2) gene and its potential influence on phosphorus utilization efficiency in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang

    2016-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter gene, NaPi-IIb (slc34a2), was isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) intestine through homology cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of slc34a2 consisted of 2326 bp with an open reading frame encoding 621 amino acids, a 160-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 300-bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 79.0 and 70.9% sequence identity to Astyanax mexicanus and Pundamilia nyererei, respectively. The membrane-spanning domains based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the deduced amino acids were predicted, and results showed that the putative protein had eight transmembrane domains, with the intracellular NH2 and COOH termini. Two functional regions including first intracellular loop and third extracellular loop as well as the six N-glycosylation sites in second extracellular loop were found. The slc34a2 mRNA in the tested tissues was examined through semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR, with the highest level found in the anterior intestine, followed by the posterior and middle intestines. The slc34a2 mRNA expression in the whole intestine under different dietary phosphorus (P) treatments was detected using qPCR. The results showed that the slc34a2 expression levels in the low-P groups (0.33 and 0.56%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than levels in the sufficient-P (0.81%) and high-P (1.15, 1.31, and 1.57%) groups. High expression of slc34a2 mRNA in low-P groups stimulated P utilization efficiency, indicating the close relationship between genotype and phenotype in yellow catfish. In contrast with conventional strategies (formula and feeding strategies), this study provided another possible approach by using molecular techniques to increase the P utilization in yellow catfish.

  6. Poda apical para uniformizar a colheita de flores de ?tango?

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    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho testou a poda apical das hastes de tango 4 e 6 semanas após a roçada, para homogeneizar a colheita que, comercialmente, necessita ser feita por um período de aproximadamente 5 dias numa mesma área. Foram avaliados altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, número médio de hastes colhidas/planta e a média do peso de matéria seca colhida/haste. Só foi verificada diferença significativa para altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, não se conseguindo reduzir o número de colheitas necessárias por planta. Existem indicações de que há necessidade de reduzir a variabilidade genética da população para homogeneizar a colheita de inflorescências de tango.

  7. Malignant Arrhythmia in Apical Ballooning Syndrome: Risk Factors and Outcomes

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    Samuel J. Asirvatham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to determine the frequency and outcomes with symptomatic arrhythmia in patients with apical ballooning syndrome (ABS. Methods: A retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic Angiography database was conducted to identify patients who met the Mayo criteria for ABS. Patients with documented arrhythmias formed the study group, and 31 randomly selected patients with ABS but without arrhythmia formed the control group.Results: Out of 105 patients identified with ABS, 6 (5.7% women aged 69 +/- 9 years experienced significant arrhythmia (ventricular fibrillation, asystole, 2 patients died, and 1 required permanent pacemaker implantation. When compared with controls, the study group showed no significant difference with respect to ECG characteristics (QT, QRS duration or axis except for R-R interval variability (see comments below (30.6±6 vs 14.5±17 p = 0.0004, QTc, and P-R interval. Patients without arrhythmia were more likely to be on beta-blocker therapy than the study population (33% vs 80.6% p = 0.02. Conclusion: Life-threatening arrhythmia is uncommon (5.7% with ABS despite marked, structural abnormalities. When arrhythmias do occur, the outcome is poor. Prominent variability in R-R intervals appears to be predictive of significant arrhythmias in ABS. The role of beta-blocker therapy in preventing arrhythmia with ABS requires further investigation.

  8. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [es

  9. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

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    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  11. Embryology meets molecular biology: Deciphering the apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2017-09-15

    More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Apical Extrusion of Debris by Using Single-File, Full-Sequence Rotary and Reciprocating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ehsani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: During root canal preparation, apical extrusion of debris can cause inflammation, flare-ups, and delayed healing. Therefore, instrumentation techniques that cause the least extrusion of debris are desirable. This study aimed to compare apical extrusion of debris by five single-file, full-sequence rotary and reciprocating systems.Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty human mandibular premolars with similar root lengths, apical diameters, and canal curvatures were selected and randomly assigned to six groups (n=20: Reciproc R25 (25, 0.08, WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08, OneShape (25, 0.06, F360 (25, 0.04, Neoniti A1 (25, 0.08, and ProTaper Universal. Instrumentation of the root canals was performed in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. Each tooth's debris was collected in a pre-weighed vial. After drying the debris in an incubator, the mass was measured three times consecutively; the mean was then calculated. The preparation time by each system was also measured. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc test were used.Results: The mean masses (±standard deviation of the apical debris were as follows: 2.071±1.38mg (ProTaper Universal, 1.702±1.306mg (Neoniti A1, 1.295±0.839mg (OneShape, 1.109±0.676mg (WaveOne, 0.976±0.478mg (Reciproc and 0.797±0.531mg (F360. Compared to ProTaper Universal, F360 generated significantly less debris (P=0.02. The ProTaper system required the longest preparation time (mean=88.6 seconds; the Reciproc (P=0.008, OneShape (P=0.006, and F360 (P=0.001 required significantly less time (P<0.05.Conclusions: All instruments caused extrusion of debris through the apex. The F360 produced significantly less debris than did the ProTaper Universal.Keywords: Dentistry; Endodontics; Root Canal Preparation; Instrumentation

  13. Comparison of Apical Extrusion of Debris by Using Single-File, Full-Sequence Rotary and Reciprocating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Farhang, Robab; Harandi, Azadeh; Tavanafar, Saeid; Raoof, Maryam; Galledar, Saeedeh

    2016-11-01

    During root canal preparation, apical extrusion of debris can cause inflammation, flare-ups, and delayed healing. Therefore, instrumentation techniques that cause the least extrusion of debris are desirable. This study aimed to compare apical extrusion of debris by five single-file, full-sequence rotary and reciprocating systems. One hundred twenty human mandibular premolars with similar root lengths, apical diameters, and canal curvatures were selected and randomly assigned to six groups (n=20): Reciproc R25 (25, 0.08), WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08), OneShape (25, 0.06), F360 (25, 0.04), Neoniti A1 (25, 0.08), and ProTaper Universal. Instrumentation of the root canals was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Each tooth's debris was collected in a pre-weighed vial. After drying the debris in an incubator, the mass was measured three times consecutively; the mean was then calculated. The preparation time by each system was also measured. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc test were used. The mean masses (±standard deviation) of the apical debris were as follows: 2.071±1.38mg (ProTaper Universal), 1.702±1.306mg (Neoniti A1), 1.295±0.839mg (OneShape), 1.109±0.676mg (WaveOne), 0.976±0.478mg (Reciproc) and 0.797±0.531mg (F360). Compared to ProTaper Universal, F360 generated significantly less debris (P=0.02). The ProTaper system required the longest preparation time (mean=88.6 seconds); the Reciproc (P=0.008), OneShape (P=0.006), and F360 (P=0.001) required significantly less time (P<0.05). All instruments caused extrusion of debris through the apex. The F360 produced significantly less debris than did the ProTaper Universal.

  14. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular,

  15. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are made of a well-polarized monolayer of epithelial cells, and their morphology is maintained strictly for their proper functions. Previously, we showed that Rac1 activation is suppressed at the apical membrane in the mature organoid, and that such spatially biased Rac1 activity is required for the polarity maintenance. Here we identify Chimaerin, a GTPase activating protein for Rac1, as a suppressor of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane. Depletion of Chimaerin causes over-activation of Rac1 at the apical membrane in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, followed by luminal cell accumulation. Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  17. A cone-beam computed tomography study of orthodontic apical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Yu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Results show that larger tooth movement after orthodontic treatment may be associated with increased severity of root resorption. This study has demonstrated that CBCT is a useful approach for evaluating apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  19. Single Versus Multi-visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters ... apical periodontitis: An in vivo study with 1-year evaluation. ... temporary filling and dressing during the interim period in ..... Financial support and sponsorship.

  20. Shiga toxin 1 interaction with enterocytes causes apical protein mistargeting through the depletion of intracellular galectin-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiko, Marina; Murtazina, Rakhilya; Malyukova, Irina [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar C. [Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Gutsal, Oksana [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); O' Malley, Robert; Cole, Robert N. [Department of Biochemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Tarr, Phillip I. [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Murray, Karen F. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Kane, Anne [The Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Donowitz, Mark [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kovbasnjuk, Olga, E-mail: okovbas1@jhmi.edu [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2 are responsible for intestinal and systemic sequelae of infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). However, the mechanisms through which enterocytes are damaged remain unclear. While secondary damage from ischemia and inflammation are postulated mechanisms for all intestinal effects, little evidence excludes roles for more primary toxin effects on intestinal epithelial cells. We now document direct pathologic effects of Stx on intestinal epithelial cells. We study a well-characterized rabbit model of EHEC infection, intestinal tissue and stool samples from EHEC-infected patients, and T84 intestinal epithelial cells treated with Stx1. Toxin uptake by intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo causes galectin-3 depletion from enterocytes by increasing the apical galectin-3 secretion. This Shiga toxin-mediated galectin-3 depletion impairs trafficking of several brush border structural proteins and transporters, including villin, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and the sodium-proton exchanger 2, a major colonic sodium absorptive protein. The mistargeting of proteins responsible for the absorptive function might be a key event in Stx1-induced diarrhea. These observations provide new evidence that human enterocytes are directly damaged by Stx1. Conceivably, depletion of galectin-3 from enterocytes and subsequent apical protein mistargeting might even provide a means whereby other pathogens might alter intestinal epithelial absorption and produce diarrhea.

  1. Apical Extrusion of Intracanal Bacteria following use of Two Engine-driven Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Niyaz; Noushad, M C; Balan, Biji; Dhanesh, N; Jayasheelan, Nishi; Revankar, Vanita D

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the amount of debris extruded apically from extracted teeth, using Twisted files and ProTaper rotary during two different instrumentation systems. Forty-five human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth in experimental groups were instrumented until reaching the working length with ProTaper rotary instruments and Twisted files with XSmart and XSmart Dual groups. Debris extruded from the apical foramen was collected into glass vials and the amount of bacteria was calculated. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests, with p = 0.05 as the level for statistical significance. The XSmart Dual group extruded comparatively lesser bacteria compared to the XSmart group. Lesser amount of bacterial extrusion was seen when Twisted files were used compared to the ProTaper files (p endodontic care for our patients. The newer instrument designs, including noncutting tips, different cross sections, radial lands, and variable tapers, are better for the clinicians to improve working safety, to reduce the working time, and to create a greater flare within the preparations.

  2. The Use of Different Irrigation Techniques to Decrease Bacterial Loads in Healthy and Diabetic Patients with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mai; Saber, Shehab ElDin; El-Badry, Tarek; Obeid, Maram; Hassib, Nehal

    2016-12-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human's immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. This study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Enterococcus faecalis , Peptostreptococcus micros , and Fusobacterium necleatum bacteria were chosen, as they are the most common and prevailing strains found in periodontitis. Bacterial samples were retrieved from necrotic root canals of systemically healthy and diabetic patients, before and after endodontic cleaning and shaping by using two different irrigation techniques; the conventional one and the EndoVac system. Quantitive polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilised to detect the reduction in the bacterial count. The EndoVac irrigation system was effective in reducing bacteria, especially Peptostreptococcus micros in the diabetic group when compared to conventional irrigation technique with a statistically significant difference. The EndoVac can be considered as a promising tool in combination with irrigant solution to defeat the bacterial colonies living in the root canal system. Additional studies ought to be done to improve the means of bacterial clearance mainly in immune-compromised individuals.

  3. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  4. Inhibition of Apical Root Resorption by Calcium Hydroxide During Orthodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da Fonseca; Pacheco, Daniela da Fonseca; Motta, Patrícia Gonçalves da

    2016-01-01

    Apical root resorption is a common outcome of orthodontic treatment. The present article reports a case of absence of apical root resorption in a left maxillary lateral incisor filled with calcium hydroxide paste throughout orthodontic movement. After orthodontic treatment was completed the tooth was subsequently obturatedwith gutta-percha and the patient followed for 18 months. The presence of a periapical lesion and the properties of calcium hydroxide as a root resorption inhibitor were dec...

  5. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  6. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: an ex vivo comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2008-01-01

    To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( PProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05). Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05). The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( PProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  7. Influence of File Motion on Shaping, Apical Debris Extrusion and Dentinal Defects: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Brandão, Juliana Melo da Silva; Pessoa, Oscar Faciola; Rodrigues, Patrícia de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    Advances in endodontics have enabled the evolution of file manufacturing processes, improving performance beyond that of conventional files. In the present study, systems manufactured using state of the art methods and possessing special properties related to NiTi alloys ( i.e ., CM-Wire, M-Wire and R-Phase) were selected. The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature about the relationship between recently introduced NiTi files with different movement kinematics and shaping ability, apical extrusion of debris and dentin defects in root canal preparations. From March 2016 to January 2017, electronic searches were conducted in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases for articles published since January 2010. In vitro studies performed on extracted human teeth and published in English were considered for this review. Based on the inclusion criteria, 71 papers were selected for the analysis of full-text copies. Specific analysis was performed on 45 articles describing the effects of reciprocating, continuous and adaptive movements on the WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, HyFlex CM and Twisted File Adaptive systems. A wide range of testing conditions and methodologies have been used to compare the systems. Due the controversies among the results, the characteristics of the files used, such as their design and alloys, appear to be inconsistent to determine the best approach.

  8. Isotropic actomyosin dynamics promote organization of the apical cell cortex in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Christoph; Cherian, Anoop V; Fels, Johannes; Diesinger, Philipp M; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Maghelli, Nicola; Keil, Thomas; Beck, Gisela; Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva M; Bathe, Mark; Wedlich-Soldner, Roland

    2014-10-13

    Although cortical actin plays an important role in cellular mechanics and morphogenesis, there is surprisingly little information on cortex organization at the apical surface of cells. In this paper, we characterize organization and dynamics of microvilli (MV) and a previously unappreciated actomyosin network at the apical surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In contrast to short and static MV in confluent cells, the apical surfaces of nonconfluent epithelial cells (ECs) form highly dynamic protrusions, which are often oriented along the plane of the membrane. These dynamic MV exhibit complex and spatially correlated reorganization, which is dependent on myosin II activity. Surprisingly, myosin II is organized into an extensive network of filaments spanning the entire apical membrane in nonconfluent ECs. Dynamic MV, myosin filaments, and their associated actin filaments form an interconnected, prestressed network. Interestingly, this network regulates lateral mobility of apical membrane probes such as integrins or epidermal growth factor receptors, suggesting that coordinated actomyosin dynamics contributes to apical cell membrane organization. © 2014 Klingner et al.

  9. Basolateral cholesterol depletion alters Aquaporin-2 post-translational modifications and disrupts apical plasma membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Fuglsang, Cecilia Hvitfeldt; Pedersen, Cecilie Nøhr; Fenton, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Apical plasma membrane accumulation of the water channel Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct principal cells is critical for body water homeostasis. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of AQP2 is important for regulating AQP2 trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cholesterol in regulation of AQP2 PTM and in apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Cholesterol depletion from the basolateral plasma membrane of a collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD14) using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) increased AQP2 ubiquitylation. Forskolin, cAMP or dDAVP-mediated AQP2 phosphorylation at Ser269 (pS269-AQP2) was prevented by cholesterol depletion from the basolateral membrane. None of these effects on pS269-AQP2 were observed when cholesterol was depleted from the apical side of cells, or when MBCD was applied subsequent to dDAVP stimulation. Basolateral, but not apical, MBCD application prevented cAMP-induced apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. These studies indicate that manipulation of the cholesterol content of the basolateral plasma membrane interferes with AQP2 PTM and subsequently regulated apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kaiwar, A.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Hou, B.; Wu, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Methods Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated

  11. Effect of Maintaining Apical Patency on Irrigant Penetration into the Apical Two Millimeters of Large Root Canals : An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera, Jorge; Hernandez, Erick M.; Romero, Monica; Arias, Ana; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Factors such as complex root canal anatomy and the vapor lock phenomenon have been shown to limit the penetration of irrigating solutions into the apical third in both in vivo and in vitro studies involving small and wide canals. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine whether

  12. Comparative evaluation of debris extruded apically by using, Protaper retreatment file, K3 file and H-file with solvent in endodontic retreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris comparing 2 engine driven systems and hand instrumentation technique during root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty five human permanent mandibular premolars were prepared using the step-back technique, obturated with gutta-percha/zinc oxide eugenol sealer and cold lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into three groups: Group A: Protaper retreatment file, Group B: K3, file Group C: H-file with tetrachloroethylene. All the canals were irrigated with 20ml distilled water during instrumentation. Debris extruded along with the irrigating solution during retreatment procedure was carefully collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were stored in an incubator for 5 days, placed in a desiccator and then re-weighed. Weight of dry debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of the tube before instrumentation and from the weight of the tube after instrumentation. Data was analyzed using Two Way ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results : There was statistically significant difference in the apical extrusion of debris between hand instrumentation and protaper retreatment file and K3 file. The amount of extruded debris caused by protaper retreatment file and K3 file instrumentation technique was not statistically significant. All the three instrumentation techniques produced apically extruded debris and irrigant. Conclusion: The best way to minimize the extrusion of debris is by adapting crown down technique therefore the use of rotary technique (Protaper retreatment file, K3 file is recommended.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of apically extruded debris with different single-file systems: Reciproc, F360 and OneShape versus Mtwo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, S; Benten, S; Schäfer, E

    2014-05-01

    To assess in a laboratory setting the amount of apically extruded debris associated with different single-file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems compared to one multiple-file rotary system. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc, the single-file rotary systems F360 and OneShape and the multiple-file rotary Mtwo instruments. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in pre-weighed glass vials. The amount of debris was assessed with a micro balance and statistically analysed using anova and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared to all other systems (P file rotary systems and the multiple-file rotary system (P > 0.05). Instrumentation with the three single-file systems was significantly faster than with Mtwo (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. Rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared to reciprocal instrumentation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the Self-adjusting File systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavahare, Nishant K; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Desai, Niranjan N

    2016-01-01

    Complete cleaning of the root canal is the goal for ensuring success in endodontics. Removal of debris plays an important role in achieving this goal. In spite of advancements in instrument design, apical extrusion of debris remains a source of inflammation in the periradicular region. To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the self-adjusting File (SAF) system. Sixty-four extracted human mandibular teeth with straight root canals were taken. Access openings were done and working length determined. The samples were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - V-Taper files (n = 20), Group II - ProTaper Next (n = 20), Group III - SAF (n = 20). Biomechanical preparation was completed and the debris collected in vials to be quantitatively determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test. All the specimens showed apical debris extrusion. SAF showed significantly less debris extrusion compared to V-Taper and ProTaper Next (P endodontic instruments. This indicates that the incidence of inter-treatment flare-ups due to debris extrusion would be less with the SAF.

  15. Evaluation of apical canal shapes produced sequentially during instrumentation with stainless steel hand and Ni-Ti rotary instruments using Micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Jin Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal master apical file size with minimal transportation and optimal efficiency in removing infected dentin. We evaluated the transportation of the canal center and the change in untouched areas after sequential preparation with a #25 to #40 file using 3 different instruments: stainless steel K-type (SS K-file hand file, ProFile and LightSpeed using microcomputed tomography (MCT. Materials and Methods Thirty extracted human mandibular molars with separated orifices and apical foramens on mesial canals were used. Teeth were randomly divided into three groups: SS K-file, Profile, LightSpeed and the root canals were instrumented using corresponding instruments from #20 to #40. All teeth were scanned with MCT before and after instrumentation. Cross section images were used to evaluate canal transportation and untouched area at 1- , 2- , 3- , and 5- mm level from the apex. Data were statistically analyzed according to' repeated nested design'and Mann-Whitney test (p = 0.05. Results In SS K-file group, canal transportation was significantly increased over #30 instrument. In the ProFile group, canal transportation was significantly increased after preparation with the #40 instrument at the 1- and 2- mm levels. LightSpeed group showed better centering ability than ProFile group after preparation with the #40 instrument at the 1 and 2 mm levels. Conclusions SS K-file, Profile, and LightSpeed showed differences in the degree of apical transportation depending on the size of the master apical file.

  16. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with two different rotary systems followed by a self-adjusting file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Fatih; Cakici, Elif B; Küçükekenci, Funda Fundaoglu

    2016-02-01

    To compare the amount of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment using ProTaper retreatment system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper retreatment system with Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system (ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Mtwo retreatment system (VDW, Munich, Germany), Mtwo retreatment system with SAF instruments. In total, 72 extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were used. All root canals were prepared with ProTaper universal (Dentsply Maillefer) up to F2 file and filled with gutta percha and AH plus sealer using cold lateral condensation before being assembled randomly into 4 groups (n = 18 each). Root canal filling materials were removed using the ProTaper retreatment system, the ProTaper retreatment system followed by SAF system, Mtwo retreatment system and Mtwo retreatment system followed by SAF system. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. All retreatment techniques caused the apical extrusion of debris. There was no significant difference between the groups statistically (p>0.05). The results of this study showed that SAF system after Mtwo retreatment system and ProTaper retreatment system for improving retreatment has no significant effect on the amount of debris extruded apically.

  17. Evaluation of the reinforcement effect on teeth with different apical foramen diameters of retrograde or orthograde MTA application with internal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the apical foramen diameter and different application methods of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA on the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth using a Universal Testing Machine. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety extracted human teeth were used for the fracture resistance test. The apical foramen was prepared to a diameter of 1.0 mm or 1.4 mm to simulate the open apex of immature teeth. MTA was mixed according to manufacturer's recommendations and placed into the root canals with different apical foramen diameter by four different root filling techniques: retrograde, two-phased orthograde, and ortograde with or without internal matrix. Prepared roots were marked 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and embedded in transparent acrylic resin in cylinder moulds. Vertical force was applied along the long axis of the tooth at a speed of 5 mm/min, and the maximum resistance to fracture for each tooth was determined in Newton. A software package was used for the statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference could not be observed between the groups (p>0.05 whereas statistically significant differences were found between the test groups and the control groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between different vertical root filling techniques in increasing the fracture strength of the teeth. The diameter of the apical foramen did not have a significant effect on the fracture resistance.

  18. Interleukin-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in apical periodontitis: correlation with clinical and histologic findings of the involved teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radics, T; Kiss, C; Tar, I; Márton, I J

    2003-02-01

    Apical periodontitis is characterized by the presence of immunocompetent cells producing a wide variety of inflammatory mediators. Releasing cytokines with long-range action, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), apical periodontitis may induce changes in remote organs of the host. This study quantified the levels of IL-6 and GM-CSF in symptomatic and asymptomatic human periradicular lesions. Lesions were also characterized by size and histologic findings. Tissue samples were homogenized and supernatants were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlations between cytokine levels and characteristic features (as single variables) of the lesions were analysed. There was a trend for higher levels of IL-6 and GM-CSF in symptomatic than in asymptomatic lesions, but the difference was not significant. Levels also tended to be higher in large than in small lesions, in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell-rich than in PMN cell-poor samples, and in epithelialized than in non-epithelialized lesions. Significantly higher levels of IL-6 (778.1 +/- 220.5 pg/microg) and GM-CSF (363.3 +/- 98.4 pg/microg) were found in samples coincidentally possessing symptomatic and epithelialized features than in asymptomatic, small, PMN cell-poor, non-epithelialized lesions (IL-6: 45.2 +/- 13.1 pg/microg and GM-CSF: 135.1 +/- 26.4 pg/microg). These results suggest that symptomatic lesions containing epithelial cells represent an immunologically active stage of apical periodontitis, whereas asymptomatic, small, PMN cell-poor, non-epithelialized lesions represent healing apical lesions.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Novaes, Arthur B; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Santamaria, Milton; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo response of apical and periapical tissues of dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis after one-session endodontic treatment with and without antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Sixty root canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were instrumented and assigned to 4 groups receiving aPDT and root canal filling (RCF) or not: group aPDT+/RCF+ (n = 20): aPDT (photosensitizer phenothiazine chloride at 10 mg/mL for 3 minutes and diode laser [λ = 660 nm, 60 mW/cm(2)] for 1 minute) and RCF in the same session; group aPDT+/RCF- (n = 10); group aPDT-/RCF+ (n = 20), and group aPDT-/RCF- (n = 10). Teeth were restored, and the animals were killed after 90 days. Sections from the maxillas and mandibles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Mallory trichrome and examined under light microscopy. Descriptive (ie, newly formed apical mineralized tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, and mineralized tissue resorption) and quantitative (ie, periapical lesion size and number of inflammatory cells) microscopic analysis was performed. Quantitative data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = .05). In the aPDT-treated groups, the periapical region was moderately/severely enlarged with no inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis and fibrogenesis, and the smallest periapical lesions. Although apical closure by mineralized tissue deposition was not achieved, the absence of inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in the periapical region in the groups treated with aPDT indicate that this can be a promising adjunct therapy to cleaning and shaping procedures in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing one-session endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Size and geometry of apical sesamoid fracture fragments as a determinant of prognosis in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, J L; Bramlage, L R; Schnabel, L V; Ruggles, A J; Embertson, R M; Hopper, S A

    2011-07-01

    Analysis was performed to examine a method for refining the preoperative prognosis for horses that had surgery to remove apical fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs). To determine if: 1) there was a difference in size or configuration of apical fractures between the different anatomical locations of the PSBs, which have been shown to affect the prognosis; and 2) the size or configuration could predict the prognosis for racehorses with these fractures. The study included 110 weanlings and yearlings and 56 training racehorses that underwent surgery to remove apical PSB fractures. Radiographs of the fractures were used for measurement of the abaxial and axial proportion and the abaxial to axial ratio, and race records were used to determine average earnings per start (AEPS) and total post operative starts. Analysis of variance and regression statistics were used to compare the fragment sizes between the specific PSBs on each of the limbs and compare size and configuration of the fractures to prognosis. There was a significantly larger abaxial to axial ratio (more transverse fracture) for the forelimb medial sesamoids than for all other sesamoids in untrained racehorses (P = 0.03). There were no other significant differences in size. There was no relationship between fracture size or configuration and AEPS nor total post operative starts. Apical fractures in weanlings and yearlings tend to be more transverse in the forelimb medial PSBs than the other PSBs. Apical fracture size and geometry does not determine prognosis for apical sesamoid fractures. Horses that undergo surgery to remove larger apical fractures of the PSBs do not have a worse outcome than those horses with smaller fractures. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  1. How far is the root apex of a unilateral impacted canine from the root apices' arch form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, You-Min; Oh, Sewoong; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the arch form of the root apices of normally erupting teeth and then determine the differences in the location of the apex of impacted canines relative to normally erupting canines. In addition, we sought to determine whether the labiopalatal position of the impacted canines influences the position of the apices. The study included 21 patients with unerupted canines that subsequently had a normal eruption, 21 patients with palatally impacted canines, 27 patients with labially impacted canines, and 17 patients with midalveolus impacted canines. Images were obtained using cone beam computed tomography, and the x, y, and z coordinates of the root apices were determined using Ondemand3D software (Cybermed Co., Seoul, Korea). Two-dimensional coordinates were converted from acquired 3-dimensional coordinates via projection on a palatal plane, and the Procrustes method was used to process the converted 2-dimensional coordinates and to draw the arch forms of the root apices. Finally, we measured the extent of root apex deviation from the arch forms of the root apices. Normally erupting canines showed that even though calcifications may be immature, their positions were aligned with a normal arch form. The root apices of the impacted canines were an average of 6.572 mm away from the root apices' arch form, whereas those of the contralateral nonimpacted canines were an average distance of 2.221 mm away, a statistically significant difference. The palatally impacted canines' root apices distribution tended toward the first premolar root apices. Incompletely calcified, unerupted teeth with a subsequent normal eruption showed a normal arch form of the root apices. The root apices of impacted canines were farther from the arch forms than were the nonimpacted canines. Also, the root apices of impacted canines in the palatal area showed distributions different from those of the other impacted canine groups. Copyright © 2017 American

  2. Functional characterization of apical transporters expressed in rat proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukushi, Akimasa; Sato, Masanobu; Yoshifuji, Mayuko; Gose, Tomoka; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohe, Kazuyo; Kobayashi, Masato; Kawai, Keiichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2011-12-05

    Since in vitro cell culture models often show altered apical transporter expression, they are not necessarily suitable for the analysis of renal transport processes. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the usefulness of primary-cultured rat proximal tubular cells (PTCs) for this purpose. After isolation of renal cortical cells from rat kidneys, PTCs were enriched and the gene expression and function of apical transporters were analyzed by means of microarray, RT-PCR and uptake experiments. RT-PCR confirmed that the major apical transporters were expressed in rat PTCs. Na(+)-dependent uptake of α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (αMG), ergothioneine and carnitine by the PTCs suggests functional expression of Sglts, Octn1 and Octn2, respectively. Inhibition of pH-dependent glycylsarcosine uptake by low concentration of cephalexin, which is a β-lactam antibiotics recognized by Pepts, indicates a predominant role of high affinity type Pept2, but not low affinity type Pept1, in the PTCs. Moreover, the permeability ratio of [(14)C]αMG (apical to basolateral/basolateral to apical) across PTCs was 4.3, suggesting that Sglt-mediated reabsorptive transport is characterized. In conclusion, our results indicate that rat PTCs in primary culture are found to be a promising in vitro model to evaluate reabsorption processes mediated at least by Sglts, Pept2, Octn1 and Octn2.

  3. Strategies to reduce the apical necrosis in vitro multiplication and rooting of Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio (Pistacia sp. is one of the least exploited fruit among the main causes is the high cost of plant material by the difficulties of propagation of the species. The propagation in vitro offers great potential for the industry of this species by multiplication scale of selected clones. The aim of this study was to control the apical necrosis of outbreaks in the in vitro propagation Pistachio. From young shoots of plants of this species kept in growing houses, proceeded to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite 1% for different times. The apical and axillary buds were established in the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 modified and supplemented with 1 mg/L Metatopolina. Different types of bottles, number and type of explants and culture media formulations for two subcultures multiplication and rooting were evaluated. Glass flask of 200 ml capacity, and line proliferates DKW medium achieved the lowest values apical necrosis. In the multiplication phase values were low in all treatments tested no statistical difference between them compared to rooting where apical necrosis reached higher values. The average DKW and prolific lines obtained lower values. MS medium modified crop, favored the number of segments rooted and DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki, 1984 the number of segments that sprouted, the latter having lower incidence of apical necrosis.

  4. Apical extrusion of debris in primary molar root canals using mechanical and manual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, B; Hascizmeci, C; Aksoy, S; Nur Aydin, M; Guvendi, O N

    2018-03-01

    Apical extrusion of debris in primary root canal treatment has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study is to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of primary molar root canals using ProTaper, ProTaper Next, Self-adjusting File (SAF) and hand files. One hundred sixty extracted primary mandibular molar teeth were assigned to 2 groups: Group 1: Resorbed (n=80) and Group 2: Non-resorbed (n=80) and randomly to four subgroups (n=20 teeth for each subgroup) according to the instruments used, ProTaper, ProTaper Next, SAF, and hand file. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendof tubes. The dry weight was calculated by subtracting the preoperative weight from the postoperative weight. Data were analysed statistically using the ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc t-test. The amount of apically extruded debris was significantly less for the non-resorbed group compared to the resorbed group (PProTaper Next and SAF extruded significantly less debris than did the ProTaper and hand files (PProTaper Next and SAF (P>0.05). All instruments caused apically extruded debris in primary teeth.

  5. Decreased Expression of Semaphorin3A/Neuropilin-1 Signaling Axis in Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical periodontitis (AP is a chronic infection of endodontic origin accompanied with bone destruction around the apical region. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 are regarded as a pair of immune regulators in bone metabolism. In this study, we firstly investigated the expression pattern of Sema3A/Nrp1 in apical periodontitis and its correlation with bone destruction. Using rat animal model, we analysed the level of mandibular bone destruction and the expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after pulp exposure. In addition, clinical samples from apical periodontitis patients were obtained to analyse the expression of Sema3A/Nrp1. These results indicated that the bone destruction level expanded from days 7 to 35. The number of positive cells and level of mRNA expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 were significantly decreased from days 7 to 35, with a negative correlation with bone destruction. Moreover, expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 in the AP group was reduced compared to the control group of clinical samples. In conclusion, decreased expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 was observed in periapical lesions and is potentially involved in the bone resorption of the periapical area, suggesting that Sema3A/Nrp1 may contribute to the pathological development of apical periodontitis.

  6. Gradenigo's Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taklalsingh, Nicholas; Falcone, Franco; Velayudhan, Vinodkumar

    2017-09-28

    BACKGROUND Gradenigo's syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo's syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo's syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). CASE REPORT A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed petrous apicitis with mastoiditis and abscess formation in the cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna). The case was complicated by the development of palsy of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve, fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, and sixth (abducens) cranial nerve, with radiological changes indicating infection involving the seventh (facial) cranial nerve, and eighth (vestibulocochlear) cranial nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae, sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient improved with surgery that included a left mastoidectomy and debridement of the petrous apex, followed by a ten-week course of antibiotics. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the infection. CONCLUSIONS This report is of an atypical case of Gradenigo's syndrome. It is important to recognize that the classical triad of Gradenigo's syndrome, suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis (apical petrositis), and bacterial meningitis.

  7. Balance between Apical Membrane Growth and Luminal Matrix Resistance Determines Epithelial Tubule Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape.

  8. Balance between apical membrane growth and luminal matrix resistance determines epithelial tubule shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Hannezo, Edouard; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2014-05-22

    The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apical extrusion of debris: a literature review of an inherent occurrence during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanalp, J; Güngör, T

    2014-03-01

    Extrusion of intracanal debris as well as irrigants is a common occurrence during root canal treatment, and no instrument or technique has thoroughly solved this problem. Because flare-ups may arise with any irritation directed towards periapical tissues, a shaping or irrigation technique should minimize the risk of apical extrusion, even though it may not be prevented. There has been a rapid evolution of root canal instruments and irrigation systems through the last decade, and many have been assessed for their debris extrusion potential. The purpose of this review was to identify publications regarding the evaluation of debris, bacteria and irrigant extrusion during root canal treatment. A PubMed, Ovid and MEDLINE search was conducted using the keywords "apical extrusion", "debris extrusion" and "endodontic treatment". The literature search extended over a period of more than 30 years up to 2012. Content of the review was limited to apical extrusion of debris and irrigants, extrusion of liquid by irrigation methods and bacterial extrusion. Issues relevant to apical extrusion were obtained by further search in the reference sections of the retrieved articles. The review provides an update on the current status of apical extrusion. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Revitalization of open apex teeth with apical periodontitis using a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breaking into the epithelial apical-junctional complex--news from pathogen hackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Roger; Amieva, Manuel R; Falkow, Stanley; Nelson, W James

    2004-02-01

    The epithelial apical-junctional complex is a key regulator of cellular functions. In addition, it is an important target for microbial pathogens that manipulate the cell to survive, proliferate and sometimes persist within a host. Out of a myriad of potential molecular targets, some bacterial and viral pathogens have selected a subset of protein targets at the apical-junctional complex of epithelial cells. Studying how microbes use these targets also teaches us about the inherent physiological properties of host molecules in the context of normal junctional structure and function. Thus, we have learned that three recently uncovered components of the apical-junctional complex of the Ig superfamily--junctional adhesion molecule, Nectin and the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor--are important regulators of junction structure and function and represent critical targets of microbial virulence gene products.

  12. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  13. Cytoplasmic Dynein Regulation by Subunit Heterogeneity and Its Role in Apical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew W.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2001-01-01

    Despite the existence of multiple subunit isoforms for the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, it has not yet been directly shown that dynein complexes with different compositions exhibit different properties. The 14-kD dynein light chain Tctex-1, but not its homologue RP3, binds directly to rhodopsin's cytoplasmic COOH-terminal tail, which encodes an apical targeting determinant in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 and RP3 compete for binding to dynein intermediate chain and that overexpressed RP3 displaces endogenous Tctex-1 from dynein complexes in MDCK cells. Furthermore, replacement of Tctex-1 by RP3 selectively disrupts the translocation of rhodopsin to the MDCK apical surface. These results directly show that cytoplasmic dynein function can be regulated by its subunit composition and that cytoplasmic dynein is essential for at least one mode of apical transport in polarized epithelia. PMID:11425878

  14. An in vitro evaluation of the apical sealing ability of new polymeric endodontic filling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, Emel Olga; Ungor, Mete; Unver, Saadet; Ari, Hale; Belli, Sema

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term sealing abilities of recently introduced polymeric endodontic filling systems. Root canals of 120 extracted and decoronated human single-rooted teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique with HERO Shaper rotary instruments. The roots were divided randomly into 8 groups (6 experimental and 2 control groups of 15 roots each) and filled with different combinations of core and sealer as follows: group 1, RealSeal/Resilon; group 2, RealSeal/Herofill; group 3, Hybrid Root Seal/Resilon; group 4, Hybrid Root Seal/Herofill; group 5, MM-Seal/Resilon; group 6, MM-Seal/Herofill; group 7, positive controls (Herofill only); group 8, negative controls. Apical leakage quantity was evaluated after 1 week by using a fluid filtration model. For each sample, measurements of fluid movement were recorded at 2-minute intervals for a total of 8 minutes, and then averaged. The data were calculated and analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Tukey test. Significance was set at P less than .05. Multiple paired comparisons (Tukey test) showed that, of all the groups, MM-Seal/Herofill combination exhibited the least microleakage, and RealSeal/Herofill combination ranked second in this regard. The mean leakage values for the RealSeal/Resilon and MM-Seal/Resilon combinations were both significantly higher than the means for the other 4 experimental groups (P < .01). Hybrid Root Seal combined with Resilon resulted in significantly less microleakage than Hybrid Root Seal combined with Herofill (P = .001). The results suggest that the sealing properties of epoxy-resin-based sealer (MM-Seal) combined with gutta-percha (Herofill) are superior to those of methacrylate-based sealers (Hybrid Root Seal and Realseal) combined with Resilon.

  15. The role of IL-6 on apical periodontitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, M M; Samuel, R O; Gomes-Filho, J E; Dezan-Junior, E; Cintra, L T A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this review was to examine current knowledge of the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in apical periodontitis (AP) pathogenesis as an inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cytokine. It also looked at whether IL-6 could serve as a measure for differential diagnosis or as a biomarker that can further predict the progression of bone resorption. A systematic review relating to AP and IL-6 was made via PubMed, BIOSIS, Cochrane, EMBASE and Web of Science databases using keywords and controlled vocabulary. Two independent reviewers first screened titles and abstracts and then the full texts. The reference lists of the identified publications were examined for additional titles. Eighteen papers were studied in total. In vitro studies (n = 6) revealed that IL-6 is present in AP, and its levels are proportional to the size of the periapical lesions. Neutrophils and macrophages resident in these lesions can produce IL-6 in vitro after a bacterial stimulus. Animal studies (n = 5) showed that IL-6 is present in AP and that osteoblasts can produce IL-6 in vivo. On the other hand, two studies using IL-6 knockout mice revealed larger periapical lesions when compared with control groups, demonstrating IL-6's role as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In human studies (n = 7), IL-6 was identified in AP, and its levels were higher in symptomatic, epithelialized and large lesions than in asymptomatic and small lesions. These data lead to the conclusion that IL-6 may play a pro-inflammatory role, increasing its levels and reabsorbing bone in the presence of infections. When IL-6 is not present, other cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-α induce bone resorption. Further studies about the relationship between AP development and the cytokine network must be performed to establish the exact role of each cytokine in the inflammatory process. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Utilizing the GentleWave® System for Debridement of Undetected Apical Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael W

    2018-03-01

    Debriding and disinfecting complex anatomies within the root canal system pose a major challenge during root canal therapy. Even with current chemomechanical techniques, debris and bacterial remnants are commonly left behind, which are generally believed to increase the risk of endodontic failure. This case details the use of a new technique to debride complex apical anatomy in a maxillary molar. A 48-year-old female presented to the clinic with a chief complaint of increasing pain in her tooth. Clinical examination of the right first maxillary molar (#3) revealed moderate sensitivity to percussion and mild sensitivity to palpation. A pulpal diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and a periapi-cal diagnosis of symptomatic apical periodontitis were made. Mechanical instrumentation was performed using rotary file size #25/.04 for the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals and size #25/.06 for the palatal canal to create a fluid path and enable obturation of the root canal system following the GentleWave® Procedure. The GentleWave Procedure was completed using Multisonic Ultracleaning™ for complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system. The tooth was obturated using a warm vertical continuous wave obturation technique. Postoperative radiographs revealed complex anatomy within the apical third that was undetected both during pre-operative radiography and mechanical instrumentation. The palatal canal exhibited a complex apical delta with multiple points of exit, and the mesiobuccal canal revealed an undetected lateral canal within the apical third that had a separate and distinct egress. Conclusion and clinical significance: It is important for the clinician to debride and disinfect complex anatomy within the root canal system to reduce the risk of endodontic failure. This case report highlights the clinical significance of utilizing the GentleWave Procedure for detecting complex apical anatomy during endodontic therapy.

  17. Prevalence, clinical significance, and natural history of left ventricular apical aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martin S; Finley, John J; Bos, J Martijn; Hauser, Thomas H; Manning, Warren J; Haas, Tammy S; Lesser, John R; Udelson, James E; Ackerman, Michael J; Maron, Barry J

    2008-10-07

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic heart disease characterized by a diverse clinical and phenotypic spectrum. This study reports the prevalence, morphology, clinical course, and management of an underrecognized subgroup of HCM patients with left ventricular apical aneurysms. Of 1299 HCM patients, 28 (2%) were identified with left ventricular apical aneurysms, including a pair of identical twins. Aneurysms were recognized at a wide age range (26 to 83 years), including 12 patients (43%) who were rims, and were associated with transmural (and often more extensive) myocardial scarring identified by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Apical aneurysms were recognized by echocardiography in only 16 of 28 patients (57%) but by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the 12 patients undetected by echocardiography. Left ventricular chamber morphology varied; however, 19 patients (68%) showed an "hourglass" contour, with midventricular hypertrophy producing muscular narrowing and intracavitary gradients in 9 patients (74+/-42 mm Hg). Sarcomeric protein missense mutations known to cause other phenotypic expressions of HCM were present in 3 patients. Over 4.1+/-3.7 years of follow-up, 12 patients (43%) with left ventricular apical aneurysms experienced adverse disease complications (event rate, 10.5%/y), including sudden death, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharges, nonfatal thromboembolic stroke, and progressive heart failure and death. Patients with left ventricular apical aneurysms represent an underappreciated subset in the heterogeneous HCM disease spectrum with important clinical implications, often requiring a high index of suspicion and cardiovascular magnetic resonance for identification. Apical aneurysms in HCM are associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and raise novel treatment considerations.

  18. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan; Friedman, Shimon

    2012-05-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohort for which the 1-year outcome was previously reported. Apical microsurgery procedures were uniformly performed using SuperEBA (Staident International, Staines, UK) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) root-end fillings or alternatively Retroplast capping (Retroplast Trading, Rorvig, Denmark). Subjects examined at 1 year (n = 191) were invited for the 5-year clinical and radiographic examination. Based on blinded, independent assessment by 3 calibrated examiners, the dichotomous outcome (healed or nonhealed) was determined and associated with patient-, tooth-, and treatment-related variables using logistic regression. At the 5-year follow-up, 9 of 191 teeth were unavailable, 12 of 191 teeth were extracted, and 170 of 191 teeth were examined (87.6% recall rate). A total of 129 of 170 teeth were healed (75.9%) compared with 83.8% at 1 year, and 85.3% were asymptomatic. Two significant outcome predictors were identified: the mesial-distal bone level at ≤ 3 mm versus >3 mm from the cementoenamel junction (78.2% vs 52.9% healed, respectively; odds ratio = 5.10; confidence interval, 1.67-16.21; P apical microsurgery was 8% poorer than assessed at 1 year. It also suggested that the prognosis was significantly impacted by the interproximal bone levels at the treated tooth and by the type of root-end filling material used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of zinc translocation into apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal neuron after electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang Won

    2009-02-15

    Translocation of the endogenous cation zinc from presynaptic terminals to postsynaptic neurons after brain insult has been implicated as a potential neurotoxic event. Several studies have previously demonstrated that a brief electrical stimulation is sufficient to induce the translocation of zinc from presynaptic vesicles into the cytoplasm (soma) of postsynaptic neurons. In the present work I have extended those findings in three ways: (i) providing evidence that zinc translocation occurs into apical dendrites, (ii) presenting data that there is an apparent translocation into apical dendrites when only a zinc-containing synaptic input is stimulated, and (iii) presenting data that there is no zinc translocation into apical dendrite of ZnT3 KO mice following electrical stimulation. Hippocampal slices were preloaded with the "trappable" zinc fluorescent probe, Newport Green. After washout, a single apical dendrite in the stratum radiatum of hippocampal CA1 area was selected and focused on. Burst stimulation (100Hz, 500microA, 0.2ms, monopolar) was delivered to either the adjacent Schaffer-collateral inputs (zinc-containing) or to the adjacent temporo-ammonic inputs (zinc-free) to the CA1 dendrites. Stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals increased the dendritic fluorescence, which was blocked by TTX, low-Ca medium, or the extracellular zinc chelator, CaEDTA. Stimulation of the temporo-ammonic pathway caused no significant rise in the fluorescence. Genetic depletion of vesicular zinc by ZnT3 KO showed no stimulation-induced apical dendrite zinc rise. The present study provides evidence that synaptically released zinc translocates into postsynaptic neurons through the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons during physiological synaptic activity.

  20. Management of an asymptomatic patient with the apical variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Meghan K Borden; Biederman, Robert W

    2017-07-01

    Healthcare professionals are faced with challenging decisions regarding patient evaluation and management on a daily basis. Once a diagnosis is made, additional challenges include how to proceed with the management. Here, we present an eighty-two-year-old female who was incidentally diagnosed with the apical variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on a transthoracic echocardiogram. She was found to have newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation, but was otherwise asymptomatic from a cardiomyopathy standpoint. No specific guidelines exist for this patient population. Therefore, how does one proceed with the management of an asymptomatic patient with the apical variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root’s apical third

    OpenAIRE

    FRÖNER, Izabel Cristina; IMPERADOR, Cristina Aparecida; SOUZA, Luiz Gustavo de

    1999-01-01

    The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy. A presente pesquisa analisa in vitro as alterações anatômicas dos 4 mm apic...

  2. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  3. Role of apical oxygen in 2-1-4 electron-doped superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.; Riou, G.; Jandl, S.; Poirier, M.; Fournier, P.; Nekvasil, V.; Divis, M

    2004-08-01

    We report a crystal-field infrared transmission and Raman study of oxygenated and reduced Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} single crystals. Some Nd{sup 3+} crystal-field absorption bands corresponding to rare-earth ions in non-regular sites are attributed to Nd{sup 3+} ions in the vicinity of apical oxygens. This is correlated with a study of the A{sup *} ({approx}580 cm{sup -1}) Raman local mode and with the transport properties of undoped materials. We show that the apical oxygen is not removed by the reduction.

  4. Evaluation and Comparison of the Position of the Apical Constriction in Single-root and Multiple-root Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farhad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precise knowledge of the location of the apical constriction is essential to root canal treatment and long-term prognosis. Considering the differences in the apical constriction and size of the roots in single- and multiple-root teeth in various races, examination and comparison of the location of the apical constriction in single-root and multiple-root teeth are of paramount importance. The present studies aimed to measure and compare the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomical apex in single-root and multiple-root teeth. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 roots of single-rooted teeth and 60 roots of multiple-rooted teeth were collected from the patients referring to the health centers in Isfahan, Iran. After cleansing and disinfecting the surface of the roots, the surface of the teeth was washed with hypochlorite. Based on the direction of the apical foramen, a longitudinal cut was made in the same direction, and the roots were examined microscopically at the magnification of 25. Following that, the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomical apex was measured using a digital camera. In addition, mean and standard deviation of the obtained distance values were determined. Distances in the single-root and multiple-root teeth were compared using independent t-test, at the significance level of Results: Mean distance between the apical constriction and apical foramen was 0.86±0.33 mm in the single-root teeth and 0.072±0.27 mm in the multiple-root teeth. Mean distance between the apical constriction and anatomical apex was 1.14±0.36 mm in the single-root teeth and 1.03±0.36 mm in the multiple-root teeth. Moreover, the results of independent t-test showed the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen to be significant between single-root and multiple-rooted teeth (P=0.013. However, the distance between the apical constriction

  5. A Comparison of Apical Bacterial Extrusion in Manual, ProTaper Rotary, and One Shape Rotary Instrumentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rakesh; Singla, Meenu G; Garg, Ashima; Dhawan, Anu

    2015-12-01

    Apical extrusion of irrigants and debris is an inherent limitation associated with cleaning and shaping of root canals and has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance as a cause of flare-ups. Many factors affect the amount of extruded intracanal materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the bacterial extrusion by using manual, multiple-file continuous rotary system (ProTaper) and single-file continuous rotary system (One Shape). Forty-two human mandibular premolars were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis by using a bacterial extrusion model. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 12) and 1 control group (n = 6). The root canals of experimental groups were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions by using manual technique, ProTaper rotary system, or One Shape rotary system. Sterilized saline was used as an irrigant, and bacterial extrusion was quantified as colony-forming units/milliliter. The results obtained were statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance for intergroup comparison and post hoc Tukey test for pair-wise comparison. The level for accepting statistical significance was set at P step-back technique exhibiting significantly more bacterial extrusion than the engine-driven systems. Of the 2 engine-driven systems, ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more bacteria than One Shape rotary system (P engine-driven nickel-titanium systems were associated with less apical extrusion. The instrument design may play a role in amount of extrusion. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting placebo response in adolescents with major depressive disorder: The Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Mayes, Taryn L; Byerly, Matthew J; Emslie, Graham J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a composite scoring system to predict the probability of placebo response in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Participants of the current study were 151 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were randomized to the placebo arm (placebo transdermal patches) of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the selegiline transdermal patch with placebo (DelBello et al., 2014). The primary outcome of response was defined as a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 (very much or much improved) at week 12 (study-end) or exit. As a first step, a multiple logistic mixed model was used to estimate the odds of placebo response from each predictor in the model, including age, CDRS-R total at baseline (depressive symptom severity), history of recurrent depression (yes vs. no), sex (female vs. male), and race (non-Caucasian vs. Caucasian). On the basis of the initial logistic mixed model analysis, we then constructed an Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS) that became the sole predictor in a re-specified Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the probability of placebo response. Finally, the AUC for the APICS was tested against a nominal area of 0.50 to evaluate how well the APICS discriminated placebo response status. Among the 151 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.6 years (SD = 1.6) and a mean baseline CDRS-R total of 60.6 (SD = 12.1), 68.2% were females, 50.3% was Caucasian, and 39.7% had a history of recurrent depression. Placebo response rate was 58.3%. Based on the logistic mixed model, the re-specified equation with the highest discriminatory ability to estimate the probability of placebo response was APICS = age + (0.32 × CDRS-R Total at baseline) + (-2.85 × if female) + (-5.50 × if history of recurrent depression) + (-5.85 × if non-Caucasian). The AUC for this model was 0.59 (p = .049). Within a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework, in 95.5% of the time, the 10,000 posterior Monte Carlo samples suggested

  7. Sodium transport and intracellular sodium activity in cultured human nasal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

     human nasal epithelium (HNE). Under control conditions, intracellular Na+ activity (acNa) was 23 +/- 1 mM (n = 44 preparations, 393 impalements).Amiloride (10(-4) M) hyperpolarized the apical membrane and increased the fractional apical membrane resistance but did not affect acNa. Exposure to...

  8. Correlation between prostate brachytherapy-related urethral stricture and peri-apical urethral dosimetry: A matched case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, James J.; Abdelbaky, Ather M.; Cunningham, Melanie J.; Chadwick, Eliot; Langley, Stephen E.M.; Laing, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation dose to the bulbomembranous urethra has been shown to correlate with urethral stricture formation. This retrospective case–control study was designed to explore the relationship between dose to the apical/peri-apical regions of the urethra and development of brachytherapy (BXT)-related urethral stricture. Materials and methods: Cases were patients who developed urethral stricture after treatment with BXT as monotherapy and who had urethral dosimetry post-implant. Each case was matched with a control that had not developed urethral stricture. Dosimetry was compared between cases and controls. Results: Twenty-three cases were pair matched with 23 controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, presenting Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) or Gleason score. The dose delivered to the peri-apical and apical urethra was significantly higher for cases when compared with controls (peri-apical urethra: mean V 150 1.1 Vs 0.8 cc [p = 0.02]; apical urethra: mean dose 200 Vs 174 Gy [p = 0.01]). The distance from the prostate apex to isodose lines was also found to be significant in predicting stricture formation. Conclusion: There was evidence to suggest that the development of BXT-related stricture was associated with radiation dose at the apical and peri-apical urethra. Attention to the dose delivered to those areas may minimise the risk of developing such morbidity.

  9. Left ventricular assist device implantation in a patient who had previously undergone apical myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Deo, Salil V; Topilsky, Yan; Grogan, Martha A; Park, Soon J

    2012-03-01

    Apical hypertrophy is a rare variant of hypertropic cardiomyopathy. These patients may present with end-stage congestive heart failure subsequent to long standing diastolic dysfunction. We report the technique for left ventricular assist device insertion in a patient with previous apical myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A unique approach to demonstrating that apical bud temperature specifically determines leaf initiation rate in the dicot Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Dieleman, Anja; Ieperen, van Wim; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: Leaf initiation rate is largely determined by the apical bud temperature even when apical bud temperature largely deviates from the temperature of other plant organs.We have long known that the rate of leaf initiation (LIR) is highly sensitive to temperature, but previous studies

  11. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  12. Transmission electron microscopy of apical cells of Sphacelaria spp. (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Star, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of apical cells of six species of Sphacelaria (S. arctica, S. cirrosa, S. nana, S. racemosa, S. radicans, and S. rigidula) is studied here. In most details such as ultrastructure of chloroplasts, mitochondria, microbodies, nuclei and centrioles all Sphacelaria species studied are

  13. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  14. Coordination of growth in root and shoot apices by AIL/PLT transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Krizek, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT)

  15. Identification of apical vertebra for grading of idiopathic scoliosis using image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K

    2012-02-01

    Scoliosis is a 3-D deformity of spinal column, characterized by both lateral curvature and vertebral rotation. The disease can be caused by congenital, developmental, or degenerative problems; but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause, and this is known as idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral rotation has become increasingly prominent in the study of scoliosis and the most deformed vertebra is named as apical vertebra. Apical vertebral deformity demonstrates significance in both preoperative and postoperative assessment, providing better appreciation of the impact of bracing or surgical interventions. Precise measurement of apical vertebral rotation in terms of grading is most valuable for the determination of reference value in normal and pathological conditions for better understanding of scoliosis. Routine quantitative evaluation of vertebral rotation is difficult and error prone due to limitations of observer characteristic and specific imaging property. This paper proposes automatic identification of the apical vertebra and its parameter that depends on the objective criteria of measurement using active contour models. The proposed technique is more accurate and is a reliable measurement compared to manual and computer-assisted system.

  16. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  17. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root in mandi...

  18. Apically extruded dentin debris by reciprocating single-file and multi-file rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.

  19. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J; Zaror, C; Monardes, H; Hermosilla, V; Muñoz, C; Cantin, M

    2014-06-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3-5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24-0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25-0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully.

  20. Responses of Metabolites in Soybean Shoot Apices to Changing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sicher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seedlings were grown in controlled environment chambers with CO2 partial pressures of 38 (ambient and 72 (elevated Pa. Five or six shoot apices were harvested from individual 21- to 24-day-old plants. Metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography and, out of 21 compounds, only sucrose and fructose increased in response to CO2 enrichment. One unidentified metabolite, Unk-21.03 decreased up to 80% in soybean apices in response to elevated CO2. Levels of Unk-21.03 decreased progressively when atmospheric CO2 partial pressures were increased from 26 to 100 Pa. Reciprocal transfer experiments showed that Unk-21.03, and sucrose in soybean apices were altered slowly over several days to changes in atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. The mass spectrum of Unk-21.03 indicated that this compound likely contained both an amino and carboxyl group and was structurally related to serine and aspartate. Our findings suggested that CO2 enrichment altered a small number of specific metabolites in soybean apices. This could be an important step in understanding how plant growth and development are affected by carbon dioxide enrichment.

  1. USAGE OF PASTE FOR TEMPORARY PLACEMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Borysenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The aim of the present investigation was usage of medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action for temporary placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis. Materials and method: The medicamental paste for temporary placement of root canals consists of a mixture of metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania. Thë paste was used for the treatment of 30 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Final obturation of the root canals was performed with gutta percha cones and sealer. The efficiency of the treatment was appreciated after examination on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings. Results: During the treatment of the 30 teeth, no exacerbations of the pathological process were recorded. Pain after obturation of the root canals was revealed in only 6 (20% of the treated teeth. No pain, pathologic changes of gingiva, good mastication efficiency in all teeth after treatment were revealed. Conclusions: The high clinical efficiency of the medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action at the level of temporary root canals placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis was shown. Keywords: chronic apical periodontitis, medicamental paste for temporary root canals placement, metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania

  2. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  3. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  4. Expression of Podoplanin in the Mouse Tooth Germ and Apical Bud Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Yoshihiko; Iwasawa, Kana; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of cells expressing podoplanin in the mouse tooth bud. Podoplanin expression was detected in enamel epithelia of the cervical loop at cell-cell contacts strongly, and weakly on the loosely aggregated stellate reticulum in the center and the neighboring stratum intermedium. Odontoblasts exhibited intense podoplanin expression at the junction with predentin while no expression was detected in the enamel organ containing ameloblasts. These results suggest that proliferating inner and outer enamel epithelia express podoplanin but that the expression is suppressed in the differentiated epithelia containing ameloblasts. On the other hand the podoplanin expression occurs in the differentiating odontoblasts and the expression is sustained in differentiated odontoblasts, indicating that odontoblasts have the strong ability to express podoplanin. In cultured apical bud cells podoplanin was detected at cell-cell contacts. In real-time PCR analysis the amount of podoplanin mRNA of the apical buds was 2-fold compared with the amount of kidney used as a positive control. These findings indicate that apical bud cells have the strong ability to express the podoplanin gene. Podoplanin is a mucin-type glycoprotein negatively charged by extensive O-glycosylation and a high content of sialic acid, which expresses the adhesive property. The podoplanin may contribute to form odontoblastic fiber or function as the anchorage to the tooth development and in proliferating epithelial cells of cervical loop and apical bud. PMID:18989465

  5. Role of apical oxygen in 2-1-4 electron-doped superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richard, P.; Riou, G.; Jandl, S.; Poirier, M.; Furnier, P.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Diviš, M.

    408-410, - (2004), s. 830-831 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4 * crystal-field * apical oxygen * HTSC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.072, year: 2004

  6. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  7. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  8. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic

  9. Comparison of apical leakage between immediate versus delayed post space preparation using two resin sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kaushal Kalra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post & Core Procedures have became an integral part of a dentist′s arsenal. This study was carried out in order to assess the microleakage when immediate and delayed post space preparations were done using resin sealers. Immediate post space preparations showed lesser apical leakage as opposed to delayed post space preparation.

  10. Pulp Revascularization on Permanent Teeth with Open Apices in a Middle-aged Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-09-01

    Pulp revascularization is a promising procedure for the treatment of adolescents' immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, the ability to successfully perform pulp revascularization in a middle-aged patient remains unclear. A 39-year-old woman was referred for treatment of teeth #20 and #29 with necrotic pulp, extensive periapical radiolucencies, and incomplete apices. Pulp revascularization procedures were attempted, including root canal debridement, triple antibiotic paste medication, and platelet-rich plasma transplantation to act as a scaffold. Periapical radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic examinations were used to review the changes in the apical lesions and root apex configuration. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the 30-month follow-up. Periapical radiographic examination revealed no change in the apical lesions of either tooth at 8 months. The periapical radiolucency disappeared on tooth #20 and significantly decreased on tooth #29 by the 30-month follow-up, findings that were also confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. No evidence of root lengthening or thickening was observed. Successful revascularization was achieved in a middle-aged patient's teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regenerative Endodontics Versus Apexification in Immature Permanent Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiacheng; Zeng, Qian; Wei, Xi; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Minyi; Gu, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Yang, Maobin; Ling, Junqi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) and apexification on immature permanent teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. A total of 118 patients (118 teeth) were recruited and randomly assigned to either RET or apexification treatment. Each treatment group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the etiology: dens evaginatus or trauma. Clinical symptoms and complications were recorded, and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging with a limited field of view was used to measure the change of root length, root thickness, and apical foramen size at the 12-month follow-up. The t test/rank sum test and Fisher exact test were applied to compare the change of root morphology between RET and apexification. One hundred three of 118 cases were completed at the 12-month follow-up. The survival rate was 100% for both treatment groups. All cases were asymptomatic with apical healing. The RET group showed a significant increase in root length and root thickness compared with the apexification group (P apical healing. RET showed a better outcome than apexification regarding increased root thickness and root length. The etiology had an impact on the outcome of RET. Dens evaginatus cases showed better prognoses than trauma cases after RET. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Absorbable Suture as an Apical Matrix in Single Visit Apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several procedures have been recommended to induce the root end barrier formation in teeth with open apices. Conventional treatment for such cases will require many appointments with an average duration of 12.9 months. During this period, the root canal is susceptible to reinfection from around the provisional restoration, which may promote apical periodontitis and arrest of apical repair. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA has been successfully used for one visit apexification wherein the root canal can be obturated within 24 hours after placement of MTA. Using a matrix prior to the placement of MTA avoids its extrusion, reduces leakage in the sealing material, and allows favorable response of the periapical tissues. This report presents a case of apexification where an absorbable suture was used as an apical matrix. Use of an absorbable suture circumvents all the problems associated with other conventional materials. Conclusion. Placement of the matrix made from the suture material is predictable and is easily positioned at the apex and the length can be adjusted as required. 10-month follow-up of the case shows resorbed matrix and bone healing in the periapical region. The patient was asymptomatic during the whole follow-up period and tooth exhibited mobility within physiologic limits and was functioning normally.

  13. Absorbable Suture as an Apical Matrix in Single Visit Apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ayush; Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh

    2016-01-01

    Several procedures have been recommended to induce the root end barrier formation in teeth with open apices. Conventional treatment for such cases will require many appointments with an average duration of 12.9 months. During this period, the root canal is susceptible to reinfection from around the provisional restoration, which may promote apical periodontitis and arrest of apical repair. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used for one visit apexification wherein the root canal can be obturated within 24 hours after placement of MTA. Using a matrix prior to the placement of MTA avoids its extrusion, reduces leakage in the sealing material, and allows favorable response of the periapical tissues. This report presents a case of apexification where an absorbable suture was used as an apical matrix. Use of an absorbable suture circumvents all the problems associated with other conventional materials. Conclusion . Placement of the matrix made from the suture material is predictable and is easily positioned at the apex and the length can be adjusted as required. 10-month follow-up of the case shows resorbed matrix and bone healing in the periapical region. The patient was asymptomatic during the whole follow-up period and tooth exhibited mobility within physiologic limits and was functioning normally.

  14. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustina Mazzella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In darkness, the dicot seedlings produces an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIE 3/EIN3 like 1-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1 pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1 --both required for hook formation in darkness--, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth.

  15. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  16. Single Versus Multi‑visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apical periodontitis (AP) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the teeth. Treatment of AP is based on the removal of the cause, i.e., bacteria from the root canals. Achievement of adequate bacterial eradication in one appointment treatment remains a controversy. Aim: This prospective study was conducted ...

  17. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  18. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIANNASTASIO, Daiana; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; PERES, Bernardo Urbanetto; BARRETO, Mirela Sangoi; DOTTO, Gustavo Nogara; KUGA, Milton Carlos; PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study has two aims: 1) to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2) to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy) in superposing and subtracting images. Material and Methods Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature) underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection). Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper) and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus) instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. Results The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05). ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05). Conclusion Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop. PMID:24212994

  19. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Giannastasio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: 1 to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2 to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy in superposing and subtracting images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection. Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. RESULTS: The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05. ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop.

  20. Gradenigo’s Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taklalsingh, Nicholas; Falcone, Franco; Velayudhan, Vinodkumar

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Bacterial meningitis Symptoms: Altered mental status • headache • neck stiffness • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Gradenigo’s syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo’s syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo’s syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). Case Report: A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed petrous apicitis with mastoiditis and abscess formation in the cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna). The case was complicated by the development of palsy of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve, fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, and sixth (abducens) cranial nerve, with radiological changes indicating infection involving the seventh (facial) cranial nerve, and eighth (vestibulocochlear) cranial nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae, sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient improved with surgery that included a left mastoidectomy and debridement of the petrous apex, followed by a ten-week course of antibiotics. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the infection. Conclusions: This report is of an atypical case of Gradenigo’s syndrome. It is important to recognize that the classical triad of Gradenigo’s syndrome, suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis

  1. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo, L.; De Luca, M.; Biasotto, M.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Di Lenarda, R.

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5μm 2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180 o range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces

  2. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannastasio, Daiana; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Peres, Bernardo Urbanetto; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Dotto, Gustavo Nogara; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2013-01-01

    This study has two aims: 1) to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2) to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy) in superposing and subtracting images. Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature) underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection). Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper) and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus) instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05). ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05). Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop.

  3. Apical surgery vs apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment: A prospective cohort clinical study of teeth affected by persistent periapical lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Prati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This prospective clinical study analyzed the 24-month outcome of conventional apical surgery retro-filled with calcium-silicate cement versus apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment by means of clinical and radiographic criteria. Materials and methods: This study included 83 teeth affected by persistent periapical lesions in 68 patients. Mean age was 52 years (median = 51 years; range 19–81 years. Twenty-eight cases were treated with apical surgery, 16 cases with apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment and 39 cases with orthograde retreatment in previously treated teeth established as control group. Periapical index score (PAI was used as radiographic criteria. Teeth were examined at 6 months, 1 and 2 years and classified as healed (without any symptoms and PAI ≤ 2, healing (without any symptoms and PAI = 3 or diseased (with symptoms or PAI ≥ 4 and not functional on the basis of radiographic and clinical criteria. At 24 months evaluation, healed and healing were considered as success and diseased and fracture as failure. Multilevel GLM model and an ordered logistic regression as statistical analysis was made with level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: Total drop-out was 7% (n = 6. After 6–9 months, 6 teeth (3 from apical surgery, 2 from simultaneous treatment and 1 from orthograde retreatment were extracted for root fracture. Twenty-four-month success rate of apical surgery group was 78% (n = 17, apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment presented 81% (n = 10 and orthograde retreatment success was 80% (n = 24. There was no statistically difference between the groups at 24 months (p = 0.890. Conclusions: Both surgical techniques revealed a high percentage of healing, similar to that reported by previous studies. Apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment showed a faster healing after 12 months comparing to the control group. Riassunto: Scopo: In

  4. Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima L N Kotha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

  5. Deviations of Mesial Root Canals of Mandibular First Molar Teeth at the Apical Third: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2018-04-19

    The present study aimed to quantitatively analyze apical foramen deviations of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Micro-CT images of the mesial roots of 109 mandibular first molar teeth with independent mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) root canals were analyzed. The deviations of the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals from the anatomic apex were measured. The vertical distance between the apical foramina of each mesial root canal in relation to each other was also calculated. The distances from the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals to the anatomic apex of the mesial root were up to 2.51 mm, 3.21 mm, and 5.67 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the deviations of MB and ML root canals from each other (P > .05). The middle mesial root canal showed the greatest deviation compared with the MB and ML canals (P < .05). The apical foramina of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth showed greater variations from each other and anatomic apices than previously reported. Clinically, the use of electronic apex locators for the detection of minor apical foramen of each mesial root canal is of the utmost important. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy without retrofilling using white mineral trioxide aggregate as an apical barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G

    2012-01-01

    Root-end resected teeth with persistent apical periodontitis are usually retreated surgically or a combination of non-surgical and surgical retreatment is employed. However, patients are sometimes unwilling to be subjected to a second surgical procedure. The apical barrier technique that is used for apical closure of immature teeth with necrotic pulps may be an alternative to non-surgically retreat a failed apicoectomy. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has become the material of choice in such cases because of its excellent biocompatibility, sealing ability and osseoinductive properties. This case report describes the non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy with no attempt at retrofilling of a maxillary central incisor. White MTA was used to induce apical closure of the wide resected apical area. Four-year follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic, fully functional tooth with a satisfactory healing of the apical lesion. White MTA apical barrier may constitute a reliable and efficient technique to non-surgically retreat teeth with failed root-end resection. The predictability of such a treatment is of great benefit for the patient who is unwilling to be submitted to a second surgical procedure.

  7. [Clinical characteristics and speech therapy of lingua-apical articulation disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-hua; Jin, Xing-ming; Zhang, Yi-wen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2006-03-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and speech therapy of 62 children with lingua-apical articulation disorder. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Gesell development scales (Gesell), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Preschool Children (WPPSI) and speech test were performed for 62 children at the ages of 3 to 8 years with lingua-apical articulation disorder. PPVT was used to measure receptive vocabulary skills. GESELL and WPPSI were utilized to represent cognitive and non-verbal ability. The speech test was adopted to assess the speech development. The children received speech therapy and auxiliary oral-motor functional training once or twice a week. Firstly the target sound was identified according to the speech development milestone, then the method of speech localization was used to clarify the correct articulation placement and manner. It was needed to change food character and administer oral-motor functional training for children with oral motor dysfunction. The 62 cases with the apical articulation disorder were classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the articulation disorder was the most common (40 cases, 64.5%), the next was apico-dental disorder (15 cases, 24.2%). The third was palatal disorder (4 cases, 6.5%) and the last one was the linguo-alveolar disorder (3 cases, 4.8%). The substitution errors of velar were the most common (95.2%), the next was omission errors (30.6%) and the last was absence of aspiration (12.9%). Oral motor dysfunction was found in some children with problems such as disordered joint movement of tongue and head, unstable jaw, weak tongue strength and poor coordination of tongue movement. Some children had feeding problems such as preference of eating soft food, keeping food in mouths, eating slowly, and poor chewing. After 5 to 18 times of therapy, the effective rate of speech therapy reached 82.3%. The lingua-apical articulation disorders can be classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the

  8. Novel navigation technique for the endodontic treatment of a molar with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xilin; Zhao, Shiyong; Wang, Weidong; Jiang, Qianzhou; Yang, Xuechao

    2018-04-01

    Apical periodontitis, the inflammation of periapical tissue, commonly requires root canal treatment to achieve apical healing. However, if it is accompanied by pulp canal calcification, the treatment becomes complicated, and locating the root canal can be challenging. This case report describes a novel approach for treating a molar with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology. Due to the risk of perforation during treatment, a digitally printed template was used to assist in accurately locating the root canal. After six months, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular radiolucency was gradually reducing in size. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  9. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Veronica; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndrome often affects post-menopausal women and is triggered by sympathetic overstimulation, like intense physical or emotional stress, so that it is called the “broken heart syndrome”. Although left-ventricular systolic dysfunction usually fully recovers within few days, heart failure can still complicate the early phase. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy that had full recovery after 4 weeks of follow up. The main electrocardiographic, angiographic and imaging features are discussed. PMID:24689016

  10. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Delve Başer Can

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident.

  11. Ultrastructural differences between wall apices of growing and non-growing hyphae of Schizophyllum commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, C.A.; Wessels, J.G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized chitin at the hyphal apex of Schizophyllum commune was shown to be highly susceptible to chitinase degradiation and solubilization by dilute mineral acid. With time this chitin became gradually more resistant to these treatments. With a combination of the shadow-cast technique and electron microscopic autoradiography it could be shown that this process occurred as the newly synthesized chitin moved into subapical parts of growing hyphae but also in non-growing apices which had ceased growth after incorporation of the N-acetyl[6- 3 H]glucosamine. These results are in agreement with a model which explains apical morphogenesis by assuming that the newly synthesized wall material at the apex is plastic due to the presence of individual polymer chains but becomes rigidified because of subsequent physical and chemical changes involving these polymers. (Author)

  12. Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes. Effect on the Golgi complex and apical membrane trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Thorsen, Evy

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal brush border enzymes, including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, are associated with "rafts" (membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipids). To assess the functional role of rafts in the present work, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on apical......, the rates of the Golgi-associated complex glycosylation and association with rafts of newly synthesized aminopeptidase N were reduced, and less of the enzyme had reached the brush border membrane after 2 h of labeling. In contrast, the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was neither missorted nor raft......-associated. Our results implicate the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network in raft formation and suggest a close relationship between this event and apical membrane trafficking....

  13. Conservative treatment of immature teeth with apical periodontitis using triple antibiotic paste disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ju Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present conservative treatment for two immature premolars with apical periodontitis. A triple antibiotic paste was used to disinfect the root canal systems for revascularization. In both cases, residual vital pulp tissue was noted in the root canal system after the opening of each premolar. The canals in both cases were irrigated with copious sodium hypochlorite solution and medicated with a paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. The teeth were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and restored with composite resin. There were satisfactory outcomes after 18 months. The patients were asymptomatic, with radiographic evidence of complete resolution of radiolucency, continual thickening of dentinal walls, apical closure, and increased root length.

  14. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ; pre-treatment pocket probing depth (PPD) (P PPD PPD > or = 2.5 mm; and type of incision (P ... incision, papilla-base incision or papilla-saving incision. The visual assessment using pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up photographs did not demonstrate significant changes in gingival level or papillary height after apical surgery. In conclusion, gingival biotype, pre-treatment PPD, and type of incision...

  15. MST4 kinase phosphorylates ACAP4 protein to orchestrate apical membrane remodeling during gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao; Yao, Phil Y; Jiang, Jiying; Zhang, Yin; Su, Zeqi; Yao, Wendy; Wang, Xueying; Gui, Ping; Mullen, McKay; Henry, Calmour; Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Wenwen; Brako, Larry; Tian, Ruijun; Zhao, Xuannv; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Xinwang; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Xing; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2017-09-29

    Digestion in the stomach depends on acidification of the lumen. Histamine-elicited acid secretion is triggered by activation of the PKA cascade, which ultimately results in the insertion of gastric H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of parietal cells. Our recent study revealed the functional role of PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis in histamine-elicited acid secretion. However, it remains uncharacterized how the PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis operates the insertion of H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of gastric parietal cells. Here we show that MST4 phosphorylates ACAP4, an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein, at Thr 545 Histamine stimulation activates MST4 and promotes MST4 interaction with ACAP4. ACAP4 physically interacts with MST4 and is a cognate substrate of MST4 during parietal cell activation. The phosphorylation site of ACAP4 by MST4 was mapped to Thr 545 by mass spectrometric analyses. Importantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 is essential for acid secretion in parietal cells because either suppression of ACAP4 or overexpression of non-phosphorylatable ACAP4 prevents the apical membrane reorganization and proton pump translocation elicited by histamine stimulation. In addition, persistent overexpression of MST4 phosphorylation-deficient ACAP4 results in inhibition of gastric acid secretion and blockage of tubulovesicle fusion to the apical membranes. Significantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 enables ACAP4 to interact with ezrin. Given the location of Thr 545 between the GTPase-activating protein domain and the first ankyrin repeat, we reason that MST4 phosphorylation elicits a conformational change that enables ezrin-ACAP4 interaction. Taken together, these results define a novel molecular mechanism linking the PKA-MST4-ACAP4 signaling cascade to polarized acid secretion in gastric parietal cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. The Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical solution for the projectile coplanar motion under constant drag parametrised by the velocity angle. We found the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the free drag case. This is a good example of problems with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature, and it is proper for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  17. Ultrastructure of the apical glandular region of the scolex of Proteocephalus torulosus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žďárská, Zdeňka; Scholz, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2004), s. 333-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalus torulosus * apical glandular region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  18. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17?75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign?, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengt...

  19. Apical Oxygen Anharmonicity Induced Spontaneous Polarization in YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabaatar, T.; Plakida, N.M.; Drechsler, S.-L.

    1995-01-01

    A model suggesting an asymmetric double-well form for the effective vibrational potential for the apical oxygen atoms in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is formulated in the pseudo-spin representation and its phase diagram is studied. A set of parameters is found for which a spontaneous polarization may occur at a temperature close to the superconducting Tc, implying the possibility of formation of a ferroelectric state in the temperature region 90degK-250degK. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    OpenAIRE

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina; IMPERADOR Cristina Aparecida; SOUZA Luiz Gustavo de

    1999-01-01

    The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  1. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  2. Correlation of vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Tehranchi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  3. Effect of prenatal phenytion exposure on the apical ectodermal ridges of chick wing buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of sodium phenytoin on the development of the apical ectodermal ridges (AER) in chick wing buds. Study Design: Laboratory based case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Anatomy located at the Regional Center of College of Physicians and Surgeons Islamabad Pakistan, from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. Material and Methods: Sixty fertilized chicken eggs of 'Egyptian fayoumi' breed were selected and divided into two subgroups, experimental and control, each having 30 eggs. A single dose of 3.5 mg sodium phenytoin was injected in each egg of the experimental subgroup while controls were administered same volume of normal saline. The embryos were extracted 96 hours (day 4) after incubation. Histological sections were cut at 5 micro m thickness and stained with Feulgen Nuclear and Light Green to measure the maximum thickness of the apical ectodermal ridges. The number of cells and mitoses in each ridges were also counted. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between experimental and control subgroups regarding the maximum thickness and number of cells in the apical ectodermal ridge but there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of mitoses in the experimental ridges. Conclusion: The study shows that sodium phenytoin exerts an inhibitory effect on the apical ectodermal ridges of developing limbs evident by the decreased number of mitoses in the AER of wing buds of experimental chick embryos making it a potential target site for limb teratogenicity associated with its maternal intake during pregnancy. (author)

  4. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium). Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  5. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Qiu

    Full Text Available Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium. Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  6. Bone heat generated using conventional implant drills versus piezosurgery unit during apical cortical plate perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, Carlo; Valente, Nicola Alberto; Romandini, William Giuseppe; Petruzzi, Massimo; Verdugo, Fernando; D'Addona, Antonio

    2018-03-09

    The apical portion of the implant osteotomy receives less irrigation and cooling during surgical preparation. High bone temperatures, above the critical 10°C threshold, may impair osseointegration, particularly, around dense cortical bone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the apical cortical plate temperature increase with two different devices and pressure loads in a porcine rib ex-vivo model. Twenty-four implant sites were prepared on porcine ribs divided into 4 groups of 6 samples each according to the device used (conventional drill system or piezosurgery) and pressure load applied (1000 g or 1500 g). A rubber dam was used to isolate the apical cortical plate from the cooling effect of irrigation. Temperature variation measurements were taken using an infrared thermometer. The piezosurgery unit was 2 times more likely to increase the osteotomy temperature by 10.0°C (OR = 2; 95% CI = 1.136-3.522; p piezosurgery-1000 g) and 8.17°C (SD = 6.12) for group 4 (piezosurgery-1,500 g). The piezosurgery site preparation caused significantly higher temperature increase than conventional drills (p piezosurgery unit is a potential risk during implant site preparation. The piezosurgical device reached significantly higher temperatures than conventional drilling at the apical cortical portion of the osteotomy. The temperature increase is often higher than the critical 10°C threshold. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Trans-apical aortic valve implantation in a patient with stentless valve degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; MacCarthy, Philip; Monaghan, Mark; Wendler, Olaf

    2011-06-01

    Trans-apical valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has successfully been performed in selected, high-risk patients, who suffered prosthetic degeneration after aortic valve replacement using stented xenografts. We report the case of a 79-year-old male patient who underwent one of the first successful TAVIs in a failing stentless bioprosthesis. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anterior mandibular apical base augmentation in the surgical orthodontic treatment of mandibular retrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusati, R; Giannì, A B

    2005-12-01

    The authors describe a surgical technique alternative to traditional pre-surgical orthodontics in order to increase the apical base in mandibular retrusion (class II, division I). This subapical osteotomy, optimizing inferior incisal axis without dental extractions and a long orthodontic treatment, associated to genioplasty permits to obtain an ideal labio-dento-mental morphology. This procedure avoids in some cases the need of a mandibular advancement and, if necessary, it reduces his entity with obvious advantages.

  9. Conservative treatment of immature teeth with apical periodontitis using triple antibiotic paste disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yea-Huey Melody; Chen, Kuan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present conservative treatment for two immature premolars with apical periodontitis. A triple antibiotic paste was used to disinfect the root canal systems for revascularization. In both cases, residual vital pulp tissue was noted in the root canal system after the opening of each premolar. The canals in both cases were irrigated with copious sodium hypochlorite solution and medicated with a paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. Th...

  10. Distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in chronic apical periodontitis associated with symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhou, Xue-dong; Zheng, Qing-hua; Wang, Yao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Ding-ming

    2010-11-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is an anaerobic bacterium involved in root canal infections whose fimbriae are classified into six genotypes (types I-V and Ib) based on nucleotide sequence. Accumulated evidence suggests there is significant association between P. gingivalis and some clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes in apical periodontitis and to investigate the correlation between P. gingivalis fimA genotypes and clinical symptoms. Samples were obtained from 158 infected root canals with apical periodontitis. DNA was extracted and analyzed with a polymerase chain reaction-based identification assay. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and contingency coefficient were calculated for associating the fimA-specific genes with clinical symptoms. P. gingivalis was detected in 39.9% of the inflected root canal samples and was found in 44.5% of P. gingivalis-positive specimens with symptoms. Types II (69.4%) were the most frequent in the symptomatic cases followed by type IV (32.7%). The occurrence of type I (64.3%) was significantly higher than any other genotypes in the asymptomatic apical periodontitis, whereas type II and type Ib were not identified. Statistical analysis revealed that the occurrences of types II, IV, and Ib fimA were associated with greater risk of clinical signs (swelling, sinus tract, or intracanal exudates) than type I. Results from this study reinforce the association between P. gingivalis-specific fimA genotypic clones and apical periodontitis, indicating that fimA genotypes (types II, IV, and Ib) were related to the etiology of symptomatic periradicular diseases. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered be...

  12. Irradiation damage and recovery in shoot apices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saamin, S.; Thompson, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Dormant scions of 'Bing' were exposed to fractionated 6kR gamma rays and then grafted. Irradiated and unirradiated main buds were sampled at 3 day intervals for one month. Buds were fixed in FAA, longitudinally sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin. Both random and localised cell damage was observed in irradiated apices. There was evidence of radiosensitivity gradient in the shoot apex. Recovery from irradiation damage was via flank meristem, central meristem, or leaf primordia and axillary meristems. (author)

  13. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  14. Apical Extrusion of Debris Produced during Continuous Rotating and Reciprocating Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Nevares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse and compare apical extrusion of debris in canals instrumented with systems used in reciprocating and continuous motion. Sixty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=20: the Reciproc (REC, WaveOne (WO, and HyFlex CM (HYF groups. One Eppendorf tube per tooth was weighed in advance on an analytical balance. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and standardised irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was performed to a total volume of 9 mL. After instrumentation, the teeth were removed from the Eppendorf tubes and incubated at 37°C for 15 days to evaporate the liquid. The tubes were weighed again, and the difference between the initial and final weight was calculated to determine the weight of the debris. The data were statistically analysed using the Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests (α=5%. All systems resulted in the apical extrusion of debris. Reciproc produced significantly more debris than WaveOne (p<0.05, and both systems produced a greater apical extrusion of debris than HyFlex CM (p<0.001. Cross section and motion influenced the results, despite tip standardization.

  15. Época apropriada para a poda apical do algodoeiro para o controle de pragas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a época apropriada para a realização da poda apical em algodoeiro. O trabalho foi realizado durante as safras de 2008 e 2009 (maio a novembro em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em dois ambientes, com as variedades: BRS 201, de fibra branca, e BRS Rubi, BRS Safira e BRS Verde, de fibra colorida, em Paudalho, PE; e BRS 201 e BRS Rubi, em Surubim, PE. A poda apical consistiu na retirada dos ápices das plantas com estruturas vegetativas e reprodutivas, em duas idades fenológicas: com 50% das maçãs maduras (poda I e no surgimento dos primeiros capulhos (poda II. A poda I resultou em maior retirada de botões florais do que a poda II. Em ambas as podas, houve a retirada de cinco nós dos ponteiros. A produção e a qualidade de fibra não diferiram entre plantas podadas ou não. Um número significativo de estruturas atacadas foi eliminado pela poda. A poda apical é recomendada para reduzir o número de estruturas não produtivas, ao final da safra, que são utilizadas como hospedeiras de pragas

  16. The relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianmin; Baumrind, S

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects. 58 growing subjects were collected randomly into the study sample and another 40 non-treated cases were used as control. The apical resoption of the upper central incisors was measured on periapical film and the incisor displacement was measured on lateral cephalogram. Using multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between root resoption and the displacement of the upper incisor apex in each of four direction (retraction, advancement, intrusion and extrusion). The statistically significant negative association were found between resorption and both intrusion (P < 0.001) and extrusion (P < 0.05), but no significant association was found between resorption and both retraction and advancement. The regression analysis implied an average of 2.29 mm resorption in the absence of apical displacement. The likelihood that the magnitude of displacement of the incisor root is positively associated with root resoption in the population of treated growing subjects is very small.

  17. FISHing for gutta-percha-adhered biofilms in purulent post-treatment apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, M; Rechenberg, D-K; Thurnheer, T; Lüthi-Schaller, H; Belibasakis, G N

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the possibility of depicting individual taxa in clinically relevant biofilms using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gutta-percha samples were collected from the apical aspect of root canals associated with a chronic apical abscess (test samples, n = 8). Corresponding control samples were obtained from previously filled root canals with apparently normal periapical tissues (n = 3). The transport medium was investigated for detached biofilm fragments using FISH staining and conventional epifluorescence microscopy. Gutta-percha samples were stained by multiplex FISH, and inspected using confocal laser scanning microscopy. FISH of the transport medium confirmed the presence of the main species formerly identified by conventional methods in post-treatment purulent endodontic infections, most prominently Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroidetes and Prevotellaceae. Treponemes were identified in five of eight cases associated with purulent infections, but Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. were not identified. The biofilms on gutta-percha from root canals associated with apical periodontitis showed dense aggregates of variable composition. Control samples contained few, if any, bacteria in the transport medium, and featured no biofilms on the respective gutta-percha specimens. The current study revealed some direct, visual in situ information on the nature of biofilms associated with purulent periapical infections in man. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the self-adjusting file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo André; Nogueira Leal Silva, Emmanuel João; Moreira, Edson Jorge; de Almeida Neves, Aline; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Tameirão, Michele

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris by the Self-Adjusting-File system (SAF; ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). Hand and rotary instruments were used as references for comparison. Sixty mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented with hand files using a crown-down technique. The ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and SAF systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and the apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials and dried afterward. The mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test. Hand file instrumentation produced significantly more debris compared with the ProTaper and SAF systems (P system produced significantly more debris compared with the SAF system (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. SAF instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of hand and rotary files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrocardiographic characteristics and clinical features of acute apical infarction. Analysis by a QRS scoring system

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    Seino, Yoshihiko; Nagae, Yasuhiro; Kamei, Shinichiro; Koh, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Keiji; Katoh, Takao; Takano, Teruo; Hayakawa, Hirokazu; Okumura, Hidemasa

    1986-11-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography were used to detect infarct site in 56 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The pathophysiology of apical MI at acute stage was studied in relation to ECG changes as determined by a QRS scoring system. On the first hospital day, the group with antero-apical MI (AAp group) had long Q-wave durations in leads V/sub 3/ and V/sub 4/, high QRS scores (QRSs) in leads V/sub 4/ and V/sub 5/, high QRSs in total, and large number of Q waves, as compared with the group with anterior MI (A group). On the 7th day, Q-wave durations in leads V/sub 2/ and V/sub 3/, and QRSs in leads V/sub 4/ and V/sub 5/ were significantly larger in AAp group than A group. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to blood circulation and peak creatine kinase (CK)/CK-MB at the time of admission, left ventricular ejection function was significantly lower in AAp group than A group. No finding was significantly different between the group with infero-apical MI and the group with inferior MI. QRSs in leads V/sub 4/ and V/sub 5/ was a useful means of diagnosing AAp MI. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in a single family: case report

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    Paraskevaidis Stylianos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an extremely heterogeneous disease. An under recognized and very often missed subgroup within this broad spectrum concerns patients with left ventricular (LV apical aneurysms in the absence of coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a case of HCM with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in 3 patients coming from a single family. This HCM pattern was detected by 2D-echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in one of the patients because of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected in 24-h Holter monitoring and an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure during maximal exercise test. The defibrillator activated 8 months after implantation by suppression of a ventricular tachycardia providing anti-tachycardia pacing. The patient died due to refractory heart failure 2 years after initial evaluation. The rest of the patients are stable after a 2.5-y follow-up period. Conclusion The detection of apical aneurysm by echocardiography in HCM patients may be complicated. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the scarred aneurysm wall may often occur predisposing to sudden death.

  1. Drosophila Big bang regulates the apical cytocortex and wing growth through junctional tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumpekos, Giorgos; Nemetschke, Linda; Knust, Elisabeth

    2018-03-05

    Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash. This is associated with an increased apical cell surface, decreased junctional tension, and smaller wings. Strikingly, these phenotypic traits of big bang mutant discs can be rescued by expressing constitutively active Spaghetti squash. Big bang colocalizes with Spaghetti squash in the apical cytocortex and is found in the same protein complex. These results suggest that in epithelial cells of developing wings, the scaffolding protein Big bang controls apical cytocortex organization, which is important for regulating cell shape and tissue growth. © 2018 Tsoumpekos et al.

  2. Effect of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming on removal of apically placed dentinal debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H; Capar, I D; Saygili, G; Gok, T; Akcay, M

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique with conventional, sonic and ultrasonic irrigation on the removal of apically placed dentinal debris from an artificial groove created in a root canal. Root canal preparation was performed up to size 40 on 48 extracted single-rooted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments. The specimens were then split longitudinally, and a standardized groove was prepared in the apical part of each segment. Each groove was filled with dentinal debris mixed with 5% NaOCl. Each tooth was reassembled and irrigated as follows: (i) conventional irrigation with 1% NaOCl, (ii) sonic, (iii) ultrasonic irrigation, and (iv) PIPS. The root segments were disassembled, and the amount of remaining dentinal debris was evaluated under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification, using a four-grade scoring system. The data were evaluated statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with a 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). Photon-induced photoacoustic streaming removed significantly more dentinal debris than conventional irrigation (P streaming was more effective than conventional, sonic and ultrasonic irrigation in the removal of apically placed dentinal debris. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. In vitro evaluation of apical extrusion of bacteria following use of new rotary instrumentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of bacteria extruded apically from extracted teeth ex vivo after canal instrumentation using two engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments (Flex Master and V-Taper). Seventy extracted maxillary central incisor teeth were used. After preparing access cavities, root canals were contaminated with a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis, then dried. The contaminated roots were divided into two experimental groups of 30 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples from the vials were incubated in culture media for 24 hours. Colonies of bacteria were counted, and the results were given as number of colony-forming units. The data obtained were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests, with alpha = 0.05 as the level for statistical significance. Results showed that there was no significant difference as to the number of extruded bacteria between the two engine-driven systems (P > 0.05). Both engine-driven nickel-titanium systems extruded bacteria through the apical foramen.

  4. Apical P2XR contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling and Isc in mouse renal MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuzhe; Lynch, I Jeanette; Zheng, Wencui; Cash, Melanie N; Teng, Xueling; Wingo, Charles S; Verlander, Jill W; Xia, Shen-Ling

    2007-08-03

    We examined P2X receptor expression and distribution in the mouse collecting duct (CD) and their functional role in Ca(2+) signaling. Both P2X(1) and P2X(4) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated apical P2X(1) and P2X(4) immunoreactivity in principal cells in the outer medullary CD (OMCD) and inner medullary CD (IMCD). Luminal ATP induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in native medullary CD (MCD) as measured by fluorescence imaging. ATP also induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in MCD cells grown in primary culture but not in the presence of P2XR antagonist PPNDS. Short circuit current (I(sc)) measurement with mouse IMCD cells showed that P2XR agonist BzATP induced a larger I(sc) than did P2YR agonist UTP in the apical membrane. Our data reveal for the first time that P2X(1) and P2X(4) are cell-specific with prominent immunoreactivity in the apical area of MCD cells. The finding that P2XR blockade inhibits ATP-induced Ca(2+) signaling suggests that activation of P2XR is a key step in Ca(2+)-dependent purinergic signaling. The result that activation of P2XR produces large I(sc) indicates the necessity of P2XR in renal CD ion transport.

  5. Forces produced by different nonconventional bracket or ligature systems during alignment of apically displaced teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio; Barbato, Ersilia

    2009-05-01

    To analyze the forces released by four types of passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs), and by two nonconventional elastomeric ligature-bracket systems when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional stainless steel brackets during the alignment of apically displaced teeth at the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the seven different ligature-bracket systems with 0.012'' or 0.014'' superelastic nickel titanium wire in the presence of different amounts of apical displacement of the canine (ranging from 1.5 mm to 6 mm). Comparisons between the different types of bracket/wire/ ligature systems were carried out by means of ANOVA on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < .05). When correction of a misalignment greater than 3 mm is attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment is generated by passive SLBs and nonconventional elastomeric ligature-bracket systems, and a null amount of force is released in the presence of conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets. When minimal apical displacement is needed (1.5 mm), the differences in performance between low-friction and conventional systems are minimal. These differences become significant when correction of a misalignment of greater than 3.0 mm is attempted.

  6. [Association between Bacteroides forsythus in the infected root canals and clinical symptoms of chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-ming; Fu, Chun-hua; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of Bacteroides forsythus in root canals with chronic apical periodontitis and to determine its associations with clinical symptoms. Thirty-eight tooth root canals from 31 subjects were studied with a 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These teeth were classified into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the clinical symptoms and signs, including spontaneous pain, percussion pain, sinus tract and swelling, respectively. Ten of the 38 root canal samples were positive for B. forsythus. The prevalence of B. forsythus was 26.3% for 38 root canals, 45.5% for spontaneous pain group, 39.1% for percussion pain group, 29.4% for sinus tract group, 42.9% for swelling group, respectively. Significant positive associations were observed between B. forsythus in infected root canals and the spontaneous pain, percussion pain, and swelling of apical periodontitis, respectively (OR=infinity, 9, 12; Papical periodontitis (OR=1.33). B. forsythus colonized in the infected root canals. It is the putative pathogen of apical periodontitis.

  7. Light microscopic study of periapical lesions associated with asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, S L; Kabak, Y S; Anischenko, S L

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to evaluate the degree of chronic inflammation in tissues surrounding the apex of the tooth root in patients with apical periodontitis in the remission phase. The material included 37 apical granulomas and radicular cysts obtained as a result of apiectomy, and 20 teeth which were removed together with the focus of the periapical inflammation. Routine histological techniques, as well as the immunofluorescent and immuno-chemical methods were used to examine the material. Despite the absence of clinical symptoms in 23 of 57 cases, the morphological signs of chronic inflammation were observed in the apical area of the tooth root. Morphological signs of viral invasion of epithelial and stromal cells in the radicular cyst wall were revealed in six cases. The presence of the virus of Herpes simplex I in epithelial cells (five cases) and adenoviral invasion (one case) was confirmed by immuno-fluorescent and immuno-chemical methods. Histological examination often reveals morphological signs of an active inflammatory process in the periapical tissues of patients treated during clinical remission. In our opinion, the presence of viruses in the epithelial cells of the radicular cyst may contribute to the persistence of the active stage of the inflammatory process.

  8. Microflora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis in Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindere, Anda; Kundzina, Rita; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Eze, Daina; Petrina, Zaiga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial flora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis and to determine the prevalence of β-lactamase producing strains in isolated bacteria in Latvian patients. 33 root filled teeth with asymptomatic persisting periapical lesions were selected for the present study. During nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, the root filling material was removed and canals were sampled. Determination of microbial species was based on series of biochemical tests using identification kits. All strains of bacteria were tested for β-lactamase production by using chromogenic nitrocefin-impregnated slides. Bacteria were found in 32 (97%) of initial specimens from the teeth. The number of isolated microbial strains in the specimens ranged from one to six (mean 2.7). 79% of the isolated microbial species were Gram-positive bacteria. The most common isolates were Streptococcus (27%), Actinomyces (27%), Staphylococcus (18%), Enterococcus (18%) and Lactobacillus (18%) spp. Yeasts were found as four isolates in 3 cases (9%). β-lactamase-producing bacterial strains were detected in 12 specimens, 36% of the patients. The most common enzyme-producing bacteria belonged to Actinomyces and Staphylococcus spp. The microbial flora in previously treated root canals with apical periodontitis is limited to a small number of predominantly Gram-positive microbial species. The most common isolates are Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus spp. A moderately high prevalence of β-lactamase producing bacterial strains was detected in patients with root filled teeth with apical periodontitis.

  9. Symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis associated with red complex bacteria: clinical and microbiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonavoglia, Alessio; Latronico, Francesca; Pirani, Chiara; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Corrente, Marialaura; Prati, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the association of red complex (RC) bacteria that include Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis with acute, exacerbated or chronic apical periodontitis was evaluated. Seventy-one patients with periapical disease were evaluated by clinical examination and microbiological samples obtained from the root canals were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction assay. Twenty-one (29.6%) samples were positive for RC bacteria, with T. denticola, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis being detected in 14 (19.7%), 10 (14.1%) and 6 (8.5%) samples, respectively. RC bacteria were mainly associated with acute apical periodontitis (29.2%) and phoenix abscess (63.2%), while they were only sporadically detected (7.1%) in patients with chronic apical periodontitis. Generally, RC bacteria were associated with pain and a higher frequency of intracanalar/intrasulcular pus drainage. Involvement of RC bacteria in symptomatic periapical disease should be suspected in the presence of particularly severe clinical pain and pus drainage.

  10. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  11. Assessment of Apical Extrusion of Debris during Endodontic Retreatment with 3 Rotary Nickel-Titanium Retreatment Systems and Hand Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkampesi S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically as well as the time needed for removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, MTwo, REndo NiTi rotary retreatment systems and hand files.

  12. Orthograde retreatment failure with extruded MTA apical plug in a large periradicular lesion followed by surgical intervention: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Junior, Manoel; Faria-e-Silva, Andre Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; Moreira-Junior, Gil; Geber, Mauro; Camilo, Carla Cristina; Soares, Janir Alves

    2012-01-01

    Absence of periapical healing after orthograde retreatment using an apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can require surgical intervention. A patient with a root-filled maxillary central incisor with chronic apical periodontitis and sinus tract was referred for endodontic retreatment. Excessive apical enlargement was verified, indicating an MTA apical plug placement; however, an unintentional extrusion of MTA occurred during this step. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and periodic recalls were scheduled. The sinus tract was observed after six months and the lesion remained unaltered, although the extruded MTA had resorbed; therefore, an apicoectomy and retrograde root-end filling with MTA were performed. Absence of sinus tract, normal clinical aspect, and complete repair of the lesion were observed at the two-year follow-up.

  13. Duration for Apical Barrier Formation in Necrotic Immature Permanent Incisors Treated With Calcium Hydroxide Apexification Using Ultrasonic or Hand Filing

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    Li-Wan Lee

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic filing with 0.2% chlorhexidine as an irrigant is effective for disinfection of the root canal and can shorten the duration for apical barrier formation in necrotic permanent incisors treated with calcium hydroxide apexification.

  14. Evaluation of the Apical Sealability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement as Root Canal Filling Cements: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rekab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the principle purposes of root canal obturation is to obtain hermetic sealing of the root canal system. According to the development of technology, many materials are now used in root canal filling. An in vitro dye leakage study was performed toevaluate the apical sealability of White-colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA and Gray-colored Portland Cement (GPC when used alone or as a sealer with gutta-percha points in root canal filling.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used in this study. After cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into five equal groups of 15 teeth each based on the root canal filling material used; Group 1, (WMTAalone; Group 2, (GPC alone; Group 3, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA; Group 4,(Guttapercha points + GPC; Group 5, (Gutta-percha points + AH26. Methylene blue was used to determine the apical leakage. After sectioning the teeth longitudinally, linear dye penetrationwas measured with a caliper under the stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with (P 0.05 as the level of significance.Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials of five groups.Conclusion: (WMTA alone, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA, (GPC alone and (Guttapercha points + GPC may be used in the root canal filling.

  15. The transcription factor cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein enhances the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Zhu, Y; Li, S; Liang, Y; Zhang, J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the regulation of odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). Stem cells from the apical papilla were obtained from human impacted third molars (n = 15). Isolated SCAPs were transfected with CREB overexpressing/silenced lentivirus. Transfected cells were stained with alizarin red to investigate mineralized nodule formation. The expression of the mineralization-related genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I (Col I), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX) and osteocalcin (OCN), was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Protein expression of the odontogenic-related marker dentine sialoprotein (DSP) and the osteogenic-related marker RUNX2 was measured by Western blotting analysis. One-way analysis of variance (anova) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis (a = 0.05). The overexpression of CREB enhanced mineralized nodule formation and up-regulated (P odonto/osteogenic-related markers, including ALP, Col I, RUNX2, OSX and OCN, and also increased (P odonto/osteogenic-related markers. Up-regulation of CREB expression promoted odonto/osteogenic differentiation of SCAPs and provided a potential method for the regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exogenous retinoic acid induces digit reduction in opossums (Monodelphis domestica) by disrupting cell death and proliferation, and apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Anna C; Maier, Jennifer A; Schecker, Teresa; Sears, Karen E

    2015-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A derivative. Exposure to exogenous RA generates congenital limb malformations (CLMs) in species from frogs to humans. These CLMs include but are not limited to oligodactyly and long-bone hypoplasia. The processes by which exogenous RA induces CLMs in mammals have been best studied in mouse, but as of yet remain unresolved. We investigated the impact of exogenous RA on the cellular and molecular development of the limbs of a nonrodent model mammal, the opossum Monodelphis domestica. Opossums exposed to exogenous retinoic acid display CLMs including oligodactly, and results are consistent with opossum development being more susceptible to RA-induced disruptions than mouse development. Exposure of developing opossums to exogenous RA leads to an increase in cell death in the limb mesenchyme that is most pronounced in the zone of polarizing activity, and a reduction in cell proliferation throughout the limb mesenchyme. Exogenous RA also disrupts the expression of Shh in the zone of polarizing activity, and Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge, and other genes with roles in the regulation of limb development and cell death. Results are consistent with RA inducing CLMs in opossum limbs by disrupting the functions of the apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity, and driving an increase in cell death and reduction of cell proliferation in the mesenchyme of the developing limb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using ProTaper hand, M-two rotary and WaveOne single file reciprocating system: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Arunagiri, Doraiswamy; Pushpa, Shankarappa; Sawhny, Asheesh; Misra, Abhinav; Khetan, Kirti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this ex vivo study was to evaluate and compare the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from teeth using different preparation techniques. Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars with single canals and similar lengths were instrumented using hand ProTaper F2 (25, 0.08; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), M-two (25, 0.06; VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Debris and irrigant extruded during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The volume of the irrigant was measured, and then the tubes were stored in an incubator at 70°C for 2 days. The Eppendorf tubes were weighed to obtain the final weight when the extruded debris was included. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Student's t-test. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups. The WaveOne reciprocating system showed the maximum amount of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant among all the groups. The least amount of debris and irrigant was observed in ProTaper hand instrument (P > 0.05). All instrumentation techniques were associated with debris and irrigant extrusion.

  18. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation - An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devale, Madhuri R; Mahesh, M C; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files significantly more number of cracks were seen at WL than

  19. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation – An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, MC; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. Aim This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Results Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files

  20. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: A dye extraction study

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    Monika Tandan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  1. Association analysis of clinical aspects and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Maria Luiza S Simas Netta; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Bernardino, José Fabio; Hoette, Felix; Hoette, Maura Levi; Thum, Lotario; Ozawa, Terumi O; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Olandoski, Marcia; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D is responsible for the regulation of certain genes at the transcription level, via interaction with the vitamin D receptor, and influences host immune responses and aspects of bone development, growth, and homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the association of TaqI vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Our subjects were 377 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, divided into 3 groups: (1) 160 with external apical root resorption ≤1.43 mm, (2) 179 with external apical root resorption >1.43 mm), and (3) 38 untreated subjects. External apical root resorption of the maxillary incisors was evaluated on periapical radiographs taken before and after 6 months of treatment. After DNA collection and purification, vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to verify the association of clinical and genetic variables with external apical root resorption (P root resorption in orthodontically treated patients compared with the untreated subjects. In patients orthodontically treated, age higher than 14 years old, initial size of the maxillary incisor root superior to 30 mm, and premolar extraction were associated with increased external apical root resorption. Genotypes containing the C allele were weakly associated with protection against external apical root resorption (CC + CT × TT [odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-1.23; P = 0.091]) when treated orthodontic patients were compared to untreated individuals. Clinical factors and vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism were associated with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Use of Different Irrigation Techniques to Decrease Bacterial Loads in Healthy and Diabetic Patients with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoneim, Mai; Saber, Shehab ElDin; El-Badry, Tarek; Obeid, Maram; Hassib, Nehal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human’s immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. AIM: The study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Fusoba...

  3. Takotsubo, discinesia apical transitoria: Presentacion de 4 casos y revisión de la literatura Takotsubo, reversible apical ballooning of the left ventricle: Report of 4 cases

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    Bárbara C. Finn

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available En 1990 se describió un síndrome caracterizado por discinesia apical transitoria, cambios en el electrocardiograma (ECG, mínima elevación de enzimas cardíacas y arterias coronarias normales. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en mujeres añosas y es precedido por un evento de estrés, ya sea físico o psíquico. La fisiopatología aún no está aclarada y se proponen diversas teorías. La de mayor peso es la que postula una afección secundaria a la descarga de catecolaminas desencadenada por el estrés, sobre un corazón incapaz de mantener una respuesta inotrópica adecuada. Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes atendidos en nuestro hospital que se manifestaron con síntomas sugerentes de infarto agudo de miocardio asociados a insuficiencia cardiaca, en el contexto de un episodio estresante. Los síntomas preponderantes fueron dolor precordial opresivo y disnea. En el ECG se evidenciaron tanto supradesnivel del segmento ST, como inversión de la onda T. Todos los pacientes presentaron la imagen ecocardiográfica típica de discinesia apical, y todos tuvieron en la cinecoronariografía coronarias normales. Cabe destacar que tanto el ECG, como el ecocardiograma volvieron a la normalidad a partir de las dos semanas.A syndrome of apical ballooning, with ECG mimicking acute myocardial infarctation, mild or no enzymatic changes, and normal coronary angiogram was described in 1990. It presents mainly in middle aged and elderly women and it is preceded by stress triggering circumstances. Several mechanisms have been proposed although the precise cause remains unclear. The most accepted theory proposes the interaction of catecholamines and an inadequate inotropic response. We report four cases that presented with chest pain and sudden onset of heart failure, all patients had physical or emotional stress as a triggering factor. On ECG, ST segment elevation and inverted T waves were observed in the acute phase. All patients had typical echocardiogram

  4. Asymmetric localization of Arabidopsis SYP124 syntaxin at the pollen tube apical and sub-apical zones is involved in tip growth

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    Silva Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuous polarized vesicle secretion in pollen tubes is essential for tip growth but the location of endo- and exocytic sub-domains remains however controversial. In this report we aimed to show that Arabidopsis thaliana syntaxins are involved in this process and contribute to spatially define exocytosis and membrane recycling. Results Using GFP-fusion constructs, we imaged the distribution of pollen-specific (AtSYP124 and non-pollen syntaxins (AtSYP121 and AtSYP122 in transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes. All three proteins associate with the plasma membrane and with apical vesicles indicating a conserved action mechanism for all SYPs. However, the GFP tagged SYP124 showed a specific distribution with a higher labelling at the plasma membrane flanks, 10-25 μm behind the apex. This distribution is affected by Ca2+ fluxes as revealed by treatment with Gd3+ (an inhibitor of extracellular Ca2+ influx and TMB-8 (an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release. Both inhibitors decreased growth rate but the distribution of SYP124 at the plasma membrane was more strongly affected by Gd3+. Competition with a related dominant negative mutant affected the specific distribution of SYP124 but not tip growth. In contrast, co-expression of the phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate 5-kinase 4 (PIP5K4 or of the small GTPase Rab11 perturbed polarity and the normal distribution of GFP-SYP but did not inhibit the accumulation in vesicles or at the plasma membrane. Conclusions The results presented suggest that in normal growing pollen tubes, a net exocytic flow occurs in the flanks of the tube apex mediated by SYP124. The specific distribution of SYP124 at the plasma membrane is affected by changes in Ca2+ levels in agreement with the importance of this ion for exocytosis. Apical growth and the specific localization of SYP124 were affected by regulators of membrane secretion (Ca2+, PIP5K4 and Rab11 but competition with a

  5. Molecular insights into the interaction between Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and an invasion-inhibitory peptide.

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    Geqing Wang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been implicated in invasion of the host erythrocyte. It interacts with malarial rhoptry neck (RON proteins in the moving junction that forms between the host cell and the invading parasite. Agents that block this interaction inhibit invasion and may serve as promising leads for anti-malarial drug development. The invasion-inhibitory peptide R1 binds to a hydrophobic cleft on AMA1, which is an attractive target site for small molecules that block parasite invasion. In this work, truncation and mutational analyses show that Phe5-Phe9, Phe12 and Arg15 in R1 are the most important residues for high affinity binding to AMA1. These residues interact with two well-defined binding hot spots on AMA1. Computational solvent mapping reveals that one of these hot spots is suitable for small molecule targeting. We also confirm that R1 in solution binds to AMA1 with 1:1 stoichiometry and adopts a secondary structure consistent with the major form of R1 observed in the crystal structure of the complex. Our results provide a basis for designing high affinity inhibitors of the AMA1-RON2 interaction.

  6. Novel neuroprotective function of apical-basal polarity gene crumbs in amyloid beta 42 (aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration.

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    Andrew M Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42 aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.

  7. Cellular internalization, transcellular transport, and cellular effects of silver nanoparticles in polarized Caco-2 cells following apical or basolateral exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Shunji; Morishita, Yuki; Hata, Tomoyuki; Kondoh, Masuo; Yagi, Kiyohito; Gao, Jian-Qing; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    When considering the safety of ingested nanomaterials, it is important to quantitate their transfer across intestinal cells; however, little information exists about the effects of nanomaterial size or exposure side (apical versus basolateral epithelial surface) on nanomaterial transfer. Here, we examined cellular internalization and transcellular transport, and the effects of nanomaterials on Caco-2 monolayers after apical or basolateral exposure to Ag or Au nanoparticles with various sizes. After apical treatment, both internalization and transfer to the basolateral side of the monolayers were greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles than for larger Ag nanoparticles. In contrast, after basolateral treatment, larger Ag nanoparticles were more internalized than smaller Ag nanoparticles, but the transfer to the apical side was greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles. Au nanoparticles showed different rules of internalization and transcellular transport compared with Ag nanoparticles. Furthermore, the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 monolayers was temporarily increased by Ag nanoparticles (5 μg/mL; diameters, ≤10 nm) following basolateral but not apical exposure. We conclude that the internalization, transfer, and effects of nanomaterials in epithelial cell monolayers depend on the size and composition of nanomaterials, and the exposure side. - Highlights: • Ag and Au nanoparticles can transfer across Caco-2 monolayers. • Cellular uptake of nanoparticles change between apical and basolateral exposure. • Basolateral Ag nanoparticle exposure increases the permeability of Caco-2 monolayers.

  8. N-Glycosylation instead of cholesterol mediates oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjeti, Naga Salaija; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Paladino, Simona; de la Fuente, Erwin; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2011-12-01

    Sorting of glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol--anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in polarized epithelial cells is not fully understood. Oligomerization in the Golgi complex has emerged as the crucial event driving apical segregation of GPI-APs in two different kind of epithelial cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells, but whether the mechanism is conserved is unknown. In MDCK cells cholesterol promotes GPI-AP oligomerization, as well as apical sorting of GPI-APs. Here we show that FRT cells lack this cholesterol-driven oligomerization as apical sorting mechanism. In these cells both apical and basolateral GPI-APs display restricted diffusion in the Golgi likely due to a cholesterol-enriched membrane environment. It is striking that N-glycosylation is the critical event for oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells but not in MDCK cells. Our data indicate that at least two mechanisms exist to determine oligomerization in the Golgi leading to apical sorting of GPI-APs. One depends on cholesterol, and the other depends on N-glycosylation and is insensitive to cholesterol addition or depletion.

  9. Participation of IAA in transduction of gravistimulus in apical cells of moss protonema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksyniuk, U. A.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Y.; Lesniak, Y. I.

    Growth movements of vascular plant axis organs -- photo-, gravi- and other tropisms -- are tightly connected with IAA transport (Hertel, 1983; Medvedev, 1996; Kiss, 2000). Moss protonema synthesizes IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and transports it basipetally favouring growth and differentiation of caulonema (Bopp, 1979; Rose, Bopp, 1983; Rose et al., 1983). We aimed at studying the role of IAA in moss protonema gravitropism using exogenous IAA, 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- phytotropins NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) and TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Six-day gravitropic protonema of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans were taken for experiments. Auxin and phytotropins solutions were laid on protonema mats the latters being kept in solutions for 30 min. Then the surplus of solutions were poured off and Petri dishes were placed vertically for 6 h. 20 μ M of IAA and of other synthetic auxins did not significantly influence the angle of protonema gravity bending, 40 μ M of the agents, howewer, reduced the per cent of apical cells bendings and their angles. The most expressed influence on the angles of bending had the inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- NPA. 0,1 -- 3,0 μ M of this phytotropin did not change the form of apical cell, did not disturb the general distribution of amyloplasts and did not significantly lower the per cent and the value of gravity bending angle, though 10 μ M of the phytotropin - inhibited gravity bending. The mixture of 1-NAA and NPA having been added into the medium the influence of NPA was lowered and gravitropic growth renewed in course of time. 10 μ M of other phytopropin TIBA also inhibited gravitropism of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans protonema. The analysis of basipetal transport of IAA in moss rhizoids and protonema may indicate the availability of special IAA transport in these structures (Bopp, Cerier, 1988). On the basis of the

  10. Apical sorting of lysoGPI-anchored proteins occurs independent of association with detergent-resistant membranes but dependent on their N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Guillaume Alain; Michon, Laetitia; Watanabe, Reika

    2013-06-01

    Most glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are located at the apical surface of epithelial cells. The apical delivery of GPI-APs is believed to result from their association with lipid rafts. We find that overexpression of C-terminally tagged PGAP3 caused predominant production of lysoGPI-APs, an intermediate precursor in the GPI lipid remodeling process in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In these cells, produced lysoGPI-APs are not incorporated into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) but still are delivered apically, suggesting that GPI-AP association with DRMs is not necessary for apical targeting. In contrast, apical transport of both fully remodeled and lyso forms of GPI-APs is dependent on N-glycosylation, confirming a general role of N-glycans in apical protein transport. We also find that depletion of cholesterol causes apical-to-basolateral retargeting not only of fully remodeled GPI-APs, but also of lysoGPI-APs, as well as endogenous soluble and transmembrane proteins that would normally be targeted to the apical membrane. These findings confirm the essential role for cholesterol in the apical protein targeting and further demonstrate that the mechanism of cholesterol-dependent apical sorting is not related to DRM association of GPI-APs.

  11. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris during ultrasonic versus rotary instrumentation

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    Araquam, Karolline Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a extrusão apical de debris durante a instrumentação rotatória versus ultra-sônica de canais radiculares. Metodologia: A amostra constituiu-se de 20 pré-molares inferiores com dimensões radiculares similares. Para coleta do material extruído apicalmente durante a instrumentação endodôntica, foram fixados recipientes de resina acrílica na superfície externa das raízes. Todos os dentes tiveram os terços cervical e médio dos canais radiculares preparado com brocas Gates-Glidden. Após odontometria, a instrumentação apical foi realizada com sistema ultra-sônico ou sistema rotatório (n=10/grupo. Os recipientes de resina foram pesados antes e após a instrumentação e a diferença de peso foi considerada a quantidade de material extruído. Os dados foram analisados por teste de Mann-Whitney, ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Houve grande variabilidade de quantidade de material extruído para ambas as técnicas de instrumentação, com valores de 0,0009 a 0,0860 g. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos (P>0. 05. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que ambas as técnicas de instrumentação testadas, com ultra-som ou sistema rotatório, apresentaram extrusão apical de debris em quantidade semelhante

  13. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

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    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  14. Calcium hydroxide induced apexification with apical root development: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J; Santos, S; César, C; Silva, P; Sá, M; Silveira, F; Nunes, E

    2008-08-01

    To report the induction of apical root development by calcium hydroxide in teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical radiolucency. A 10-year-old male patient was admitted to the clinic complaining of an intense pain and oedema on the anterior facial region, compatible with an acute dentoalveolar abscess. There was a previous history of dental trauma; only tooth 11 was negative to pulp sensitivity tests. Radiographically, tooth 11 exhibited incomplete root formation, characterized by a wide root canal, thin and fragile dentinal walls, and an extensive, divergent foraminal opening associated with an apical radiolucency. The first appointment focused on urgent local and systemic treatment. Apexification treatment commenced at the second session after 7 days, by means of chemo-mechanical debridement throughout the entire root canal, using K-files and irrigation with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Subsequently, a calcium hydroxide paste was applied and changed four times over 8 months, when radiographic examination revealed complete closure of the foraminal opening, resulting in resolution of the periapical radiolucency and associated with 5 mm of additional root development. The root canal was filled by thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and sealer. A 3-year follow-up revealed normal periapical tissues and the absence of symptoms. * In young patients, dental trauma may cause pulp necrosis and arrest of root formation. * Under certain circumstances, chemo-mechanical debridement, including the use of a calcium hydroxide paste, is a valid alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate and or surgery for root-end closure. * In teeth with incompletely formed roots associated with periapical lesions, calcium hydroxide can induce periapical repair through the closure of the foramen and apical root development.

  15. Apical root resorption of incisors after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusveen, Elin Marie Gravdal; Brudvik, Pongsri; Bøe, Olav Egil; Mavragani, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate impacted maxillary canines as risk factor for orthodontic apical root resorption. The sample comprised 66 patients treated with fixed appliances. Thirty-two patients with a unilateral impacted maxillary canine, which was distanced from the roots of the incisors at a preliminary phase of treatment before bonding, formed the impaction group, and 34 patients without impactions served as the controls. Root shortening was calculated by using pretreatment and posttreatment intraoral radiographs. Inclination of the eruption path of the impacted canine relative to the midline, axis of the lateral incisor, and nasal line, root development, and the medial and vertical positions of the impacted tooth were recorded on orthopantomograms and lateral cephalometric films. The follicle/tooth ratio was evaluated by using periapical radiographs. No significant difference in apical resorption of the maxillary incisors was detected between the impaction and control groups, or between the incisors of the impacted and contralateral sides in the same subject. Likewise, no difference in the severity of root resorption was found between the incisors of impacted side alone and the incisors of the control group. Mesial and vertical inclinations of the impacted canines were negatively related to a lateral incisor's root resorption. No correlations were found between resorption and medial or vertical position of the crown of the canine. The follicle/tooth ratio was significantly related to the mesial inclination of the impacted canine, but not to root resorption. An impacted maxillary canine, after being distanced from the incisor roots, does not seem to be a risk factor for apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of dental root apical morphology: a new method for dietary reconstructions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, NoÉmie; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Guy, Franck; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology. This study aims to investigate the correlation between tooth root apical morphology and diet in primates, and its potential for paleo-diet reconstructions. Dental roots are composed of two portions: the eruptive portion with a smooth and regular surface, and the apical penetrative portion which displays an irregular and corrugated surface. Here, the angle formed by these two portions (aPE), and the ratio of penetrative portion over total root length (PPI), are calculated for each mandibular tooth root. A strong correlation between these two variables and the proportion of some food types (fruits, leaves, seeds, animal matter, and vertebrates) in diet is found, allowing the use of tooth root apical morphology as a tool for dietary reconstructions in primates. The method was then applied to the fossil hominoid Khoratpithecus piriyai, from the Late Miocene of Thailand. The paleo-diet deduced from aPE and PPI is dominated by fruits (>50%), associated with animal matter (1-25%). Leaves, vertebrates and most probably seeds were excluded from the diet of Khoratpithecus, which is consistent with previous studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  18. MMP-7 and TIMP-1, new targets in predicting poor wound healing in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letra, Ariadne; Ghaneh, Ghazaleh; Zhao, Min; Ray, Herbert; Francisconi, Carolina Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Silva, Renato Menezes

    2013-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are strongly associated with tissue destruction because of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the expression of MMPs and TIMPs messenger RNA and protein levels in apical periodontitis lesions. Tissue samples from patients presenting clinical signs of chronic apical abscess (CAA) or asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were collected postoperatively and used for gene expression analysis of MMP-2, -3, -7, -9, -14, -16, and -25; TIMP-1; and TIMP-2 in real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to detect the expression of MMP-7 and TIMP-1 proteins. Lastly, U-937 cells were induced to terminal differentiation into macrophages, infected with purified Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, and assessed for the expression of MMP-7 and TIMP-1 using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Significantly higher messenger RNA levels were found for all genes in AAP and CAA samples when compared with healthy control samples (P < .001). AAP cases exhibited significantly higher TIMP-1 when compared with CAA cases, whereas CAA cases showed higher MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 messenger RNA levels (P < .05). We also detected positive the expression of MMP-7 and TIMP-1 proteins in the tissue samples. The expression of both MMP-7 and TIMP-1 were increased in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells compared with nonstimulated cells and appear to colocalize in the Golgi apparatus. MMPs appear to have an influential role in CAA cases in which ongoing tissue destruction is observed. TIMPs are preferentially associated with AAP, perhaps as a subsequent defense mechanism against excessive destruction. Taken together, our findings implicate MMP and TIMP molecules in the dynamics of inflammatory periapical lesion development. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Guided Endodontics: a novel treatment approach for teeth with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastl, Gabriel; Zehnder, Marc S; Connert, Thomas; Weiger, Roland; Kühl, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    To present a new treatment approach for teeth with pulp canal calcification (PCC) which require root canal treatment. A 15-year-old male patient presented with pain of his upper right central incisor. The tooth showed signs of apical periodontitis. Due to PCC, location of the root canal was judged to be difficult and associated with a high risk of perforation. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and an intra-oral surface scan were performed and matched using software for virtual implant planning. After planning the position of the drill for root canal location, a virtual template was designed, and the data were exported as an STL file and sent to a 3D printer for template fabrication. The template was positioned on the anterior maxillary teeth. A specific drill was used to penetrate through the obliterated part of the root canal and obtain minimally invasive access to the apical part. The root canal was accessible at 9 mm distance from the apex. Further root canal preparation was carried out using an endodontic rotary instrumentation system. After an interappointment dressing for 4 weeks, the root canal was filled with vertically condensed gutta-percha using an epoxy sealer. The access cavity was restored with a composite material. After 15 months, the patient was clinically asymptomatic with no pain on percussion. The radiograph showed no apical pathology. The presented guided endodontic approach seems to be a safe, clinically feasible method to locate root canals and prevent root perforation in teeth with PCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Surgical treatment of adult scoliosis: is anterior apical release and fusion necessary for the lumbar curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngbae B; Lenke, Lawrence G; Kim, Yongjung J; Kim, Young-Woo; Bridwell, Keith H; Stobbs, Georgia

    2008-05-01

    A retrospective study. To analyze radiographic and functional outcomes after posterior segmental spinal instrumentation and fusion (PSSIF) with and without an anterior apical release of the lumbar curve in adult scoliosis patients. No comparison study on PSSIF of adult lumbar scoliosis with apical release versus without has been published. Forty-eight adult patients with lumbar scoliosis (average age at surgery 49.6 years, average follow-up 3.7 years) who underwent PSSIF were analyzed with respect to radiographic change, perioperative and postoperative complications, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome scores. Twenty-three patients underwent an anterior apical release of the lumbar curve via a thoracoabdominal approach followed by PSSIF (Group I). The remaining 25 patients underwent a PSSIF of the lumbar curve followed by anterior column support at the lumbosacral region through an anterior paramedian retroperitoneal or posterior transforaminal approach (Group II). Before surgery, Group I showed a somewhat larger lumbar major Cobb angle (63.2 degrees vs. 55.9 degrees , P = 0.07), and both groups demonstrated significant differences in lumbar curve flexibility (26.9% vs. 37.2%, P = 0.02) and thoracolumbar kyphosis (27.0 degrees vs. 15.0 degrees , P = 0.03). After surgery, at the ultimate follow-up, there were no significant differences in major Cobb angle, C7 plumbline to the center sacral vertical line (P = 0.17), C7 plumbline to the posterior superior endplate of S1 (P = 0.44), and sagittal Cobb angles at the proximal junction (P = 0.57), T10-L2 (P = 0.24) and T12-S1 (P = 0.51). There were 4 pseudarthroses in Group I and one in Group II (P = 0.02). Postoperative total normalized SRS outcome scores at ultimate follow-up were significantly higher in Group II (69% vs. 79%, P = 0.01). Posterior segmental spinal instrumentation and fusion without anterior apical release of lumbar curves in adult scoliosis demonstrated better total SRS outcome scores and no

  1. The apical oxygen influence on critical temperature of Hg-based superconducting cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasojedov, Yu.M.; Lutsyiv, R.V.; Skyira, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of changes in critical temperature (T c ) as a function of structural parameters is performed for the Hg-based superconductors. We found that there exists a correlation between T c and Madelung potential difference (ΔV) for holes (p) at apical oxygen (O A ) and oxygen (O p ) sites in the (CuO 2 ) plane. A change of the Madelung potential of holes for the varying occupancy factor of oxygen in the Hg-plane was calculated. We showed that a parabolic dependence of T c (p) for Hg-1201 is transformed to a 'boomerang' like dependence for Hg-1223

  2. Predictors of certification in infection prevention and control among infection preventionists: APIC MegaSurvey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Harris, Jeanette J; Zawistowski, Grace

    2018-06-06

    The 2015 APIC MegaSurvey was completed by 4,078 members to assess infection prevention practices. This study's purpose was to examine MegaSurvey results to relate infection preventionist (IP) certification status with demographic characteristics, organizational structure, compensation benefits, and practice and competency factors. Descriptive statistics were used to examine population characteristics and certification status. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships between independent variables and certification status. Variables demonstrating statistical significance (P Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Abscess at the implant site following apical parodontitis. Hardware-related complications of deep brain stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixel-Döring, F; Trenkwalder, C; Kappus, C; Hellwig, D

    2006-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an important treatment option for advanced stages of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, leading to significant improvement of motor symptoms in suited patients. Hardware-related complications such as technical malfunction, skin erosion, and infections however cause patient discomfort and additional expense. The patient presented here suffered a putrid infection of the impulse generator site following only local dental treatment of apical parodontitis. Therefore, prophylactic systemic antibiotic treatment is recommended for patients with implanted deep brain stimulation devices in case of operations, dental procedures, or infectious disease.

  4. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-07-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered before treatment begins. This case report describes the incidence of root resorption following orthodontic treatment and the teeth affected in the patient with multiple aplasia.

  5. Right Ventricular Endomyocardial Fibrosis Presenting With Ventricular Tachycardia And Apical Thrombus - An Interesting Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Aggarwal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Endomyocardial fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown origin affecting children and young adults. It involves inflow portion of right and/or left ventricle and apex. It may be associated with thrombus. Literature regarding right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis with thrombus is scarce. Here we report a rare case of right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presenting as ventricular tachycardia and echocardiographic evidence of apical thrombus. Interestingly there was no pulmonary involvement or evidence of deep venous thrombosis. This case also underscores the importance of urgent echocardiography in diagnosis of obscure cases of ventricular tachycardia.

  6. Apical root resorption caused by orthodontic forces: A brief review and a long-term observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkara, Ahu; Karaman, Ali I; Kau, Chung H

    2012-10-01

    External apical root resorption (ARR) is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. One of the aims of this article is to present a brief overview of the literature, including; diagnosis and etiology, with emphasis on orthodontic forces to facilitate an understand of the prevention or management of ARR in orthodontic patients. We also present a long-term follow-up observation of severe ARR, including the last obtained cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) records, to demonstrate the effect of orthodontic forces on ARR.

  7. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    and unidirectional Cl- fluxes decreased significantly. The results suggest that nucleotides released to the airway surface liquid exert an autocrine regulation of epithelial NaCl absorption mainly by inhibiting the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and paracellular anion conductance via a P2Y......We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  8. Apical hypertrophy associated with rapid T wave inversion on the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanari, H; Saito, D; Mikio, K; Nakamura, K; Nanba, T; Morita, H; Mizuo, K; Sato, T; Ohe, T

    1995-01-01

    A 53-year-old man who had no chest pain and no family history of heart disease demonstrated a rapid T wave change on an electrocardiogram, from a positive T wave to a giant negative T wave, within 1 year. Echocardiography showed no left ventricular hypertrophy before or after the T wave change. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal apical hypertrophy after the appearance of the giant negative T wave. Although T wave inversions sometimes develop within a short period in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, they are rare in a patient without hypertension or chest pain.

  9. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Özyürek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR, Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN, and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA systems. Materials and Methods The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU, Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. Results New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. Conclusions This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  10. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Tek, Vildan; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN), and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) systems. The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU), Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ 2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  11. Identification of the Genes Involved in the Biofilm-like Structures on Actinomyces oris K20, a Clinical Isolate from an Apical Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    bacteria in clinically asymptomatic periapical pathosis. J Endod 1990;16:534–8. 5. Nair PNR. On the causes of persistent apical periodontitis : a review...Identification of the Genes Involved in the Biofilm-like Structures on Actinomyces oris K20, a Clinical Isolate from an Apical Lesion Chiho Mashimo...Actinomyces oris K20. (J Endod 2013;39:44–48) Key Words Actinomyces oris, apical abscess, biofilm, polysac- charide deacetylase, transposon mutagenesis

  12. Histobacteriologic Conditions of the Apical Root Canal System and Periapical Tissues in Teeth Associated with Sinus Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-03-01

    This histobacteriologic study described the pattern of intraradicular and extraradicular infections in teeth with sinus tracts and chronic apical abscesses. The material comprised biopsy specimens from 24 (8 untreated and 16 treated) roots of teeth associated with apical periodontitis and a sinus tract. Specimens were obtained by periradicular surgery or extraction and were processed for histobacteriologic and histopathologic methods. Bacteria were found in the apical root canal system of all specimens, in the main root canal (22 teeth) and within ramifications (17 teeth). Four cases showed no extraradicular infection. Extraradicular bacteria occurred as a biofilm attached to the outer root surface in 17 teeth (5 untreated and 12 treated teeth), as actinomycotic colonies in 2 lesions, and as planktonic cells in 2 lesions. Extraradicular calculus formation (mineralized biofilm) was evident in 10 teeth. Teeth with chronic apical abscesses and sinus tracts showed a very complex infectious pattern in the apical root canal system and periapical lesion, with a predominance of biofilms. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of manual or engine-driven glide path preparation with canal centring and apical transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R C; Peters, O A; de Figueiredo, J A P; Rossi-Fedele, G

    2018-04-28

    The role and effect of glide path preparation in root canal treatment remain controversial. This systematic review aims to compare apical transportation and canal centring of different glide path preparation techniques, with or without subsequent engine-driven root canal preparation. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source and Virtual Health Library was conducted, using appropriate key words to identify the effect of glide path preparation (or its absence) on apical transportation and canal centring. An assessment for the risk of bias in included studies was carried out. Amongst 2146 studies, 18 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Nine studies assessed glide path preparation per se, comparing apical transportation and canal centring of rotary systems and/or manual files; eleven further investigations examined the efficacy of the glide path prior to final canal preparation with different engine-driven systems. Risk of bias and other study design features with potential influence on study outcomes and clinical implications were assessed. Based on the available evidence, and within the limitation of the studies included, preparation of a glide path using rotary sequences performs similarly (in most of the component studies) or significantly better than manual preparation when assessing apical transportation or canal centring. When compared to the absence of a glide path, canal shaping following glide path preparation was of similar, or significantly better quality, in regard to apical transportation or canal centring. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Similar expression of through-and-through fluid movement along orthograde apical plugs of MTA Bio and white Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, G; Audi, C; Murad, C; Fidel, S; Fidel, R

    2008-12-01

    To compare the sealing ability of four hydraulic cements when used as an apical plug in teeth with wide-open apices. A sample of 70 maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups (n = 15) and a further 10 teeth served as controls. An artificial open apex was created in the teeth using Gates Glidden drills numbers 6-1 in a crown-down manner until the size 1 bur passed through the foramen. A divergent open apex was prepared to a size of 1.24 mm at the foramen by retrograde apical transportation using a number 8 (0.60) Profile Series 29 0.4 taper instrument inserted to the length of the cutting blade. In G1, the open apices were repaired with WMTA Angelus whilst in G2, G3 and G4 MTA Bio, Pro-Root MTA and Portland cement was employed respectively. Each root was assembled in a hermetic cell to allow the evaluation of fluid filtration. Leakage was measured by the movement of an air bubble travelling within a pipette connected to the teeth. Measurements of the air bubble movement were made after 10 min at a constant pressure of 50 cm H(2)O. The Kruskal-Wallis H-test was applied to the fluid flow data to detect differences between the experimental groups (P 0.05). Fluid movement through teeth with open apices and filled with four hydraulic cements was similar. All cements allowed fluid movement.

  15. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs; Variabilidad interexaminador del diagnostico de periodontitis apical cronica en radiografias panoramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia [Univ. de Costa Rica, Facultad de Odontologia (Costa Rica)

    2009-01-15

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [Spanish] La precision del diagnostico radiologico de la Periodontitis Apical Cronica (PAC) es reportado entre examinadores con diferentes niveles de experiencia clinica al utilizar radiografias panoramicas. 1032 dientes en 41 radiografias panoramicas han sido diagnosticados. La evaluacion de las radiografias y el diagnostico radiologico es realizado por tres odontologos independientes para la PAC a cada diente. Los dientes tampoco han presentado signos radiologicos de PAC en 96.6%. El numero de dientes clasificados con un diagnostico incierto de PAC ha sido inversamente proporcional al numero de anos de experiencia del examinador. El examinador A ha sido utilizado como referencia y se han comparado los

  16. Morfologia e biometria do ligamento apical do pênis de touros da raça Girolando Morphology and biometry of the apical ligament of the penis of Girolando race bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Roquete Cardoso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e biometria do ligamento apical do pênis de 32 touros da raça Girolando (Bos taurus indicus X Bos taurus taurus, Linnaeus - 1758, com idade de 36 a 48 meses e pesando de 480 a 540kg. As peças anatômicas foram obtidas em frigorífico e mantidas congeladas até dissecação. O ligamento originou-se a 15,1±2,9cm distalmente à curvatura caudal da flexura sigmoide e inseriu-se a 1,4±0,7cm proximalmente ao colo da glande, medindo 18,9±2,6cm de comprimento. Apresentou largura de 1,9±0,6mm na sua origem, 2,2±0,8mm na inserção e 35,2±10mm na altura da inserção da lâmina interna do prepúcio. A espessura média ao longo de sua extensão variou de 0,7 a 1,9mm. Próximo à coroa da glande, o ligamento apical se posiciona principalmente na superfície dorsolateral esquerda desse órgão, e a característica da sua fixação na albugínea apresentou variações ao longo de sua extensão. Em sua origem e inserção e na face esquerda do pênis, o ligamento apical é firmemente aderido à túnica albugínea, mas na face dorsal e direita do pênis essa união é realizada por meio de tecido conjuntivo frouxo. Verificou-se correlação média entre o comprimento e a circunferência do pênis com o comprimento do ligamento apical, mas a correlação entre essas variáveis do pênis e a largura do ligamento apical foi baixa.The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and biometry of the apical ligament of the penis of Girolando bulls. For this purpose, it was dissected 32 penis of Girolando bulls obtained from slaughterhouses and kept frozen until their dissection. The animals were 36 to 48 month old and weighted between 480 and 540kg. The origin of the apical ligament occurred at 15.1±2.9cm distally to the caudal loop of the sigmoid flexure and its insertion occurred at 1.4±0.7cm proximally to the neck of the glans. The length of the apical ligament was 19.9±2.6cm. The width was 1.9±0.6mm at its

  17. Delayed-enhancement MRI of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: assessment of the intramural distribution and comparison with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shinichiro; Takayama, Morimasa; Kitamura, Mitsunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is reported to show patchy midwall myocardial hyper enhancement on delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI). The intramural distribution of myocardial hyper enhancement and its correlation with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac function have not been described for symptomatic apical HCM. Purpose: To evaluate the features and significance of myocardial hyper enhancement on DE-MRI in symptomatic apical HCM. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with symptomatic apical HCM and their 65 apical segments were investigated. Myocardial hyper enhancement and regional and global functional parameters were determined with MRI. We investigated the intramural distribution and frequencies of this myocardial hyper enhancement and compared them with the patients' clinical symptoms, the presence of ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI. Results: Eight (61.5%) patients with symptomatic apical HCM displayed apical myocardial hyper enhancement, and 22 (33.8%) of the 65 apical segments examined showed myocardial hyper enhancement. Of the myocardial hyper enhancement observed, 81.8% showed a subendocardial pattern.The Hyperenhanced apical myocardium had a lower percentage of systolic myocardial thickening, and was associated with serious symptoms (e.g. syncope) and ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic apical HCM showed myocardial hyper enhancement involving the subendocardial layer, which might be related to regional systolic dysfunction, serious clinical symptoms, and ventricular arrhythmias

  18. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted and hand K-file system: An ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Ghogre

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.

  19. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  20. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  1. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Italo Bruno Dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations were increased. Acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation was suspected, and coronary angiography was immediately performed, which showed severe diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, medial-apical systolic ballooning, and a lack of significant coronary injury. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit and was successfully treated with supportive therapy. As this case shows, Takotsubo syndrome might simulate the clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography is necessary to distinguish between both myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction in the acute stage. The present patient progressed with spontaneous resolution of the ventricular dysfunction without any sequelae.

  2. Wear promoted in the apical third of simulated canals after instrumentation with protaper universal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein Tapia da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the wear in the apical third of simulate canals after preparation with ProTaper Universal Rotary System. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 sets of instruments were used in 24 simulated canals in transparent epoxy resin blocks with degree of curvature of either 20°or 40°. The canals were photographed preoperatively and after preparation of the apical stop with ProTaper F3, F4 and F5 instruments. The initial and final images were exported to Adobe Photoshop® software and superimposed to detect the root canal wall differences (in mm between them, in two points located 1 (A and 5 (B mm from the point where the working length was established. Data were subjected to analysis of variance to verify the existence of interaction among the factors: canal curvature, instrument size and curve location. Significant level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Regardless of the location and the canal curvature, F4 and F5 instruments produced the greatest wear (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There was a deviation from the original pathway towards the outside of the root curvature in both analyzed points. All instruments produced canal transportation, but the F4 and F5 instruments produced more than the other instruments, and should thus be used with care in curved canals.

  3. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe the characteristics of a novel protein that localizes to the APR of Toxoplasma gondii which we have named ring-1 (RNG1). There are related RNG1 proteins in Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona but no obvious homologs in Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp. or Babesia spp. RNG1 is a small, low-complexity, detergent-insoluble protein that assembles at the APR very late in the process of daughter parasite replication. We were unable to knock-out the RNG1 gene, suggesting that its gene product is essential. Tagged RNG1 lines have also allowed us to visualize the APR during growth of Toxoplasma in the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin. Oryzalin inhibits nuclear division and cytokinesis although Toxoplasma growth continues, and similar to earlier observations of unchecked centriole duplication in oryzalin-treated parasites, the APR continues to duplicate during aberrant parasite growth. PMID:20658557

  4. Apical transport of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein requires Rab11-positive recycling endosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Momose

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs. Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently in both directions, suggestive of vesicle trafficking. Using a series of Rab family protein, we demonstrated that progeny vRNP localized to recycling endosome (RE in an active/GTP-bound Rab11-dependent manner. The vRNP interacted with Rab11 through viral RNA polymerase. The localization of vRNP to RE and subsequent accumulation to the APM were impaired by overexpression of Rab binding domains (RBD of Rab11 family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs. Similarly, no APM accumulation was observed by overexpression of class II Rab11-FIP mutants lacking RBD. These results suggest that the progeny vRNP makes use of Rab11-dependent RE machinery for APM trafficking.

  5. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  6. Correlation of Vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Azita; Sadighnia, Azin; Younessian, Farnaz; Abdi, Amir H; Shirvani, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Adequate Vitamin D is essential for dental and skeletal health in children and adult. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of serum Vitamin D level with external-induced apical root resorption (EARR) following fixed orthodontic treatment. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (defined by25-hydroxyvitamin-D) was determined in 34 patients (23.5% male; age range 12-23 years; mean age 16.63 ± 2.84) treated with fixed orthodontic treatment. Root resorption of four maxillary incisors was measured using before and after periapical radiographs (136 measured teeth) by means of a design-to-purpose software to optimize data collection. Teeth with a maximum percentage of root resorption (%EARR) were indicated as representative root resorption for each patient. A multiple linear regression model and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the association of Vitamin D status and observed EARR. P 0.05). This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  7. Transient apical breakdown and its relationship with orthodontic forces: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Oscar Lozano; Vera, Jorge; Orozco, Marco Salas; Mancera, Jaime Trigueros; González, Karla Vidal; Malagón, Genaro Vega

    2014-08-01

    Transient apical breakdown (TAB) caused by orthodontic treatment is a reversible resorptive process in which the apex of a tooth shows some radiographic evidence of resorption and the crown may display some discoloration. It usually requires no treatment other than monitoring and elimination of the orthodontic forces applied to the tooth. This report describes the case of a 48-year-old man patient who was referred to the department of endodontics for evaluation of some discoloration of his upper right central incisor, which was undergoing orthodontic treatment. The tooth was nonresponsive to sensitivity tests, it was sensitive to percussion, and, radiographically, there was some evidence of root resorption and apical radiolucency. Because TAB was the suspected cause of the signs and symptoms, no treatment was performed on the tooth except for periodic recalls, and lightening and eventual removal of the orthodontic appliances was indicated. Ten weeks after the initial appointment and removal of the applied orthodontic forces, color improvement was observed, accompanied by a return of tooth sensitivity to cold tests. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of chronic right ventricular apical pacing on left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Abuissa, Hussam; Jones, Philip G; Thompson, Randall C; Bateman, Timothy M; McGhie, A Iain; Ramza, Brian M; Steinhaus, David M

    2005-03-15

    The determinants of change in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) over time in patients with impaired LV function at baseline have not been clearly established. Using a nuclear database to assess changes in LV function over time, we included patients with a baseline LVEF of 25% to 40% on a gated single-photon emission computed tomographic study at rest and only if second-gated photon emission computed tomography performed approximately 18 months after the initial study showed an improvement in LVEF at rest of > or =10 points or a decrease in LVEF at rest of > or =7 points. In all, 148 patients qualified for the EF increase group and 59 patients for the EF decrease group. LVEF on average increased from 33 +/- 4% to 51 +/- 8% in the EF increase group and decreased from 35 +/- 4% to 25 +/- 5% in the EF decrease group. The strongest multivariable predictor of improvement of LVEF was beta-blocker therapy (odds ratio 3.9, p = 0.002). The strongest independent predictor of LVEF decrease was the presence of a permanent right ventricular apical pacemaker (odds ratio 6.6, p = 0.002). Thus, this study identified beta-blocker therapy as the major independent predictor for improvement in LVEF of > or =10 points, whereas a permanent pacemaker (right ventricular apical pacing) was the strongest predictor of a LVEF decrease of > or =7 points.

  9. Regenerative treatment of an immature, traumatized tooth with apical periodontitis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Mereu, Manuela; Lusso, Daniela

    2008-05-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a necrotic immature permanent central incisor with complete crown fracture, suspected root fracture, and sinus tract, which was not treated with conventional apexification techniques. Instead, a regenerative approach based on the trauma literature's methods for revascularization was provided. The root canal was gently debrided of necrotic tissue with a sharp spoon excavator and irrigated for only one third of its length with NaOCl and then medicated with calcium hydroxide. After 15 days the sinus tract had healed, and the tooth was asymptomatic. The tooth was accessed, calcium hydroxide was removed, bleeding was stimulated to form an intracanal blood clot, and mineral trioxide aggregate was placed coronally to the blood clot. After 8 months, a coronal calcified barrier was radiographically evident and accompanied with progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Two and a half years after treatment was initiated, the tooth remained asymptomatic, and the sinus tract had not reappeared. The progressive increase in the thickness of the dentinal walls and subsequent apical development suggest that appropriate biologic responses can occur with this type of treatment of the necrotic immature permanent tooth with sinus tract.

  10. Pain following foraminal enlargement in mandibular molars with necrosis and apical periodontitis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, H R; Sangwan, P; Sangwan, A

    2016-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of foraminal enlargement during chemomechanical root canal preparation on postoperative pain. Seventy mandibular first molars with asymptomatic pulp necrosis and chronic apical periodontitis were randomized into two groups - foraminal enlargement (FE) and conventional nonforaminal enlargement (NFE). Canals were prepared according to the respective protocols, and the teeth were restored temporarily. Postoperatively, the patients were prescribed ibuprofen 400 mg, to be taken if required. Pain experience and analgesic intake were recorded for 7 days following chemomechanical preparation. The data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square tests. Pain experience was higher with foraminal enlargement than when using a conventional technique. A significant difference was observed in postoperative pain during the first 4 days and the sixth day (P  0.05). Enlargement of the apical foramen during root canal treatment increased the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Kanoh, Hatsuho

    2016-01-01

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein–centrin2–labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering “floret” pattern to the linear “alignment.” This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  12. Radiographic and histological evaluation of persistent periapical lesions associated with endodontic failures after apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, M K; Kaval, M E; Tekin, U; Ünal, T

    2016-11-01

    To determine the histology of persistent periapical lesions associated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment failures and to compare radiographically the sizes of periapical lesions and the presence or absence of the radiopaque lamina with the histological findings. Ninety-three anterior teeth designated for apical microsurgery were included in the study. After taking standard radiographs of all cases using the parallel technique, the films were scanned and evaluated for the size of periapical radiolucent lesions and the presence or absence of radiopaque lamina by two calibrated observers. Biopsy specimens were obtained during apical microsurgery and examined under light microscopy by oral pathologists. Histological analysis established diagnoses of granuloma, cyst, abscess and scar tissue. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by the kappa test, and the relationship between histological diagnosis and lesion size was analysed by the Pearson's chi-square test. The 93 specimens consisted of 72% periradicular granulomas; 21.5% radicular cysts, including two keratocysts; 4.3% abscesses; and 2.2% scar tissue. Cystic prevalence increased as the size of the periapical lesion increased; however, there was no correlation between the presence of a radiopaque lamina and histological diagnosis of cyst. Neither radiographic size nor presence of an associated radiopaque line alone was sufficient to determine the type of lesion. Histological examination is required in order to reach to a definitive diagnosis. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Molander, A; Dahlén, G

    2004-09-01

    To identify Gram-positive rods from root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and to examine their associations with other species. Consecutive root canal samples (RCSs) from 139 teeth undergoing root canal treatment were analyzed prospectively for cultivable microbes. Gram-positive rods in the first RCS submitted after chemo-mechanical preparation were categorised to genus level by selective media and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and identified to species level by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Associations between organisms were measured by odds ratios (OR). In the first samples submitted a total of 158 Gram-positive rods, 115 Gram-positive cocci, 26 Gram-negative rods and 9 Gram-negative cocci, were identified. At genus levels Gram-positive rods were classified into: Lactobacillus spp. (38%), Olsenella spp. (18%), Propionibacterium spp. (13%), Actinomyces spp. (12%), Bifidobacterium spp. (13%) and Eubacterium spp. (6%). The most frequent species were Olsenella uli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium propionicum. In subsequent samples taken during treatment, Gram-positive rods were also identified, although the number of strains was considerably reduced. Positive associations were observed between members of the genus lactobacilli and Gram-positive cocci (OR>2). Olsenella uli and Lactobacillus spp. predominated over other Gram-positive rods. A possible association exists between Lactobacillus spp. and Gram-positive cocci in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis receiving treatment.

  14. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  15. Apical extrusion of debris after hand, engine-driven reciprocating and continuous preparation = Extrusão apical de “debris” após o preparo manual e mecanizado oscilatório e contínuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisi, Simone Bonato

    2010-01-01

    Conclusão: A técnica rotatória contínua com Pro-taper produziu maior quantidade de extrusão apical do que as técnicas coroa-ápice manual e mecanizada com sistema de rotação oscilatória. A direção da instrumentação, se cérvico-apical ou ápico-cervical, parece ser o fator mais determinante na extrusão de “debris” independente desta ser realizada manual ou mecanizada

  16. A possible association between early apical resorption of primary teeth and ectodermal characteristics of the permanent dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, M L B; Kvetny, M J; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    apical resorption in the primary dentition. Panoramic radiographs of 12 children (7 boys and 5 girls) aged 6 years 4 months to 8 years 9 months with unexpected early apical resorption of primary teeth were identified from a dental archive of 588 patients. After written request, follow-up radiographs were......The hypothesis of this study is that children with unexpected early apical resorption of the primary teeth are also predisposed to resorption in the permanent dentition. Accordingly, the aim was to perform a longitudinal study focussing on the permanent teeth in children with unexpected early...... obtained (2-15 year interval between early and follow-up radiographs). The radiographs were examined in order to verify the abnormal resorption pattern of the primary teeth and dental deviations in the permanent teeth, known to predispose for root resorption (i.e. invaginations, narrow crowns, abrupt root...

  17. 5-year results comparing mineral trioxide aggregate and adhesive resin composite for root-end sealing in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Hänni, Stefan; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2014-01-01

    was designed to re-examine a large sample of teeth treated with apical surgery after 5 years. METHODS: Patients were recalled 5 years after apical surgery, and treated teeth were classified as healed or not healed based on clinical and radiographic examination. (The latter was performed independently by 3......, age, type of tooth treated, post/screw, type of surgery). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this prospective nonrandomized clinical study with a 5-year follow-up of 271 teeth indicate that MTA exhibited a higher healing rate than COMP in the longitudinal prognosis of root-end sealing.......INTRODUCTION: Recent meta-analyses of the outcome of apical surgery using modern techniques including microsurgical principles and high-power magnification have yielded higher rates of healing. However, the information is mainly based on 1- to 2-year follow-up data. The present prospective study...

  18. Nonsurgical management of an extensive endodontic lesion in an orthodontic patient by calcium-enriched mixture apical plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesion is a general term used to describe the periapical inflammatory process that occurs in response to the invasion of micro-organisms in the root canal system as well as inflamed vital pulp. This phenomenon necessitates endodontic intervention and if the necrosis has occurred prior to tooth maturation, wide patency of the apical foramen requires some treatment modalities such as apexification or apical plug. Orthodontic treatment, on the other hand, is cautiously done for previously traumatized teeth due to increased risk for necrosis of the compromised tooth. This article tends to review the successful treatment process with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement apical plug for an immature previously traumatized incisor tooth with an extensive periapical lesion, which was under orthodontic treatment as well.

  19. The apical scaffold big bang binds to spectrins and regulates the growth of Drosophila melanogaster wing discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Elodie; Logeay, Rémi; Géminard, Charles; Kantar, Diala; Frayssinoux, Florence; Heron-Milhavet, Lisa; Djiane, Alexandre

    2018-03-05

    During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture. bbg -mutant tissues are smaller, with fewer cells that are less apically constricted than normal. We show that Bbg binds to and colocalizes tightly with the β-heavy-Spectrin/Kst subunit at the apical cortex and promotes Yki activity, F-actin enrichment, and the phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain Spaghetti squash. We propose a model in which the spectrin cytoskeleton recruits Bbg to the cortex, where Bbg promotes actomyosin contractility to regulate epithelial tissue growth. © 2018 Forest et al.

  20. Epicardial deployment of right ventricular disk during perventricular device closure in a child with apical muscular ventricular septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara Rao Koneti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a successful perventricular closure of an apical muscular ventricular septal defect (mVSD by a modified technique. An eight-month-old infant, weighing 6.5 kilograms, presented with refractory heart failure. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed multiple apical mVSDs with the largest one measuring 10 mm. perventricular device closure using a 12 mm Amplatzer mVSD occluder was planned. The left ventricular disk was positioned approximating the interventricular septum; however, the right ventricular (RV disk was deployed on the free wall of the RV due to an absent apical muscular septum and a small cavity at the apex. The RV disk of the device was covered using an autologous pericardium. His heart failure improved during follow-up.

  1. Depletion of histone demethylase KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Rui [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Yao, Rui [Department of Pediatrics, Stomatological Hospital of Nankai University, Tianjin 300041 (China); Du, Juan [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Wang, Songlin [Molecular Laboratory for Gene Therapy and Tooth Regeneration, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Capital Medical University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100069 (China); Fan, Zhipeng, E-mail: zpfan@ccmu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed members of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. A previous study determined that KDM2A can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2A is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here, we show that depletion of KDM2A by short hairpin RNAs can enhance adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials in human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). We found that the stemness-related genes, SOX2, and the embryonic stem cell master transcription factor, NANOG were significantly increased after silence of KDM2A in SCAPs. Moreover, we found that knock-down of the KDM2A co-factor, BCOR also up-regulated the mRNA levels of SOX2 and NANOG. Furthermore, Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that silence of KDM2A increased the histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation in the SOX2 and NANOG locus and regulates its expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that depletion of KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs by up-regulated SOX2 and NANOG, BCOR also involved in this regulation as co-factor, and provided useful information to understand the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSCs. - Highlights: • Depletion of KDM2A enhances adipogenic/chondrogenic differentiation in SCAPs. • Depletion of KDM2A enhances the differentiation of SCAPs by activate SOX2 and NANOG. • Silence of KDM2A increases histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation in SOX2 and NANOG. • BCOR is co-factor of KDM2A involved in the differentiation regulation.

  2. Depletion of histone demethylase KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Rui; Yao, Rui; Du, Juan; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Zhipeng

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed members of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. A previous study determined that KDM2A can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2A is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here, we show that depletion of KDM2A by short hairpin RNAs can enhance adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials in human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). We found that the stemness-related genes, SOX2, and the embryonic stem cell master transcription factor, NANOG were significantly increased after silence of KDM2A in SCAPs. Moreover, we found that knock-down of the KDM2A co-factor, BCOR also up-regulated the mRNA levels of SOX2 and NANOG. Furthermore, Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that silence of KDM2A increased the histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation in the SOX2 and NANOG locus and regulates its expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that depletion of KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs by up-regulated SOX2 and NANOG, BCOR also involved in this regulation as co-factor, and provided useful information to understand the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSCs. - Highlights: • Depletion of KDM2A enhances adipogenic/chondrogenic differentiation in SCAPs. • Depletion of KDM2A enhances the differentiation of SCAPs by activate SOX2 and NANOG. • Silence of KDM2A increases histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation in SOX2 and NANOG. • BCOR is co-factor of KDM2A involved in the differentiation regulation

  3. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using four rotary instrumentation systems: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, S Aspalli; Balakoti, K Reddy; Smita, Karan; Ratnakar, P; Satish, S V; Aravind, T

    2013-11-01

    The apical extrusion of infected debris may have the potential to disrupt the balance between microbial aggression and host defense, resulting in incidents of acute inflammation. During preparation, irrigants and debris, such as bacteria, dentin filings and necrotic tissue may be extruded into the periradicular region leading to periapical inflammation and postoperative flare ups. Using an instrumentation technique that minimizes apical extrusion would be beneficial to both the practitioner and patient. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from extracted teeth in vitro after endodontic instrumentation using four different rotary root canal instrumentation systems. Four groups of each 20 extracted mandibular premolars were instrumented using one of the four systems: ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland)), Hero-shaper (MicroMega, Besancon, France), RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and K3 (SybronEndo, West Collins, CA). Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected in preweighed test tubes. Volume of irrigant extruded was noted. The containers were stored in incubator at 70° for two days to evaporate the moisture. Weight of dry debris was noted. Data was analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at a significance of 0.001. The results indicated that all of the instrumentation systems tested caused measurable apical extrusion of debris and irrigants. Higher extrusion was observed with Protaper system which was statistically significant with Hero-Shaper, RaCe and K3 systems. There were no statistical differences between Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems (p < 0.05). All instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris and irrigant. However, Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems produced less extruded debris and irrigant than the Protaper system.

  4. Eccentric apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy unmasked by multimodality imaging: an uncommon but missed cause of out of hospital cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Eric; Sharma, Saurabh; Geske, Jeffrey; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    A woman in her late 50s experienced a witnessed, sudden out of hospital cardiac arrest. Initial workup included coronary angiography, transthoracic echocardiogram and a CT scan of the chest to rule out pulmonary embolus. She was subsequently discharged home without an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or a life vest. On follow-up at another facility, an ICD was placed and a Holter monitor showed no ventricular ectopy. Further transthoracic echocardiographic images were obtained, which were suggestive of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A limited transthoracic echocardiogram with contrast was performed, which did not elucidate the hypertrophy. However, eccentric left ventricular apical wall hypertrophy was visualised by a coronary CT scan. PMID:26153133

  5. In vivo PTH provokes apical NHE3 and NaPi2 redistribution and Na-K-ATPase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Norian, J M; Magyar, C E

    1999-01-01

    and to determine whether the same cellular signals drive the changes in apical and basolateral transporters. PTH-(1-34) (20 U), which couples to adenylate cyclase (AC), phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), or [Nle8,18,Tyr34]PTH-(3-34) (10 U), which couples to PLC and PLA2 but not AC, were given....../diuresis and NHE3 and NaPi2 internalization, and that Na-K-ATPase inhibition is not secondary to depressed apical Na+ transport....

  6. Effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the apical seal of root canals obturated with different sealers and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Aydemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During mechanical preparation of the post space, the root canal filling may be twisted or vibrated, depending on several factors associated with the preparation technique and quality of filling. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the integrity of the apical seal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four extracted human incisors were biomechanically prepared using the step-back technique. Sixty roots were randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups of 10 teeth each and the remaining 4 roots served as positive and negative controls (n=2. The root canals in the different groups were obturated with cold lateral and warm vertical condensation of gutta-percha and one of two sealers (Sealapex and Diaket. Post space was prepared either individually or simultaneously. An insulated copper wire was cut into 10-cm-long pieces. In each canal, one piece was inserted to maintain contact with gutta-percha and extended to the outside as one of two working electrodes. A stainless steel wire with the same dimensions of those of the copper wire, used as the other working electrode, was immersed into the background electrolyte from the center of the bottle. The electrical current between standard and experimental electrodes in canals was measured over a period of 10 days applying a conductivity meter. The Kruskal-Wallis test (p=0.05 determined whether there was a significant difference in microleakage among the groups and the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01 was used for multiple comparison grouping variables. RESULTS: The results suggest that only the differences between the root canal filling techniques were statistically significant (p0.01. CONCLUSION: The quality of the root canal filling is important for the integrity of the apical seal.

  7. Effect of Post Space Preparation on Apical Obturation Quality of Teeth Obturated with Different Techniques: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükkaya Eren, Selen; Askerbeyli Örs, Sevinc; Yılmaz, Zeliha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the obturation quality of root canals filled with different techniques and to determine whether post space preparation had an effect on the quality of apical obturation using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. The root canals of 30 human mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented, and the specimens were divided into 3 groups according to the obturation technique used: cold lateral compaction (CLC), warm vertical compaction (WVC), or single-cone (SC) techniques. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 1 week. Then, the coronal root filling material was removed in order to create a post space. Micro-CT scans were performed before and after post space preparation for the volumetric analysis of voids and filling materials. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. The CLC and SC groups showed a significantly greater percentage volume of voids than the WVC group (P space preparation (P > .05). The post space preparation caused a significant increase in the percentage volume of voids in the CLC and SC groups (P space preparation (P > .05). No root fillings were void free. The WVC group presented the best obturation quality. The post space preparation negatively influenced the apical integrity of the filling materials in the CLC and SC groups, whereas it had no significant effect in the WVC group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apical membrane P2Y4 purinergic receptor controls K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scofield Margaret A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was previously shown that K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium is under the control of G-protein coupled receptors of the P2Y family in the apical membrane. Receptor activation by uracil nucleotides (P2Y2, P2Y4 or P2Y6 leads to a decrease in the electrogenic K+ secretion. The present study was conducted to determine the subtype of the functional purinergic receptor in gerbil stria vascularis, to test if receptor activation leads to elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] and to test if the response to these receptors undergoes desensitization. Results The transepithelial short circuit current (Isc represents electrogenic K+ secretion and was found to be decreased by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A but not uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP at the apical membrane of marginal cells of the gerbil stria vascularis. The potencies of these agonists were consistent with rodent P2Y4 and P2Y2 but not P2Y6 receptors. Activation caused a biphasic increase in intracellular [Ca2+] that could be partially blocked by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate (2-APB, an inhibitor of the IP3 receptor and store-operated channels. Suramin (100 μM did not inhibit the effect of UTP (1 μM. The ineffectiveness of suramin at the concentration used was consistent with P2Y4 but not P2Y2. Transcripts for both P2Y2 and P2Y4 were found in the stria vascularis. Sustained exposure to ATP or UTP for 15 min caused a depression of Isc that appeared to have two components but with apparently no chronic desensitization. Conclusion The results support the conclusion that regulation of K+ secretion across strial marginal cell epithelium occurs by P2Y4 receptors at the apical membrane. The apparent lack of desensitization of the response is consistent with two processes: a rapid-onset phosphorylation of KCNE1 channel subunit and a slower-onset of regulation by depletion of plasma membrane PIP2.

  9. One- versus two-visit endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a histobacteriologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jorge; Siqueira, José F; Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Fernández, Nancy; Flores, Belina; Cruz, Alvaro G

    2012-08-01

    This study analyzed the in vivo microbiological status of the root canal systems of mesial roots of mandibular molars with primary apical periodontitis after 1- or 2-visit endodontic treatment. Mesial root canals were instrumented by using either a combination of K3 and LightSpeed instruments (mesiobuccal canals) or the ProTaper system (mesiolingual canals), with 5% NaOCl irrigation. Patency files were used. Smear layer was removed, and a final rinse with 5 mL of 2% chlorhexidine was performed. In the 2-visit group (7 roots, 14 canals), canals were medicated with calcium hydroxide for 1 week and then obturated by using the continuous wave of compaction technique. In the 1-visit group (6 roots, 12 canals), canals were immediately obturated after chemomechanical procedures. Teeth were extracted 1 week after root canal instrumentation and processed for histobacteriologic analysis. In the 1-visit group, no case was completely free of bacteria; residual bacteria occurred in the main root canal (5 of 6 cases), isthmus (5 of 6), apical ramifications (4 of 6), and dentinal tubules (5 of 6). In the 2-visit group, 2 cases were rendered bacteria-free; residual bacteria were found in the main canal only in 2 cases (none of them with persistent dentinal tubule infection), in the isthmus (4 of 7 cases), and in ramifications (2 of 7). The 2 instrumentation techniques performed similarly. When filling material was observed in ramifications, it was usually intermixed with necrotic tissue, debris, and bacteria. The 2-visit protocol by using an interappointment medication with calcium hydroxide resulted in improved microbiological status of the root canal system when compared with the 1-visit protocol. Residual bacteria were more frequent and abundant in ramifications, isthmuses, and dentinal tubules when root canals were treated without an interappointment medication. Apical ramifications and isthmuses were never completely filled. The use of an antibacterial interappointment agent

  10. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane ...

  11. Raft-mediated trafficking of apical resident proteins occurs in both direct and transcytotic pathways in polarized hepatic cells : Role of distinct lipid microdomains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Trugnan, G; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    In polarized hepatic cells, pathways and molecular principles mediating the flow of resident apical bile canalicular proteins have not yet been resolved. Herein, we have investigated apical trafficking of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked and two single transmembrane domain proteins on the one

  12. A transferrin-like GPI-linked iron-binding protein in detergent-insoluble noncaveolar microdomains at the apical surface of fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1995-01-01

    of ultracryosections of mucosal tissue, the protein was localized to the apical surface of the enterocytes, whereas it was absent from the basolateral plasma membrane. Interestingly, it was mainly found in patches of flat or invaginated apical membrane domains rather than at the surface of microvilli. Caveolae were...

  13. Ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) with reference to the apical groove and flagellar apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwataki, Mitsunori; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2010-01-01

    The external and internal ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef has been examined with special reference to the apical groove and three-dimensional structure of the flagellar apparatus. The apical groove is U-shaped and connected to the anterior...

  14. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  15. Reverse or inverted apical ballooning in a case of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Pablo; Monedero, Isabel; Rubio, Amador; Botas, Javier

    2015-06-26

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by the development of transient left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities, in the absence of significant coronary artery obstruction. This syndrome usually occurs in women and is frequently associated with an intense emotional or physical stress. It usually involves apical segments, but in the recent years atypical forms have been described. Inverted or reverse Takotsubo is a variant in which the basal and midventricular segments are hypokinetic, sparing contractile function of the apex. In this report we describe the case of a 54-year-old woman, with chronic malnutrition, initially admitted because of hypoglycemia and severe electrolyte disturbance due to a refeeding syndrome. Within the next hours she experienced acute cardiac symptoms and developed heart failure with low cardiac output. Electrocardiogram (ECG), elevation of troponin and echocardiographic findings were consistent with inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first incidence reported of inverted Takotsubo triggered by refeeding syndrome.

  16. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2011 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  17. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Lechowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of 5-FU on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem were investigated during 24-hour incubation in 5-FU and postincubation in water. The incubation in 5-FU caused a reversible inhibition of mitotic activity, and waves of the partially synchronised mitoses were observed during the period of postincubation. The most pronounced synchronisation of mitoses was obtained after incubation in 100 mg/l. 5-FU but the mitotic index of the resumed mitotic activity amounted to only one half of the control value. 5-FU was found to cause some cytological changes in meristematic cells such as enlargement of the nucleoli, change in the interphasic nuclei structure, appearance of subchromatid and chromatid aberrations and micronuclei. The effects of 5-FU on nucleic acids and the cell division cycle ace discussed and compared with the effects of 5-FUdR.

  18. [Significance of the bacterial flora in the etiology of apical periodontitis. Qualitative, quantitative and topographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, S; Lavagnoli, G; Frigeri, S; Fiamminghi, L

    1990-01-01

    In the international literature it is shown the central role of root canal infection in the etiology of periapical lesions. As a matter of fact it has been proved (13) that sterile necrotic pulp tissue is completely unable to cause inflammatory reactions at the periapex. Infection of endodontic origin extends to the supporting tissues of the tooth only in the case of their acute inflammation (e.g. acute apical periodontitis, acute alveolar abscess, phoenix abscess). On the other hand in chronic inflammation bacteria remain confined in the endodontic space. Only few exceptions to this general rule have been experimentally proved. In endodontics we deal with a mixed infection which is composed by obligate anaerobes and by facultative anaerobes. The most frequently found obligate anaerobes are Bacteroides sp. and Fusobacterium sp. (Gram- rods) Anaerobic Diphtheroides (Gram+ rods) Peptostreptococcus sp. (Gram+ cocci) and Veilonella sp. (Gram- cocci). Actinomyces sp., Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., and Staphilococcus sp. are the facultative anaerobes most frequently found.

  19. Fibrin hydrogels to deliver dental stem cells of the apical papilla for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Loïc; De Berdt, Pauline; Vanacker, Julie; Leprince, Julian; Diogenes, Anibal; Jacobs, Damien; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Bouzin, Caroline; Préat, Véronique; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; des Rieux, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of survival, proliferation and neurodifferentiation of dental stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) in fibrin hydrogels. We hypothesized that fibrin composition will influence cell behavior. Modulus, pore and fiber size were measured. SCAP in vitro viability, proliferation and neural differentiation, as well as in vivo proliferation and angiogenesis were studied. Hydrogel moduli were influenced by fibrin formulation but not hydrogel morphology, SCAP in vitro viability and proliferation. In total 60% of SCAP expressed PanNeurofilament in vitro without induction in Fibrinogen50-Thrombin10. SCAP proliferated when implanted in vivo and stimulated host endothelial cell infiltration. Fibrinogen30-Thrombin10 or Thrombin50 would be more favorable to in vitro SCAP viability and in vivo proliferation, while Fibrinogen 50-Thrombin50 would be more adapted to neurodifferentiation.

  20. Lenticonus diagnosis in Alport's syndrome: Anterior capsule apical angle calculation using Scheimpflug imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, E; Jarrín, I; Arnalich-Montiel, F

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simplified method to detect anterior lenticonus. Three eyes of 2 patients with anterior lenticonus, plus 16 eyes from 16 healthy controls underwent Scheimpflug imaging of their anterior segment with Pentacam. The anterior capsule apex angle was manually identified and automatically measured by AutoCAD. The mean angle was 173.06° (SD: 1.91) in healthy subjects, and 158.33° (SD: 3.05) in anterior lenticonus eyes. The angle obtained from patients was more than 3 SD steeper than those from healthy subjects. The apical angle calculation method seems to discriminate well between normal eyes and eyes suspected of having anterior lenticonus. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of immature teeth with apical infections using mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the young permanent teeth lead to devitalization of the pulp with concomitant arrest in further development of the immature root of the involved tooth. Hermetic seal of the root canal system during obturation is not possible in such cases, due to the lack of an apical constriction. The traditional management technique in such cases has been apexification involving induction of a calcific barrier at the apex using calcium hydroxide, which in turn facilitates obturation of the root canal. However this becomes complicated when there is persistent infection leading to periapical changes. This case report describes the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA for management of a periapically compromised immature tooth.

  2. A lesão apical em cardiopatas chagásicos crônicos: estudo necroscópico Apical lesions in Chagas' heart disease patients: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Brandt Friedrich Martin Gurgel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A lesão apical ventricular é típica da cardiopatia chagásica e sua presença representa risco de fenômenos tromboembólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a frequência de LA à necropsia de portadores de cardiopatia chagásica crônica. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de necropsias de chagásicos maiores que 17 anos. Efetuada análise estatística comparativa das variáveis clínicas e dos achados necroscópicos entre o grupo A (com lesão apical e o grupo B (ausência de lesão apical. RESULTADOS: Estudados 51 casos: 25 no grupo A (idade média de 53 anos, 64% do sexo masculinoe 26 no B.. A LA localizava-se no ventrículo esquerdo em 80% casos. No grupo B, a média de idade foi de 56 anos e 46,1% eram do sexo masculino. A forma clínica prevalente nos dois grupos foi a miopática, mas arritmia cardíaca também esteve presente em ambos (57,9% no grupo A e 32,1% no B. Foi constatada a presença de trombos em 60% dos casos do grupo A (53,3% localizados na LA e 30,7% no B; CONCLUSÕES: Houve predomínio da forma miopática nos casos com LA, com média de peso cardíaco maior em relação ao B. Em ambos os grupos observamos relação diretamente proporcional entre maior peso cardíaco e presença de tromboses. Houve predomínio do número de tromboses no grupo A, mais de 50% eram localizadas na lesão, cujo diferencial clínico principal consistiu na presença maior de arritmias. A miopatia (com aumento de peso acima de 500g foi primordial para aparecimento de tromboses.INTRODUCTION: The presence of an apical ventricular lesion increases the risk of intracardiac thrombosis and thromboembolic phenomena. The study evaluated the incidence of apical lesions and intracardiac thrombosis in Chagas' heart disease patients at autopsy. METHODS: A retrospective review of autopsies of Chagas' heart disease patients was conducted. Statistical analysis included comparison of clinical variables and autopsy findings between two groups

  3. RIght VErsus Left Apical transvenous pacing for bradycardia: Results of the RIVELA randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haran Burri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare cardiac function when pacing from the right or left ventricular apex in patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function, at 1-year follow-up. Methods: Prospective, multicentre centre randomizing conventional right ventricular apical (RVA versus left ventricular apical (LVA pacing using a coronary sinus lead in patients requiring ventricular pacing for bradycardia. Follow-up was performed using 3D-echocardiography at 6 and 12 months. Results: A total of 36 patients (age 75.4 ± 8.7 years, 21 males were enrolled (17 patients in the RVA group and 19 patients in the LVA group. A right ventricular lead was implanted in 8 patients in the LVA group, mainly because of high capture thresholds. There were no differences in the primary endpoint of LVEF at 1 year (60.4 ± 7.1% vs 62.1 ± 7.2% for the RVA and LVA groups respectively, P = 0.26 nor in any of the secondary endpoints (left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular diastolic function, right ventricular systolic function and tricuspid/mitral insufficiency. LVEF did not change significantly over follow-up in either group. Capture thresholds were significantly higher in the LVA group, and two patients had unexpected loss of capture of the coronary sinus lead during follow-up. Conclusions: Left univentricular pacing seems to be comparable to conventional RVA pacing in terms of ventricular function at up to 1 year follow-up, and is an option to consider in selected patients (e.g. those with a tricuspid valve prosthesis. Keywords: Ventricular pacing, Right ventricle, Left ventricle, Coronary sinus, Ventricular function

  4. HK2 Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Synthesize and Secrete Plasma Proteins Predominantly Through the Apical Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Wei; Murray, Elsa J Brochmann; Murray, Samuel S

    2017-04-01

    Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) are known to reabsorb salts and small plasma proteins filtered through Bowman's capsule. Following acute kidney injury, PTECs assume some characteristics of hepatocytes in producing various plasma proteins. We now demonstrate that even at a resting state, a PTEC cell line, HK2 expresses mRNAs for and synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins in a complex with complement C3, an α 2 -macroglobulin family chaperone, including albumin, transferrin, α 1 -antitrypsin, α 1 -antichymotrypsin, α 2 -HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, C1-inhibitor, secreted phosphoprotein-24, and insulin-like growth factor-1. When grown on transwell inserts, HK2 cells predominantly secrete (∼90%) plasma proteins into the apical side and a smaller fraction into the basolateral side as determined by ELISA assays. When cultured in the presence of exogenous cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, TNFα, BMP2, or TGFβ1, HK2 cell mRNA expressions for plasma proteins were variably affected whereas basolateral secretions were elevated to or in excess of those of the apical level. In addition, HK2 cells produce proTGFβ1 with its intact N-terminal latency associated peptide and latent-TGF-β-binding proteins. The complex cannot be dissociated under conditions of SDS, heating, and electrophoresis. Moreover, HK2 cells maintain their ability to quickly uptake exogenously added serum proteins from the culture medium, as if they are recognized differently by the endocytic receptors. These results provide new insight into the hepatization of PTECs. In addition to their unique uptake of plasma proteins and salts from the filtrate, they are a source of urinary proteins under normal conditions as wells as in chronic and acute kidney diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 924-933, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microcomputed tomography analysis of mesiobuccal orifices and major apical foramen in first maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Ametrano, Gianluca; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Formisano, Anna; Simeone, Michele; Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Rengo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determined by microcomputed tomography (µCT) the horizontal distance between the main (MB1) and the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) orifices, the vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices planes, and the distance between the anatomic apex and major apical foramen (AF). Furthermore, we characterized the entire internal and external anatomy of the MB, distalbuccal (DB) and palatal (P) maxillary first molars roots. Twenty-two intact extracted first maxillary molars were scanned by X-ray computed transaxial µCT and then 2D and 3D images were processed and analyzed. The results showed that 77.27% of the mesiobuccal (MB) roots presented a second MB canal, and 29.41% of the MB2 were independent from the MB1 canals. In 15 teeth, there were three root canal orifices on the chamber floor, and 10 of these teeth presented MB2 canals. The mean vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 planes was 1.68 ± 0.83 mm. Seven teeth had four orifices. The mean horizontal interorificial distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices was 1.21 ± 0.5 mm. Accessory canals were observed in 33.33% of the roots, loops in 6.06%, while isthmuses were found in 15 of the 22 MB roots. Of the total roots, 74.24% presented one foramen, while all of the roots showed a major apical foramen that was not coincident with the anatomic apex. Our µCT analysis provided interesting features on the horizontal and vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices and on the distance of AF and anatomic apex. These results have an important clinical value because might support the endodontist in the recruitment, negotiation and obturation of maxillary first molar canal system.

  6. A novel adhering junction in the apical ciliary apparatus of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera, Monogononta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, R; Lupetti, P; Lane, N J

    1996-10-01

    Cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were examined with regard to their interepithelial junctions after infiltration with the extracellular tracer lanthanum, freeze-fracturing or quick-freeze deep-etching. The lateral borders between ciliated cells have an unusual apical adhering junction. This apical part of their intercellular cleft looks desmosome-like, but it is characterized by unusual intramembranous E-face clusters of particles. Deep-etching reveals that these are packed together in short rows which lie parallel to one another in orderly arrays. The true membrane surface in these areas features filaments in the form of short ribbons; these are produced by projections, possibly part of the glycocalyx, emerging from the membranes, between which the electron-dense tracer lanthanum permeates. These projections appear to overlap with each other in the centre of the intercellular cleft; this would provide a particularly flexible adaptation to maintain cell-cell contact and coordination as a consequence. The filamentous ribbons may be held in position by the intramembranous particle arrays since both have a similar size and distribution. These contacts are quite different from desmosomes and appear to represent a distinct new category of adhesive cell-cell junction. Beneath these novel structures, conventional pleated septate junctions are found, exhibiting the undulating intercellular ribbons typical of this junctional type, as well as the usual parallel alignments of intramembranous rows of EF grooves and PF particles. Below these are found gap junctions as close-packed plaques of intramembranous particles on either the P-face or E-face. After freeze-fracturing, the complementary fracture face to the particles shows pits, usually on the P-face, arrayed with a very precise hexagonal pattern.

  7. Influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis identified by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo Cesar Lyra; Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth; Bueno, Mike Reis; Pecora, Jesus Djalma

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the success of endodontic treatment has been often discussed based on outcome obtained by periapical radiography. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A consecutive sample of 1020 images (periapical radiographs and CBCT scans) taken from 619 patients (245 men; mean age, 50.1 years) between February 2008 and September 2009 were used in this study. Presence and intracanal post length (short, medium and long) were associated with apical periodontitis (AP). Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.01. The kappa value was used to assess examiner variability. From a total of 591 intracanal posts, AP was observed in 15.06%, 18.78% and 7.95% using periapical radiographs, into the different lengths, short, medium and long, respectively (p=0.466). Considering the same posts length it was verified AP in 24.20%, 26.40% and 11.84% observed by CBCT scans, respectively (p=0.154). From a total of 1,020 teeth used in this study, AP was detected in 397 (38.92%) by periapical radiography and in 614 (60.19%) by CBCT scans (p<0.001). The distribution of intracanal posts in different dental groups showed higher prevalence in maxillary anterior teeth (54.79%). Intracanal posts lengths did not influenced AP. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT method was used. (author)

  8. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  9. Influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis identified by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo Cesar Lyra; Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth [Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Dental School; Bueno, Mike Reis [University of Cuiaba (UNIC), MT (Brazil). Dental School; Pecora, Jesus Djalma, E-mail: estrela3@terra.com.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dental School

    2009-07-01

    The determination of the success of endodontic treatment has been often discussed based on outcome obtained by periapical radiography. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A consecutive sample of 1020 images (periapical radiographs and CBCT scans) taken from 619 patients (245 men; mean age, 50.1 years) between February 2008 and September 2009 were used in this study. Presence and intracanal post length (short, medium and long) were associated with apical periodontitis (AP). Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.01. The kappa value was used to assess examiner variability. From a total of 591 intracanal posts, AP was observed in 15.06%, 18.78% and 7.95% using periapical radiographs, into the different lengths, short, medium and long, respectively (p=0.466). Considering the same posts length it was verified AP in 24.20%, 26.40% and 11.84% observed by CBCT scans, respectively (p=0.154). From a total of 1,020 teeth used in this study, AP was detected in 397 (38.92%) by periapical radiography and in 614 (60.19%) by CBCT scans (p<0.001). The distribution of intracanal posts in different dental groups showed higher prevalence in maxillary anterior teeth (54.79%). Intracanal posts lengths did not influenced AP. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT method was used. (author)

  10. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. Materials and Methods The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.. The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1, J1 (JT-5B / Power-1, K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4, and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4. The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. Results There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05. The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Conclusions Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  11. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang-Won; Moon, Young-Mi; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan) or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.). The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1), J1 (JT-5B / Power-1), K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4), and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4). The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05). The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  12. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  13. Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M N; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Maeda, H; Wada, N; Akamine, A; Yamashita, Y

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the microbial composition of persistent periapical lesions of root filled teeth using a molecular genetics approach. Apical lesion samples were collected from 12 patients (23-80 years old) who visited the Kyushu University Hospital for apicectomy with persistent periapical lesions associated with root filled teeth. DNA was directly extracted from each sample and the microbial composition was comprehensively analysed using clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and specific fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with specific primers. Bacteria were detected in all samples, and the dominant findings were P. gingivalis (19.9%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.2%) and Propionibacterium acnes (9%). Bacterial diversity was greater in symptomatic lesions than in asymptomatic ones. In addition, the following bacteria or bacterial combinations were characteristic to symptomatic lesions: Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113, Olsenella uli, Slackia exigua, Selemonas infelix, P. gingivalis with type IV fimA, and a combination of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113 and predominance of Streptococcus spp. On the other hand, neither Enterococcus faecalis nor C. albicans were detected in any of the samples. Whilst a diverse bacterial species were observed in the persistent apical lesions, some characteristic patterns of bacterial community were found in the symptomatic lesions. The diverse variation of community indicates that bacterial combinations as a community may cause persistent inflammation in periapical tissues rather than specific bacterial species. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lipocalins Are Required for Apical Extracellular Matrix Organization and Remodeling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Cohen, Jennifer D; Sundaram, Meera V

    2017-10-01

    A lipid and glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix (aECM) or glycocalyx lines exposed membranes in the body, and is particularly important to protect narrow tube integrity. Lipocalins ("fat cups") are small, secreted, cup-shaped proteins that bind and transport lipophilic cargo and are often found in luminal or aECM compartments such as mammalian plasma, urine, or tear film. Although some lipocalins can bind known aECM lipids and/or matrix metalloproteinases, it is not known if and how lipocalins affect aECM structure due to challenges in visualizing the aECM in most systems. Here we show that two Caenorhabditis elegans lipocalins, LPR-1 and LPR-3, have distinct functions in the precuticular glycocalyx of developing external epithelia. LPR-1 moves freely through luminal compartments, while LPR-3 stably localizes to a central layer of the membrane-anchored glycocalyx, adjacent to the transient zona pellucida domain protein LET-653 Like LET-653 and other C. elegans glycocalyx components, these lipocalins are required to maintain the patency of the narrow excretory duct tube, and also affect multiple aspects of later cuticle organization. lpr-1 mutants cannot maintain a continuous excretory duct apical domain and have misshapen cuticle ridges (alae) and abnormal patterns of cuticular surface lipid staining. lpr-3 mutants cannot maintain a passable excretory duct lumen, properly degrade the eggshell, or shed old cuticle during molting, and they lack cuticle barrier function. Based on these phenotypes, we infer that both LPR-1 and LPR-3 are required to build a properly organized aECM, while LPR-3 additionally is needed for aECM clearance and remodeling. The C. elegans glycocalyx provides a powerful system, amenable to both genetic analysis and live imaging, for investigating how lipocalins and lipids affect aECM structure. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomic Variations of the Anterior Atlantodental Joint and Relations to the Apical and Alar Ligaments in a Geriatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarush; Iwanaga, Joe; Sardi, Juan P; Alonso, Fernando; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-11-01

    Degenerative changes in the upper cervical spine may be age related degeneration or a pathological process such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between the apical and alar ligaments and these anomalies has not been discussed. We present anatomical variations of the anterior atlantodental joint observed during cadaveric dissection of adult craniovertebral junctions, the relationship with the alar and apical ligaments and discuss possible origins and clinical implications. The upper cervical spine including part of the occiput was dissected from cadavers whose mean age at death was 78.9 years-old. The anterior atlantodental joint and apical and alar ligaments were observed and any atypical findings were noted. In eleven specimens, seven had a dens corona, three had an os odontoideum and one had a dens aureola, which arose from the upper part of the anterior arch of the atlas. Only four specimens had an apical ligament. The possible etiologies and the clinical applications of these craniovertebral anomalies in a geriatric population should be appreciated by the clinician treating patients with disease in this area or interpreting imaging in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the amount of apically extruded debris produced by four retreatment techniques: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ferreira Alfenas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the removal of root canal filling material using nickel-titanium rotary retreatment instruments and Hedström files. Material and Methods: sixty mandibular incisors with a single canal were instrumented and obturated by cold lateral compaction. For retreatment, specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15: Hedström files with or without solvent; D-RaCe system and Mtwo retreatment system. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The mean weights of extruded material were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: the results showed that all retreatment techniques caused apical extrusion of debris, but no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: under the conditions of this study, all retreatment techniques caused apical debris extrusion.

  19. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  20. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the single-file ProTaper F2 technique under reciprocating movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Brandão, Maria Claudia; Barino, Bianca; Di Giorgi, Karina; Fidel, Rivail Antonio Sergio; Luna, Aderval Severino

    2010-09-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of dentin debris extruded from the apical foramen by comparing the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal nickel-titanium (NiTi) files with the single-file ProTaper F2 technique. Thirty mesial roots of lower molars were selected, and the use of different instrumentation techniques resulted in 3 groups (n=10 each). In G1, a crown-down hand-file technique was used, and in G2 conventional ProTaper Universal technique was used. In G3, ProTaper F2 file was used in a reciprocating motion. The apical finish preparation was equivalent to ISO size 25. An apparatus was used to evaluate the apically extruded debris. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal NiTi files and the single-file ProTaper F2 technique (P>.05). In contrast, the hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than both NiTi groups (P<.05). The present results yielded favorable input for the F2 single-file technique in terms of apically extruded debris, inasmuch as it is the most simple and cost-effective instrumentation approach. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  2. ION-EXCHANGE IMMUNOAFFINITY PURIFICATION OF A RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM APICAL MEMBRANE ANTIGEN, PF83/AMA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NARUM, DL; WELLING, GW; THOMAS, AW

    1993-01-01

    A two-step purification regime has been developed for a quantitatively minor, putatively transmembrane, M(r) 83 000, apical membrane blood stage vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (PF83/AMA-1), that has been expressed as a full-length baculovirus recombinant protein, PF83-FG8-1. The

  3. Influence of apical enlargement and complementary canal preparation with the Self-Adjusting File on endotoxin reduction in retreatment cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E J N L; Ferreira, V M; Silva, C C; Herrera, D R; De-Deus, G; Gomes, B P

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of large apical preparations and complementary canal preparation with the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) in removing endotoxins from the root canal of teeth with apical periodontitis. Ten single-rooted and single-canaled teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis were selected. Endotoxin samples were taken after removal of the root filling (S1), after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 2.5% NaOCl and an R25 file (S2), after CMP using 2.5% NaOCl and an R40 file (S3) and after complementary CMP using the SAF system (S4). Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) was used to measure endotoxin levels. The Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare endotoxin levels at each clinical intervention (P file was able to significantly reduce endotoxin levels (P file (P  0.05) following the use of the R40 instrument. Apical enlargement protocols were effective in significantly reducing endotoxin levels. Complementary preparation with the SAF system failed to eliminate residual endotoxin contents beyond those obtained with the R40 instrument. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of the amount of apical debris extrusion associated with different retreatment systems and supplementary file application during retreatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ersan; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    The type of instrument affects the amount of debris extruded. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of retreatment systems and supplementary file application on the amount of apical debris extrusion. Forty-eight extracted mandibular premolars with a single canal and similar length were selected. The root canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system with a torque-controlled engine. The root canals were dried and were obturated using Gutta-percha and sealer. The specimens were randomly divided into four equal groups according to the retreatment procedures (Group 1, Mtwo retreatment files; Group 2, Mtwo retreatment files + Mtwo rotary file #30 supplementary file; Group 3, ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR) files; and Group 4, PTUR files + ProTaper F3 supplementary file). The extruded debris during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of apically extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial weight of the tube from the final weight. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of apically extruded debris between Groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.590). A significant difference was observed between Groups 1 and 2 (P file significantly increased the amount of apically extruded debris.

  5. Apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using a novel nickel-titanium file system: WaveOne gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Asiye Nur; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris following root canal preparation with three different instrumentation systems. Sixty mandibular incisor teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups ( n = 20/group) according to the instrumentation system used: the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), the Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), and the WaveOne Gold (WOG; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). All apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed glass vials. The mean weight of the apically extruded debris was obtained using a microbalance. The time for root canal preparation was also recorded. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. The mean weights of apically extruded debris were 0.00035 ± 0.00014 g (PTN); 0.00023 ± 0.0001 g (TFA); and 0.00019 ± 0.0001 g (WOG) ( P system extruded more debris than the TFA and WOG systems. The TFA and WOG systems were faster than the PTN system.

  6. Lateral view dissection of the prostato-urethral junction to reduce positive apical margin in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Miki, Jun; Kimura, Takahiro; Sanuki, Kunitaro; Miki, Kenta; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shin

    2009-08-01

    To assess the impact of lateral view apical dissection in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) on the reduction of positive surgical margin rates and recovery of postoperative continence. One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients underwent LRP from October 2004 to March 2008. Lateral view dissection of the prostato-urethral junction was conducted in 76 of them (Group 2). Standard dissection was used in the remaining patients (Group 1). The effect of this technical modification on the reduction of positive surgical margin rates and postoperative recovery of urinary continence was assessed in the two groups. Overall, the incidence of positive margins decreased from 23 (35.9%) in Group 1 to 16 cases (21.9%) in Group 2 (P = 0.07). Positive margin rates in pT2 decreased from 30.6% to 6.5% (P = 0.006). Apical and dorso-apical margins were reduced from 26.5% to 4.3% (P = 0.009) and from 10.2% to 0% (P Lateral view dissection of the prostato-urethral junction is an easily applicable technical modification. It provides better visualization of apical anatomy substantially contributing to the reduction of positive surgical margin rates, especially at the level of prostatic apex.

  7. Inducción del cierre apical en el diente con necrosis pulpar y el ápice no formado

    OpenAIRE

    Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Se efectúa una revisión del proceso de apicoformación en dientes con necrosis pulpar y ápice no formado, analizando el mecanismo de cierre apical inducido por el hidróxido de calcio y otras substancias, así como la histopatología del mismo.

  8. Assessment of age of majority by measurement of open apices of the third molars using Cameriere's third molar maturity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Wadhwan, Vijay; Ravi Prakash, S M; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of biological age of a living subject around the legal cutoff age for adulthood has become a grave concern for forensic experts in India, mainly due to the consequences of criminal obligations in judicial proceedings. Thus, this study was planned to examine the open apices of third molars in discriminating between individuals who are aged 18 years or older and who are not 18 years or older and to assign a cutoff for estimation of the age of 18 years. Orthopantomographs of 1062 individuals (14 and 23 years) were assessed, to verify Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ). The apical ends of the roots of the left mandibular third molar were analyzed. If the apical ends of the roots are completely closed, then I 3M is zero; otherwise, it is calculated as the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices divided by the tooth length. The sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 74.7% for males and 66% for females. Specificity was 83.6% for males and 79.6% for females. The probability that an Indian individual with an I 3M age in Indian population.

  9. Nerve lesions following apical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: A systematic case review and report of two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Jared; Thorn, Jens Jørn; Korsgaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    effects and the use of an injectable system had most often been related to apical extrusion. Consequently, great care should be taken when applying the paste into the canal system. 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Elevate Anterior/Apical: 12-Month Data Showing Safety and Efficacy in Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanford, Edward J.; Moore, Robert D.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; Courtieu, Christophe; Lukban, James C.; Bataller, Eduardo; Liedl, Bernhard; Sutherland, Suzette E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the Elevate Anterior/Apical transvaginal mesh procedure in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair at 12-months follow-up. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, multinational study enrolled 142 patients experiencing anterior vaginal

  11. In vitro comparison in a manikin model: increasing apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Stöber, Eva; García Font, Marc; González, Jose Antonio; Bragado, Pablo; Roig, Miguel; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the K3 and K3XF systems (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA) after 1 and 2 uses by evaluating apical transportation, working length loss, and working time in a manikin model. Mesial canals of 40 extracted first mandibular molars were instrumented. Radiographs taken after instrumentation with #25, #30, #35, and #40 files were superimposed on the preoperative image in both mesiodistal and buccolingual angulations. AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure working length loss and apical transportation at 0, 0.5, and 1 mm from the working length (WL). The working time was measured. Group comparison was analyzed using post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests (P < .05). No significant differences were found in apical transportation, working length loss between K3 and K3XF systems, or between the number of uses. Significant differences were found when canal enlargement was performed to a #35-40 (P < .05). K3 instrumentation performed significantly faster (29.6 ± 15.4) than with the K3XF system (40.2 ± 17.7) (P < .05). No differences were observed in working time when comparing the number of uses. K3 and R-phase K3XF rotary systems shaped curved root canals safely with minimal apical transportation, even up to a 40/04 file. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative evaluation of gutta percha removal and extrusion of apical debris by rotary and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar; Ebenezar, A V Rajesh; Kumar, Mohan; Sivakumar, A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Protaper retreatment files in comparison with RaCe, K3 and H-files for removal of gutta-percha and apically extruded debris using volumetric analysis. Forty extracted single rooted maxillary incisor teeth with straight canals and mature apices were selected for the study. After access cavity preparation, apical patency was confirmed with a size 10 K-file extending 1mm beyond the point at which it was first visible at the apical end. Working lengths were determined with the use of size 15 K-file. The canals were prepared in a step-back technique and the master apical file was size 30 for all teeth. 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant after each instrumentation. Before final rinse, size 20 K-file was passed 1mm beyond the apex to remove any dentinal shaving plugs and maintain the apical patency. Then the canals were dried with paper points. The root canal was filled using standard gutta-percha points and zinc oxide eugenol sealer under lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups of ten teeth each based on the instrument used for gutta percha removal. All the rotary instruments used in this study were rotated at 300rpm. The instruments used were: Group 1 - RaCe Files, Group 2 - ProTaper retreatment Files, Group 3 - K3 Files and Group 4 - H Files. The volume of the obturating material was calculated before and after removal using volumetric analysis with spiral CT. The removal efficacy with each instrument was calculated and statistically analysed. The results of the study show that the ProTaper retreatment files (Group 2) (97.4%) showed the highest efficiency in the removal of obturating material, which was followed by RaCe (95.74%), K3 (92.86%) and H files (90.14%) with the efficiency in the decreasing order. Similarly the mean apical extrusion in H files (0.000 ± 0.002) was significantly lower than all the rotary instruments. However, the difference among the

  13. An Innovative Regenerative Endodontic Procedure Using Leukocyte and Platelet-rich Fibrin Associated with Apical Surgery: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nelson; Harnish, Alexandra; Cabrera, Carolina; Andrade, Catherine; Druttman, Tony; Brizuela, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) associated with apical surgery could represent an alternative treatment strategy for patients whose teeth present incomplete root formation and extensive apical lesions. Leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) has potential benefits in REPs; it could promote apical root formation and optimal bone healing. The aim of this case report was to describe innovative regenerative endodontic therapy using L-PRF in the root canal and an extensive apical lesion in an immature tooth with dens invaginatus and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. A healthy 20-year-old woman was referred to the dental clinic of the Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile, for endodontic treatment in tooth # 22 with incomplete root development and an extensive apical lesion. The diagnosis was asymptomatic apical periodontitis associated with dens invaginatus type II. The patient was treated with an innovative approach using L-PRF in REPs associated with apical surgery. Follow-ups were performed at 6 months and 1 year later. They included periapical radiographs, cone-beam computed tomographic imaging, sensitivity, and vitality tests. The clinical evaluations performed at 6 months and 1 year revealed an absence of symptoms. The radiographic evaluations showed that the apical lesion was resolved. The cone-beam images indicated that the root length increased and the walls had thickened. The sensitivity tests were positive, and the laser Doppler flowmetry showed positive blood flow after 1 year. The success of the results in this case report indicate that L-PRF can be used as a complement in apical surgery and REPs and could provide an innovative alternative treatment strategy for complex clinical cases like these. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  15. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during removal of gutta-percha and ResilonTM using different instrumentation techniques

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    Pešić Dragana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Apical extrusion of material is considered as one of the very important factor for endodontic treatment success. Microorganisms, necrotic tissue, filling material and irrigants, which can be extruded apically during endodontic retreatment, may jeopardize the success of the therapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment of teeth obturated with two different materials, using one hand and three rotary instrumentation techniques. Methods. Ninety-six extracted single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and enlarged to size 40 using BioRaCe system, and then randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 specimens each. Half of the specimens were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus® sealer and another half with RealSeal SE system, using lateral condensation technique. Retreatment was performed using: Hedström files; ProFile rotary files; ProTaper Retreatment system and D-RaCe system. Apically extruded debris was collected in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes and evaluated using an electronic microbalance. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test and analysis of variance. Results. In the AH Plus/gutta-percha group, all tested rotary instruments gave significantly less extruded debris compared with Hedström files (p < 0.05. In theRealSeal group, there was significant difference between DRaCe and Hedström instruments (p < 0.05. Conclusion. All retreatment techniques resulted in apical extrusion. DRaCe system produced significantly less extruded debris compared to hand files. No significant difference was found when comparing two instruments specially designed for retreatment: D-RaCe and ProTaper systems.

  16. Comparison of the accuracies of multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with enlarged apical foramina: ex vivo

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    Mügem Aslı Ekici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed multi-frequency electronic apex locator iPex II with three different multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with different sizes of apical foramina. Materials and Method: Twenty-six extracted mandibular premolars were used in this study. The teeth were decoronated, and the root canals were coronally flared. Actual working length was determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip was visualized just within apical foramen. Actual working length was established 0.5 mm short of the distance between the rubber stopper and the file tip. Using Protaper F1, F2 and F3 files (Dentsply Maillefer, over-instrumentation 1 mm beyond the apical foramen was done. The teeth were embedded in teflon molds with alginate exposing the coronal 5 mm. Electronic working length measurements were done by using Raypex 5 (VDW, Raypex 6 (VDW, iPex (NSK Inc. and iPex II (NSK Inc. electronic apex locators. Differences between the electronic and actual working lengths were calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis of the accuracies of the electronic apex locators (α=0.05. Results: Inter-group comparisons revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracies of the different electronic apex locators (p>0.05. Intra-group comparisons also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between different apical foramen sizes (p>0.05. Conclusion: iPex II and the other electronic apex locators provided similar endodontic working length measurements in teeth with enlarged apical foramina. All electronic apex locators tested in this study were found clinically acceptable for working length determination.

  17. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

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    Wu-Lin Zuo

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+/HCO(3(- cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis.Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH solution, the intracellular pH (pHi recovery from NH(4Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE. Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3(- buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3(- buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS, the inhibitor of HCO(3(- transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+. The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH.The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  18. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

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    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  19. Comparison of apical transportation and change of working length in K3, NRT AND PROFILE rotary instruments using transparent resin block

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    Min-Jung Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the apical transportation and working length change in curved root canals created in resin blocks, using 3 geometrically different types of Ni-Ti files, K3, NRT, and Profile. Materials and Methods The curvature of 30 resin blocks was measured by Schneider technique and each groups of Ni-Ti files were allocated with 10 resin blocks at random. The canals were shaped with Ni-Ti files by Crown-down technique. It was analyzed by Double radiograph superimposition method (Backman CA 1992, and for the accuracy and consistency, specially designed jig, digital X-ray, and CAD/CAM software for measurement of apical transportation were used. The amount of apical transportation was measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 mm from 'apical foramen - 0.5 mm' area, and the alteration of the working length before and after canal shaping was also measured. For statistics, Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis was used. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the amount of working length change and apical transportation at 0, 1, and 3 mm area (p = 0.027, however, the amount of apical transportation at 5 mm area showed significant difference between K3 and Profile system (p = 0.924. Conclusions As a result of this study, the 3 geometrically different Ni-Ti files showed no significant difference in apical transportation and working length change and maintained the original root canal shape.

  20. T1-nerve root neuroma presenting with apical mass and Horner's syndrome

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    Podnar Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of dumbbell neuroma of the first thoracic root is extremely rare. The extradural component of a T1-dumbbell neuroma may present as an apical mass. The diagnosis of hand weakness is complex and may be delayed in T1-neuroma because of absence of the palpable cervical mass. One-stage removal of a T1-root neuroma and its intrathoracic extension demanded an extended posterior midline approach in the sitting position. Case presentation A 51-year old man had suffered a traumatic partial tendon rupture of his wrist flexor muscles 6 years ago. Since the incident he occasionally felt fullness and tenderness in the affected forearm with some tingling in his fingers bilaterally. During the last two years the hand weakness was continuous and hypotrophy of the medial flexor and intrinsic hand muscles had become apparent. Electrophysiological studies revealed an ulnar neuropathy in addition to mild median and radial nerve dysfunction, including a mild contralateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnostic work-up for multiple mononeuropathy in the upper extremity was negative. Repeated electrophysiological studies revealed fibrillations in the C7 paravertebral muscles on the affected side. Chest x-ray revealed a large round apical mass on the affected side. A Horner's syndrome was noted at this point of diagnostic work-up. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine revealed a dumbbell T1 neuroma enlarging the intervertebral foramen at T1-2 and a 5 cm large extradural tumor with extension into the apex of the ipsilateral lung. The patient underwent surgery in sitting position using a left dorsal midline approach. Although the T1 root could not be preserved, the patient's neurological condition was unchanged after the surgery. Conclusion Extended posterior midline exposure described here using hemilaminectomy, unilateral facetectomy and costo-transversectomy is efficient and safe for one-stage removal of dumbbell tumors at the T1

  1. High antibody titer against apical membrane antigen-1 is required to protect against malaria in the Aotus model.

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    Sheetij Dutta

    Full Text Available A Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 vaccine, formulated with AS02(A adjuvant, slowed parasite growth in a recent Phase 1/2a trial, however sterile protection was not observed. We tested this AS02(A, and a Montanide ISA720 (ISA formulation of 3D7 AMA1 in Aotus monkeys. The 3D7 parasite does not invade Aotus erythrocytes, hence two heterologous strains, FCH/4 and FVO, were used for challenge, FCH/4 AMA1 being more homologous to 3D7 than FVO AMA1. Following three vaccinations, the monkeys were challenged with 50,000 FCH/4 or 10,000 FVO parasites. Three of the six animals in the AMA+ISA group were protected against FCH/4 challenge. One monkey did not become parasitemic, another showed only a short period of low level parasitemia that self-cured, and a third animal showed a delay before exhibiting its parasitemic phase. This is the first protection shown in primates with a recombinant P. falciparum AMA1 without formulation in Freund's complete adjuvant. No animals in the AMA+AS02(A group were protected, but this group exhibited a trend towards reduced growth rate. A second group of monkeys vaccinated with AMA+ISA vaccine was not protected against FVO challenge, suggesting strain-specificity of AMA1-based protection. Protection against FCH/4 strain correlated with the quantity of induced antibodies, as the protected animals were the only ones to have in vitro parasite growth inhibitory activity of >70% at 1:10 serum dilution; immuno-fluorescence titers >8,000; ELISA titers against full-length AMA1 >300,000 and ELISA titer against AMA1 domains1+2 >100,000. A negative correlation between log ELISA titer and day 11 cumulative parasitemia (Spearman rank r = -0.780, p value = 0.0001, further confirmed the relationship between antibody titer and protection. High titers of cross-strain inhibitory antibodies against AMA1 are therefore critical to confer solid protection, and the Aotus model can be used to down-select future AMA1

  2. Synchronisms and correlations of spring phenology between apical and lateral meristems in two boreal conifers.

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    Antonucci, Serena; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Tognetti, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Phenological synchronisms between apical and lateral meristems could clarify some aspects related to the physiological relationships among the different organs of trees. This study correlated the phenological phases of bud development and xylem differentiation during spring 2010-14 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce [(Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)] of the Monts-Valin National Park (Quebec, Canada) by testing the hypothesis that bud development occurs after the reactivation of xylem growth. From May to September, we conducted weekly monitoring of xylem differentiation using microcores and bud development with direct observations on terminal branches. Synchronism between the beginning of bud development and xylem differentiation was found in both species with significant correlations between the phases of bud and xylem phenology. Degree-day sum was more appropriate in assessing the date of bud growth resumption, while thermal thresholds were more suitable for cambium phenology. Our results provide new knowledge on the dynamics of spring phenology and novel information on the synchronisms between two meristems in coniferous trees. The study demonstrates the importance of precisely defining the phases of bud development in order to correctly analyse the relationships with xylem phenology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Apical sealing of root canal fillings performed with five different endodontic sealers: analysis by fluid filtration

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    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sealing ability of five root canal sealers, including two experimental cements (MBP and MTA-Obtura using the fluid filtration method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were divided into 5 study groups: G1-AH Plus; G2-Acroseal; G3Sealapex; G4-MBP; G5-MTA-Obtura; and two controls. Chemical-mechanical preparation was performed with ProFile rotary nickel-titanium instruments 1 mm short of the apical foramen. The sealing ability was evaluated by fluid filtration at 15, 30, and 60 days. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed significant difference between the materials at different periods (p<0.05. AH Plus and MBP had similar leakage values at 15 and 60 days, alternating with significant reduction at 30 days, while the other materials showed progressive increase in leakage values. Acroseal and Sealapex presented the best results at 15 days and the worst at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: All sealers evaluated presented fluid leakage, with AH Plus and MBP showing the best results at the end of the experimental period. Acroseal, Sealapex, and MTA-Obtura presented increase in leakage values at longer observation periods.

  4. Intramolecular apical metal-H-Csp3 interaction in molybdenum and silver complexes.

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    Ciclosi, Marco; Lloret, Julio; Estevan, Francisco; Sanaú, Mercedes; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2009-07-14

    The reaction of HTIMP3 (HTIMP3=tris[1-diphenylphosphino)-3-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl]methane) with AgBF4 and Mo(CO)3(NCCH3)3 leads to Ag(HTIMP3)BF4 and Mo(CO)3(HTIMP3), respectively. The metal centre is coordinated to the three phosphorus atoms of the HTIMP3 ligand, which adopts a facial coordination mode, placing a H-Csp3 hydrogen atom at the apical position close to the metal centre. The solid-state structure of Mo(CO)3(HTIMP3) has been determined by X-ray crystallography, and the data have been used as input parameters for obtaining the optimised geometry of the complex using the B3PW91 functional. The silver structure has been modelled from the X-ray parameters of the molybdenum structure. In addition, theoretical calculations on the H-Csp3 downfield shift upon metal coordination has also been performed. They reproduce the experimental H-Csp3 chemical shifts well and supports that proton deshielding is mainly due to the presence of the metal, since the hydrogen is already located in the cone created by the aromatic-phosphino arms in the free ligand.

  5. Identification and characterization of Eimeria tenella apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1.

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    Lianlian Jiang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a micronemal protein of apicomplexan parasites that appears to be essential during the invasion of host cells. In this study, a full-length cDNA of AMA1 was identified from Eimeria tenella (Et using expressed sequence tag and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. EtAMA1 had an open reading frame of 1608 bp encoding a protein of 535 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EtAMA1 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second-generation merozoites. The ectodomain sequence was expressed as recombinant EtAMA1 (rEtAMA1 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against the rEtAMA1 recognized a 58-kDa native parasite protein by Western Blotting and had a potent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion, decreasing it by approximately 70%. Immunofluorescence analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis showed EtAMA1 might play an important role in sporozoite invasion and development.

  6. Thorascopic resection of an apical paraspinal schwannoma