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Sample records for human anatomy teaching

  1. An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... information about the anatomy and physiology of human ... tional curriculum in a range of teaching fields that are based ..... et al.,47 who were studying the acceptance and benefits of vi- .... Foreign language teaching methods: Culture lesson 3: the case for .... vations in integrating ICT in education, vol. 3.

  2. Maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the ...

  3. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  4. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. The use of porcine corrosion casts for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlova, Lada; Liska, Vaclav; Mirka, Hynek; Tonar, Zbynek; Haviar, Stanislav; Svoboda, Milos; Benes, Jan; Palek, Richard; Emingr, Michal; Rosendorf, Jachym; Mik, Patrik; Leupen, Sarah; Lametschwandtner, Alois

    2017-09-01

    In teaching and learning human anatomy, anatomical autopsy and prosected specimens have always been indispensable. However, alternative methods must often be used to demonstrate particularly delicate structures. Corrosion casting of porcine organs with Biodur E20 ® Plus is valuable for teaching and learning both gross anatomy and, uniquely, the micromorphology of cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and urogenital systems. Assessments of casts with a stereomicroscope and/or scanning electron microscope as well as highlighting cast structures using color coding help students to better understand how the structures that they have observed as two-dimensional images actually exist in three dimensions, and students found using the casts to be highly effective in their learning. Reconstructions of cast hollow structures from (micro-)computed tomography scans and videos facilitate detailed analyses of branching patterns and spatial arrangements in cast structures, aid in the understanding of clinically relevant structures and provide innovative visual aids. The casting protocol and teaching manual we offer can be adjusted to different technical capabilities and might also be found useful for veterinary or other biological science classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes; Paulo Adriano Schwingel; Edivaldo Xavier Silva Júnior

    2016-01-01

    The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals class...

  7. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  8. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  9. Use of human cadavers in teaching of human anatomy in brazilian medical faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela de Sousa Leal Lopes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Human Anatomy is the study of human body structure and it has been related to the use of cadavers through the history. The aim of this research was to investigate the use of human cadavers in practical classes of human anatomy in Brazilian medical schools, and it was also made the identification of alternative methodologies and new technologies applied to the teaching of Anatomy. The research was conducted at the Faculdade Integral Diferencial from January to December of 2015. The population studied was composed by professors responsible for the Human Anatomy sector of the Brazilian medical faculties. It was addressed all the 242 medical colleges of the Brazil. It was obtained 81 answers. 96% of respondents reported make use of human corpses in its practical lessons of anatomy. It can be observed that 42% of the surveyed medical schools make use of only formaldehyde. 81% of faculties reported to face some difficulties to acquire human cadavers. 84% of medical schools make use of artificial models. 46% of faculties make use of diagnostic images. It can be concluded that human bodies, artificial models and new technologies are widely used in practical classes of anatomy in Brazil, since there is a difficulty to obtain cadavers.

  10. The availability of teaching-pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy.

  11. The use of brainstorming for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G

    2002-10-15

    Interactive teaching techniques have been used mainly in clinical teaching, with little attention given to their use in basic science teaching. With the aim of partially filling this gap, this study outlines an interactive approach to teaching anatomy based on the use of "brainstorming." The results of the students' critique of the teaching techniques are also included. Seventy-five students from the first-year nursing curriculum were tested by a structured questionnaire after three brainstorming sessions. The overall response to these sessions was very positive, indicating that students perceived this interactive technique as both interesting and useful. Furthermore, this approach may provide a useful strategy when learning the clinical courses of the upcoming academic years. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals classes of Human Anatomy. The study was a descriptive systematic review, developed with scientific production indexed in electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE, GOOGLE ACADEMICO and SciELO; as well as Brazilian proceedings. Among the 17 articles found, 9 showed the use of anatomical models, 7 showed other methods used, and only 1 on the use of didactic manual on classroom practice of this discipline. From the study, it can be observed that the use of teaching scripts for teaching in practical classes of Human Anatomy is an innovative method and the use of anatomical models alternative has shown positive results in the teaching-learning process. However, these methods, ever can replace the use of the corpse in the teaching of this discipline.

  13. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  14. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  15. Video-based lectures: An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology to student nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed; Samar El-Hoseiny Abd El-Raouf El-Sayed

    2013-01-01

    Video-based teaching material is a rich and powerful medium being used in computer assisted learning. This paper aimed to assess the learning outcomes and student nurses’ acceptance and satisfaction with the video-based lectures versus the traditional method of teaching human anatomy and physiology courses. Data were collected from 27 students in a Bachelor of Nursing program and experimental control was achieved using an alternating-treatments design. Overall, students experienced 10 lecture...

  16. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José A; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Merí, Alex; Molina-Ros, Antoni; Molina-Tomás, M Carmen; Masdeu, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to implement innovative teaching methods--blended learning strategies--that include the use of new information technologies in the teaching of human anatomy and to analyse both the impact of these strategies on academic performance, and the degree of user satisfaction. The study was carried out among students in Year 1 of the biology degree curriculum (human biology profile) at Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. Two groups of students were tested on knowledge of the anatomy of the locomotor system and results compared between groups. Blended learning strategies were employed in 1 group (BL group, n = 69); the other (TT group; n = 65) received traditional teaching aided by complementary material that could be accessed on the Internet. Both groups were evaluated using the same types of examination. The average marks presented statistically significant differences (BL 6.3 versus TT 5.0; P < 0.0001). The percentage pass rate for the subject in the first call was higher in the BL group (87.9% versus 71.4%; P = 0.02), reflecting a lower incidence of students who failed to sit the examination (BL 4.3% versus TT 13.8%; P = 0.05). There were no differences regarding overall satisfaction with the teaching received. Blended learning was more effective than traditional teaching for teaching human anatomy.

  17. The availability of teaching–pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. PMID:24062622

  18. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  19. The availability of teaching–pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available José Aderval Aragão,1,5 Ana Terra Fonseca-Barreto,2 Ciro José Brito,1,3 Danilo Ribeiro Guerra,1 José Carlos Nunes-Mota,4 Francisco Prado Reis5 1Master's Degree Program in Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 2School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Department of Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 4Department of Morphology, (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 5School of Medicine, Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil Abstract: Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. Keywords: educational assessments, gross anatomy, dissection, education medical undergraduate, anatomic models

  20. A plea for the use of drawing in human anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavert, Philippe; Bouchaïb, J; Duparc, F; Kahn, J L

    2012-10-01

    Descriptive human anatomy constitutes one of the main parts of the educational program of the first part of the medical studies. Professors of anatomy have to take into account the exponential evolution of the techniques of morphological and functional exploration of the patients, and the trend to open more and more the contents of the lectures of anatomy to clinical considerations. Basically, teaching requires a series of descriptive and educational media to set up, in front of the student, the studied structures and so to build the human body. More generally, lectures in morphological sciences try to develop three types of knowledge: declarative, procedural, and conditional. Traditionally in France "basic or first" anatomy is taught in amphitheater and in big groups by building each structure or region on a blackboard with colored chalk that allows a relief stake of certain structures and builds in two dimensions a three-dimensional organization. Actually, the blackboard is and stays for us an excellent media of non-verbal expression.

  1. Near-Peer Teaching Strategy in a Large Human Anatomy Course: Perceptions of Near-Peer Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School…

  2. Video-based lectures: An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology to student nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Video-based teaching material is a rich and powerful medium being used in computer assisted learning. This paper aimed to assess the learning outcomes and student nurses’ acceptance and satisfaction with the video-based lectures versus the traditional method of teaching human anatomy and physiology courses. Data were collected from 27 students in a Bachelor of Nursing program and experimental control was achieved using an alternating-treatments design. Overall, students experienced 10 lectures, which delivered by the teacher as either video-based or PowerPoint-based lectures. Results revealed that video-based lectures offer more successes and reduce failures in the immediate and follow-up measures as compared with the traditional method of teaching human anatomy and physiology that was based on printout illustrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, nurse students appeared positive about their learning experiences, as they rated highly all the items assessing their acceptance and satisfaction with the video-based lectures. KEYWORDS: Video-based lecture, Traditional, Print-based illustration

  3. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; Amini, Mitra; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi- experimental study and then the students were asked to write their learning experiences in their portfolio, also their view was evaluated by a questionnaire. The results of portfolio evaluation revealed that students believed that this method leads to deep learning and understanding anatomical subjects better. Evaluation of the students' views on this teaching approach was showed that, more than 80% of the students were agreed or completely agreed with this statement that leaning anatomy concepts are easier and the class is less boring with this method. More than 60% of the students were agreed or completely agreed to sketch anatomical figures with professor simultaneously. They also found the sketching make anatomy more attractive and it reduced the time for learning anatomy. These number of students were agree or completely agree that the method help them learning anatomical concept in anatomy laboratory. More than 80% of the students found the simultaneous sketching is a good method for learning anatomy overall. Sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique, is an attractive for students to learn anatomy.

  4. The use of computers to teach human anatomy and physiology to allied health and nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Valerie J.

    Educational institutions are under tremendous pressure to adopt the newest technologies in order to prepare their students to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. For the last twenty years huge amounts of money have been spent on computers, printers, software, multimedia projection equipment, and so forth. A reasonable question is, "Has it worked?" Has this infusion of resources, financial as well as human, resulted in improved learning? Are the students meeting the intended learning goals? Any attempt to develop answers to these questions should include examining the intended goals and exploring the effects of the changes on students and faculty. This project investigated the impact of a specific application of a computer program in a community college setting on students' attitudes and understanding of human anatomy and physiology. In this investigation two sites of the same community college with seemingly similar students populations, seven miles apart, used different laboratory activities to teach human anatomy and physiology. At one site nursing students were taught using traditional dissections and laboratory activities; at the other site two of the dissections, specifically cat and sheep pluck, were replaced with the A.D.A.M.RTM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) computer program. Analysis of the attitude data indicated that students at both sites were extremely positive about their laboratory experiences. Analysis of the content data indicated a statistically significant difference in performance between the two sites in two of the eight content areas that were studied. For both topics the students using the computer program scored higher. A detailed analysis of the surveys, interviews with faculty and students, examination of laboratory materials, and observations of laboratory facilities in both sites, and cost-benefit analysis led to the development of seven recommendations. The recommendations call for action at the level of the

  5. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  6. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  7. Peer Teaching among Physical Therapy Students during Human Gross Anatomy: Perceptions of Peer Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W.; Hoffarth, Brianna L.; Kohlwey, Scott R.; Kramer, Christine M.; Petro, Jaime L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite nearly 200 accredited entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States that culminate in a doctoral degree, only a paucity of reports have been published regarding the efficacy of peer teaching in gross anatomy. No one has described the usefulness of peer teaching from the viewpoint of the peer teacher. An organized…

  8. Students Helping Students: Evaluating a Pilot Program of Peer Teaching for an Undergraduate Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A.; Love Green, Jennifer K.; Illerbrun, Sara L.; Holness, Duncan A.; Illerbrun, Samantha J.; Haus, Kara A.; Poirier, Sylvianne M.; Sveinson, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on…

  9. Near-peer teaching strategy in a large human anatomy course: perceptions of near-peer instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon in Monterrey, Mexico. Modules included: Theory, Clinical Hour, Imaging Anatomy, and Laboratory. The aim of this study was to assess instructor participants' perceptions on the benefits of the NPT strategy in the anatomy classroom. A survey was administered to anatomy course instructors who utilized NPT strategies during winter, fall, and spring semesters of the 2012-2013 school year. A total of 120 instructors were enrolled in the study. There were different perceptions of instructors' roles. Theory and Imaging Anatomy instructors considered themselves to be information providers and resource developers, whereas Clinical Hour and Laboratory instructors saw themselves more as facilitators, role models, and planners. All instructors' opinions on the benefits of NPT were positive. Thus, in this article, the authors find NPT to be a strategy that promotes self-learning, a vital skill. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Teaching basic lung isolation skills on human anatomy simulator: attainment and retention of lung isolation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rana K; VanHorne, Edgar M; Kandadai, Sunitha Kanchi; Bautista, Alexander F; Neamtu, Aurel; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Ziegler, Craig H; Memon, Mohammed Faisal; Akça, Ozan

    2016-01-20

    Lung isolation skills, such as correct insertion of double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker, are essential in anesthesia training; however, how to teach novices these skills is underexplored. Our aims were to determine (1) if novices can be trained to a basic proficiency level of lung isolation skills, (2) whether video-didactic and simulation-based trainings are comparable in teaching lung isolation basic skills, and (3) whether novice learners' lung isolation skills decay over time without practice. First, five board certified anesthesiologist with experience of more than 100 successful lung isolations were tested on Human Airway Anatomy Simulator (HAAS) to establish Expert proficiency skill level. Thirty senior medical students, who were naive to bronchoscopy and lung isolation techniques (Novice) were randomized to video-didactic and simulation-based trainings to learn lung isolation skills. Before and after training, Novices' performances were scored for correct placement using pass/fail scoring and a 5-point Global Rating Scale (GRS); and time of insertion was recorded. Fourteen novices were retested 2 months later to assess skill decay. Experts' and novices' double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker passing rates showed similar success rates after training (P >0.99). There were no differences between the video-didactic and simulation-based methods. Novices' time of insertion decayed within 2 months without practice. Novices could be trained to basic skill proficiency level of lung isolation. Video-didactic and simulation-based methods we utilized were found equally successful in training novices for lung isolation skills. Acquired skills partially decayed without practice.

  11. A pilot study comparing the use of Thiel- and formalin-embalmed cadavers in the teaching of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Lamb, Clare; Soames, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Formalin had traditionally been used to preserve human material to teach gross anatomy. In 2008 the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) at the University of Dundee embarked on the use of the Thiel method of embalming. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference between formalin-embalmed cadavers (FEC) and Thiel-embalmed cadavers (TEC) used for teaching and surgical training. Three different questionnaires were prepared for data collection from undergraduate and postgraduate students and clinical staff. All undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as clinical staff commented on the appearance of the TEC. There was no overall consensus concerning the use of TEC, some respondents preferred TEC for the entire dissection, some only for certain areas such as the musculoskeletal system. On a technical level TEC were considered less hazardous then FEC by one-third of participants with fewer than 10% regarding TEC as more irritating than FEC. Psychologically, 32.7% of undergraduate students expressed the view that TEC made them feel more uncomfortable compared with FEC because of their life-like appearance. However, 57.1% of undergraduate students encountered the same uncomfortable feelings when viewing both TEC and FEC. The use of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach anatomy has an added value, though further research is required over longer periods of time to identify its best usage. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Out of the dissecting room: news media portrayal of human anatomy teaching and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan de Bere, Sam; Petersen, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Radical changes in medical research and education have recently led to a number of innovative developments in terms of how human anatomy is represented and understood. New ways of introducing medical students to anatomy (including living anatomies and virtual simulations) have provoked widespread debate, with discussion of their relative merits compared to more traditional approaches that use cadaveric dissection. Outside the field of medicine, in the wider public sphere, the practice of anatomical study may often seem mysterious. The dissemination of news on anatomy, we contend, is central to the question of how medical researchers and educators engage with the public. Our analysis of news media coverage in the UK demonstrates that news-making, by giving prominence to certain facts, themes and images, serves to mask issues about anatomy and its practices that need debate. We examine the ways in which news media, through processes of selection and the 'framing' of issues, may perform an agenda-setting role. We draw attention to the use of positive 'awe and amazement' frames including 'miracles of modern science', 'medical heroes', and 'gifts of life', alongside more negative 'guts and gore' coverage including 'Frankenstein', 'Brave New World' and 'Rape of the Body' frames that concentrate on high profile scandals associated with the use and misuse of human bodies, tissues and parts. We also highlight the selective use of commentaries from members of the medical profession, which are more prevalent in positive 'awe and amazement' stories than in stories with negative coverage. We conclude by arguing for greater collaboration between journalists on the one hand, and medical educators and researchers on the other, in the making of news in order to provide portrayals of anatomy which bear a closer relationship to the everyday reality of professional work.

  13. Postgraduate fellows as teaching assistants in human anatomy: an experimental teaching model at a Chinese research university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Lin; Guo, Kaihua; Liu, Shu; Li, Feng; Chu, Guoliang; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Postgraduate fellowship training programs are expanding at Chinese universities. This growing cadre of advanced trainees calls for the development of new learning and training models wherein postgraduate fellows have an ample opportunity to teach more junior learners, thereby expanding their own knowledge base and competitiveness for future employment. Educational reform at Sun Yat-Sen University has recently allowed postgraduate fellows to act as teaching assistants for undergraduate anatomy courses. This model is common in western countries but is novel in China. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  15. 3D Digitization and Prototyping of the Skull for Practical Use in the Teaching of Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Maria Teresa Ugidos; Haro, Fernando Blaya; Diaz, Carlos Molino; Manzoor, Sadia; Ugidos, Gonzalo Ferrer; Mendez, Juan Antonio Juanes

    2017-05-01

    The creation of new rapid prototyping techniques, low cost 3D printers as well as the creation of new software for these techniques have allowed the creation of 3D models of bones making their application possible in the field of teaching anatomy in the faculties of Health Sciences. The 3D model of cranium created in the present work, at full scale, present accurate reliefs and anatomical details that are easily identifiable by undergraduate students in their use for the study of human anatomy. In this article, the process of scanning the skull and the subsequent treatment of these images with specific software until the generation of 3D model using 3D printer has been reported.

  16. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  17. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.

  18. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  19. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  1. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  2. Improved Medical Student Perception of Ultrasound Using a Paired Anatomy Teaching Assistant and Clinician Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob P.; Kendall, John L.; Royer, Danielle F.

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a new teaching model for ultrasound (US) training, and evaluates its effect on medical student attitudes toward US. First year medical students participated in hands-on US during human gross anatomy (2014 N = 183; 2015 N = 182). The sessions were facilitated by clinicians alone in 2014, and by anatomy teaching assistant…

  3. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  4. Optical versus Virtual: Teaching Assistant Perceptions of the Use of Virtual Microscopy in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed…

  5. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  6. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  7. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  8. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  9. Students helping students: Evaluating a pilot program of peer teaching for an undergraduate course in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A; Love Green, Jennifer K; Illerbrun, Sara L; Holness, Duncan A; Illerbrun, Samantha J; Haus, Kara A; Poirier, Sylvianne M; Sveinson, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on the number of peer teaching sessions they attended: nonattendees (0 sessions), infrequently attended (1-3 sessions), and frequently attended (≥ 4 sessions). After controlling for academic preparedness [i.e., admission grade point average (AGPA)] using an analysis of covariance, the final grades of frequent attendees were significantly higher than those of nonattendees (P = 0.025) and infrequent attendees (P = 0.015). A multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative independent contribution of several variables in predicting the final grade. The results suggest that frequent attendance (β = 0.245, P = 0.007) and AGPA (β = 0.555, P < 0.001) were significant positive predictors, while being a first-year student (β = -0.217, P = 0.006) was a significant negative predictor. Collectively, these results suggest that attending a certain number of sessions may be required to gain a noticeable benefit from the program, and that first-year students (particularly those with a lower level of academic preparedness) would likely stand to benefit from maximally using the program. End-of-semester surveys and reports indicate that the program had several additional benefits, both to the students taking the course and to the students who served as program leaders. Published 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  11. An inquiry into application of Gokyo (Aikido's Fifth Teaching) on human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G D; Seitz, F C; Guldbrandsen, F

    1996-06-01

    In this anatomical analysis the authors examined Gokyo, Aikido's Fifth Teaching. Using their cadaver/anatomist-observer model, the authors observed that tissues manipulated by the technique were primarily on the dorsal side of the wrist, proximal to the second metacarpal. The source of the pain was thought to involve the manipulation of the wrist joints and associated carpometacarpal ligaments. Locations of the manipulated tissue and sources of pain associated with that tissue, and their limited practical application were discussed.

  12. Optical versus virtual: teaching assistant perceptions of the use of virtual microscopy in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed through qualitative methods. This analysis showed that the teaching assistants found the virtual microscope to be an advantageous change in the classroom. They cite the ease of use of the virtual microscope, access to histology outside of designated laboratory time, and increasing student collaboration in class as the primary advantages. The teaching assistants also discuss principal areas where the use of the virtual microscope can be improved from a pedagogical standpoint, including requiring students to spend more time working on histology in class. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Use of an audience response system during peer teaching among physical therapy students in human gross anatomy: perceptions of peer teachers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Kevin R; Cloud, Beth A; Forster, Lindsey A; Jones, Tiffany M; Nokleby, Jessica J; Wolfe, Cortney R; Youdas, James W

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals. The unique feature of each peer teaching session was a nongraded 12-15 item ARS quiz assembled by six second-year doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students and purposely placed at the beginning of the review session for those first-year DPT students in attendance. This study used a ten-item questionnaire and a five-point Likert scale in addition to three open ended questions to survey perceptions of both first-year and second-year DPT students about the usefulness of ARS technology implemented during weekly interactive peer teaching sessions during a semester course in Anatomy for Physical Therapists. First-year students overwhelmingly acknowledged the ARS system permitted each student to self-assess his/her preparedness for a quiz or examination and compare his/her performance with that of classmates. Peer teachers recognized an ARS quiz provided them an opportunity to: (1) estimate first-year students' level of understanding of anatomical concepts; and (2) effectively prepare first-year students for their weekly quizzes and future examinations. On the basis of the mutual benefits derived by both students/tutees and teachers/tutors, physical therapist educators may wish to consider using ARS technology to enhance teaching methods for a class in gross human anatomy.

  15. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-03-22

    The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissection. Debriefing surveys were administered to the 227 first year medical students regarding merits, demerits and impact of both RPT and Traditional teaching experiences on student's preparedness prior to dissection, professionalism and communication skills. Out of this, 159 (70 %) completed the survey on traditional method while 148 (65.2 %) completed survey on RPT method. An observation tool for anatomy faculty was used to assess collaboration, professionalism and teaching skills among students. Student's scores on examinations done before introduction of RPT were compared with examinations scores after introduction of RPT. Our results show that the mean performance of students on objective examinations was significantly higher after introduction of RPT compared to the performance before introduction of RPT [63.7 ± 11.4 versus 58.6 ± 10, mean difference 5.1; 95 % CI = 4.0-6.3; p-value peers and faculty compared to 38 % for the tradition method. The majority of faculty reported that the learning environment of the dissection groups was very active learning during RPT sessions and that professionalism was observed by most students during discussions. Introduction of RPT in our anatomy dissection laboratory was generally beneficial to both students and faculty. Both objective (student performance) and subjective data indicate that RPT improved student's performance and had a positive learning experience impact. Our future plan is to continue RPT practice and continually

  16. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-04-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality and plastic models rather than hands-on-experience to impart knowledge and skill. However, cadaver-based learning is an important building block for the future physician and surgeon since clinical astuteness is likely to rely on skills gained from hands-on experience rather than the tendency to learning through virtual reality found in modern curricula.

  17. [Teaching human anatomy to the graduation course in Health Sciences of the Lisbon University: five years of a new educational experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ivo A; Gonçalves Ferreira, Ana D; Gonçalves Ferreira, António J

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the balance of the first five years of teaching Anatomy to the Licensure in Health Sciences, of Lisbon University. Were studied 408 students, enrolled in the Curricular Unit of Anatomy (mandatory subject of the 1st semester) and 29 in the Curricular Unit of Neuroanatomy (optional subject of the 6th semester). It was performed the statistical analysis by Anova and t Student test. There was an annual growing influx of students enrolled in Curricular Unit of Anatomy, a stable number in Neuroanatomy and clear predominance of female students; ratio teacher / student variable between 1/9 and 1/17 in Anatomy and 1/8 in Neuroanatomy; high number of initial dropouts (15.69%) in Anatomy; approval levels of 95.93% in Anatomy and Neuroanatomy 100%; trend of improvement in the last two years, with statistical significance in the Curricular Unit of Anatomy (p = 0.0001) and equal academic performance of students of both genders; satisfaction scores of students of Anatomy, Good = 71% and Very Good = 8%; in Neuroanatomy, unanimous classification by students = Very Good. It was a very positive learning experience. The authors propose: the study of the causes and prevention of early dropout of incoming students, improving the ratio teacher / student, possible extension to a 2nd semester of the Curricular Unit of Anatomy and improving facilities that are already underway and includes the refurbishment and modernization of the anatomical theater of the Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon.

  18. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  19. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  20. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  2. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  3. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  4. Students' views on the impact of peer physical examination and palpation as a pedagogic tool for teaching and learning living human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnah, Tudor I; de Bere, Sam Regan; Collett, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    Modern medical education teaching and learning approaches now lay emphasis on students acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant to medical practice. To explore students' perceived impacts of using hands-on approaches involving peer/life model physical examination and palpation in teaching and learning living human anatomy on their practice of physical examination of real patients. This study used exploratory focus groups and a questionnaire survey of years 3-5 medical students. The focus group discussions revealed new insights into the positive impacts of the hands-on approaches on students' clinical skills and professional attitudes when dealing with patients. Students' exposure to the hands-on approaches helped them to feel comfortable with therapeutically touching unclothed patients' bodies and physically examining them in the clinical environment. At least 60% of the questionnaire survey respondents agreed with the focus group participants on this view. Over 75% also agreed that the hands-on experiences helped them develop good professional attitudes in their encounter with patients. This study highlights the perceived educational value of the hands-on approaches as a pedagogic tool with a positive impact on students' clinical skills and professional attitudes that helps in easing their transition into clinical practice.

  5. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  6. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  7. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  8. Perceptions of cadaveric dissection in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saima; Nazir, Ghazala; Iram, Samia; Mohammad, Malik; Umair; Qari, Iftikhar Hussain; Mohammad, Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy professors world over are lamenting about medical students' lack of interest in dissections and its diminishing utilisation in medical studies. The objective of our study was to find out the reasons why some of the Pakistani medical students were avoiding dissections. We conducted this study in 5 medical colleges of Pakistan from Dec 2010-Oct 2011. Questionnaires were prepared and administered to more than 500 Pakistani medical students, at least 6 months after their first cadaver dissecting session. Mostly 1st and 2nd year medical students participated in this study. Around 43% students have actually performed dissections in some form, whereas around 57% had never touched the cadaver. Further evaluation of these results revealed that out of 57% of students, 45% avoided dissection due to bad smell of formaldehyde, 37% due to moral/ethical grounds, 22% due to low motivation and respect of human body, 19.4% due to anxiety, 18.6% due to religious reason, 16% due to fear, asthma and emotional reaction, 9.4% due to toxic chemical, 8.6% due to laziness and 7% due to nightmares. In spite of availability of required number of cadavers in all 5 medical colleges and a clear realisation amongst the students that dissecting cadaver is an effective way of learning anatomy; majority of students were not very keen and had therefore not performed dissection even once.

  9. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  10. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  11. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  12. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  13. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  14. Cost-Effective Teaching of Radiology with Preclinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James S.; Alvarez, Jacqueline; Davis, Bonnie C.; Duerinckx, Andre J.

    2018-01-01

    Graduating physicians in all subspecialties have an increased need for competency in radiology, particularly since the use of diagnostic imaging continues to grow. To integrate the teaching of radiology with anatomy during the first year of medical school at Howard University, a novel approach was developed to overcome the limitations of resources…

  15. Teaching the Anatomy of a Scientific Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Clayman, Karen; Busch, Allison K.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    To promote inquiry-based learning, the authors integrate the anatomy of a scientific journal article into their secondary science curriculum. In this article, they present three classroom activities used to teach students about the function and format of scientific journal articles. The first focuses on journal article figures, the second on…

  16. Gender preference between traditional and PowerPoint methods of teaching gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Saleh; Adamu, Lawan Hassan; Buba, Mohammed Alhaji; Garba, Sani Hyedima; Dalori, Babagana Mohammed; Yusuf, Ashiru Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Teaching and learning process is increasingly metamorphosing from the traditional chalk and talk to the modern dynamism in the information and communication technology. Medical education is no exception to this dynamism more especially in the teaching of gross anatomy, which serves as one of the bases of understanding the human structure. This study was conducted to determine the gender preference of preclinical medical students on the use of traditional (chalk and talk) and PowerPoint presentation in the teaching of gross anatomy. This was cross-sectional and prospective study, which was conducted among preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Using simple random techniques, a questionnaire was circulated among 280 medical students, where 247 students filled the questionnaire appropriately. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to find the method preferred by the students among other things. Majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri preferred PowerPoint method in the teaching of gross anatomy over the conventional methods. The Cronbach alpha value of 0.76 was obtained which is an acceptable level of internal consistency. A statistically significant association was found between gender and preferred method of lecture delivery on the clarity of lecture content where females prefer the conventional method of lecture delivery whereas males prefer the PowerPoint method, On the reproducibility of text and diagram, females prefer PowerPoint method of teaching gross anatomy while males prefer the conventional method of teaching gross anatomy. There are gender preferences with regard to clarity of lecture contents and reproducibility of text and diagram. It was also revealed from this study that majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri prefer PowerPoint presentation over the traditional chalk and talk method in most of the

  17. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  18. Innovative activities for teaching anatomy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinder-Meredith, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Courses in anatomy have traditionally relied on lectures and cadaver dissection laboratories. In speech and hearing sciences, there tends to be less access to cadavers than in medical schools and other allied health professions. It is more typical to use anatomical models, diagrams and lecture slides. Regardless of the resources available, anatomy is a subject that lends itself to hands-on learning. This article briefly reviews teaching methods and describes a variety of innovative activities to enhance learning of anatomical concepts and clinical relevance of anatomy for speech production. Teaching strategies and activities were developed to capitalize on students' multimodal learning preferences as revealed by responses to a survey administered to 49 undergraduates in the beginning of an anatomy of speech production course. At the end of the semester, students completed a second survey. A five-point Likert scale was used to assess the usefulness of each activity as a learning tool or level of clinical relevance and the level of enjoyability. The responses were overwhelmingly positive with level of usefulness and level of clinical relevance rated higher on average than the level of enjoyment.

  19. Developing medical students as teachers: an anatomy-based student-as-teacher program with emphasis on core teaching competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Jay, Erie; Starkman, Sidney J; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is an increasingly recognized responsibility of the resident physician. Residents, however, often assume teaching responsibilities without adequate preparation. Consequently, many medical schools have implemented student-as-teacher (SAT) programs that provide near-peer teaching opportunities to senior medical students. Near-peer teaching is widely regarded as an effective teaching modality; however, whether near-peer teaching experiences in medical school prepare students for the teaching demands of residency is less understood. We explored whether the anatomy-based SAT program through the Human Structure didactic block at Mayo Medical School addressed the core teaching competencies of a medical educator and prepared its participants for further teaching roles in their medical careers. A web-based survey was sent to all teaching assistants in the anatomy-based SAT program over the past five years (2007-2011). Survey questions were constructed based on previously published competencies in seven teaching domains--course development, course organization, teaching execution, student coaching, student assessment, teacher evaluation, and scholarship. Results of the survey indicate that participants in the anatomy-based SAT program achieved core competencies of a medical educator and felt prepared for the teaching demands of residency. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. The anatomy of Nikyo (Aikido's second teaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J W; Lee, T K

    1993-12-01

    Nikyo is the second teaching of Aikido (ni-two, kyo-teaching, in Japanese). It is a joint-lock technique that results in extreme pain. It allows one to control an opponent by destroying his will to continue fighting. Nikyo is accomplished by flexing and adducting an opponent's wrist producing an instantaneous sharp pain that causes him to fall to his knees involuntarily to alleviate the pressure. The exact etiology of the pain elicited by this technique has been obscure to many practitioners. The usual explanations have been nerve compression, joint capsular stretch, tendon/muscle strain, or partial ligamentous disruption. Studies of a cadaver's wrist have shown that Nikyo forcibly compresses the pisiform bone against the ulna, two bones that do not normally articulate. The intense pain thereby produced results from stimulation of the periosteal nerves in these bony surfaces.

  1. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  2. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  3. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  4. Improving near-peer teaching quality in anatomy by educating teaching assistants: An example from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ellen; Holmin, Tobias E; Johansson, Bengt R; Braide, Magnus

    2018-02-14

    Peer-assisted learning has gained momentum in a variety of disciplines, including medical education. In Gothenburg, Sweden, medical students who have finished their compulsory anatomy courses have the option of working as teaching assistants (TAs). Teaching assistants provide small group teaching sessions as a complement to lectures given by faculty. Previously, TAs were left to handle the role as junior teachers by themselves, but since 2011, a continuation course in anatomy has been developed with the aim of providing the TAs better anatomy knowledge and guidance for teaching. The course was designed to comprise 7.5 ECTS credits (equivalent to 5 weeks of full-time studies), and today all TAs are required to take this course before undertaking their own teaching responsibilities. This study aims to compare course evaluations of TA teaching before and after the introduction of the anatomy continuation course, in order to understand how students perceived teaching performed by self-learned versus trained TAs. The results of this study demonstrate that there was a trend towards better teaching performed by trained TAs. The variability in rankings decreased significantly after the introduction of the continuation course. This was mainly due to an improvement among the TAs with the lowest levels of performance. In addition to comparing student rankings, TAs were interviewed regarding their experiences and perceptions within the continuation course. The course was generally positively regarded. The TAs described a sense of cohesion and appreciation since the institute invested in a course dedicated specifically for them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. The use of real time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of anatomy in an undergraduate sonography and medical imaging degree in an Australian university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.; Lawson, C.; McKillup, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Real-time ultrasound scanning is increasing in popularity as a teaching tool for human anatomy because it is non-invasive, offers real-time 3-D anatomy and is cheaper than dissections. Aim: To assess real-time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of human anatomy, and to determine what teaching methods medical imaging and sonography students consider effective for understanding human anatomy. Method: Surveys were distributed to two consecutive cohorts of first year medical imaging and medical sonography students at CQUniversity. Participation was voluntary. Comparisons among teaching methods were made using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Real-time ultrasound scanning was the most preferred method of delivery for anatomy classes overall especially compared to computer programs, videos, 3-D radiological images and dissection. Specifically, students indicated that ultrasound scanning was the preferred method to encourage learning from experience (F 7,231  = 2.942, p = 0.006), to develop team skills (F 7,231  = 4.550, p < 0.006), to follow complex instructions (F 7,231  = 4.656 p < 0.001) and to appreciate anatomical variation (F 7,231  = 2.067, p = 0.048). Dissection was the least favoured teaching method. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound scanning is a useful tool for teaching anatomy, and animal dissections are a poor substitute for the use of human cadavers. - Highlights: • Real-time ultrasound scanning is a valid teaching tool for human anatomy. • Real-time ultrasound is preferred by students compared to other teaching methods. • Dissection is the least favoured method to learn anatomy. • Ultrasound encourages learning from experience and develops team skills.

  6. A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy education among Indian Medical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-09-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 10: 433

  7. The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. DATABASE URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit.

  8. Anatomical planes: are we teaching accurate surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sarah L; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Anatomical planes used in clinical practice and teaching anatomy are largely derived from cadaver studies. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of common anatomical planes in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. CT scans of the trunk in supine adults at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the anatomy of five anatomical planes: sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal, and the plane of the pubic crest. Patients with kyphosis, scoliosis, or abnormal lordosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. Among 153 thoracic CT scans (mean age 63 years, 53% female), the sternal angle was most common at T4 (females) or T4/5 (males) vertebral level, and the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and pulmonary trunk were most often below this plane. In 108 abdominal CT scans (mean age 60 years, 59% female), the subcostal and supracristal planes were most often at L2 (58%) and L4 (69%), respectively. In 52 thoracoabdominal CT scans (mean age 61 years, 56% female), the transpyloric plane was between lower L1 and upper L2 (75%); in this plane were the superior mesenteric artery (56%), formation of the portal vein (53%), tip of the ninth rib (60%), and the left renal hilum (54%), but the right renal hilum and gallbladder fundus were more often below. The surface anatomy of anatomical planes needs revising in the light of results from living subjects using modern imaging techniques. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of human anatomy education for pharmacy students via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpach, Aimee L; Bazrafshan, Parham; Turner, Paul D; Monaghan, Michael S

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the overall effectiveness of a human anatomy course taught to distance-based and campus-based pharmacy students. A retrospective analysis of students' grades and course evaluations from 2003 through 2006 was conducted. No significant differences in student performance by pathway were found for the 2003-2005 academic years (p > 0.05). However, distance-based students' percentage and letter grades were significantly higher in 2006 (p = 0.013 and p = 0.004 respectively). Comparison of course and instructor evaluations showed that students in the distance course held similar or more positive perceptions of the course than their campus peers. Similar performance by campus and distance students enrolled in a human anatomy suggests that a distance-based course can be used successfully to teach human anatomy to pharmacy students.

  11. Video-based lectures: An emerging paradigm for teaching human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Video-based teaching material is a rich and powerful medium being used in computer assisted learning. This paper aimed to assess the learning outcomes and student nurses' acceptance and satisfaction with the video-based lectures versus the traditional method of teaching human anatomy and physiology courses.

  12. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  13. Transforming information for computer-aided instruction: using a Socratic Dialogue method to teach gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, P; Daane, S; Dev, P

    1994-01-01

    Traditional teaching of anatomy can be a difficult process of rote memorization. Computers allow information presentation to be much more dynamic, and interactive; the same information can be presented in multiple organizations. Using this idea, we have implemented a new pedagogy for computer-assisted instruction in The Anatomy Lesson, an interactive digital teacher which uses a "Socratic Dialogue" metaphor, as well as a textbook-like approach, to facilitate conceptual learning in anatomy.

  14. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  15. Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommert, Andreas; Schubert, Rainer; Riemer, Martin; Schiemann, Thomas; Tiede, Ulf; Hoehne, Karl H.

    1994-09-01

    Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications in our 3D anatomical atlas are presented and discussed.

  16. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  17. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  18. Student Outcomes Associated with Use of Asynchronous Online Discussion Forums in Gross Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A.; Hughes, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion forums are increasingly common in blended learning environments but the relationship to student learning outcomes has not been reported for anatomy teaching. Forums were monitored in two multicampus anatomy courses; an introductory first year course and a second year physiotherapy-specific course. The forums are…

  19. Innovative taught MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    A relatively new, fully accredited MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy, is now offered through a joint collaboration with the Laboratory of Human Anatomy, University of Glasgow and the Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art. This degree combines training in digital technologies and intensive human anatomy training as a result of a long-standing successful partnership between these two esteemed institutes. The student also has to complete a research dissertation which encompasses both the digital perspective and a related medical, dental, surgical, veterinary (comparative anatomy) or life science specialty to enhance development in the digital field for a variety of specialties. This article discusses the background in development of this degree, the course structure and the career prospects and destinations for graduates of this unique degree programme.

  20. What Anatomy Is Clinically Useful and When Should We Be Teaching It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveritt, Simon; McKnight, Gerard; Edwards, Kimberley; Pratten, Margaret; Merrick, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy teaching, once thought of as being the cornerstone of medical education, has undergone much change in the recent years. There is now growing concern for falling standards in medical graduates' anatomical knowledge, coupled with a reduction in teaching time and appropriately qualified teaching staff. With limited contact hours available to…

  1. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  2. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  4. Gross Anatomy classroom and dissection laboratory. An ethnographic approach to the study of human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén López Castro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic areas that rely on university chairs articulate teaching and research in particular ways. The aim of this paper is to describe the ways in which knowledge about the body is built from the work of the laboratories of dissection, without losing sight of its articulation with the anatomy lessons as a regular signature. From an ethnographic perspective, the proposal is to focus in the interventions over the dead body in the dissection laboratory based on the object of didactic transposition of the class.

  5. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA) [de

  6. Integrating Radiology and Anatomy Teaching in Medical Education in the UK--The Evidence, Current Trends, and Future Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, N B; Ali, T; Mankad, K

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents the current evidence of the importance of integrating radiology and anatomy in medical education in the UK, a recommendation by a number of key anatomy, education, and radiology organizations. Current evidence highlights that on average only 5% of total teaching time in medical education is dedicated to radiology. Often, radiology teaching does not adequately fulfill students' learning needs and potentially leaves them underprepared for medical practice. Benefits of integrating radiology and anatomy include improved clinical application of anatomy, an increase in student's interest in anatomy, and ultimately improved radiological interpretation. Various modalities exist for the integration of radiology and anatomy, facilitated by the vast portability of radiological images. It appears that combining radiological resources with traditional anatomy teaching methodology in a blended approach is most beneficial. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Effectiveness of Video Demonstration over Conventional Methods in Teaching Osteology in Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswasom, Angela A; Jobby, Abraham

    2017-02-01

    Technology and its applications are the most happening things in the world. So, is it in the field of medical education. This study was an evaluation of whether the conventional methods can compete with the test of technology. A comparative study of traditional method of teaching osteology in human anatomy with an innovative visual aided method. The study was conducted on 94 students admitted to MBBS 2014 to 2015 batch of Travancore Medical College. The students were divided into two academically validated groups. They were taught using conventional and video demonstrational techniques in a systematic manner. Post evaluation tests were conducted. Analysis of the mark pattern revealed that the group taught using traditional method scored better when compared to the visual aided method. Feedback analysis showed that, the students were able to identify bony features better with clear visualisation and three dimensional view when taught using the video demonstration method. The students identified visual aided method as the more interesting one for learning which helped them in applying the knowledge gained. In most of the questions asked, the two methods of teaching were found to be comparable on the same scale. As the study ends, we discover that, no new technique can be substituted for time tested techniques of teaching and learning. The ideal method would be incorporating newer multimedia techniques into traditional classes.

  9. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  10. Students' Perception and Attitude on Methods of Anatomy Teaching in a Medical College of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Raktim; Biswas, Romy

    2017-09-01

    Incorporating newer teaching aids over traditional one in Anatomy has been challenging both for the teachers and the learners. Different educational strategies are being used for teaching of Anatomy. To elicit the perception and attitude toward teaching approaches in the Anatomy curriculum among first year medical students. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with the help of predesigned, pre-tested questionnaire to elicit knowledge in four domains of classroom teaching which were: a) gross anatomical structure; b) organ identification; c) topography; and d) radiological anatomy and self-assessment of acquired skills in respective fields among 114 first year students. A total of 57% of students opined good in gross structure of anatomy. A 60.5% of students preferred chalk and board method and 33.3% with LCD projector. Regarding acquiring knowledge, 72.8% of medical students gathered knowledge in gross anatomical structure domain whereas 58.8% in radiological anatomy. The overall mean score of attitude of the students regarding incorporating newer techniques in Anatomy teaching is 14.17±2.26. The perception of Anatomy teaching and attitude among medicos have been studied and opinion from them had thrown light for incorporation of newer techniques in their teaching curriculum.

  11. Near-peer teaching in an anatomy course with a low faculty-to-student ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Claudia Elisa Pámanes; Bahena, Eduardo Navarro; Rodríguez, María de Los Ángeles García; Baca, Guillermo Jacobo; Uresti, Antonio Sánchez; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; López, Santos Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Near-peer teaching is an educational format which utilizes tutors who are more advanced in a curriculum's content to supervise students' activities and to act as instructors in laboratory settings. This format is often used in anatomy laboratory courses. The goal of the present study is to describe the design and implementation of near-peer teaching in an anatomy course and to evaluate students' perceptions of the program. A total of 700 students were registered for this anatomy course which employed near-peer instructors. Of enrolled students, 558 (79.7%) agreed to participate in this study. In general, the practical section (e.g., the clinical hour, image-based anatomy session, and gross anatomy laboratory) of the course was viewed more favorably compared to the theory section (54.8%, n = 306), with dissection and prosection in the laboratory rated as the most valued experiences (34.9%, n = 195). Near-peer teaching is a viable option that satisfies the demands of modern curricula using small groups. This format stimulates learning within courses that have large numbers of students and low faculty-to-student ratios. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Rogers, Kem A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Is the decline of human anatomy hazardous to medical education/profession?--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Shane Tubbs, R; Gupta, Kavita; Singh, Man; Jones, D Gareth; Kumar, Raj

    2015-12-01

    The continuous decrease in teaching time, the artificially created scarcity of competent anatomical faculties and a reduced allocation of resources have brought about the decline of anatomy in medical education. As a result of this, anatomical knowledge and the standard of medical education have fallen with consequences including safety in clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to analyze this declining phase of anatomy and its impact on medical education and to consider corrective measures. This article expresses comparative viewpoints based on a review of the literature. Anatomy enables doctors to master the language of medical science so they can communicate with patients, the public and fellow doctors and diagnose and treat diseases successfully in all medical fields. No medical specialist or expert can master their field without adequate knowledge of human anatomy. The shrinkage of anatomical schedules, inadequate faculties and declining allocation of resources is therefore unfortunate. These factors produce stress in both student and faculty creating gaps in anatomical knowledge that means insufficient skill is developed to practice medicine safely. This decline is hazardous not only to the medical profession but also to society. Reforms consisting of balanced rescheduling of medical curricula and optimum resource allocation have been proposed to improve the standard of education of doctors.

  14. Cadavers Can Be Useful in Teaching Anatomy in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John; Moore, John

    1989-01-01

    Presents information on student interest, teaching problems, and learning outcomes regarding the use of cadavers as a teaching tool. Provides a list of Illinois Community Colleges using cadavers and a student questionnaire. (RT)

  15. Practical training on porcine hearts enhances students' knowledge of human cardiac anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Mazzone, Venera; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Castorina, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Historically, cadavers have been used for the study of anatomy. Nowadays, the territorial and legal limitations of this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods such as the use of practical exercise consisting of dissection and observation of animal organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of practical training on animal organs compared with the traditional method of anatomy teaching, based on the dissection of human cadavers. In this study, we seek to demonstrate the usefulness of practical exercise on animal organs. This practical training was held a week after the series of lectures, thus leaving time for the students to learn and understand the topics discussed. Immediately after the lecture, all of the students completed a preliminary test to assess the immediate effect of the lecture. Immediately before the practical exercise, both control and experimental groups completed a second test to assess the effectiveness of personal study. Immediately after practical training, a third test was completed by the experimental group and the control group (no practical activity on animal organs) to highlight the added value of hands-on practice in addition to the lecture. Data obtained from statistical analysis showed a panatomy learning between control and experimental groups. Thus, the results of this study emphasize the utility of practical training on animal organs in learning and understanding anatomy, considering the limitations of the use of cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Padua: the renaissance of human anatomy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Giancarlo; Trincia, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    The city and University of Padua have a long tradition and a great reputation in anatomic studies, dating from the founding of the university in the year 1222. We present a historical review of the study of human anatomy, for which Padua was a most important center. The background for the development of this culture was represented by the scientific freedom and political wisdom of the Serenissima Republic of Venice, a liberal and tolerant state in the midst of a feudal, imperial, and pontifical Europe. During the second half of the 15th century, the flourishing trade and cultural, social, and political life of Venice attracted a great number of scientists and students from all over Europe who contributed to the establishment of Padua as an international center for culture and the sciences. Vesalio, Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, and Giovanni Battista Morgagni represent milestones in the history of anatomy as well as in medicine and surgery. History shows that anatomy and surgery evolved together, just as anatomy of the nervous system and neurosurgery developed in tandem. The tradition of neurosurgery in Padua is considered one the most important schools in Italy.

  17. Dynamic Model of Applied Facial Anatomy with Emphasis on Teaching of Botulinum Toxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Frota Boggio, MD, PhD

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion:. By making it possible to interrelate anatomy of a function, body painting is proposed in the present study as an innovative method, which in a demonstrative and highly didactic manner presents great potential as a teaching tool in the application of botulinum toxin A.

  18. Near-Peer Teaching in an Anatomy Course with a Low Faculty-to-Student Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Claudia Elisa Pamanes; Bahena, Eduardo Navarro; Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles Garcia; Baca, Guillermo Jacobo; Uresti, Antonio Sanchez; Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Lopez, Santos Guzman

    2012-01-01

    Near-peer teaching is an educational format which utilizes tutors who are more advanced in a curriculum's content to supervise students' activities and to act as instructors in laboratory settings. This format is often used in anatomy laboratory courses. The goal of the present study is to describe the design and implementation of near-peer…

  19. DIDACTIC MODEL AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL APPLIED IN TEACHING OF CELL ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemisa Amorim da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The didactic models have a prominent role in the chemical and physical education. However, the use of this tool is still little explored in science teaching. In this article, we present a didactic proposal based on the use of representational didactic models to complement the teaching of cellular anatomy. The methodology was tested and evaluated by students of the seventh grade of elementary school in a public school in Tefe, Amazonas. Structured questionnaires were used to assess the perception of knowledge about cellular anatomy, difficulties in understanding the concepts and the importance of using didactic models for learning. The percentage of correct answers in the pre-test ranged from 15% to 54%, while the post-test, this rate was much higher, between 77% to 100%. The percentage of inadequate responses in the pretest demonstrates that traditional teaching activities are not efficient for the promotion of long-term knowledge. In contrast, high levels of correct answers in the post-test suggest that the incorporation of leisure activity - able to arouse curiosity, interest and active participation of students - complements effectively the teaching of anatomy Mobile. With this activity we observed that the educational model is a feasible strategy for effective understanding of the cytological aspects of plant and animal cells. Keywords: Alternative methods; Elementary School; cell anatomy.

  20. Perceptions of first-year medical students towards learning anatomy using cadaveric specimens through peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Andee; Calleja, Neville; Camenzuli, Christian; Sultana, Roberta; Pullicino, Richard; Zammit, Christian; Calleja Agius, Jean; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-11-07

    During the last decade, global interest in the multiple benefits of formal peer teaching has increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first-year medical students towards the use of peer teaching to learn anatomy using cadaveric specimens. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was carried out. Data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to all medical students who were in their second year of their medical school curriculum and who had participated in sessions taught by their peers during their first year. Peer teaching was perceived as an effective method of learning anatomy by more than half of the participants. Analysis of mean responses revealed that the peer teachers created a positive, non-intimidating learning environment. Overall, participants gave positive feedback on their peer teachers. Six categories emerged from the responses given by participants as to why they would or would not recommend peer teaching. Ways of improvement as suggested by the respondents were also reported. Variables found to be significantly associated with the perceived benefits of the peer teaching program included sex differences, educational level and recommendations for peer teaching. This study brings to light the merits and demerits of peer teaching as viewed through the eyes of the peer learners. Peer teaching provides a sound platform for teaching and learning anatomy. Further discussions at higher levels are encouraged in order to explore the feasibility of introducing formal peer teaching in the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Functional anatomy of the human ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, H.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The valve function of the ureterovesical-junction (UVJ) is responsible for protection of the low pressure upper urinary tract from the refluxing of urine from the bladder. Controversy about the microanatomy of the human ureterovesical-junction persists. METHODS: Ten (3 male and 7 female)

  2. Browsing software of the Visible Korean data used for teaching sectional anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Hyo Seok; Park, Jin Seo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of computed tomographs (CTs) and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) to diagnose clinical conditions requires basic knowledge of sectional anatomy. Sectional anatomy has traditionally been taught using sectioned cadavers, atlases, and/or computer software. The computer software commonly used for this subject is practical and efficient for students but could be more advanced. The objective of this research was to present browsing software developed from the Visible Korean images that can be used for teaching sectional anatomy. One thousand seven hundred and two sets of MRIs, CTs, and sectioned images (intervals, one millimeter) of a whole male cadaver were prepared. Over 900 structures in the sectioned images were outlined and then filled with different colors to elaborate each structure. Software was developed where four corresponding images could be displayed simultaneously; in addition, the structures in the image data could be readily recognized with the aid of the color-filled outlines. The software, distributed free of charge, could be a valuable tool to teach medical students. For example, sectional anatomy could be taught by showing the sectioned images with real color and high resolution. Students could then review the lecture by using the sectioned and color-filled images on their own computers. Students could also be evaluated using the same software. Furthermore, other investigators would be able to replace the images for more comprehensive sectional anatomy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  4. Robotic hip arthroscopy in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jens; Hagen, Monika E; Morel, Philippe; Fasel, Jean; Markar, Sheraz; Schueler, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Robotic technology offers technical advantages that might offer new solutions for hip arthroscopy. Two hip arthroscopies were performed in human cadavers using the da Vinci surgical system. During both surgeries, a robotic camera and 5 or 8 mm da Vinci trocars with instruments were inserted into the hip joint for manipulation. Introduction of cameras and working instruments, docking of the robotic system and instrument manipulation was successful in both cases. The long articulating area of 5 mm instruments limited movements inside the joint; an 8 mm instrument with a shorter area of articulation offered an improved range of motion. Hip arthroscopy using the da Vinci standard system appears a feasible alternative to standard arthroscopy. Instruments and method of application must be modified and improved before routine clinical application but further research in this area seems justified, considering the clinical value of such an approach. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  6. Accuracy of stereolithographic models of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.M.; Earwaker, W.J.S.; Lisle, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the dimensional accuracy of anatomical replicas derived from X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) images and produced using the rapid prototyping technique of stereolithography (SLA). A dry bone skull and geometric phantom were scanned, and replicas were produced. Distance measurements were obtained to compare the original objects and the resulting replicas. Repeated measurements between anatomical landmarks were used for comparison of the original skull and replica. Results for the geometric phantom demonstrate a mean difference of +0.47mm, representing an accuracy of 97.7-99.12%. Measurements of the skull produced a range of absolute differences (maximum +4.62mm, minimum +0.1mm, mean +0.85mm). These results support the use of SLA models of human anatomical structures in such areas as pre-operative planning of complex surgical procedures. For applications where higher accuracy is required, improvements can be expected by utilizing smaller pixel resolution in the CT images. Stereolithographic models can now be confidently employed as accurate, three-dimensional replicas of complex, anatomical structures. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Educational Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Visualization Technologies in Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar; Violato, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Many medical graduates are deficient in anatomy knowledge and perhaps below the standards for safe medical practice. Three-dimensional visualization technology (3DVT) has been advanced as a promising tool to enhance anatomy knowledge. The purpose of this review is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of 3DVT in teaching and learning…

  8. Simulation of radiofrequency ablation in real human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, George; Samaras, Theodoros

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the current work was to simulate radiofrequency ablation treatment in computational models with realistic human anatomy, in order to investigate the effect of realistic geometry in the treatment outcome. The body sites considered in the study were liver, lung and kidney. One numerical model for each body site was obtained from Duke, member of the IT'IS Virtual Family. A spherical tumour was embedded in each model and a single electrode was inserted into the tumour. The same excitation voltage was used in all cases to underline the differences in the resulting temperature rise, due to different anatomy at each body site investigated. The same numerical calculations were performed for a two-compartment model of the tissue geometry, as well as with the use of an analytical approximation for a single tissue compartment. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy appears efficient for tumours in liver and lung, but less efficient in kidney. Moreover, the time evolution of temperature for a realistic geometry differs from that for a two-compartment model, but even more for an infinite homogenous tissue model. However, it appears that the most critical parameters of computational models for RFA treatment planning are tissue properties rather than tissue geometry. Computational simulations of realistic anatomy models show that the conventional technique of a single electrode inside the tumour volume requires a careful choice of both the excitation voltage and treatment time in order to achieve effective treatment, since the ablation zone differs considerably for various body sites.

  9. Ultrasound-based teaching of cardiac anatomy and physiology to undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Nadjib; Arangalage, Dimitri; Boubrit, Lila; Renaud, Marie Christine; Isnard, Richard; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Cohen, Ariel; Duguet, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging modality that offers the opportunity to teach living cardiac anatomy and physiology. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of integrating an ultrasound-based course into the conventional undergraduate medical teaching programme and to analyse student and teacher feedback. An ultrasound-based teaching course was implemented and proposed to all second-year medical students (n=348) at the end of the academic year, after all the conventional modules at our faculty. After a brief theoretical and practical demonstration, students were allowed to take the probe and use the ultrasound machine. Students and teachers were asked to complete a survey and were given the opportunity to provide open feedback. Two months were required to implement the entire module; 330 (95%) students (divided into 39 groups) and 37 teachers participated in the course. Student feedback was very positive: 98% of students agreed that the course was useful; 85% and 74% considered that their understanding of cardiac anatomy and physiology, respectively, was improved. The majority of the teachers (97%) felt that the students were interested, 81% agreed that the course was appropriate for second-year medical students and 84% were willing to participate to future sessions. Cardiac anatomy and physiology teaching using ultrasound is feasible for undergraduate medical students and enhances their motivation to improve their knowledge. Student and teacher feedback on the course was very positive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Teaching professionalism in science courses: Anatomy to zoology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Macpherson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical professionalism is reflected in attitudes, behaviors, character, and standards of practice. It is embodied by physicians who fulfill their duties to patients and uphold societies’ trust in medicine. Professionalism requires familiarity with the ethical codes and standards established by international, governmental, institutional, or professional organizations. It also requires becoming aware of and responsive to societal controversies. Scientific uncertainty may be used to teach aspects of professionalism in science courses. Uncertainty about the science behind, and the health impacts of, climate change is one example explored herein that may be used to teach both professionalism and science. Many medical curricula provide students with information about professionalism and create opportunities for students to reflect upon and strengthen their individually evolving levels of professionalism. Faculties in basic sciences are rarely called upon to teach professionalism or deepen medical students understanding of professional standards, competencies, and ethical codes. However they have the knowledge and experience to develop goals, learning objectives, and topics relevant to professionalism within their own disciplines and medical curricula. Their dedication to, and passion for, science will support basic science faculties in designing innovative and effective approaches to teaching professionalism. This paper explores topics and formats that scientists may find useful in teaching professional attitudes, skills, and competencies in their medical curriculum. It highlights goals and learning objectives associated with teaching medical professionalism in the basic sciences.

  11. Teaching professionalism in science courses: anatomy to zoology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C

    2012-02-01

    Medical professionalism is reflected in attitudes, behaviors, character, and standards of practice. It is embodied by physicians who fulfill their duties to patients and uphold societies' trust in medicine. Professionalism requires familiarity with the ethical codes and standards established by international, governmental, institutional, or professional organizations. It also requires becoming aware of and responsive to societal controversies. Scientific uncertainty may be used to teach aspects of professionalism in science courses. Uncertainty about the science behind, and the health impacts of, climate change is one example explored herein that may be used to teach both professionalism and science. Many medical curricula provide students with information about professionalism and create opportunities for students to reflect upon and strengthen their individually evolving levels of professionalism. Faculties in basic sciences are rarely called upon to teach professionalism or deepen medical students understanding of professional standards, competencies, and ethical codes. However they have the knowledge and experience to develop goals, learning objectives, and topics relevant to professionalism within their own disciplines and medical curricula. Their dedication to, and passion for, science will support basic science faculties in designing innovative and effective approaches to teaching professionalism. This paper explores topics and formats that scientists may find useful in teaching professional attitudes, skills, and competencies in their medical curriculum. It highlights goals and learning objectives associated with teaching medical professionalism in the basic sciences. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. History of teaching anatomy in India: from ancient to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tony George

    2013-01-01

    Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Experiences with dissection courses in human anatomy: a comparison between Germany and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Löffler, Sabine; Hinz, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Dissection courses in human anatomy are laborious, and new teaching tools have become available. Therefore, some universities intend to reduce the dissection course. Furthermore, little is known about dissection courses in African universities. The aim of this study is to compare the students' experiences with and evaluations of the dissection courses in two universities: Leipzig (Germany) and Gondar (Ethiopia). Since the Gondar Medical College was founded in cooperation with the Leipzig University in 1978, the anatomy courses in both universities follow roughly the same rules. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the dissection courses from the students' point of view. The sample of students consisted of 109 German and 124 Ethiopian first year undergraduate medical students. Most students in both countries (94% in Germany and 82% in Ethiopia) judge the dissection course to be highly relevant compared to other courses. Perceived health hazards associated with dissection of the cadaver show significant differences between Germany (14%) and Ethiopia (44%). Most students had normal feelings again at the end of the dissection course. Further similarities and differences between the courses in Germany and Ethiopia are described. Dissection courses are highly appreciated also in Africa. The high degree of affirmation of the dissection courses should be taken into consideration when discussing modifications of gross anatomy curriculum or changes in the teacher to student ratio. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  15. Human anatomy nomenclature rules for the computer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E; Baud, Robert; Sprumont, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Information systems are increasing in importance in biomedical sciences and medical practice. The nomenclature rules of human anatomy were reviewed for adequacy with respect to modern needs. New rules are proposed here to ensure that each Latin term is uniquely associated with an anatomical entity, as short and simple as possible, and machine-interpretable. Observance of these recommendations will also benefit students and translators of the Latin terms into other languages. Clin. Anat. 30:300-302, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Doll, Sara; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new way of teaching by integrating both anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing tools. One preclinical and one clinical module were developed for integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology. Potential benefits were assessed by anonymous evaluation among the 176 participating students. The students highly appreciated the new approach, especially the high degree of interactivity with the post-processing software and the possibility to correlate the real dissection with the virtual dissection. Students agreed that three-dimensional imaging and post-processing improved their understanding of difficult anatomical topics and topographical relations. We consider the new approach to provide great additional benefits for participating students regarding preparation for everyday clinical practice. In particular, it imparts familiarity with imaging and image post-processing techniques and may improve anatomical understanding, radiological diagnostic skills and three-dimensional appreciation. (orig.)

  17. Head and Neck Anatomy: Effect of Focussed Near-Peer Teaching on Anatomical Confidence in Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon; Osborne, Max Sallis; Bowyer, Duncan

    2018-05-11

    To assess the effect of near-peer head and neck anatomy teaching on undergraduates and to quantify the benefit from a focussed teaching course. Near-peer teaching involves colleagues within close seniority and age proximity teaching one another on a specified topic. Small group teaching sessions were delivered to medical students on 3 key areas of ENT anatomy. Participants were given a precourse and postcourse questionnaire to determine the benefit attained from the course. An undergraduate anatomy course taking place at the University of Birmingham Medical School. A total of 30 medical students: 15 preclinical (years 1-2) and 15 clinical (years 3-5) medical students participated from a single institution. A total of 71% of students expressed inadequate teaching of head and neck anatomy in undergraduate curriculum. All students (n = 30) expressed benefit from the course, however the patterns of learning differed: preclinical students showed a significant improvement in both their ability to name anatomical structures and their application (p peer learning provides benefit to all medical undergraduates in the context of teaching anatomy which may make it a valuable teaching tool for the future of medical education. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  19. Is a Team-based Learning Approach to Anatomy Teaching Superior to Didactic Lecturing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Naghme; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is used in the medical field to implement interactive learning in small groups. The learning of anatomy and its subsequent application requires the students to recall a great deal of factual content. The aims of this study were to evaluate the students' satisfaction, engagement and knowledge gain in anatomy through the medium of TBL in comparison to the traditional lecture method. This study, carried out from February to June 2012, included 30 physical therapy students of the Shiraz University of Medical Science, School of Rehabilitation Sciences. Classic TBL techniques were modified to cover lower limb anatomy topics in the first year of the physical therapy curriculum. Anatomy lectures were replaced with TBL, which required the preparation of assigned content, specific discussion topics, an individual self-assessment test (IRAT) and the analysis of discussion topics. The teams then subsequently retook the assessment test as a group (GRAT). The first eight weeks of the curriculum were taught using traditional didactic lecturing, while during the second eight weeks the modified TBL method was used. The students evaluated these sessions through a questionnaire. The impact of TBL on student engagement and educational achievement was determined using numerical data, including the IRAT, GRAT and final examination scores. Students had a higher satisfaction rate with the TBL teaching according to the Likert scale. Additionally, higher scores were obtained in the TBL-based final examination in comparison to the lecture-based midterm exam. The students' responses showed that the TBL technique could be used alone or in conjunction with traditional didactic lecturing in order to teach anatomy more effectively.

  20. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  1. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  2. Diffeomorphometry and geodesic positioning systems for human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael I; Younes, Laurent; Trouvé, Alain

    2014-03-01

    The Computational Anatomy project has largely been a study of large deformations within a Riemannian framework as an efficient point of view for generating metrics between anatomical configurations. This approach turns D'Arcy Thompson's comparative morphology of human biological shape and form into a metrizable space. Since the metric is constructed based on the geodesic length of the flows of diffeomorphisms connecting the forms, we call it diffeomorphometry . Just as importantly, since the flows describe algebraic group action on anatomical submanifolds and associated functional measurements, they become the basis for positioning information, which we term geodesic positioning . As well the geodesic connections provide Riemannian coordinates for locating forms in the anatomical orbit, which we call geodesic coordinates . These three components taken together - the metric, geodesic positioning of information, and geodesic coordinates - we term the geodesic positioning system . We illustrate via several examples in human and biological coordinate systems and machine learning of the statistical representation of shape and form.

  3. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  4. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  5. Quantification of human upper extremity nerves and fascicular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Natalie A; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-09-01

    In this study we provide detailed quantification of upper extremity nerve and fascicular anatomy. The purpose is to provide values and trends in neural features useful for clinical applications and neural interface device design. Nerve cross-sections were taken from 4 ulnar, 4 median, and 3 radial nerves from 5 arms of 3 human cadavers. Quantified nerve features included cross-sectional area, minor diameter, and major diameter. Fascicular features analyzed included count, perimeter, area, and position. Mean fascicular diameters were 0.57 ± 0.39, 0.6 ± 0.3, 0.5 ± 0.26 mm in the upper arm and 0.38 ± 0.18, 0.47 ± 0.18, 0.4 ± 0.27 mm in the forearm of ulnar, median, and radial nerves, respectively. Mean fascicular diameters were inversely proportional to fascicle count. Detailed quantitative anatomy of upper extremity nerves is a resource for design of neural electrodes, guidance in extraneural procedures, and improved neurosurgical planning. Muscle Nerve 56: 463-471, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An Integrated Teaching Method of Gross Anatomy and Computed Tomography Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tohru; Tajika, Yuki; Ueno, Hitoshi; Awata, Sachiko; Hirasawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Maki; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to learn and comprehend human anatomy in three dimensions (3D). With this in mind, a new system was designed in order to integrate anatomical dissections with diagnostic computed tomography (CT) radiology. Cadavers were scanned by CT scanners, and students then consulted the postmortem CT images during cadaver…

  7. Perceptions among Occupational and Physical Therapy Students of a Nontraditional Methodology for Teaching Laboratory Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. Jackson; Denham, Bryan E.; Dinolfo, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the perceptions of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students regarding the use of computer-assisted pedagogy and prosection-oriented communications in the laboratory component of a human anatomy course at a comprehensive health sciences university in the southeastern United States. The…

  8. The Diverse Utility of Wet Prosections and Plastinated Specimens in Teaching Gross Anatomy in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical education has traditionally used cadaveric material to study the human body, with both wet prosections and plastinated (PP) material commonly utilized. However, the frequency of use of these different preparation modes in a tertiary institution has not been previously examined. An audit of PP use in the Department of Anatomy and…

  9. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  10. Effective methods of teaching and learning in anatomy as a basic science: A BEME systematic review: BEME guide no. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losco, C Dominique; Grant, William D; Armson, Anthony; Meyer, Amanda J; Walker, Bruce F

    2017-03-01

    Anatomy is a subject essential to medical practice, yet time committed to teaching is on the decline, and resources required to teach anatomy is costly, particularly dissection. Advances in technology are a potential solution to the problem, while maintaining the quality of teaching required for eventual clinical application. To identify methods used to teach anatomy, including those demonstrated to enhance knowledge acquisition and retention. PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Academic OneFile, ProQuest, SAGE journals and Scopus were search from the earliest entry of each database to 31 August 2015. All included articles were assessed for methodological quality and low quality articles were excluded from the study. Studies were evaluated by assessment scores, qualitative outcomes where included as well as a modified Kirkpatrick model. A total of 17,820 articles were initially identified, with 29 included in the review. The review found a wide variety of teaching interventions represented in the range of studies, with CAI/CAL studies predominating in terms of teaching interventions, followed by simulation. In addition to this, CAI/CAL and simulation studies demonstrated better results overall compared to traditional teaching methods and there is evidence to support CAI/CAL as a partial replacement for dissection or a valuable tool in conjunction with dissection. This review provides evidence in support of the use of alternatives to traditional teaching methods in anatomy, in particular, the use of CAI/CAL with a number of high quality, low risk of bias studies supporting this.

  11. Post mortem CT scans as a supplementary teaching method in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenting, Mara; Mueller, Tjark; Raupach, Tobias; Luers, Georg; Wehrenberg, Uwe; Gehl, Axel; Anders, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Despite increasing the integration of radiologic imaging teaching in anatomy dissection courses, studies on learning outcome of these interventions are rare or have certain shortcomings in study design. In this study, students were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n=53) receiving five weekly CT-courses of 30min duration during a 6-week gross anatomy course. Students in the control group (n=329) received no additional teaching. Total teaching time did not differ among groups. All students were asked to participate in a pre- and post-course self-assessment (comparative self-assessment; CSA) of learning objectives related to anatomical spatial relationships and a post-course formative assessment on radiologic anatomy. Items of both assessments were matched. Moreover, students of the intervention group were asked to evaluate the CT-courses. Most participants of the intervention group classified the CT-courses as "good" or "very good". Nevertheless, results of the CSA and formative assessment did not differ among study and control groups. These findings indicate that the teaching intervention (CT-courses) did not have an impact on recognition of anatomical structures in radiological images beyond the knowledge acquired in the anatomical dissection course. As a consequence, interventions integrating radiology imaging into dissection courses should be based on psychological considerations of how to best foster student learning. Learning outcome has to be monitored, as results of evaluation surveys can be misleading. Further research on curricular concepts is needed considering both short- and long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A three-year prospective longitudinal cohort study of medical students' attitudes toward anatomy teaching and their career aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Aneel; Boutefnouchet, Tarek; Yong, Xu; Abrahams, Peter; Joplin, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Today's medical students are faced with numerous learning needs. Continuously developing curricula have reduced time for basic science subjects such as anatomy. This study aimed to determine the students' views on the relevance of anatomy teaching, anatomical knowledge, and the effect these have on their career choices. A Likert scale questionnaire was distributed to second year medical students [response rate 91% (n = 292/320)]. The same questionnaire was subsequently distributed to the cohort three years later when they were final year students [response rate 37% (n = 146/392)]. Students in both the cohorts of study agreed strongly that clinically correlated anatomical teaching was relevant to clinical practice (92% and 86% of second and final year respondents, respectively) and helped them during their clinical placements (73% and 92%, respectively). Only 28% of the second year and 31% of the final year students agreed that their anatomy teaching prepared them to interpret clinical images (P = 0.269). Only 14% of the final year students felt confident in their knowledge of anatomy. Of the final year students, 30% felt that they had enough opportunity to scrub in the operating room. Nearly half of those students who would consider surgery as a career (19%) think that they will eventually become surgeons (11%). This data suggests that modern anatomy curriculum should focus on clinical correlations and clinical image interpretation. Students would value more opportunities to participate in surgeries. Vertical integration of anatomy teaching throughout the full medical course may be useful. Copyright 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. From anatomical 'competence' to complex capability. The views and experiences of UK tutors on how we should teach anatomy to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan de Bere, Sam; Mattick, Karen

    2010-10-01

    Developments in clinical education have recently challenged the identity of anatomy teaching and learning, leading to high profile debate over the potential implications for the competence levels of new doctors. However, the emphasis remains on methods of teaching, rather than a review of what well-rounded anatomical learning actually entails, and how teaching can address contemporary learning needs. This paper identifies and addresses some of these issues, drawing on expert views captured in qualitative research with anatomy tutors at twenty different medical schools in the UK. Three main themes emerging from our analysis are described: anatomy as a subject matter, the challenges of teaching or learning anatomy, and the use of teaching methods. We also detail how inductive analysis generated new hypotheses worthy of further consideration. These fall into two key categories: (1) improving anatomy curriculum design and (2) advancing anatomy education research.

  14. Humanizing the Teaching of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guting, R.

    1980-01-01

    The author shows how the teaching of mathematics may be adapted so that it is "humanized." It is asserted that the standard mathematics program "...appeals to the intellect, but attaches no value to other human qualities such as emotions and ethical character." (MP)

  15. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  16. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  17. [Chinese books on human anatomy published in the late Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideshi

    2007-12-01

    Quanti-chanwei (1881) is the first technical book on human anatomy written in Chinese and brought to Modern China. It was compiled and translated on the basis of Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (first edition in 1858) by Henry Gray. Quanti-chanwei was published with intent to establish Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy, and it gained broad support from medical missionaries who mainly served in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Fuzhou at that time. Quanti-tongkao (1886) was also complied and translated on the basis of Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. It was published from Jingshi Tongwen Guan, The Academy of Foreign Languages in the Qing dynasty, and they selected different words for the translation into Chinese from Quanti-chanwei. Thus, although Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical played a great role in the introduction of Western Medicine into Modern China, there was no accordance between the national government and the provinces regarding Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy.

  18. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  19. Use of Eye Tracking as an Innovative Instructional Method in Surgical Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luísa; Grima-Murcia, María Dolores; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Hernández-Peñalver, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Sánchez Del Campo, Francisco

    Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof. An additional aim of the study was to test the use of the glasses during laparoscopies performed on Thiel-embalmed cadavers (that allows pneumoinsufflation and exact reproduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique). The device was also tried out in actual surgery (both laparoscopy and open surgery). We performed a pilot study using the Tobii glasses. Dissection room at our School of Medicine and in the operating room at our Hospital. To evaluate usefulness, a survey was designed for use among students, instructors, and practicing physicians. The results were satisfactory, with the usefulness of this tool supported by more than 80% positive responses to most questions. There was no inconvenience for surgeons and that patient safety was ensured in the real laparoscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first publication to demonstrate the usefulness of eye tracking in practical instruction of human anatomy, as well as in teaching clinical anatomy and surgical techniques in the dissection and operating rooms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there a superior simulator for human anatomy education? How virtual dissection can overcome the anatomic and pedagogic limitations of cadaveric dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Kathryn E; de Bruin, Anique B H; Nicolaou, Savvas; Dahlström, Nils; Persson, Anders; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Forster, Bruce B

    2018-03-23

    Educators must select the best tools to teach anatomy to future physicians and traditionally, cadavers have always been considered the "gold standard" simulator for living anatomy. However, new advances in technology and radiology have created new teaching tools, such as virtual dissection, which provide students with new learning opportunities. Virtual dissection is a novel way of studying human anatomy through patient computed tomography (CT) scans. Through touchscreen technology, students can work together in groups to "virtually dissect" the CT scans to better understand complex anatomic relationships. This article presents the anatomic and pedagogic limitations of cadaveric dissection and explains what virtual dissection is and how this new technology may be used to overcome these limitations.

  1. Design and Validation of a Novel Learning Tool, the "Anato-Rug," for Teaching Equine Topographical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Francesca; Williams, Sarah B.; Weller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of anatomical landmarks in live animals (and humans) is key for clinical practice, but students often find it difficult to translate knowledge from dissection-based anatomy onto the live animal and struggle to acquire this vital skill. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate the use of an equine anatomy rug…

  2. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  3. Exploring Deep Space - Uncovering the Anatomy of Periventricular Structures to Reveal the Lateral Ventricles of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colibaba, Alexandru S; Calma, Aicee Dawn B; Webb, Alexandra L; Valter, Krisztina

    2017-10-22

    Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles. Thus, using 2D sections alone requires students to compute their own mental image of the 3D ventricular spaces. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible method for dissecting the human brain to create an educational resource to enhance student understanding of the intricate relationships between the ventricles and periventricular structures. To achieve this, we created a video resource that features a step-by-step guide using a fiber dissection method to reveal the lateral and third ventricles together with the closely related limbic system and basal ganglia structures. One of the advantages of this method is that it enables delineation of the white matter tracts that are difficult to distinguish using other dissection techniques. This video is accompanied by a written protocol that provides a systematic description of the process to aid in the reproduction of the brain dissection. This package offers a valuable anatomy teaching resource for educators and students alike. By following these instructions educators can create teaching resources and students can be guided to produce their own brain dissection as a hands-on practical activity. We recommend that this video guide be incorporated into neuroanatomy teaching to enhance student understanding of the morphology and clinical relevance of the ventricles.

  4. Improved understanding of human anatomy through self-guided radiological anatomy modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Smith, Sandy G; Ross, Callum F; Straus, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehension, demonstrated by radiology, gross, and written exams. Study guides for independent use that emphasized structural relationships were created for use with two online radiology atlases. A guide was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course component. A total of 93 of 96 eligible students participated. All exams were normalized to control for variances in exam difficulty and body region tested. An independent t-test was used to compare overall exam scores with respect to guide completion or incompletion. To account for aptitude differences between students, a paired t-test of each student's exam scores with and without completion of the associated guide was performed, thus allowing students to serve as their own controls. Twenty-one students completed no study guides; 22 completed all six guides; and 50 students completed between one and five guides. Aggregate comparisons of all students' exam scores showed significantly improved mean performance when guides were used (radiology, 57.8% [percentile] vs. 45.1%, P < .001; gross, 56.9% vs. 46.5%, P = .001; written, 57.8% vs. 50.2%, P = .011). Paired comparisons among students who completed between one and five guides demonstrated significantly higher mean practical exam scores when guides were used (radiology, 49.3% [percentile] vs. 36.0%, P = .001; gross, 51.5% vs. 40.4%, P = .005), but not higher written scores. Radiological anatomy study guides significantly improved anatomy comprehension on radiology, gross, and written exams. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A meta-analysis of the educational effectiveness of three-dimensional visualization technologies in teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar; Violato, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Many medical graduates are deficient in anatomy knowledge and perhaps below the standards for safe medical practice. Three-dimensional visualization technology (3DVT) has been advanced as a promising tool to enhance anatomy knowledge. The purpose of this review is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of 3DVT in teaching and learning anatomy compared to all teaching methods. The primary outcomes were scores of anatomy knowledge tests expressed as factual or spatial knowledge percentage means. Secondary outcomes were perception scores of the learners. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria including 28 (78%) randomized studies. Based on 2,226 participants including 2,128 from studies with comparison groups, 3DVTs (1) resulted in higher (d = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.02-0.62) factual knowledge, (2) yielded significant better results (d = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.20-0.80) in spatial knowledge acquisition, and (3) produced significant increase in user satisfaction (d = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.12-0.44) and in learners' perception of the effectiveness of the learning tool (d = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.14-0.43). The total mean scores (out of five) and ±SDs for QUESTS's Quality and Strength dimensions were 4.38 (±SD 1.3) and 3.3 (±SD 1.7), respectively. The results have high internal validity, for the improved outcomes of 3DVTs compared to other methods of anatomy teaching. Given that anatomy teaching and learning in the modern medical school appears to be approaching a crisis, 3DVT can be a potential solution to the problem of inadequate anatomy pedagogy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  7. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Anatomy of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus: A Combined Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mavridis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our purpose was to provide a combined clinically oriented study focused on the detailed anatomy of the human STN, with great respect to its targeting. Methods. For our imaging study, we used cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRIs from 26 neurosurgical patients and for our anatomic study 32 cerebral hemispheres from 18 normal brains from cadaver donors. We measured and analyzed the STN dimensions (based on its stereotactic coordinates. Results. At stereotactic level Z=-4, the STN length was 7.7 mm on MRIs and 8.1 mm in anatomic specimens. Its width was 6 mm on MRIs and 6.3 mm in anatomic specimens. The STN was averagely visible in 3.2 transverse MRI slices and its maximum dimension was 8.5 mm. The intercommissural distance was 26.3 mm on MRIs and 27.3 mm in anatomic specimens. We found statistically significant difference of the STN width and length between individuals <60 and ≥60 years old. Conclusion. The identification of the STN limits was easier in anatomic specimens than on MRIs and easier on T2 compared to T1-weighted MRIs sections. STN dimensions appear slightly smaller on MRIs. Younger people have wider and longer STN.

  9. Virtual reality: new method of teaching anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Howard D; Pearl, Russell K; Orsay, Charles P; Rasmussen, Mary; Evenhouse, Ray; Ai, Zhuming; Blew, Gregory; Dech, Fred; Edison, Marcia I; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Abcarian, Herand

    2003-03-01

    A clear understanding of the intricate spatial relationships among the structures of the pelvic floor, rectum, and anal canal is essential for the treatment of numerous pathologic conditions. Virtual-reality technology allows improved visualization of three-dimensional structures over conventional media because it supports stereoscopic-vision, viewer-centered perspective, large angles of view, and interactivity. We describe a novel virtual reality-based model designed to teach anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy, pathology, and surgery. A static physical model depicting the pelvic floor and anorectum was created and digitized at 1-mm intervals in a CT scanner. Multiple software programs were used along with endoscopic images to generate a realistic interactive computer model, which was designed to be viewed on a networked, interactive, virtual-reality display (CAVE or ImmersaDesk). A standard examination of ten basic anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy questions was administered to third-year (n = 6) and fourth-year (n = 7) surgical residents. A workshop using the Virtual Pelvic Floor Model was then given, and the standard examination was readministered so that it was possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the Digital Pelvic Floor Model as an educational instrument. Training on the Virtual Pelvic Floor Model produced substantial improvements in the overall average test scores for the two groups, with an overall increase of 41 percent (P = 0.001) and 21 percent (P = 0.0007) for third-year and fourth-year residents, respectively. Resident evaluations after the workshop also confirmed the effectiveness of understanding pelvic anatomy using the Virtual Pelvic Floor Model. This model provides an innovative interactive educational framework that allows educators to overcome some of the barriers to teaching surgical and endoscopic principles based on understanding highly complex three-dimensional anatomy. Using this collaborative, shared virtual-reality environment

  10. Can Anatomists Teach Living Anatomy Using Ultrasound as a Teaching Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Dimorier, Kathryn; Brown, Kirsten; Slaby, Frank; Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of bedside ultrasound by an increasing number of medical specialties has created the need for more ultrasound exposure and teaching in medical school. Although there is a widespread support for more vertical integration of ultrasound teaching throughout the undergraduate curriculum, little is known about whether the quality of…

  11. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  12. Use of Interactive Sessions and E-Learning in Teaching Anatomy to First-Year Optometry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Gabriel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in the Optometry program at the University of Manchester are required to take a functional anatomy course during the first year of their studies. Low mean scores in the written examination of this unit for the past two academic years energized staff to rethink the teaching format. Interactive sessions lasting 20 minutes each were…

  13. Yoga Asanas as an Effective Form of Experiential Learning When Teaching Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Lower Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Danielle C.; Pang, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Physical movement as a conduit for experiential learning within the academic context of anatomy is a strategy currently used in university dance education. This same approach can be applied to other movement-based practices, for example, yoga. The primary purpose of this study was to pilot a novel teaching curriculum to yoga practitioners, based…

  14. Perceptions of Junior Doctors and Undergraduate Medical Students as Anatomy Teachers: Investigating Distance along the Near-Peer Teaching Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel; Stephens, Jonathan; Andrade, Teu; Davids, Joseph; Powell, Matthew; Border, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Near-peer teaching involves more experienced students acting as tutors and has been widely used in anatomy education. This approach has many advantages for the learner due to the social and cognitive congruence they share with the teacher, however, the influence of distance between the teacher and learner on these congruences has yet to be…

  15. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does simulation-based training facilitate the integration of human anatomy with surgery? A report of a novel Surgical Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, K; Denisow-Pietrzyk, M; Pietrzyk, Ł; Maciejewski, R; Torres, A

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of gross anatomy, as a basic core subject, is fundamental for medical students and essential to medical practitioners, particularly for those intending a surgical career. However, both medical students and clinical teachers have found a significant gap in teaching basic sciences and the transition into clinical skills. The authors present a Surgical Anatomy Course developed to teach the anatomical basis of surgical procedures with particular emphasis on laparo-scopic skills while incorporating medical simulation. An evaluation of the students' satisfaction of the Surgical Anatomy Course was completed using a mix of multiple choice and open-ended questions, and a six-point Likert Scale. Questions were asked about the students' perceived improvement in surgical and laparoscopic skills. Manual skills were assessed using a laparoscopic simulator. Both evaluation of the course structure and the general impression of the course were positive. Most students believed the course should be an integral part of a modern curriculum. The course supported the traditional surgical classes and improved anatomical knowledge and strengthened students' confidentiality and facilitated understanding and taking surgical rotations. A medical course combining the practical learning of anatomy and surgical-based approaches will bring out the best from the students. Medical students positively evaluated the Surgical Anatomy Course as useful and benefi-cial regarding understanding anatomical structure and relationship necessary for further surgical education. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 279-285).

  17. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  18. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  19. Blended Learning in Anatomy Teaching for Non-Medical Students: An Innovative Approach to the Health Professions Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Miu Yung Ngan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anatomy is a basic science for health professions curricula. Recent research suggests that the innovative blended learning approach (classroom learning plus use of online learning outperforms conventional didactic teaching by facilitating effective learning. This study explores the feasibility of adopting blended learning in anatomy teaching and evaluates the learning experiences of students. Method: Courseware called electronic Professional Study (ePS was developed and used for teaching anatomy of the cardiovascular system for non-medical students. ePS composed of three condensed, recorded course lectures, revision guides, and gamified quizzes. These were placed on the Web platform for students to watch before didactic lecture. Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. By the end of the academic semester, the courseware evaluation was implemented using a set of 5-point Likert scale questions. The e-questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of Year-2 full-time undergraduate students majoring in pharmacy enrolled in an introductory course in anatomy and physiology. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the relationship between courseware usage and examination results. Results: All enrolled students (n = 53 completed and returned the questionnaire. About 38% used the courseware less than ten times during the semester, and 7.5% never used it. e-Questionnaire shows that a majority agreed that the courseware content was clearly presented and easy to navigate. Multiple regression shows that courseware usage did not contribute significantly to the performance. Conclusions: Blended learning was perceived positively by most students. However, no effect on learning could be established. Keywords: Anatomy, Health profession education, Micro-module, Medical education, e-learning Courseware, Gamification, Hong Kong

  20. A Measure of the Effectiveness of Incorporating 3D Human Anatomy into an Online Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Results of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of implementing three-dimensional (3D) stereo images of a human skull in an undergraduate human anatomy online laboratory were gathered and analysed. Mental model theory and its applications to 3D relationships are discussed along with the research results. Quantitative results on 62 pairs…

  1. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.

  2. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  3. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  4. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  5. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  6. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  7. An untold story: The important contributions of Muslim scholars for the understanding of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Malak A; Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2017-06-01

    It is usually assumed that Galen is one of the fathers of anatomy and that between the Corpus Galenicum and the Renaissance there was no major advance in anatomical knowledge. However, it is also consensually accepted that Muslim scholars had the intellectual leadership from the 8th/9th to 13th centuries, and that they made remarkable progresses in numerous scientific fields including medicine. So, how is it possible that they did not contribute to advance human anatomy during that period? According to the dominant view, Muslim scholars exclusively had a passive role: their transmission of knowledge from the Greeks to the West. Here, we summarize, for the first time in a single paper, the studies of major Muslim scholars that published on human anatomy before Vesalius. This summary is based on analyses of original Arabic texts and of more recent publications by anatomists and historians, and on comparisons between the descriptions provided by Galen and by these Muslim scholars. We show that Arabic speakers and Persians made important advances in human anatomy well before Vesalius. The most notable exception concerns the muscular system: strikingly, there were apparently neither advances made by Muslims nor by Westerners for more than 1000 years. Unbiased discussions of these and other related issues, and particularly of the mainly untold story about the major contributions of Muslim scholars to anatomy, are crucial to our knowledge of the history of anatomy, biology and sciences, and also of our way of thinking, biases, and prejudices. Anat Rec, 300:986-1008, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Historical perspective-Anatomy down the ages in Australasia; lessons for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Natasha Ams; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-01-01

    Is anatomy a dying discipline? This article explores the history and current state of human anatomy in Australasia, and considers the changing nature of the discipline, and possibilities for the future. A web-based search of all tertiary institutions in Australasia was performed to identify which taught anatomy. Those identified were invited to provide further information about postgraduate student numbers, external courses and public outreach. Forty-one institutions across Australasia teach anatomy. There are seven identifiable anatomy departments and nine disciplines of anatomy. From 1900 to 2014, the number of medical schools has increased (from 4 to 20), however a concomitant increase in the number of anatomy departments (2014, n = 7) was not observed. Twenty-one institutions, without medical schools, currently teach anatomy but none have a stand-alone anatomy department. Anatomy is taught in more than 18 different undergraduate and postgraduate programs. From the 28 institutions that provided current data, 310 postgraduate research students were identified. Predominantly, they came from longer-established institutions with an identifiable anatomy department. Similarly, those with anatomy departments/disciplines offered external professional courses. Many institutions engaged in public outreach. The evidence suggests that anatomy is alive and possibly even growing in Australasia. However, the structures around the discipline and the students who are learning anatomy are changing. Our challenge is to prepare the next generation of anatomy faculty to be both researchers and teachers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Audio-Tutorial Project: An Audio-Tutorial Approach to Human Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Joseph N.; And Others

    A two course sequence on human anatomy and physiology using the audiotutorial method of instruction was developed for use by nursing students and other students in the health or medical fields at the Kingsborough Community College in New York. The project was motivated by the problems of often underprepared students coming to learn a new field and…

  10. Tracheobronchial Cast Production and Use in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Silastic E RTV silicone was used to produce tracheobronchial cast for use in an undergraduate human anatomy course. Following air-drying, the trachea and lungs were injected with E RTV silicone and allowed to cure for 24 hr. The parenchyma was then removed from the tracheobronchial cast by maceration and boiling and then whitened in a 10% solution…

  11. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  12. Student Performance in and Perceptions of a High Structure Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Justin F.

    2016-01-01

    Human anatomy has usually been taught in a didactic fashion in colleges and universities. However, recent calls from United States governmental agencies have called for the transformation of undergraduate life sciences education to include active learning in the classroom. In addition, high structure courses have been shown to increase student…

  13. Mixed Methods Student Evaluation of an Online Systemic Human Anatomy Course with Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M.; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A.

    2016-01-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a…

  14. The Visible Heart® project and free-access website 'Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Pre- and post-evaluations of implantable cardiac devices require innovative and critical testing in all phases of the design process. The Visible Heart ® Project was successfully launched in 1997 and 3 years later the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website was online. The Visible Heart ® methodologies and Atlas website can be used to better understand human cardiac anatomy, disease states and/or to improve cardiac device design throughout the development process. To date, Visible ® Heart methodologies have been used to reanimate 75 human hearts, all considered non-viable for transplantation. The Atlas is a unique free-access website featuring novel images of functional and fixed human cardiac anatomies from >400 human heart specimens. Furthermore, this website includes education tutorials on anatomy, physiology, congenital heart disease and various imaging modalities. For instance, the Device Tutorial provides examples of commonly deployed devices that were present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including: leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings, leadless pacemakers and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of vasculature, blood volumes, and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of various heart specimens. A new section allows the user to interact with various heart models. Visible Heart ® methodologies have enabled our laboratory to reanimate 75 human hearts and visualize functional cardiac anatomies and device/tissue interfaces. The website freely shares all images, video clips and CT/MRI DICOM files in honour of the generous gifts received from donors and their families. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  16. Mobile technology: Creation and use of an iBook to teach the anatomy of the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Stuart; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2015-01-01

    In an era of digitally connected students, there is a demand for academic material to be delivered through electronic mobile devices and not just through traditional methods such as lectures and tutorials. A digital interactive book-iBook (for use on the Apple iPad)-was created to teach undergraduate anatomical science students (n = 26) four key areas of the brachial plexus: definitions, gross anatomy, relative anatomy, and functions of terminal branches. Students were asked to complete preresource and postresource questionnaires, which were used to calculate the mean improvement score and ultimately the efficacy of the resource. Free text comments were gathered to evaluate student opinions on this mode of learning. The mean score on the preresource and postresource questionnaires was 4.07 of 8 and 5.69 of 8, respectively. The overall mean improvement score was 1.62, determined statistically significant by a dependent t-test (P = 0.0004). Findings demonstrate that digital books on the iPad provide a uniquely interactive way of delivering information and engaging students. Furthermore, digital books can be used alongside traditional methods of teaching anatomy to enhance and promote deep learning in students. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Production and use of plastinated anatomical specimens as teaching and learning tools in veterinary gross anatomy in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Veterinary Anatomy is considered as the backbone subject in the veterinary medicine program. Formalized specimens were not very much accepted by the veterinary students due to their wetness, bad smell and potential harmful effects. Plastination has evolved as a new technique for prolonged preservation of specimens by replacing the water and fat by a curable plastic polymer. Material and methods: The process of plastination involved fixation, dehydration, impregnation and curing. The plastinated specimens were used for teaching and learning of veterinary gross anatomy courses for veterinary students. Results: Plastinated specimens were appreciated by the staff and students as they were odorless, non-toxic and durable, needed less space for storage and they were used in teaching the veterinary anatomy courses. Plastinated specimens were used for studying not only in the dissection hall but also in the lecture room, both individually and in groups. Conclusion: The plastinated specimens were excellent for demonstration but they could not completely replace the traditional dissection because students learn best by exploratory and hands-on dissection. Moreover, the wet specimens provided a more accurate visual representation of the body parts and skills to aid in dealing with actual clinical cases in the future. Therefore, the plastinated and wet specimens were used simultaneously depending on the topic being taught at the time. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 44-52

  18. Do Three-dimensional Visualization and Three-dimensional Printing Improve Hepatic Segment Anatomy Teaching? A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxue; Nie, Lanying; Zhang, Huijian; Wang, Zhanglin; Ye, Qiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Jianyi; Huang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic segment anatomy is difficult for medical students to learn. Three-dimensional visualization (3DV) is a useful tool in anatomy teaching, but current models do not capture haptic qualities. However, three-dimensional printing (3DP) can produce highly accurate complex physical models. Therefore, in this study we aimed to develop a novel 3DP hepatic segment model and compare the teaching effectiveness of a 3DV model, a 3DP model, and a traditional anatomical atlas. A healthy candidate (female, 50-years old) was recruited and scanned with computed tomography. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, the computed 3D images of the hepatic structures were obtained. The parenchyma model was divided into 8 hepatic segments to produce the 3DV hepatic segment model. The computed 3DP model was designed by removing the surrounding parenchyma and leaving the segmental partitions. Then, 6 experts evaluated the 3DV and 3DP models using a 5-point Likert scale. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the educational effectiveness of these models compared with that of the traditional anatomical atlas. The 3DP model successfully displayed the hepatic segment structures with partitions. All experts agreed or strongly agreed that the 3D models provided good realism for anatomical instruction, with no significant differences between the 3DV and 3DP models in each index (p > 0.05). Additionally, the teaching effects show that the 3DV and 3DP models were significantly better than traditional anatomical atlas in the first and second examinations (p < 0.05). Between the first and second examinations, only the traditional method group had significant declines (p < 0.05). A novel 3DP hepatic segment model was successfully developed. Both the 3DV and 3DP models could improve anatomy teaching significantly. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: an immersive approach to anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K; Jamniczky, Heather A; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be further amplified by the somewhat siloed roles of programmers, faculty, and students. LINDSAY Presenter is newly designed software that permits faculty and students to model and manipulate three-dimensional anatomy presentations and images, while including embedded quizzes, links, and text-based content. A validated tool measuring impact across pedagogy, resources, interactivity, freedom, granularity, and factors outside the immediate learning event was used in conjunction with observation, field notes, and focus groups to critically examine the impact of attitudes and perceptions of all stakeholders in the early implementation of LINDSAY Presenter before and after a three-week trial period with the software. Results demonstrate that external, personal media usage, along with students' awareness of the need to apply anatomy to clinical professional situations drove expectations of LINDSAY Presenter. A focus on the software over learning, which can be expected during initial orientation, surprisingly remained after three weeks of use. The time-intensive investment required to create learning content is a detractor from user-generated content and may reflect the consumption nature of other forms of digital learning. Early excitement over new technologies needs to be tempered with clear understanding of what learning is afforded, and how these constructively support future application and integration into professional practice. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. An Empirical Study of Neural Network-Based Audience Response Technology in a Human Anatomy Course for Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p < 0.001. In four MCQs tests, the difference between the number of correct answers in the first attempt and in the last attempt was also studied. A global effect size of 0.644 was achieved in the meta-analysis carried out. The students expressed satisfaction with the content provided by i-SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training.

  1. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  2. Improving academic performance of sport and exercise science undergraduate students in gross anatomy using a near-peer teaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ricardo Borges; Campos, Mário Hebling; Santos, Douglas de Assis Teles; Xavier, Isabela Cristina Maioni; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andrade, Marília Santos; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2018-04-16

    Peer and near-peer teaching programs are common in medical undergraduate courses. However, there are no studies that have investigated the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of undergraduate students pursuing sport and exercise science coursework. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of such a program for students who participated in a course on the functional anatomy of the locomotor apparatus. A total of 39 student participants were divided into two groups: students in one group voluntarily attended at least one session of a near-peer teaching program, and students in the other group attended no sessions. The final grade (range 0-100%) was recorded and used as an indicator of academic performance. The final grade of students who attended the near-peer teaching program (69.5 ± 16.0%) was 38.7% higher (P = 0.002, d = 1.06) than those who did not (50.1 ± 20.4%). When the academic performance of the same students was evaluated in another course (exercise physiology) that did not offer a near-peer teaching program, there were no significant differences between the groups (students who attended or did not attend the near-peer teaching program). A significant positive association was found between near-peer teaching program frequency and the number of students approved and not approved in the course (P = 0.041). A significant difference (P = 0.001) was found in the attendance at regular classes between the group who participated in the near-peer teaching program (median: 62 hours; IQR [interquartile ranges]: 4.0 hours) and those who did not (median: 58 hours; IQR: 4.0 hours). Gender was not a moderating factor on academic performance or near-peer teaching program attendance. These results highlight the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of students from a sport and exercise science degree program while enrolled in an anatomy course. Anat Sci Educ.

  3. The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Cornelis A T van den; Bartels, Lambertus W; Bergen, Bob van den; Kroeze, Hugo; Leeuw, Astrid A C de; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Lagendijk, Jan J W

    2006-01-01

    In this study, MR B + 1 imaging is employed to experimentally verify the validity of FDTD simulations of electromagnetic field patterns in human anatomies. Measurements and FDTD simulations of the B + 1 field induced by a 3 T MR body coil in a human corpse were performed. It was found that MR B + 1 imaging is a sensitive method to measure the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field inside a human anatomy with a precision of approximately 3.5%. A good correlation was found between the B + 1 measurements and FDTD simulations. The measured B + 1 pattern for a human pelvis consisted of a global, diagonal modulation pattern plus local B + 1 heterogeneties. It is believed that these local B + 1 field variations are the result of peaks in the induced electric currents, which could not be resolved by the FDTD simulations on a 5 mm 3 simulation grid. The findings from this study demonstrate that B + 1 imaging is a valuable experimental technique to gain more knowledge about the dielectric interaction of RF fields with the human anatomy

  4. Basics of teaching Latin at Humanities University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragova Arina Mikhailovna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the goals, tasks, methods, and results of teaching Latin at Humanities University. The article points out that the basis of teaching is analytical reading with elements of discursive analysis. In Humanities University teaching is being provided through the interdisciplinary approach. The educational process includes interactive exercises, the use various forms of control, for example, lingual-didactic testing in a virtual learning environment. The results of current and final control are formed with the help of the point-rating system of assessing knowledge.

  5. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  6. [How to teach human sexuality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, S

    1991-03-01

    3 small scale sex education programs developed in recent years by nongovernmental organizations in Chile are described. In 1 case, PAESMI cooperated with the Organization of American States to develop a sex education program for schools in the municipality of Estacion Central. The 1st phase involved training of 40 teacher-monitors who attended a 3-day workshop during the 1988 summer vacation. They later served as instructors for the remaining teachers in the 12 participating schools. Saturday workshops were held over 4 months to familiarize teachers with the program and its objectives. No specific curriculum was established; teachers were to introduce the topics at their discretion into the existing program. A methodological guide was prepared for preschool and primary children in 1988, and in 1989 the program was extended to older children. The majority of participating teachers were enthusiastic, but at present the Biomedical Extension Center of the University of Chile is teaching a course on foundations for human sexuality for educators. It provides teachers with an improved factual basis to complement the stress on attitudes and ethics of the earlier course. A segment of the original course dealing with attitudes toward pornography is included. The 2nd program was a 10-session workshop organized by 4 psychologists, 2 teachers, and a midwife belonging to the Father Andre Jarlan Center for Research and Action in People's Health (CIASPO) for students in 4 intermediate schools in the commune of Santiago. The objective of CIASPO, a nongovernmental organization founded in 1985, is to provide sex education from a multidisciplinary perspective to enable students to assume responsibility for their own sexuality and improve attitudes. The workshop stressed the importance of the body, sentiments, and emotions, examined culture and sex roles, and contraceptive methods. A preworkshop evaluation questionnaire indicated that the participants had a deficient knowledge of

  7. Volume rendering based on magnetic resonance imaging: advances in understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the human knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Di Bella, Paolo; Favaloro, Angelo; Trimarchi, Fabio; Magaudda, Ludovico; Gaeta, Michele; Scribano, Emanuele; Bruschetta, Daniele; Milardi, Demetrio

    2007-01-01

    The choice of medical imaging techniques, for the purpose of the present work aimed at studying the anatomy of the knee, derives from the increasing use of images in diagnostics, research and teaching, and the subsequent importance that these methods are gaining within the scientific community. Medical systems using virtual reality techniques also offer a good alternative to traditional methods, and are considered among the most important tools in the areas of research and teaching. In our work we have shown some possible uses of three-dimensional imaging for the study of the morphology of the normal human knee, and its clinical applications. We used the direct volume rendering technique, and created a data set of images and animations to allow us to visualize the single structures of the human knee in three dimensions. Direct volume rendering makes use of specific algorithms to transform conventional two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging sets of slices into see-through volume data set images. It is a technique which does not require the construction of intermediate geometric representations, and has the advantage of allowing the visualization of a single image of the full data set, using semi-transparent mapping. Digital images of human structures, and in particular of the knee, offer important information about anatomical structures and their relationships, and are of great value in the planning of surgical procedures. On this basis we studied seven volunteers with an average age of 25 years, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, we analysed the structure of the knee in detail. The aim of our investigation was the three-dimensional image, in order to comprehend better the interactions between anatomical structures. We believe that these results, applied to living subjects, widen the frontiers in the areas of teaching, diagnostics, therapy and scientific research. PMID:17645453

  8. Student Perceptions of Sectional CT/MRI Use in Teaching Veterinary Anatomy and the Correlation with Visual Spatial Ability: A Student Survey and Mental Rotations Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisser, Peter J; Carwardine, Darren

    2017-11-29

    Diagnostic imaging technology is becoming more advanced and widely available to veterinary patients with the growing popularity of veterinary-specific computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Veterinary students must, therefore, be familiar with these technologies and understand the importance of sound anatomic knowledge for interpretation of the resultant images. Anatomy teaching relies heavily on visual perception of structures and their function. In addition, visual spatial ability (VSA) positively correlates with anatomy test scores. We sought to assess the impact of including more diagnostic imaging, particularly CT/MRI, in the teaching of veterinary anatomy on the students' perceived level of usefulness and ease of understanding content. Finally, we investigated survey answers' relationship to the students' inherent baseline VSA, measured by a standard Mental Rotations Test. Students viewed diagnostic imaging as a useful inclusion that provided clear links to clinical relevance, thus improving the students' perceived benefits in its use. Use of CT and MRI images was not viewed as more beneficial, more relevant, or more useful than the use of radiographs. Furthermore, students felt that the usefulness of CT/MRI inclusion was mitigated by the lack of prior formal instruction on the basics of CT/MRI image generation and interpretation. To be of significantly greater use, addition of learning resources labeling relevant anatomy in tomographical images would improve utility of this novel teaching resource. The present study failed to find any correlation between student perceptions of diagnostic imaging in anatomy teaching and their VSA.

  9. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  10. An Analysis of the Educational Value of Low-Fidelity Anatomy Models as External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the…

  11. Perceptions of junior doctors and undergraduate medical students as anatomy teachers: Investigating distance along the near-peer teaching spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel; Stephens, Jonathan; Andrade, Teu; Davids, Joseph; Powell, Matthew; Border, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Near-peer teaching involves more experienced students acting as tutors and has been widely used in anatomy education. This approach has many advantages for the learner due to the social and cognitive congruence they share with the teacher, however, the influence of distance between the teacher and learner on these congruences has yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare the attitudes and perceptions of the student learner towards neuroanatomy review sessions taught by either a senior medical student or a junior doctor. The students were randomly assigned to an allocated tutor. All tutors used standardized material and had access to identical resources. The type of allocated tutor was swapped between the two teaching sessions and 99 student feedback forms were collected in total. The rating for the overall quality of the teaching session was not significantly different between the junior doctors and senior medical students (P = 0.11). However, criteria closely relating to social and cognitive congruence such as "enjoyment of the session," "delivery of the teaching," and "was it a good use of time" were all rated significantly higher for the senior medical students (P peer teaching spectrum have an impact upon the student's perception of their learning experience. While all teachers were suitable role models it appears that junior doctors are too far removed from their own undergraduate experiences to share congruences with pre-clinical medical students. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. The Anatomy of Human Trafficking: Learning About the Blues: A Healthcare Provider's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.

  13. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  14. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  15. Development of plant anatomy teaching material based on palynological studies of pollen impacted by the haze of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desti

    2018-05-01

    The research about palynological study of pollen impacted by the haze of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis from Riau Province and its development as a teaching material for plant anatomy has been conducted in Biology Laboratory of Islamic University of Riau. The objective of this research is to find out of the pollen morphology of H. rosa-sinensis and the result of this study developed for teaching materials for plant anatomy subject. The method is descriptive. The analysis data used descriptive qualitative. The result showed that pollen has several characteristics which can be observed which is impacted by the haze. Pollen was observed is single pollen type, spheroidal sarcoid, polyphenoporate aperture type and exterior ornament. From result of research can be concluded that there is difference of pollen analysis between plant observed. Implication of research results in learning in the form of teaching materials for Plant Anatomy subject. Based on the validation results, it is known that the teaching materials that have been prepared can be used in the learning with percentage level achievement of 90.91% for teaching materials. The subject matter of Plant Anatomy which has been prepared based on the research result can be used in the learning process

  16. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility: Relevance for Preclinical Validation of Novel Valve Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Michael Hasenkam, John

    2016-09-01

    Tricuspid regurgitation may be a precursor for heart failure, reduced functional capacity, and poor survival. A human compatible experimental model is required to understand the pathophysiology of the tricuspid valve disease as a basis for validating novel tricuspid valve interventions before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin-fixed porcine hearts obtained from Danish Landrace pigs (body weight 80 kg). All valvular dimensions were compared with human data acquired from literature sources. No difference was seen in the tricuspid annulus circumference between porcine and human hearts (13.0 ± 1.2 cm versus 13.5 ± 1.5 cm; p = NS), or in valve area (5.7 ± 1.6 cm2 versus 5.6 ± 1.0 cm2; p = NS). The majority of chordae types exhibited a larger chordal length and thickness in human hearts compared to porcine hearts. In both species, the anterior papillary muscle (PM) was larger than other PMs in the right ventricle, but muscle length varied greatly (range: 5.2-40.3 mm) and was significantly different in pigs and in humans (12.2 ± 3.2 mm versus 19.2 mm; p human hearts.

  17. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  18. The molecular anatomy of spontaneous germline mutations in human testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the most common sporadic Apert syndrome mutation (C755G in the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2 is 100-1,000 times higher than expected from average nucleotide substitution rates based on evolutionary studies and the incidence of human genetic diseases. To determine if this increased frequency was due to the nucleotide site having the properties of a mutation hot spot, or some other explanation, we developed a new experimental approach. We examined the spatial distribution of the frequency of the C755G mutation in the germline by dividing four testes from two normal individuals each into several hundred pieces, and, using a highly sensitive PCR assay, we measured the mutation frequency of each piece. We discovered that each testis was characterized by rare foci with mutation frequencies 10(3 to >10(4 times higher than the rest of the testis regions. Using a model based on what is known about human germline development forced us to reject (p < 10(-6 the idea that the C755G mutation arises more frequently because this nucleotide simply has a higher than average mutation rate (hot spot model. This is true regardless of whether mutation is dependent or independent of cell division. An alternate model was examined where positive selection acts on adult self-renewing Ap spermatogonial cells (SrAp carrying this mutation such that, instead of only replacing themselves, they occasionally produce two SrAp cells. This model could not be rejected given our observed data. Unlike the disease site, similar analysis of C-to-G mutations at a control nucleotide site in one testis pair failed to find any foci with high mutation frequencies. The rejection of the hot spot model and lack of rejection of a selection model for the C755G mutation, along with other data, provides strong support for the proposal that positive selection in the testis can act to increase the frequency of premeiotic germ cells carrying a mutation

  19. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  20. Teaching Human Rights: Confronting the Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Hammond

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching human rights means taking on a series of controversies over what human rights are, how they are determined, and how they are (or are not upheld.  The "possession paradox" is that often human rights are declared but many, or even most, people do not actually enjoy them.  In teaching human rights we must convey both the promise of human rights and the discrepancy between that promise and their fulfillment.  I review a number of controversies in the current application of human rights, many of which arise from that discrepancy.  I then suggest the use of literary works and simulation games that can sometimes convey meanings more effectively than expository material.

  1. A Preliminary Survey of Professionalism Teaching Practices in Anatomy Education among Indian Medical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical…

  2. Cognitive load imposed by ultrasound-facilitated teaching does not adversely affect gross anatomy learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using ultrasound and learning outcomes. The use of ultrasound was hypothesized to facilitate learning in anatomy for 161 novice first-year medical students. Using linear regression analyses, the relationship between reported cognitive load on using ultrasound and learning outcomes as measured by anatomy laboratory examination scores four weeks after ultrasound-guided anatomy training was evaluated in consenting students. Second anatomy examination scores of students who were taught anatomy with ultrasound were compared with historical controls (those not taught with ultrasound). Ultrasound's perceived utility for learning was measured on a five-point scale. Cognitive load on using ultrasound was measured on a nine-point scale. Primary outcome was the laboratory examination score (60 questions). Learners found ultrasound useful for learning. Weighted factor score on "image interpretation" was negatively, but insignificantly, associated with examination scores [F (1,135) = 0.28, beta = -0.22; P = 0.61]. Weighted factor score on "basic knobology" was positively and insignificantly associated with scores; [F (1,138) = 0.27, beta = 0.42; P = 0.60]. Cohorts exposed to ultrasound had significantly higher scores than historical controls (82.4% ± SD 8.6% vs. 78.8% ± 8.5%, Cohen's d = 0.41, P learning and may improve learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 10: 144-151. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Human developmental anatomy: microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) of four human embryos (from Carnegie Stage 10 to 20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuaire, Martin; Martinez, Agathe; Kaplan, Hervé; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renard, Yohann; Tonnelet, Romain; Braun, Marc; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances in the field of biological imaging now allow multi-modal studies of human embryo anatomy. The aim of this study was to assess the high magnetic field μMRI feasibility in the study of small human embryos (less than 21mm crown-rump) as a new tool for the study of human descriptive embryology and to determine better sequence characteristics to obtain higher spatial resolution and higher signal/noise ratio. Morphological study of four human embryos belonging to the historical collection of the Department of Anatomy in the Faculty of Medicine of Reims was undertaken by μMRI. These embryos had, successively, crown-rump lengths of 3mm (Carnegie Stage, CS 10), 12mm (CS 16), 17mm (CS 18) and 21mm (CS 20). Acquisition of images was performed using a vertical nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, a Bruker Avance III, 500MHz, 11.7T equipped for imaging. All images were acquired using 2D (transverse, sagittal and coronal) and 3D sequences, either T1-weighted or T2-weighted. Spatial resolution between 24 and 70μm/pixel allowed clear visualization of all anatomical structures of the embryos. The study of human embryos μMRI has already been reported in the literature and a few atlases exist for educational purposes. However, to our knowledge, descriptive or morphological studies of human developmental anatomy based on data collected these few μMRI studies of human embryos are rare. This morphological noninvasive imaging method coupled with other techniques already reported seems to offer new perspectives to descriptive studies of human embryology.

  4. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  5. Integration of genomic and medical data into a 3D atlas of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Dong, Xiaoli; Stromer, Julie N; Shu, Xueling; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hill, Jonathan W; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a framework for the visual integration and exploration of multi-scale biomedical data, which includes anatomical and molecular components. We have also created a Java-based software system that integrates molecular information, such as gene expression data, into a three-dimensional digital atlas of the male adult human anatomy. Our atlas is structured according to the Terminologia Anatomica. The underlying data-indexing mechanism uses open standards and semantic ontology-processing tools to establish the associations between heterogeneous data types. The software system makes an extensive use of virtual reality visualization.

  6. Human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Шварц, Людмила Олексіївна; Коцан, Ігор Ярославович; Павлович, О. М.; Велемець, Віра Хомівна; Shvarts, Liudmyla O.; Kotsan, Ihor Ya.; Pavlovych, O. M.; Velemets, Vira Kh.

    2015-01-01

    Розроблений згідно навчальної програми з курсу «Анатомія людини» згідно вимог кредитно-модульної системи навчання. Містить елементи робочої програми, методичні вказівки до лабораторних робіт та перелік запитань для контролю знань під час самостійного вивчення окремих розділів програми. Рекомендований для студентів біологічного факультету денної форми навчання...

  7. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  8. Improved dissection efficiency in the human gross anatomy laboratory by the integration of computers and modern technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Rustin E; Aschenbrenner, John E; Wordinger, Robert J; Roque, Rouel S; Sheedlo, Harold J

    2004-05-01

    The need to increase the efficiency of dissection in the gross anatomy laboratory has been the driving force behind the technologic changes we have recently implemented. With the introduction of an integrated systems-based medical curriculum and a reduction in laboratory teaching hours, anatomy faculty at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) developed a computer-based dissection manual to adjust to these curricular changes and time constraints. At each cadaver workstation, Apple iMac computers were added and a new dissection manual, running in a browser-based format, was installed. Within the text of the manual, anatomical structures required for dissection were linked to digital images from prosected materials; in addition, for each body system, the dissection manual included images from cross sections, radiographs, CT scans, and histology. Although we have placed a high priority on computerization of the anatomy laboratory, we remain strong advocates of the importance of cadaver dissection. It is our belief that the utilization of computers for dissection is a natural evolution of technology and fosters creative teaching strategies adapted for anatomy laboratories in the 21st century. Our strategy has significantly enhanced the independence and proficiency of our students, the efficiency of their dissection time, and the quality of laboratory instruction by the faculty. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  10. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L; Boots, Mathew T; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions.

  12. Interactive web-based programs to teach functional anatomy: the pterygopalatine fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinav, Ahmet; Ambron, Richard

    2004-07-01

    Certain areas of the body contain structures that are difficult to envision in their proper spatial orientations and whose functions are complex and difficult to grasp. This is especially true in the head, where many structures are relatively small and inaccessible. To address this problem, we are designing Web-based programs that consist of high-resolution interactive bitmap illustrations, prepared using Adobe Photoshop, and vector-based animations, prepared via Macromedia Flash. Flash action script language is used for the animations. We have used this approach to prepare a program on the pterygopalatine fossa, an important neurovascular junction in the deep face that is especially difficult to approach by dissection and to depict in static images in an atlas. The program can be viewed online at http://cds.osr.columbia.edu/anatomy/ppfossa/. A table of contents simplifies navigation through the program and a menu enables the user to identify each of the vascular and neuronal components and either to insert or to remove each from its position in the fossa. The functional anatomy of the nerves in the fossa is animated. For example, users can activate and subsequently follow action potentials as they course along axons to their targets. This high degree of interactivity helps promote learning.

  13. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. P.; Zhang, M.; Hwang, T. S.; Bailey, S. T.; Wilson, D. J.; Jia, Y.; Huang, D.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based on these data, we propose an improved system of nomenclature and segmentation boundaries for detailed 3-dimensional retinal vascular anatomy by OCTA. This could serve as a basis for future investigation of both normal retinal anatomy, as well as vascular malformations, nonperfusion, and neovascularization.

  15. Comparative anatomy of rabbit and human achilles tendons with magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Geoffrey P; Koike, Yoichi; Uhthoff, Hans K; Lecompte, Martin; Trudel, Guy

    2006-02-01

    We sought to describe the comparative anatomy of the Achilles tendon in rabbits and humans by using macroscopic observation, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The calcaneus-Achilles tendon-gastrocnemius-soleus complexes from 18 New Zealand white rabbits underwent ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic sectioning; these results were compared with those from a cadaveric gastrocnemius-soleus-Achilles tendon-calcaneus specimen from a 68-y-old human male. The medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscle tendons merged 5.2 +/- 0.6 mm proximal to the calcaneal insertion macroscopically, at 93% of their course, different from the gastrocnemius human tendons, which merged at 23% of their overall course. The rabbit flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, corresponding to the flexor digitorum longus tendon in human and comparable in size with the gastrocnemius tendons, was located medial and anterior to the medial gastrocnemius tendon proximally and rotated dorsally and laterally to run posterior to the Achilles tendon-calcaneus insertion. In humans, the flexor digitorum longus tendon tracks posteriorly to the medial malleolus. The soleus muscle and tendon are negligible in the rabbit; these particular comparative anatomic features in the rabbit were confirmed on the MR images. Therefore the rabbit Achilles tendon shows distinctive gross anatomical and MR imaging features that must be considered when using the rabbit as a research model, especially for mechanical testing, or when generalizing results from rabbits to humans.

  16. Teaching the Anatomy of Oncology: Evaluating the Impact of a Dedicated Oncoanatomy Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Junzo P.; Lee, W. Robert; Madden, Richard; Sims, Ershela L.; Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Hoppenworth, E. Jane; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomic considerations are often critical in multidisciplinary cancer care. We developed an anatomy-focused educational program for radiation oncology residents integrating cadaver dissection into the didactic review of diagnostic, surgical, radiologic, and treatment planning, and herein assess its efficacy. Methods and Materials: Monthly, anatomic-site based educational modules were designed and implemented during the 2008-2009 academic year at Duke University Medical Center. Ten radiation oncology residents participated in these modules consisting of a 1-hour didactic introduction followed by a 1-hour session in the gross anatomy lab with cadavers prepared by trained anatomists. Pretests and posttests were given for six modules, and post-module feedback surveys were distributed. Additional review questions testing knowledge from prior sessions were integrated into the later testing to evaluate knowledge retention. Paired analyses of pretests and postests were performed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Ninety tests were collected and scored with 35 evaluable pretest and posttest pairs for six site-specific sessions. Posttests had significantly higher scores (median percentage correct 66% vs. 85%, p < 0.001). Of 47 evaluable paired pretest and review questions given 1-3 months after the intervention, correct responses rates were significantly higher for the later (59% vs. 86%, p = 0.008). Resident course satisfaction was high, with a median rating of 9 of 10 (IQR 8-9); with 1 being 'less effective than most educational interventions' and 10 being 'more effective than most educational interventions.' Conclusions: An integrated oncoanatomy course is associated with improved scores on post-intervention tests, sustained knowledge retention, and high resident satisfaction.

  17. Genomic validation of the differential preservation of population history in modern human cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Ghirotto, Silvia; Harvati, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations. Geometric morphometric shape data from the crania of adult individuals (n = 224) are used to calculate phenotypic P ST , Procrustes, and Mahalanobis distances. We calculate their correlation to neutral genetic distances, F ST , derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We subset the cranial data into landmark configurations that include the neurocranium, the face, and the temporal bone in order to evaluate whether these cranial regions are differentially correlated to neutral genetic variation. Our results show that P ST , Mahalanobis, and Procrustes distances are correlated with F ST distances to varying degrees. They indicate that overall cranial shape is significantly correlated with neutral genetic variation. Of the component parts examined, P ST distances for both the temporal bone and the face have a stronger association with F ST distances than the neurocranium. When controlling for population divergence time, only the whole cranium and the temporal bone have a statistically significant association with F ST distances. Our results confirm that the cranium, as a whole, and the temporal bone can be used to reconstruct modern human population history. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The caecocolonic junction in humans has a sphincteric anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussone Pellegrini, M S; Manneschi, L I; Manneschi, L

    1995-01-01

    Sphincteric anatomy and function are present at the caecocolonic junction in several mammals. In humans, radiologists and endoscopists have respectively reported a circumferential contraction and a prominent ileocaecal fold at the border area between the caecum and the ascending colon. Anatomical findings on necropsy material failed to confirm its presence. Microscopic studies on surgical specimens showed the existence of muscular and innervational patterns different from those of adjacent areas. The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of a specialised fold at the caecocolonic junction in humans and to ascertain its role by carrying out a study of functional anatomy. Pancolonoscopies were performed on 100 patients and ileocaecal fold behaviour was observed before and after mechanical stimulation. Isolated ileocaecocolonic regions, surgically obtained, were filled with a fixative solution to study their macro and microscopic morphology after stimulation. Endoscopically, the ileocaecal fold was semilunar or circular in shape and spontaneous or evoked spasms occurred in 52 patients. A prominent circular fold could be seen in surgical specimens after stimulation. The entire muscle coat deeply penetrated this fold, showing the features characteristic of the ileocaecal junction. In particular, the inner portion of the circular muscle showed a peculiar arrangement and was thicker than elsewhere. These results show that in humans the caecocolonic junction is provided with a sphincter morphology and function. Little is known about its physiological relevance in ileal flow accommodation and caecal filling and emptying but it should not be underestimated with regard to some colonic motility disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7489934

  19. The implementation of clay modeling and rat dissection into the human anatomy and physiology curriculum of a large urban community college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty overcame and the techniques used to solve them. Methods involved were: developing a laboratory manual in conjunction with the publisher, holding training sessions for faculty and staff, the development of instructional outlines for students and lesson plans for faculty, the installation of storage facilities to hold mannequins instead of cat specimens, and designing mannequin clean-up techniques that could be used by more than one thousand students each semester. The effectiveness of these curricular changes was assessed by examining student muscle practical examination grades and the responses of faculty and students to questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the majority of faculty felt prepared to teach using clay modeling and believed the activity was effective in presenting lesson content. Students undertaking clay modeling had significantly higher muscle practical examination grades than students undertaking cat dissection, and the majority of students believed that clay modeling was an effective technique to learn human skeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular anatomy, which included the names and locations of blood vessels. Furthermore, the majority of students felt that rat dissection helped them learn nervous, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system anatomy. Faculty experience at LAGCC may serve as a resource to other academic institutions developing new curricula for large, on-going courses. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaian, C.

    2009-01-01

    In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

  1. The Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program at Alfaisal University: An Innovative Model of Teaching Clinically Applied Functional Anatomy in a Hybrid Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Zafar, Muhammad; Eldin, Nivin Sharaf; Mazhar, Muhammad Atif; Qazi, Sadia; Shaikh, Aftab Ahmed; Obeidat, Akef; Al-Kattan, Khaled; Ganguly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of specialty. It is essential for physicians to be able to perform a variety of tasks, including performing invasive procedures, examining radiological images, performing a physical examination of a patient, etc. Medical students have to be prepared for such tasks, and we…

  2. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  3. Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention. Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators…

  4. Quantitative Comparison of the Microscopic Anatomy of the Human ACL Femoral and Tibial Entheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L.; Carey, Grace E.; Schlecht, Stephen H.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p fibrocartilage tissue area (p fibrocartilage depth (p fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure. PMID:26134706

  5. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  6. Orientaciones metodológicas de la disciplina anatomía humana en las sedes universitarias municipales Methodological directions on human anatomy discipline in the municipal university venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraida Hidalgo Gato Castillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso docente educativo en las sedes universitarias municipales se encuentran a cargo de médicos generales integrales, por lo que el colectivo de Anatomía Humana trazó orientaciones metodológicas que caracterizan la disciplina Anatomía Humana, explicando las formas de organización de la enseñanza a través de cinco sistemas: objetivos, conocimientos, habilidades, clases y evaluación. Se recomienda la bibliografía básica, complementaria, auxiliar y de consulta, así como el estudio independiente. De manera que garantizan la preparación metodológica de todos los facilitadores que están comprometidos con el proceso docente educativo del actual modelo de formación.The educative teaching process in the municipal university venues is in charge of the family doctors, so the teaching staff of Human Anatomy gave methodological directions characterizing the Human Anatomy discipline, explaining the ways of organization of Teaching by means of five systems: objectives, knowledge, training, classes and evaluation. The basic, complementary, auxiliary and consultation bibliography is recommended, as well as the individual study, so it will guarantee the methodological training of all the providers involved in the educative teaching process of the current training model.

  7. An Augmented Reality magic mirror as additive teaching device for gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Daniela; Stratmann, Leonard; Nühlen, Nils; Bork, Felix; Hoffmann, Saskia; Samarbarksh, Golbarg; Pferschy, Anna; von der Heide, Anna Maria; Eimannsberger, Andreas; Fallavollita, Pascal; Navab, Nassir; Waschke, Jens

    2018-01-01

    When preparing young medical students for clinical activity, it is indispensable to acquaint them with anatomical section images which enable them to use the clinical application of imaging methods. A new Augmented Reality Magic Mirror (AR MM) system, which provides the advantage of a novel, interactive learning tool in addition to a regular dissection course, was therefore tested and evaluated by 880 first-year medical students as part of the macroscopic anatomy course in 2015/16 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) in Munich. The system consists of an RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device, which enables the system to link a deposited section image to the projection of the user's body, as well as a large display mimicking a real-world physical mirror. Using gesture input, the users have the ability to interactively explore radiological images in different anatomical intersection planes. We designed a tutorial during which students worked with the system in groups of about 12 and evaluated the results. Subsequently, each participant was asked to assess the system's value by filling out a Likert-scale questionnaire. The respondents approved all statements which stressed the potential of the system to serve as an additional learning resource for anatomical education. In this case, emphasis was put on active learning, 3-dimensional understanding, and a better comprehension of the course of structures. We are convinced that such an AR MM system can be beneficially installed into anatomical education in order to prepare medical students more effectively for the clinical standards and for more interactive, student-centered learning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The Human Anatomy Teacher-Scholar: Meeting the Expectations of Educational Outcomes Research, Course Content Innovation, and Textbook Innovation for Educational Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Christine Marie

    2009-01-01

    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to…

  10. A martial arts exploration of elbow anatomy: Ikkyo (Aikido's first teaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, F C; Olson, G D; Stenzel, T E

    1991-12-01

    The Martial Art of Aikido, based on several effective anatomical principles, is used to subdue a training partner. One of these methods is Ikkyo (First Teaching). According to Saotome, the original intent of Ikkyo was to "break the elbow joint" of an enemy. Nowadays the intent is to secure or pin a training partner to the mat. This investigation focused on examining Ikkyo with the purpose of describing the nerves, bones, and muscles involved in receiving this technique. Particular focus was placed on the locations and sources of the reported pain.

  11. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  12. Vulva Anatomy

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    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  13. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  14. The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a new concept that mirrors the complex, dynamic, and context-dependent nature of the learning brain. In this article, I use the structure of the human nervous system and its sensing, processing, and responding components as a framework for a re-conceptualized teaching system. This teaching system is capable of responses on an…

  15. Can a teaching assistant experience in a surgical anatomy course influence the learning curve for nontechnical skill development for surgical residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Mark J; Musonza, Tashinga; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    The foundation upon which surgical residents are trained to work comprises more than just critical cognitive, clinical, and technical skill. In an environment where the synchronous application of expertise is vital to patient outcomes, the expectation for optimal functioning within a multidisciplinary team is extremely high. Studies have shown that for most residents, one of the most difficult milestones in the path to achieving professional expertise in a surgical career is overcoming the learning curve. This view point commentary provides a reflection from the two senior medical students who have participated in the Student-as-Teacher program developed by the Department of Anatomy at Mayo Clinic, designed to prepare students for their teaching assistant (TA) role in anatomy courses. Both students participated as TAs in a six week surgical anatomy course for surgical first assistant students offered by the School of Health Sciences at Mayo Clinic. Development of teaching skills, nontechnical leadership, communication, and assessment skills, are discussed in relation to their benefits in preparing senior medical students for surgical residency. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springer and Elsevier (Science Direct) for the years 1980-2008. Two reviewers extracted data on the anatomy of large animal spines from the identified articles. Each anatomical study of animals had to include at least three vertebral levels. The anatomical data from all animal studies were compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. Of the papers retrieved, seven were included in the review. The animals in the studies involved baboon, sheep, porcine, calf and deer. Distinct anatomical differences of vertebrae were found between the human and each large animal spine. In cervical region, spines of the baboon and human are more similar as compared to other animals. In thoracic and lumbar regions, the mean pedicle height of all animals was greater than the human pedicles. There was similar mean pedicle width between animal and the human specimens, except in thoracic segments of sheep. The human spinal canal was wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals. The mean human vertebral body width and depth were greater than that of the animals except in upper thoracic segments of the deer. However, the mean vertebral body height was lower than that of all animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review to compare vertebrae geometries of experimental animal models to the human vertebrae, and will help for choosing animal model in vivo and in vitro spine research. When the animal selected for spine research, the structural similarities and

  17. Novel Use of Ultrasound to Teach Reproductive System Physical Examination Skills and Pelvic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tejal; Czuzak, Maria; Bui, Naomi; Wildner, Corinna; Koch, Bryna; Leko, Elizabeth; Rappaport, William; Adhikari, Srikar; Gordon, Paul; Gura, Mike; Ellis, Susan

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether integration of ultrasound (US) into a reproductive system examination clinical skills lab can increase confidence in palpating key reproductive structures during testicular and bimanual pelvic examinations, reduce anxiety about conducting testicular and bimanual pelvic examinations, and improve performance on multiple-choice questions based on structure identification using US images. Second-year medical students enrolled in the Life Cycle preclinical course participated in this cross-sectional study. A single learning activity was developed to pair the teaching of the reproductive system physical examination with the use of US in the clinical skills lab. The evaluation of the teaching session consisted of a pre-post analysis of student self-reported knowledge, confidence, and anxiety. The response rate for the pre survey was 82% (n = 96), and the rate for the post survey was 79% (n = 93). Students' confidence in their ability to identify reproductive system structures on US images increased from pre to post survey. Their confidence in their ability to palpate the epididymis, uterus, and ovary during a physical examination improved, and their anxiety about conducting testicular and bimanual pelvic examinations decreased. Student satisfaction with the session was high. Students' performance on multiple-choice questions based on structure identification using US images was at 96% or higher. Our study findings support the integration of US into a reproductive system examination clinical skills lab. Medical students acquire competency and confidence in reproductive system physical examination skills with US integration. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. The use of MR B{sup +}{sub 1} imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Cornelis A T van den [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, HP Q.00.118 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Bartels, Lambertus W [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Bergen, Bob van den [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, HP Q.00.118 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Kroeze, Hugo [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, HP Q.00.118 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Leeuw, Astrid A C de [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, HP Q.00.118 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Kamer, Jeroen B van de [Department of Radiotherapy, Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagendijk, Jan J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, HP Q.00.118 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-10-07

    In this study, MR B{sup +}{sub 1} imaging is employed to experimentally verify the validity of FDTD simulations of electromagnetic field patterns in human anatomies. Measurements and FDTD simulations of the B{sup +}{sub 1} field induced by a 3 T MR body coil in a human corpse were performed. It was found that MR B{sup +}{sub 1} imaging is a sensitive method to measure the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field inside a human anatomy with a precision of approximately 3.5%. A good correlation was found between the B{sup +}{sub 1} measurements and FDTD simulations. The measured B{sup +}{sub 1} pattern for a human pelvis consisted of a global, diagonal modulation pattern plus local B{sup +}{sub 1} heterogeneties. It is believed that these local B{sup +}{sub 1} field variations are the result of peaks in the induced electric currents, which could not be resolved by the FDTD simulations on a 5 mm{sup 3} simulation grid. The findings from this study demonstrate that B{sup +}{sub 1} imaging is a valuable experimental technique to gain more knowledge about the dielectric interaction of RF fields with the human anatomy.

  19. Clay modeling versus written modules as effective interventions in understanding human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK questionnaire, classifying learning preference as visual, auditory, read/write, or kinesthetic. Students were divided into clay, module, and control groups with preference for learning style distributed among groups. The clay and module groups participated in weekly one-hour classes using either clay models or answering written questions (modules) about anatomical relationships, respectively. The control group received no intervention. Post-assessment and retention examinations were administered at the end of the semester, and three months later, respectively. Two variables (Δ1, Δ2) represented examination score differences between pre- and post-assessment and between post-assessment and retention examinations, respectively. The Δ1 for clay and module groups were each significantly higher than controls (21.46 ± 8.2 vs. 15.70 ± 7.5, P ≤ 0.05; and 21.31 ± 6.9 vs. 15.70 ± 7.5, P ≤0.05, respectively). The Δ2 for clay and module groups approached but did not achieve significance over controls (-6.09 ± 5.07 vs. -8.80 ± 4.60, P = 0.16 and -5.73 ± 4.47 vs. -8.80 ± 4.60, P = 0.12, respectively). No significant differences were seen between interventions or learning preferences in any group. However, students of some learning styles tended to perform better when engaging in certain modalities. Multiple teaching modalities may accommodate learning preferences and improve understanding of anatomy. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Methods Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Results Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. Conclusion The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  1. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  2. Personnel of human anatomy department of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky as the participants of the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshkina O.Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides evidence on participation of assistants who worked at the Department of Human Anatomy of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky and took part in the Great Patriotic War.

  3. [The scientific works of the teachers of human anatomy in the "Université Libre de Bruxelles" (ULB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louryan, S

    2014-06-01

    The "Université Libre de Bruxelles" was founded in 1834. Between this year and 1904, the teachers of human anatomy were essentially clinicians and surgeons. Their works were mainly practical. Until 1904 (arrival of Albert Brachet) since present, the researches of the anatomical laboratory were devoted to embryology, and included the beginning of causal embryology. More recently, biomechanics appeared in the field of activity of the laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative comparison of the microscopic anatomy of the human ACL femoral and tibial entheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Carey, Grace E; Schlecht, Stephen H; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-12-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p<0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p<0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p<0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microsurgical and Tractographic Anatomy of the Supplementary Motor Area Complex in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Baran; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Karadag, Ali; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Sandhu, Gauravjot; Tanriover, Necmettin; Grande, Andrew W

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the microsurgical anatomy of the fiber tract connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA, and examine its potential functional role with reference to clinical trials in the literature. Ten postmortem formalin-fixed human brains (20 sides) and 1 cadaveric head were prepared following Klingler's method. The fiber dissection was performed in a stepwise fashion, from lateral to medial and also from medial to lateral, under an operating microscope, with 3D images captured at each stage. Our findings were supported by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging tractography in 2 healthy subjects. The connections of the SMA complex, composed of the pre-SMA and the SMA proper, are composed of short "U" association fibers and the superior longitudinal fasciculus I, cingulum, claustrocortical fibers, callosal fibers, corticospinal tract, frontal aslant tract, and frontostriatal tract. The claustrocortical fibers may play an important role in the integration of motor, language, and limbic functions of the SMA complex. The frontostriatal tract connects the pre-SMA to the putamen and caudate nucleus, and also forms parts of both the internal capsule and the dorsal external capsule. The SMA complex has numerous connections throughout the cerebrum. An understanding of these connections is important for presurgical planning for lesions in the frontal lobe and helps explain symptoms related to SMA injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-directed learning in gross human anatomy: assessment outcomes and student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Gayle; Hughes, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Speech pathology students enrolled in a lecture-based gross human anatomy program completed two out of nine topics in self-directed mode. Student performance in quizzes was compared for the two modes, and the students completed questionnaires on their perceptions of the self-directed mode of delivery. Students performed as well in the first self-directed topic as they did in lecture-based material, but performance declined significantly on the second self-directed topic. Correlations showed that students who performed well in lecture-based topics also performed well on self-directed topics. The major issues that arose in the student questionnaires were primarily related to the amount of content in the topics and the length of time required for completion. We conclude that there is a strong need for appropriate design of distance education materials to reflect student perceptions of length, content, and time investment, and more importantly that there is a need to ensure extensive communication and support of students studying in distance education/self-directed modes for the first time.

  7. MRI Reconstructions of Human Phrenic Nerve Anatomy and Computational Modeling of Cryoballoon Ablative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Ryan P; Spencer, Julianne H; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this computational modeling study was to better quantify the relative distance of the phrenic nerves to areas where cryoballoon ablations may be applied within the left atria. Phrenic nerve injury can be a significant complication of applied ablative therapies for treatment of drug refractory atrial fibrillation. To date, published reports suggest that such injuries may occur more frequently in cryoballoon ablations than in radiofrequency therapies. Ten human heart-lung blocs were prepared in an end-diastolic state, scanned with MRI, and analyzed using Mimics software as a means to make anatomical measurements. Next, generated computer models of ArticFront cryoballoons (23, 28 mm) were mated with reconstructed pulmonary vein ostias to determine relative distances between the phrenic nerves and projected balloon placements, simulating pulmonary vein isolation. The effects of deep seating balloons were also investigated. Interestingly, the relative anatomical differences in placement of 23 and 28 mm cryoballoons were quite small, e.g., the determined difference between mid spline distance to the phrenic nerves between the two cryoballoon sizes was only 1.7 ± 1.2 mm. Furthermore, the right phrenic nerves were commonly closer to the pulmonary veins than the left, and surprisingly tips of balloons were further from the nerves, yet balloon size choice did not significantly alter calculated distance to the nerves. Such computational modeling is considered as a useful tool for both clinicians and device designers to better understand these associated anatomies that, in turn, may lead to optimization of therapeutic treatments.

  8. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  9. Application of flipped classroom pedagogy to the human gross anatomy laboratory: Student preferences and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, Timothy R; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Harris, Jennie; Hoffmann, Darren S

    2017-12-28

    To improve student preparedness for anatomy laboratory dissection, the dental gross anatomy laboratory was transformed using flipped classroom pedagogy. Instead of spending class time explaining the procedures and anatomical structures for each laboratory, students were provided online materials to prepare for laboratory on their own. Eliminating in-class preparation provided the opportunity to end each period with integrative group activities that connected laboratory and lecture material and explored clinical correlations. Materials provided for prelaboratory preparation included: custom-made, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy videos, abbreviated dissection instructions, key atlas figures, and dissection videos. Data from three years of the course (n = 241 students) allowed for analysis of students' preferences for these materials and detailed tracking of usage of 3D anatomy videos. Students reported spending an average of 27:22 (±17:56) minutes preparing for laboratory, similar to the 30 minutes previously allocated for in-class dissection preparation. The 3D anatomy videos and key atlas figures were rated the most helpful resources. Scores on laboratory examinations were compared for the three years before the curriculum change (2011-2013; n = 242) and three years after (2014-2016; n = 241). There was no change in average grades on the first and second laboratory examinations. However, on the final semi-cumulative laboratory examination, scores were significantly higher in the post-flip classes (P = 0.04). These results demonstrate an effective model for applying flipped classroom pedagogy to the gross anatomy laboratory and illustrate a meaningful role for 3D anatomy visualizations in a dissection-based course. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Opportunities for learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, Lisa Marie

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the course conditions that support the development of meaningful student learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course. The study was conducted during an 8-week summer-session at a small mid-western university. Classroom observations and taped recordings of class sessions were used to determine content episodes within the instructional unit, opportunities for learning created by the instructor, demonstrations of information processing by the students, and the ways in which the instructor used the Personal Response System (PRS). Student interviews were used to determine students' level of understanding of pre-test and post-test items. Student interviews and a questionnaire were used to determine students' perceptions of the PRS as a learning tool. Findings reveal that the instructor had different expectations of students when posing verbal questions in-class than he had when posing PRS questions. The use of verbal questions did not permit demonstrations of student understanding; however, the use of the PRS did result in demonstrations of student understanding. Questions posed via the use of the PRS were categorized according to cognitive level. The cognitive level of the questions increased with time over the instructional unit and within the content episodes. Students demonstrated deeper understanding of the topics after instruction than they did before instruction. Students reported more in-class thinking about the content, more discussion of the content with their neighbors, more regular class attendance, more opportunities for deeper learning, and a general preference for the PRS over traditional lectures. Findings of the study indicate that the instructional decisions about the use of questions influences the opportunities for students to process information and demonstrate their understanding of the content and that students valued these opportunities. A better understanding of the

  12. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  13. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  14. "Anatomy and imaging": 10 years of experience with an interdisciplinary teaching project in preclinical medical education - from an elective to a curricular course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, A; Pieper, C C; Schmidt, R; Wittkowski, W

    2014-05-01

    Presentation of an interdisciplinary, interactive, tutor-based preclinical teaching project called "Anatomy and Imaging". Experience report, analysis of evaluation results and selective literature review. From 2001 to 2012, 618 students took the basic course (4 periods per week throughout the semester) and 316 took the advanced course (2 periods per week). We reviewed 557 (return rate 90.1 %) and 292 (92.4 %) completed evaluation forms of the basic and the advanced course. Results showed overall high satisfaction with the courses (1.33 and 1.56, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale). The recognizability of the relevance of the course content for medical training, the promotion of the interest in medicine and the quality of the student tutors were evaluated especially positively. The "Anatomy and Imaging" teaching project is a successful concept for integrating medical imaging into the preclinical stage of medical education. The course was offered as part of the curriculum in 2013 for the first time. "Anatomia in mortuis" and "Anatomia in vivo" are not regarded as rivaling entities in the delivery of knowledge, but as complementary methods. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  16. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  17. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  18. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  19. Effect of an Interactive Web-Based Instruction in the Performance of Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Tamilselvi; Herron, Sherry S.; Mohn, Richard S.; Hartsell, Taralynn; Jawor, Jodie M.; Blickenstaff, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how different interactive technology tools that are integrated into a Website can be used for teaching undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratory students. Technology tools refer to a Website that the authors created to teach the Cardiovascular System that includes dynamic tools such as the…

  20. A new ontology (structured hierarchy) of human developmental anatomy for the first 7 weeks (Carnegie stages 1-20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a new ontology of human developmental anatomy covering the first 49 days [Carnegie stages (CS)1-20], primarily structured around the parts of organ systems and their development. The ontology includes more than 2000 anatomical entities (AEs) that range from the whole embryo, through organ systems and organ parts down to simple or leaf tissues (groups of cells with the same morphological phenotype), as well as features such as cavities. Each AE has assigned to it a set of facts of the form , with the relationships including starts_at and ends_at (CSs), part_of (there can be several parents) and is_a (this gives the type of tissue, from an organ system down to one of ~ 80 simple tissues predominantly composed of a single cell kind, which is also specified). Leaf tissues also have a develops_from link to its parent tissue. The ontology includes ~14 000 such facts, which are mainly from the literature and an earlier ontology of human developmental anatomy (EHDAA, now withdrawn). The relationships enable these facts to be integrated into a single, complex hierarchy (or mathematical graph) that was made and can be viewed in the OBO-Edit browser (oboedit.org). Each AE has an EHDAA2 ID that may be useful in an informatics context, while the ontology as a whole can be used for organizing databases of human development. It is also a knowledge resource: a user can trace the lineage of any tissue back to the egg, study the changes in cell phenotype that occur as a tissue develops, and use the structure to add further (e.g. molecular) information. The ontology may be downloaded from www.obofoundry.org. Queries and corrections should be sent to j.bard@ed.ac.uk. © 2012 The Author Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  1. Influence of the wording of evaluation items on outcome-based evaluation results for large-group teaching in anatomy, biochemistry and legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Pyka, Katharina; Mueller, Tjark; von Streinbuechel, Nicole; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Student learning outcome is an important dimension of teaching quality in undergraduate medical education. Measuring an increase in knowledge during teaching requires repetitive objective testing which is usually not feasible. As an alternative, student learning outcome can be calculated from student self-ratings. Comparative self-assessment (CSA) gain reflects the performance difference before and after teaching, adjusted for initial knowledge. It has been shown to be a valid proxy measure of actual learning outcome derived from objective tests. However, student self-ratings are prone to a number of confounding factors. In the context of outcome-based evaluation, the wording of self-rating items is crucial to the validity of evaluation results. This randomized trial assessed whether including qualifiers in these statements impacts on student ratings and CSA gain. First-year medical students self-rated their initial (then-test) and final (post-test) knowledge for lectures in anatomy, biochemistry and legal medicine, respectively, and 659 questionnaires were retrieved. Six-point scales were used for self-ratings with 1 being the most positive option. Qualifier use did not affect then-test ratings but was associated with slightly less favorable post-test ratings. Consecutively, mean CSA gain was smaller for items containing qualifiers than for items lacking qualifiers (50.6±15.0% vs. 56.3±14.6%, p=0.079). The effect was more pronounced (Cohen's d=0.82) for items related to anatomy. In order to increase fairness of outcome-based evaluation and increase the comparability of CSA gain data across subjects, medical educators should agree on a consistent approach (qualifiers for all items or no qualifiers at all) when drafting self-rating statements for outcome-based evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Gateway to Healthcare Careers for Vulnerable Students: A New Approach to the Teaching of Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiccio, Albert; Kenny, Tammy; Lippacher, Linda; Flanary, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Many first-year students interested in healthcare careers do not succeed in Anatomy and Physiology I (A&PI), which they take in their first semester. These first-year students withdraw from the course or the institution, or their final grade may be below the identified threshold for progressing in their programs. A&PI has become a…

  3. Developing Medical Students as Teachers: An Anatomy-Based Student-as-Teacher Program with Emphasis on Core Teaching Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Erie Andrew; Starkman, Sidney J.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is an increasingly recognized responsibility of the resident physician. Residents, however, often assume teaching responsibilities without adequate preparation. Consequently, many medical schools have implemented student-as-teacher (SAT) programs that provide near-peer teaching opportunities to senior medical students. Near-peer teaching…

  4. The Irritating Effects Of Exposure To Formaldehyde In User Students Of The Human Anatomy Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalles Dantas de Lucena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is commonly used in cadaver fixation for years. FA vapors are released during the dissection process and macroscopic study of preserved anatomical pieces, raising their concentration in the Anatomy laboratory, causing greater exposure for students and teachers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate toxic reactions in 37 students, through a questionnaire, produced by exposure to FA used for preservation of cadaveric material used in Anatomy, Morphofunctional Department, Faculdades Integradas de Patos (FIP, Brazil. Of the 37 interviewees, 26 (70.3% were affected by the unpleasant and irritating smell of FA, 10 (27% had no problems, and 1 (2.7% did not tolerate an irritation produced by FA, ​​not participating in the laboratory practical classes. Exposure to FA was followed by several symptoms: excessive lacrimation (54%, itchy eyes (48.5%, redness of the eyes (40.6%, coryza or congested nose (35.2% and respiratory distress (29.7%, with persistent symptoms during the permanence in the laboratory for 32.5% of the students. All students wear a lab coat for individual protection. However, only 8% used mascara and did not wear glasses, increasing the risk of contamination. Medical schools should encourage the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE for the manipulation of FA, ensuring the protection of students and teachers in the Anatomy laboratory. Besides finding alternatives for the replacement of FA in the conservation of corpses.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL CHALK AND BOARD LECTURE SYSTEM VERSUS POWER POINT PRESENTATION AS A TEACHING TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING GROSS ANATOMY TO THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat; Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally and conventionally, gross anatomy is taught by lectures and cadaveric dissection and the lectures are taken with chalk and board (C&B) or chalk and talk method in, India. But there is always a debate over the most effective method of lecture delivery. AIM : The aim of this study was to compare the role and effecti...

  6. Organization of educational process at the department of human anatomy of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaeva I0

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human anatomy is one of the basic disciplines in the system of medical education. Knowledge in this area is necessary for the development of related theoretical subjects and constitutes a basis for studying clinical disciplines. Therefore the priority task of department of human anatomy is qualitative training of students at the modern level using classical and innovative pedagogical and computer technologies, being based on competence-based approach to training. In the article the features of organization of educational process at department of Human Anatomy of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky, within the Federal state educational standard of the 3rd generation which key differences are considered: acquisition by students of cultural and professional competences.

  7. 2016 High School Honors Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum Investigation for College Board Advanced Placement Classification Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Siebold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Four sections of senior Honors Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P students are representative of sixty-five nations. These classes participated in a yearlong investigation pursuant of innovative learning, and grading modalities to introduce a 21st century curriculum for A&P to become a College Board Advanced Placement (AP course. All enrollees began the year by taking a self-assessment based on Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences. This data was evaluated for the design of learning approaches identifying student uniqueness that could better implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, and present State of Tennessee Human Anatomy and Physiology Learning Standards laying the groundwork to write the AP curriculum. Component curriculum rubrics were used, and modified to enable students to self-evaluate their performance in certain areas. Students participated in teams represented as Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 'Intern Teams' investigating various diseases. The students, also, researched health equity, and disparity issues from variables based on survey questions they designed that could affect the health care treatment of patients suffering from their investigated disease. They then proposed a 2016 CDC Educational Campaign revamping public health education for the disease, including brochure, and public service announcement (PSA.

  8. [Anatomy as theatre. From the library of the Society of the Dutch Journal of Medicine. Govard Bidloo: Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body); 1689; and William Cowper: The Anatomy of Humane Bodies; 1698].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, J C

    2004-12-25

    Opinions differ regarding the scientific quality of the atlas by Govard Bidloo, Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body) (1689) and the plagiarism made thereof by William Cowper, The Anatomy of Humane Bodies (1698). Both books were also published in Latin; the Society of the Dutch Journal of Medicine has acquired a copy of all 4 atlases. The anatomical plates were made by the artist Gerard de Lairesse (Liège 1640-Amsterdam 1711) and their great artistic value is beyond all doubt. De Lairesse settled in Amsterdam in 1665, a few months after the reopening of the city theatre, and subsequently achieved fame as an innovative creator of theatre sets. He also became one of the favourite artists of prince William III and many other well-to-do citizens of Amsterdam. The great artistic value of his anatomical plates justifies more attention for his importance as a medical illustrator in medical history.

  9. Production and use of plastinated anatomical specimens as teaching and learning tools in veterinary gross anatomy in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Reda Mohamed; Roger John

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Veterinary Anatomy is considered as the backbone subject in the veterinary medicine program. Formalized specimens were not very much accepted by the veterinary students due to their wetness, bad smell and potential harmful effects. Plastination has evolved as a new technique for prolonged preservation of specimens by replacing the water and fat by a curable plastic polymer. Material and methods: The process of plastination involved fixation, dehydration, impregnation and cu...

  10. Anatomy of the human orbital muscle (OM): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, Andre; Feiser, Janna; Wöhler, Aliona; Isik, Zeynep; Bendella, Habib; Angelov, Doychin N

    2017-05-01

    The human orbital muscle (OM) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, its few anatomical descriptions are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study was to present OM in dissected anatomic specimens in more detail. Following microscope-assisted dissection, its location, syntopy and morphology were analyzed in 88 orbits of 51 cadavers. Together with the periorbital connective tissue OM filled the infraorbital fissure (IOF) and extended back to the cavernous sinus. As a new finding, we here report that in 34% of the orbits we observed OM-fibers, which proceeded from IOF caudally to the facies infratemporalis of the maxilla. OM had a mean width of 4±1mm, a mean length of 22±5mm and its mean mass was 0.22±0.19g. The subsequent histological analysis of all specimens showed features of smooth muscle tissue: long, spindle-like cells with a centrally located cell nucleus (hematoxylin-eosin staining) which were innervated by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive adrenergic fibers. We conclude that precise knowledge on OM might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to head and neck surgeons, ear-nose-throat specialists and neurosurgeons working in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  12. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  13. Teaching Strategy: Using the Human Rights Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson focusing on a human-rights poster that provides visual reinforcement of the second article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that enforces freedom from discrimination. Presents students with examples of human-rights situations to assist them in understanding that all people are entitled to human rights. (CMK)

  14. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  15. Three-dimensional computer-assisted dissection of pancreatic lymphatic anatomy on human fetuses: a step toward automatic image alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardol, T; Subsol, G; Perez, M-J; Genevieve, D; Lamouroux, A; Antoine, B; Captier, G; Prudhomme, M; Bertrand, M M

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth cause of death by cancer worldwide. Lymph node (LN) involvement is known to be the main prognostic factor. However, lymphatic anatomy is complex and only partially characterized. The aim of the study was to study the pancreatic lymphatic system using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD) technique and also to update CAAD technique by automatizing slice alignment. We dissected three human fetuses aged from 18 to 34 WA. 5-µm serial sections of duodeno-pancreas and spleen blocks were stained (hematoxylin-eosin, hematoxylin of Mayer and Masson trichrome), scanned, aligned and modeled in three dimensions. We observed a rich, diffuse but not systematized lymphatic network in the peri-pancreatic region. There was an equal distribution of LNs between the cephalic and body-tail portions. The lymphatic vascularization appeared in continuity from the celiac trunk to the distal ends of its hepatic and splenic arterial branches parallel to the nerve ramifications of the celiac plexus. We also observed a continuity between the drainage of the pancreatic head and the para-aortic region posteriorly. In view of the wealth of peri-pancreatic LNs, the number of LNs to harvest could be increased to improve nodal staging and prognostic evaluation. Pancreatic anatomy as described does not seem to be compatible with the sentinel LN procedure in pancreatic surgery. Finally, we are now able to offer an alternative to manual alignment with a semi-automated alignment.

  16. "No interest in human anatomy as such": Frederic Wood Jones dissects anatomical investigation in the United States in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross L

    2014-03-01

    In 1926, Frederic Wood Jones, professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide and a leading figure in the British anatomical world, took a Rockefeller Foundation funded trip to the United States in order to inspect anatomy programmes and medical museums and to meet leading figures in the anatomical and anthropological world. His later reflections paint a picture of a discipline in transition. Physical anthropology and gross anatomy were coming to a crisis point in the United States, increasingly displaced by research in histology, embryology and radiological anatomy. Meanwhile, in Britain and its colonial outposts, anatomists such as Wood Jones were attempting to re-invigorate the discipline in the field, studying biological specimens as functional and active agents in their particular milieus, but with human dissection at the core. Thus, an examination of this trip allows us to see how the interaction between two traditions in anatomy informed the process of the development of human biology in this critical period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  18. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24% while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy.

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  20. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; De Melo Lima, V J

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI A M and female RPI A F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  1. Links between Evolution, Development, Human Anatomy, Pathology, and Medicine, with A Proposition of A Re-defined Anatomical Position and Notes on Constraints and Morphological "Imperfections".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Surprisingly the oldest formal discipline in medicine (anatomy) has not yet felt the full impact of evolutionary developmental biology. In medical anatomy courses and textbooks, the human body is still too often described as though it is a "perfect machine." In fact, the study of human anatomy predates evolutionary theory; therefore, many of its conventions continue to be outdated, making it difficult to study, understand, and treat the human body, and to compare it with that of other, nonbipedal animals, including other primates. Moreover, such an erroneous view of our anatomy as "perfect" can be used to fuel nonevolutionary ideologies such as intelligent design. In the section An Evolutionary and Developmental Approach to Human Anatomical Position of this paper, we propose the redefinition of the "human standard anatomical position" used in textbooks to be consistent with human evolutionary and developmental history. This redefined position also simplifies, for students and practitioners of the health professions, the study and learning of embryonic muscle groups (each group including muscles derived from the same/ontogenetically closely related primordium/primordia) and joint movements and highlights the topological correspondence between the upper and lower limbs. Section Evolutionary and Developmental Constraints, "Imperfections" and Sports Pathologies continues the theme by describing examples of apparently "illogical" characteristics of the human body that only make sense when one understands the developmental and evolutionary constraints that have accumulated over millions of years. We focus, in particular, on musculoskeletal functional problems and sports pathologies to emphasize the links with pathology and medicine. These examples demonstrate how incorporating evolutionary theory into anatomy education can be helpful for medical students, teachers, researchers, and physicians, as well as for anatomists, functional morphologists, and evolutionary and

  2. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  3. Willingness toward Organ and Body Donation among Anatomy Professors and Students in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Zarate-Garza, Pablo Patricio; Esparza-Hernández, Claudia Nallely; Gutierrez-de la O, Jorge; de la Fuente-Villarreal, David; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2017-01-01

    Most anatomists agree that cadaver dissection serves as a superior teaching tool in human anatomy education. However, attitudes toward body donation vary widely between different individuals. A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes toward body and organ donation among those who learn the most from cadavers: medical students,…

  4. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  5. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1.5 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, P.A.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Edelstein, W.A.; Schenck, J.F.; Smith, L.S.; Leue, W.M.; Mueller, O.M.; Redington, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1.5 Tesla (T) using slotted resonator high radio-frequency (RF) detection coils. The images showed no RF field penetration problems and exhibited an 11 (+/-1)-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a .12-T imaging system. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid (-CH 2 -) signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment. Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain

  6. In vitro delineation of human brain-stem anatomy using a small resonator: correlation with macroscopic and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeurer, J.; Mitrovic, T.; Knollmann, F.D.; Luedtke, E.; Requardt

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the potential of an experimental animal coil using a commercial MRI unit to delineate the anatomical structure of the human brain stem. Three formaldehyde-fixed brain-stem specimens were examined by MRI and sectioned perpendicular to their longitudinal axis. The images were compared with gross anatomy and myelin-stained histological sections. Fibre tracts and nuclei which were not evident on examination of the unstained specimen were readily identified by MRI. Due to its inherent grey/white matter contrast, MRI with a high-resolution coil delineates anatomical structures in a way comparable to the myelin-stained histological sections. However, pigmented structures, readily visible on examination of the unstained specimen were discernible on neither MRI nor on myelin-stained sections. The excellent anatomical detail and grey/white matter contrast provided by these images could make MRI a useful adjunct to the pathologist investigating brain disease. (orig.)

  7. Assisting at-risk community college students' acquisition of critical thinking learning strategies in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arburn, Theresa Morkovsky

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning thinking strategies within the context of a community college course in Human Anatomy and Physiology would result in increased academic performance and the incidence of critical thinking skills. Included in the study sample were 68 community college students, many of whom would be categorized as "at-risk," who were enrolled in four sections of a Human Anatomy and Physiology class. Two of the class sections served as the experimental group and two sections served as the control group. During the course of one semester, members of the experimental group participated in the use of a student-generated questioning technique in conjunction with lecture presentations, while members of the control group did not. All students were pretested using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Posttesting was completed using these same instruments and an end-of-course comprehensive examination. Analysis of data revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups with regard to their overall achievement, their ability to process information, or their demonstration of critical thinking. It was interesting to note, however, that members of the experimental group did exhibit a change in their ability to select main ideas, apply deductive reasoning, and use inference. While the use of thinking strategies within the context of the course did not effect a significant change in academic achievement or critical thinking among at-risk community college students, it should be noted that application of a non-lecture method of class participation had no negative impact on student performance. Whether more abstruse changes have occurred with regard to the acquisition of cognitive skills remains to be elucidated.

  8. Environmental Waste Management in a School Hospital and in a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lusa Manfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and professional activities developed in a Hospital School and a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a university can generate parallel, chemical residues from various degrees of angerousness, which may require physical treatment and / or suitable chemical, before being sent to final destination. The General Hospital (GH generates monthly 10 L of xylenes and 50 L of glutaraldehyde to provide ass instance to their patients. Already the Laboratory of Human Anatomy of University de Caxias do Sul (AL-UCS uses more than 10,000 liters for preserving corpses in tanks. The present study aims to analyze the chemical waste management of the GH and the AL-UCS and propose techniques for recovery and reuse of chemicals formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and xylenes, minimizing the impacts generated by the use, often indispensable and sometimes questionable, of such waste. So far two sets of samples were collected (in March and April 2013 of xylene, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in the GH and also at the AL-UCS and it is intended to repeat the collections with monthly periodicity, in the next two semesters. Partial results show that, comparing the relationship of area and the medium areas of the chromatographic (in µV.s of patterns with compounds of interest, an increase in the percentage of formaldehyde relative to the samples in standard formalin (121.84% may be due to contamination with organic compounds with a retention time close to the compound of interest, the xylene was little degradation in the samples, indicating that this compound can be reused in the common procedures of healthcare institutions, with respect to glutaraldehyde significant degradation was observed for the compound in samples represents only 61.88% of the chromatographic peak area of the standard, therefore the reuse of these compounds may require the use of purification methods such as simple distillation and fractional distillation

  9. The article critique as a problem-based teaching method for medical students early in their training: a French example using anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Eric; Duparc, Fabrice; Peltier, Johan; Tobenas-Dujardin, Anne-Claire; Fréger, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In France, "article critique" became a particular teaching method in the second part of the medical curriculum. It approaches a reading exercise of scientific medical papers similar to that of journal club. It could be compared to reviewing a paper as performed by reviewers of a scientific journal. We studied the relevancy of that teaching method for the youngest medical students. Our questions were about the understanding and the analyzing ability of a scientific paper while students have just learned basic medical sciences as anatomy. We have included 54 "article critique" written by voluntary students in second and third years of medical cursus. All of the IMRaD structure items (introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion) were analyzed using a qualitative scale for understanding as for analyzing ability. For understanding, 89-96% was good or fair and for the analyzing ability, 93-100% was good or fair. The anatomical papers were better understood than therapeutic or paraclinical studies, but without statistical difference, except for the introduction chapter. Results for analyzing ability were various according to the subject of the papers. This teaching method could be compared to a self-learning method, but also to a problem-based learning method. For the youngest students, the lack of medical knowledge aroused the curiosity. Their enthusiasm to learn new medical subjects remained full. The authors would insist on the requirement of rigorous lessons about evidence-based medicine and IMRaD structure and on a necessary companionship of the students by the teachers.

  10. Teaching Methods in Nutrition: Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiak, John J.

    This article presents a teaching methodology for free radical theory and discusses the role of antioxidants in human health. Free radicals are a normal byproduct of respiration, which allows the body to use oxygen, liberate energy, and dispose of harmful substances. The body's antioxidants and nutritional antioxidants quench most of the free…

  11. The status of human and material resources used in teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the status of human and material resources used in teaching biology in public schools in Ilorin. A descriptive survey method was adopted. All senior school students in Ilorin constituted the population, out of which 20 secondary schools were randomly selected. A checklist tagged Inventory of Resources ...

  12. Teaching and Learning Children's Human Rights: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantefors, Lotta; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is a research synthesis examining how issues relating to the teaching and learning of children's human rights have been approached in educational research. Drawing theoretically on the European Didaktik tradition, the purpose of the paper is to map and synthesise the educational interest in children's rights…

  13. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  14. Experiencing Our Anatomy: Incorporating Human Biology into Dance Class via Imagery, Imagination, and Somatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a model for introducing biological perspectives into teaching dance as a means to encourage students toward deeper, healthier, and more personal relationships with their art form as well as appreciation for their physical and cognitive abilities, both inside and outside of the dance studio. It recommends that dance teachers…

  15. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  17. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-05-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) J Morphol 268, 504-517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans.

  18. Teaching and Technologies for Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickering, Arthur W.; Payne, Carla; Poitras, Gail

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential of emerging communication and information technologies in terms of human development. Topics include distinctions between training and education, instrumental and developmental purposes, and differentiation and integration; developmental stages theory; a leadership seminar based on developmental stages; and uses of…

  19. International Perspective on Teaching Human Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Kevan; Weerakoon, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors outline international training programs in human sexuality. Methods: The authors reviewed the international literature and Internet resources to identify key training opportunities and curricula, with particular emphasis on training opportunities for psychiatrists. Results: The authors outline key resources and training…

  20. Teaching, Learning, and the Human Quest: Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom is a complex phenomenon: it finds its home primarily but not exclusively in theology, philosophy, psychology, education--that is, in the humanities--and in life itself. In a paradoxical manner, wisdom finds its home in the world of the unanswerable, where there are no empirical proofs and no obvious answers. Wisdom actually finds its place…

  1. Introduction: Radical Teaching About Human Rights Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bennett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our introduction to the first of these two issues of Radical Teacher devoted to “Radical Teaching About Human Rights,” we cautioned that all forms of Human Rights Education (HRE are not radical.  The problem, we pointed out, with rights discourse is that it can mask the politics of how rights are defined, whose rights are recognized, and how they are enforced.  This problem becomes evident when HRE is bound up with a neoliberal, or worse than neoliberal, perspective that points fingers at others and rallies troops for supposedly humanitarian interventions while eliding the role of the United States as an imperializing settler colonial state.  Fortunately, we have once again received several essays that seem to us to be aware of this danger and provide admirable examples of radical teaching about human rights.

  2. A Systems Model for Teaching Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Greene

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and effective human resource management is a complex, involved, and interactive process. This article presents and discusses a unique systems approach model for teaching human resource (people management processes, and the important inter-relationships within that process. The model contains two unique components related to key sub-processes: incentives management and performance evaluation. We have not observed a model applying a systems thinking paradigm presented in any textbook, journal article, business publication, or other literature addressing the topic. For nearly three decades, the model has been used in teaching a comprehensive, meaningful understanding of the human resource management process that can be effectively implemented in both corporate and academic learning venues.

  3. A Commentary on "Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary on "Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It" (McPhail 2013), the author discusses how McPhail's paper examines human rights teaching principles, the question of why corporations and business schools should respect and teach human rights, and how business…

  4. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M

    2016-11-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  6. Teaching the History of Human Rights and "Humanitarian" Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nolan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how I teach about human rights and so-called humanitarian interventions to MA and Ph.D. students.  The course has three main themes or foci.  First, what are human rights and why have the social and economic human rights laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been so neglected or rejected, especially by the U.S.  Second, how has American foreign policy used and abused human rights.  Third, why have liberal or humanitarian interventions of a militarized sort become so prevalent since the end of the Cold War and why are they so damaging.  The goal is to get students to look critically at the meaning and uses of human rights, about which many display a naive enthusiasm.

  7. A "conservative" method of thoracic wall dissection: a proposal for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Brunone, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The common methods of dissection exposing the thoracic organs include crossing of the wall together with wide resection of its muscular planes. In order to preserve these structures, a little demolishing technique of the thoracic wall is proposed, entering the thoracic cavity without extensive resection of the pectoral muscles. This method is based on the fact that these muscles rise up from the wall, like a bridge connecting the costal plane with the upper limb, and that the pectoralis major shows a segmental constitution. SUPERIOR LIMIT: Resect the sternal manubrium transversely between the 1st and the 2nd rib. The incision is prolonged along the 1st intercostal space, separating the first sterno-costal segment of the pectoralis major from the second one, and involving the intercostal muscles as far as the medial margin of the pectoralis minor. This muscle must be raised up, and the transverse resection continued below its medial margin latero-medially along the 1st intercostal space, to rejoin the cut performed before. Then, the incision of the 1st intercostal space is prolonged below the lateral margin of the pectoralis minor, which must be kept raised up, medio-laterally as far as the anterior axillary line. INFERIOR LIMIT: It corresponds to the inferior border of the thoracic cage, resected from the xiphoid process to the anterior axillary line, together with the sterno-costal insertions of the diaphragm. Then, an incision of the sterno-pericardial ligaments and a median sternotomy from the xiphoid process to the transverse resection of the manubrium should be performed. LATERAL LIMIT: From the point of crossing of the anterior axillary line with the inferior limit, resect the ribs from the 10th to the 2nd one. The lateral part of the pectoralis major must be raised up, so that the costal resection may be continued below it. Then, at the lateral extremity of the superior incision, the first and the second sternocostal segment of the pectoralis major must be divaricated, to resect the 2nd and the 3rd rib. It is helpful increasing the distance between pectoralis major and thoracic wall by adducing the arm on the chest. Finally, open the two halves of the thoracic wall, like shutters of a window rotating on the hinges, formed by the non-resected intercostal muscles and by the intercostal portions of the serratus anterior, along the anterior axillary line.

  8. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Hewlet G; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement.

  9. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  11. Anatomy of event and human performance management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the occurrence mechanism of events in nuclear power plants, and explains the four factors of human errors and the relations among them, then probes into the occurrence mechanism and characteristics of human errors in nuclear power plants. Moreover, the article clarifies that the principle of human performance training in nuclear power plants is all-member training, and that the implementation approach is to develop different human performance tools for different staff categories as workers, knowledge workers and supervisors, which are categorized based on characteristics of work of different staff. (author)

  12. Teaching practices epistemologically differentiated about human body learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Ribeiro de Aragão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How could we teach about THE HUMAN BODY as a different way, in both epistemological and pedagogical approaches? How could we leave behind stagnant as well as stagnating aspects of traditional way of teaching, such as the fragmentation/segmentation of contents, the far away reality, the excessive use of details or else, whenever learning about our own body? These are some of the questions we have considered when trying to escape the bad influence which came from our "environment formation" - putting it on all the marks we have acquired inside or even outside school - trying to overview as meaning our body working...in constant interaction with the surrounding ambient. Among those pointed kind of formation marks we frequently acquire from studying at the University - which need to be transcended —here we come to detach those innumerable contacts with both anatomized and misfigurated supposed human bodies' which didn't even look like actual human bodies, because they could never seem to have sheltered life inside themselves. They were inert as well as static bodies, only used as a such of vain "didactic materials" that could/can permit many teachers on their educational formation to focus a certain teaching approach which only seeks both the students' memorization of an infinitude of "complicated words", and to structure the systems -by several procedures of nouns definition and/or classification - as part of the so called biological organism. In order to do a different way of teaching, we have based our approach on three alternative teaching methodologies which focus these matters under a constructive perspective. On those three focused studies, it is possible to observe that some very principles of a present day teaching approach were there considered to achieve some of them: the respect for the students' previous ideas; the understanding about knowledge as something that is not established for good but as ever changeable and, at last, the

  13. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  14. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2008-10-01

    In a recent paper Diogo (2008) reported the results of the first part of an investigation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish + tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish, but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. The present paper focuses mainly on sarcopterygians, and particularly on how the head and neck muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals, including modern humans. The data obtained from our dissections of the head and neck muscles of representative members of sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals, such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including modern humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons indicate that the number of mandibular and true branchial muscles (sensu this work) present in modern humans is smaller than that found in mammals such as tree-shrews, rats and monotremes, as well as in reptiles such as lizards. Regarding the pharyngeal musculature, there is an increase in the number of muscles at the time of the evolutionary transition leading to therian mammals, but there was no significant increase during the transition leading to the emergence of higher primates and modern humans. The number of hypobranchial muscles is relatively constant within the therian mammals we examined, although in this case modern humans have more muscles than other mammals. The number of laryngeal and facial muscles in modern humans is greater than that found in most other therian taxa. Interestingly, modern humans possess peculiar laryngeal and facial muscles that are not present in the majority of the other mammalian taxa; this seems to corroborate the crucial role played by vocal communication and by facial expressions in primate and especially in

  15. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... on decibel information. ) Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional What can I do to protect my hearing ...

  16. From fish to modern humans – comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) JMorphol268, 504–517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans. PMID:19438764

  17. Teaching and Learning French--A Tale of Desire in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Catriona

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the way we talk about learning and teaching the humanities in higher education in the UK. By using the tools of the arts and humanities within the scholarship of learning and teaching, and examining a personal perspective, the author explores the transformational impact of French language learning and teaching. Close textual…

  18. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Chico-Ponce de León, Fernando; Platas-Neri, Diana; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita; Trejo, David; Conde, Rubén; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Campos-Romo, Aurelio; Castro-Sierra, Eduardo; Cervantes, Juan José; Braun, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present qualitative study was to analyze the morphological aspects of the inner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates, using magnetic resonance images (MRI): spider monkey (A. geoffroyi) and human (H. sapiens), on the basis of a comparative study of the cerebral structures of the two species, focusing upon the brain of the spider monkey and, primarily, its limbic system. In spite of being an endemic Western hemisphere species, a fact which is by its own right intere...

  19. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Effects of interactive instructional techniques in a web-based peripheral nervous system component for human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Edwin B; Walls, Richard T; Reilly, Frank D

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of interactive instructional techniques in a web-based peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of a first year medical school human anatomy course. Existing data from 9 years of instruction involving 856 students were used to determine (1) the effect of web-based interactive instructional techniques on written exam item performance and (2) differences between student opinions of the benefit level of five different types of interactive learning objects used. The interactive learning objects included Patient Case studies, review Games, Simulated Interactive Patients (SIP), Flashcards, and unit Quizzes. Exam item analysis scores were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) for students receiving the instructional treatment incorporating the web-based interactive learning objects than for students not receiving this treatment. Questionnaires using a five-point Likert scale were analysed to determine student opinion ratings of the interactive learning objects. Students reported favorably on the benefit level of all learning objects. Students rated the benefit level of the Simulated Interactive Patients (SIP) highest, and this rating was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than all other learning objects. This study suggests that web-based interactive instructional techniques improve student exam performance. Students indicated a strong acceptance of Simulated Interactive Patient learning objects.

  1. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics.

  2. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-08

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P < 0.05) and lecture (F6,462  = 5.47; P < 0.05) performance. Between laboratory examinations, student performance was lower by 4.2% and higher by 3.0% in control and unlimited access conditions, respectively. Unlimited access students scored higher than control and limited access (82.8 ± 2.2 vs 71.5 ± 2.6 and 74.3 ± 1.7%; P < 0.05) and higher than control students (78.7 ± 2.1 vs 70.6 ± 2.0%; P < 0.05) on the third and fourth lecture examination, respectively. Postsemester surveys completed by experimental students (89.5% response rate) indicated that a greater percentage of unlimited vs limited access students agreed that laboratory (84.8 vs 56.3%, P < 0.05) and lecture (58.7 vs 14.6%, P < 0.05) performance was enhanced with the iPad. Results suggest that if students are given the opportunity to overcome the technology learning curve, tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  4. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  5. Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Based Research on Human White Matter Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-guo Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the white matter by the diffusion tensor imaging and the Chinese visible human dataset and to provide the 3D anatomical data of the corticospinal tract for the neurosurgical planning by studying the probabilistic maps and the reproducibility of the corticospinal tract. Diffusion tensor images and high-resolution T1-weighted images of 15 healthy volunteers were acquired; the DTI data were processed using DtiStudio and FSL software. The FA and color FA maps were compared with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset. The probability maps of the corticospinal tract were generated as a quantitative measure of reproducibility for each voxel of the stereotaxic space. The fibers displayed by the diffusion tensor imaging were well consistent with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset and the existing anatomical knowledge. The three-dimensional architecture of the white matter fibers could be clearly visualized on the diffusion tensor tractography. The diffusion tensor tractography can establish the 3D probability maps of the corticospinal tract, in which the degree of intersubject reproducibility of the corticospinal tract is consistent with the previous architectonic report. DTI is a reliable method of studying the fiber connectivity in human brain, but it is difficult to identify the tiny fibers. The probability maps are useful for evaluating and identifying the corticospinal tract in the DTI, providing anatomical information for the preoperative planning and improving the accuracy of surgical risk assessments preoperatively.

  6. The serotonergic anatomy of the developing human medulla oblongata: implications for pediatric disorders of homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Haynes, Robin L; Rognum, Ingvar J; Paterson, David S

    2011-07-01

    The caudal serotonergic (5-HT) system is a critical component of a medullary "homeostatic network" that regulates protective responses to metabolic stressors such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hyperthermia. We define anatomically the caudal 5-HT system in the human medulla as 5-HT neuronal cell bodies located in the raphé (raphé obscurus, raphé magnus, and raphé pallidus), extra-raphé (gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis lateralis, intermediate reticular zone, lateral reticular nucleus, and nucleus subtrigeminalis), and ventral surface (arcuate nucleus). These 5-HT neurons are adjacent to all of the respiratory- and autonomic-related nuclei in the medulla where they are positioned to modulate directly the responses of these effector nuclei. In the following review, we highlight the topography and development of the caudal 5-HT system in the human fetus and infant, and its inter-relationships with nicotinic, GABAergic, and cytokine receptors. We also summarize pediatric disorders in early life which we term "developmental serotonopathies" of the caudal (as well as rostral) 5-HT domain and which are associated with homeostatic imbalances. The delineation of the development and organization of the human caudal 5-HT system provides the critical foundation for the neuropathologic elucidation of its disorders directly in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The functional neuro-anatomy of the human response to fear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activating the amygdala passes through the superior colliculi and the pulvinar of the thalamus before accessing it. .... cingulate, the superior temporal sulcus and the lingual gyrus.41. A role for the human amygdala in the ... dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA 10) and middle frontal gyri. (BA 6).47,48. Hence, in healthy people ...

  8. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

  9. A study of the role and functions of inspectors of anatomy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pillay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inspectors of anatomy are supposed to monitor and regulate the use of human tissue for teaching and research purposes. In South Africa, provincial inspectors are appointed to oversee this function. However, there is a critical shortage of such persons, and there are only three inspectors currently appointed: one in an acting capacity for KwaZulu-Natal Province, and one each for the Gauteng and Western Cape provinces, respectively. It is imperative, therefore, that the appointment of inspectors of anatomy in the other provinces be addressed urgently. The responsibilities of inspectors of anatomy towards higher-education institutions are to: (i maintain cadaver records; (ii ensure that cadavers are obtained in a legal and ethical manner; (iii carry out inspections of anatomy departments at least once a year; (iv evaluate health and safety with regard to the storage of specimens; and (v monitor cadaver procurement. This study recommends the establishment of a National Consultative Anatomy Forum to make decisions on: (i the type of consent required for donations of bodies; (ii the mechanisms for the donation of bodies for teaching and research; and (iii the treatment of unclaimed and/or unidentified bodies. In addition, the forum should advise government on policy, and provide guidelines for the donation and use of cadavers and human tissue.

  10. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Hewlet G.; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement. PMID:26240533

  11. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  12. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, A A; Rudnev, S G; V Vassilevski, Yu; Kramarenko, V K; Nikolaev, D V; Smirnov, A V; Salamatova, V Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  13. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  14. On Describing Human White Matter Anatomy: The White Matter Query Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist’s expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The d...

  15. Comparative anatomy of the prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, postsubiculum, and parasubiculum in human, monkey, and rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin

    2013-12-15

    The subicular complex, including the prosubiculum (ProS), subiculum (Sub), presubiculum, postsubiculum (PoS), and parasubiculum (PaS), plays important roles in the medial temporal memory system and is heavily involved in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. In the literature, the ProS (in primate) and PoS (in rodent) are inconstantly identified, making data comparison difficult across species. This review is an attempt to discuss equivalencies and extent of the five subicular components in human, monkey, and rodent based on available information on their cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, molecular signature, and neural connectivity. All five subicular cortices exist in human, monkey, and rodent. In human and monkey, the ProS and Sub extend into the uncal region anteriorly, and the PoS and PaS reach the cingulate isthmus posteriorly. In rodent, most of the typical subicular cortices are located in the dorsal and caudal portions of the hippocampal formation, and the modified version of the ventral ProS and Sub corresponds to the modified description of the uncal ProS and Sub in monkey and human. An interesting triangular region in rodent located at the juncture of the PoS, PaS, retrosplenial cortex, and visual cortex appears to be the equivalent of the monkey area prostriata. Major connections of the five subicular cortices are also summarized based on unified criteria discussed in this review, with distinct connections revealed between the ProS and the Sub. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular anatomy of interendothelial junctions in human blood-brain barrier microvessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej W Vorbrodt

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunogold cytochemical procedure was used to study the localization at the ultrastructural level of interendothelial junction-associated protein molecules in the human brain blood microvessels, representing the anatomic site of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Ultrathin sections of Lowicryl K4M-embedded biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex obtained during surgical procedures were exposed to specific antibodies, followed by colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies. All tight junction-specific integral membrane (transmembrane proteins--occludin, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-1, and claudin-5--as well as peripheral zonula occludens protein (ZO-1 were highly expressed. Immunoreactivity of the adherens junction-specific transmembrane protein VE-cadherin was of almost similar intensity. Immunolabeling of the adherens junction-associated peripheral proteins--alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and p120 catenin--although positive, was evidently less intense. The expression of gamma-catenin (plakoglobin was considered questionable because solitary immunosignals (gold particles appeared in only a few microvascular profiles. Double labeling of some sections made possible to observe strict colocalization of the junctional molecules, such as occludin and ZO-1 or JAM-1 and VE-cadherin, in the interendothelial junctions. We found that in human brain microvessels, the interendothelial junctional complexes contain molecular components specific for both tight and adherens junctions. It is assumed that the data obtained can help us find the immunodetectable junctional molecules that can serve as sensitive markers of normal or abnormal function of the BBB.

  17. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  18. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  19. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  20. Morphometrical study of the human kidney. Radiodiagnosis and patological anatomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, J.B.; Lacerda, C.A.M. de

    1987-01-01

    A morphometrical estimate was made on 100 human kidneys obtained by necropsies. The results of the renal measurements showed the averages of 11.06cm long, 6.24cm wide for the superior pole, 5.42cm wide for the inferior pole, 3.26cm thickness, and 119.48g weight. The left kidney presented a greater lenght, greater width, greater thickness and greater weight than the kidney. The statistical analysis of the correlation between several indices is presented. (author) [pt

  1. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Vangal R; Jan, Stephen; Ram Prasad, S

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the trade in human organs in India. This paper examines both the extent to which regulatory controls through the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (1994) are effective in curbing commercialization and the nature of the constraints on the effective implementation of this Act. The study, a politico-economic analysis of health sector regulation, is based on a stakeholder analysis drawing on the views of key decision makers, service providers, organ donors and recipients. The findings indicate widespread acknowledgement of an organs trade and highlight four major constraints on the effective implementation of the Act: the commercial interests of middlemen and service providers, the ambiguities and loopholes in the Act; the low monitoring capacity of the regulatory authorities, and the pressures and responsibilities exerted upon the Authorizing Committees. A feature of the Act is that its implementation is subject to a major incentive compatibility constraint - it is seemingly not in the interests of any of the key players, including the regulatory authorities, to restrict the organ trade. To some extent, this institutional problem is created by the specific nature of the regulatory intervention, and, as a consequence, measures involving straightforward redrafting of the regulation might go some way to addressing this incentive problem. Another solution may entail a 'harm-reduction' strategy involving a controlled trade where procurement and organ matching is carried out by a government agency (this would require, however, the prior resolution of the broader ethical question concerning the legitimacy of such trade).

  2. Análise de peças anatômicas preservadas com resina de poliester para estudo em anatomia humana Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Martins de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    : Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  3. Teaching Human Rights in Turkey: Commentaries on a Single Lesson from Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Alper; Schur, Joan Brodsky; Gürsoy, Kudret

    2014-01-01

    This group of commentaries on teaching human rights in Turkey includes: (1) Reflection on Turkish Human Rights Lesson from Turkey (Alper Kesten)--A lesson on human rights in Turkey is analyzed for its representativity and methodology within the Turkish teaching culture from the viewpoint of a Turkish researcher; (2) Commentary on a Turkish Lesson…

  4. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  5. Micro-anatomy of the renal sympathetic nervous system: a human postmortem histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Deep, Nicholas L; Mendelsohn, Farrell O

    2012-07-01

    Hypertension remains an epidemic uncontrolled with pharmacologic therapies. A novel catheter inserted into the renal artery has been shown to lower blood pressure by ablating the renal sympathetic nerves with radiofrequency energy delivered through the arterial wall. We report a histologic study describing the anatomic substrate for this technique, specifically the renal sympathetic nervous system. Histological sections from proximal, middle, and distal renal artery segments from nine renal arteries (five human autopsies) were analyzed. Nerves were manually counted and their distance from the lumen-intima interface was measured using a micrometer. The nerves were then categorized by location into 0.5-mm-wide "rings" that were arranged circumferentially around the renal artery lumen. Of all nerves detected, 1.0% was in the 0-0.5 mm ring, 48.3% were in the 0.5-1.0 mm ring, 25.6% were in the 1.0-1.5 mm ring, 15.5% were in the 1.5-2.0 mm ring, and 9.5% were in the 2.0-2.5 mm ring. Beyond 0.5 mm, the proportion of nerves tended to decrease as the distance from the lumen increased. Totally, 90.5% of all nerves in this study existed within 2.0 mm of the renal artery lumen. Additionally, the number of nerves tended to increase along the length of the artery from proximal to distal segments (proximal = 216; middle = 323; distal = 417). In conclusion, our analysis indicates that a great proportion of renal sympathetic nerves have close proximity to the lumen-intima interface and should thus be accessible via renal artery interventional approaches such as catheter ablation. This data provides important anatomic information for the development of ablation and other type devices for renal sympathetic denervation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Peking Man to Socialist Man: The Teaching of Human Evolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the content and methodology of the teaching of human evolution in the schools of the People's Republic of China. Reviews the aims and goals of science teaching and their effects on the teaching of evolution. Emphasizes evolution, compatibility with China's political doctrines, and includes illustrations of instructional materials. (ML)

  7. Anatomy of Human Interventions on the Alteration of Drought Risk over the Conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Wada, Y.; Wanders, N.; Sheffield, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought attribution focusing on anthropogenic climate change has received wide attentions. However, human interventions (HIs), such as irrigation, reservoir operation, and water use, are less well known. In this study, using the large-scale water resources model PCR-GLOBWB, we perform a suite of high-resolution ( 10 km) simulations over the conterminous US (CONUS) in order to disentangle the fingerprints of individual HI elements on changes of hydrological drought. The results show significant trend differences between scenarios with and without HIs in certain regions of the CONUS. HIs cause increased trends in drought severity for the High Plains, California and Mid-Atlantic region, whereas decreased trend emerges in the California Central Valley, lower Mississippi basin and Pacific Northwest. The mechanism of altered drought severity can be broken down into three individual parts, with irrigation increasing the trend in the High Plains and Central Valley, reservoir operation decreasing the trend in Western US and water use amplifying the trend in the urban areas. Besides the trend analysis, we show the relative contribution of water abstraction and return flows to explain how each HI contributes to enhancing or mitigating drought. Results demonstrate that return flows from agricultural irrigation increase recharge and therefore can alleviate hydrological drought (e.g., by 60-80% in Mississippi embayment). Further examination of the water sources indicates that in these drought alleviation hotspots, non-fossil groundwater dominates the total water abstraction. However, for the hotspots of drought intensification (e.g., southern High Plains), extensive irrigational pumping causes severe depletion of fossil groundwater, which reduces the interaction between baseflow and channel flow, and therefore reduces the total streamflow. Return level analysis is further applied to quantify how different types of HIs could alter the probability of occurrence of recent major

  8. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  9. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  10. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  11. Human structure in six and one-half weeks: one approach to providing foundational anatomical competency in an era of compressed medical school anatomy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E; Thompson, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The new curriculum incorporated best practices in the area of regular assessments, feedback, clinical application, multiple teaching modalities, and professionalism. A comparison of the components of the traditional and integrated curriculum, along with end of course evaluations and student performance revealed that the new curriculum was just as effective, if not more effective. This article also provides important lessons learned. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  13. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen-Ansert, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  14. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  15. Explore the Human-Based Teaching for the Professional Course of Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    As viewed from two sides such as teacher and student, in this article, we explore the human-based teaching reform for the college professional course of materials Science and Engineering, point out the qualities and conditions that professional teacher should possess in the process of human-based teaching reform of professional course and the…

  16. The Madagascar Hissing Cockroach: A New Model for Learning Insect Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyborne, William H.; Fast, Maggie; Goodding, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning animal anatomy has a long history in the biology classroom. As in many fields of biology, decades of experience teaching anatomy have led to the unofficial selection of model species. However, in some cases the model may not be the best choice for our students. Our struggle to find an appropriate model for teaching and…

  17. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  18. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-03-01

    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0 × 2.0 to 5.0 × 5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  1. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  2. The 'morbid anatomy' of the human genome: tracing the observational and representational approaches of postwar genetics and biomedicine the William Bynum Prize Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores evolving conceptions and depictions of the human genome among human and medical geneticists during the postwar period. Historians of science and medicine have shown significant interest in the use of informational approaches in postwar genetics, which treat the genome as an expansive digital data set composed of three billion DNA nucleotides. Since the 1950s, however, geneticists have largely interacted with the human genome at the microscopically visible level of chromosomes. Mindful of this, I examine the observational and representational approaches of postwar human and medical genetics. During the 1970s and 1980s, the genome increasingly came to be understood as, at once, a discrete part of the human anatomy and a standardised scientific object. This paper explores the role of influential medical geneticists in recasting the human genome as being a visible, tangible, and legible entity, which was highly relevant to traditional medical thinking and practice. I demonstrate how the human genome was established as an object amenable to laboratory and clinical research, and argue that the observational and representational approaches of postwar medical genetics reflect, more broadly, the interdisciplinary efforts underlying the development of contemporary biomedicine.

  3. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  4. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  5. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  6. The educational value of online mastery quizzes in a human anatomy course for first-year dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M J; Nagel, Rollin W; Gould, Douglas J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of online mastery quizzes in enhancing dental students' learning and preparedness for anatomy examinations. First-year dental students taking an integrated anatomy course at The Ohio State University were administered online mastery quizzes, made available for five days before each examination. The mastery quizzes were comprised of ten multiple-choice questions representative of the upcoming examination in content and difficulty. The students were allowed to access this resource as many times as they desired during the five-day window before each examination; the highest score for each student was added to his or her final course grade. The results indicate that almost all the students took advantage of this resource to reinforce content, clarify concepts, and prepare for the examinations. Statistical analyses of the students' exam performance showed that the mastery quizzes neither improved nor reduced their exam scores, but multiple regression analyses showed that the initial mastery quiz scores had a predictive value for their examination performance, suggesting a potential for mastery quizzes as an intervention tool for such a course. Online mastery quizzes, when used effectively, may be an effective resource to further engage dental and other students in educational endeavors and examination preparation and as a predictor of success.

  7. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  8. Exploring the use of a Facebook page in anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional classroom. Observations were made on students' perceptions and effectiveness of using the Page, potential benefits and challenges of such use, and which Insights metrics best reflect user's engagement. The Human Anatomy Education Page was launched on Facebook and incorporated into anatomy resources for 157 medical students during two academic years. Students' use of Facebook and their perceptions of the Page were surveyed. Facebook's "Insights" tool was also used to evaluate Page performance during a period of 600 days. The majority of in-class students had a Facebook account which they adopted in education. Most students perceived Human Anatomy Education Page as effective in contributing to learning and favored "self-assessment" posts. The majority of students agreed that Facebook could be a suitable learning environment. The "Insights" tool revealed globally distributed fans with considerable Page interactions. The use of a faculty-administered Facebook Page provided a venue to enhance classroom teaching without intruding into students' social life. A wider educational use of Facebook should be adopted not only because students are embracing its use, but for its inherent potentials in boosting learning. The "Insights" metrics analyzed in this study might be helpful when establishing and evaluating the performance of education-oriented Facebook Pages. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Propuesta de la vinculación de medicina bioenergética en Anatomía Humana I Proposal of insertion of bioenergetic Medicine into Human Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraida Hidalgo Gato Castillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó en el actual curso académico 06/ 07 un análisis detallado del programa analítico y del plan temático de la asignatura Anatomía Humana I que se imparte en el primer semestre del primer año de la carrera de medicina, a los alumnos del Proyecto Policlínico Universitario (PPU como método tradicional. Debido a las exigencias actuales y las tendencias dentro de la Educación Médica Superior es necesario incorporar al plan de estudio la Medicina Bioenergética y dentro de sus ramas la Acupuntura a los contenidos de dicha asignatura, ya que el tema fundamental es el estudio del aparato locomotor. Por lo que se propuso una estrategia metodológica que consiste, en que a medida que se van impartiendo las diferentes formas de enseñanza, en aplicar los puntos acupunturales más importantes de los diferentes meridianos apoyándose en la Anatomía de superficie a cada relieve óseo, articular o muscular, teniendo en cuenta el encargo social que el Médico General Básico necesita para el ejercicio de su profesión.In the current academic course 06/07 a detailed analysis of the analytical program and thematic syllabus of Human Anatomy I subject was carried out, which is taught during the first semester of the first academic year of Medicine, to students of the University Polyclinic project as a traditional method. Because of current demands and trends within the Higher Medical Education, it is necessary to insert the syllabus of Bioenergetic Medicine, and within its branches Acupuncture, since the fundamental subject is the study of the locomotor system. Therefore, a methodological strategy was proposed, which consists, as different ways of teaching are taught, of applying the most important acupunctural points of the meridians, leaning on the surface anatomy, every bone, articular or muscular prominence., considering the social assignment that the Basic Comprehensive Doctor needs for exercising his/her profession.

  10. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques.

  11. What Do the Public Know about Anatomy? Anatomy Education to the Public and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M.; Diggle, Peter; Wessels, Quenton

    2018-01-01

    Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures…

  12. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  13. Skulls and Human Evolution: The Use of Casts of Anthropoid Skulls in Teaching Concepts of Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipps, John

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the use of a series of 11 casts of fossil skulls as a method of teaching about the theory of human evolution. Students explore the questions of which skulls are "human" and which came first in Homo Sapien development, large brain or upright stance. (MDH)

  14. Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Preamble to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR) calls on every organ of society to teach and educate for the promotion of the rights it contains. However, few if any business schools have any systematic or critical human rights content in their accounting and business curricula. This oversight is increasingly problematic as…

  15. The anatomy of the human medial forebrain bundle: Ventral tegmental area connections to reward-associated subcortical and frontal lobe regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Arnd Coenen

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA. A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc.. This work aims at a normative description of the human MFB (and more detailed the slMFB anatomy with respect to distant prefrontal connections and microstructural features. Methods and material: Healthy subjects (n = 55; mean age ± SD, 40 ± 10 years; 32 females underwent high resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion tensor imaging. Connectivity of the VTA and the resulting slMFB were investigated on the group level using a global tractography approach. The Desikan/Killiany parceling (8 segments of the prefrontal cortex was used to describe sub-segments of the MFB. A qualitative overlap with Brodmann areas was additionally described. Additionally, a pure visual analysis was performed comparing local and global tracking approaches for their ability to fully visualize the slMFB. Results: The MFB could be robustly described both in the present sample as well as in additional control analyses in data from the human connectome project. Most VTA- connections reached the superior frontal gyrus, the middel frontal gyrus and the lateral orbitofrontal region corresponding to Brodmann areas 10, 9, 8, 11, and 11m. The projections to these regions comprised 97% (right and 98% (left of the total relative fiber counts of the slMFB. Discussion: The anatomical description of the human MFB shows far reaching connectivity of VTA to reward-related subcortical and

  16. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  17. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre

    2002-01-01

    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.

  18. Evaluation of anatomy and morphology of human mandibular premolar teeth by cone-beam computed tomography in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Sobhani Mohhsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Successful root canal therapy requires knowledge of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. For permanent mandibular premolars, great variety in size, shape and number of roots and root fusion expression has been reported in the literature. There is a wide variety of methods used in studies for evaluating the root canal morphology. One of these methods is Cone-beam Computed tomography (CBCT that reduces the limitations of two-dimensional X-ray imaging, with less exposure in comparison with other 3D radiographies. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the differences in the root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular premolars in an Iranian population by means of CBCT images.   Materials and Methods: We searched a database of CBCT scans and evaluated 400 (20-60 years old patients who met the inclusion criteria and teeth in this images (CBCT were evaluated in three dimensions (Axial, Coronal and Sagital. Tooth length, number of roots, number of canals, canal type, root curvature and the effect of gender on any of the items mentioned were evaluated. Data were analyzed using T-test.   Results: The average length of the first premolar of mandibular was 22.27 mm and second premolar was 22.28 mm. 98.4% of the first premolar and 98.2% of the second premolar were single root., and 87.3% and 93.1% were single channel. The incidence of number of canals based on vertochy divisions were:type 1: 90.7% and 90.8%, type 0: 2.2% and 2.8%, type 4: 3.3% and 3.1%, type 6: 1.4% and 2.1% and type 3: 2.5% and 1.5% respectively. In any case, there was no significant difference between males and females (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Results indicate that dentists can obtain valuable information about the anatomy and morphology of the root canals using CBCT.

  19. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  20. The Effectiveness of Virtual and Augmented Reality in Health Sciences and Medical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross…

  1. Dynamic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Burne

    This student artist's handbook uses drawings and diagrams to demonstrate the basic structure, proportions, and expressive nature of the human form from an artist's point of view. Emphasis is placed upon the relationship of mass to movement. Drawings of the figure in action reveal the rhythmic relationship of muscles and their effect upon surface…

  2. Nerve Surgeons' Assessment of the Role of Eduard Pernkopf's Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy in Surgical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew; Coombs, Demetrius M; Hildebrandt, Sabine; Seidelman, William E; Coert, J Henk; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-05-08

    Pernkopf's atlas of Anatomy contains anatomical plates with detailed images of the peripheral nerves. Its use is controversial due to the author's association with the "Third Reich" and the potential depiction of victims of the Holocaust. The ethical implications of using this atlas for informing surgical planning have not been assessed. To (1) assess the role of Pernkopf's atlas in nerve surgeons' current practice and (2) determine whether a proposal for its ethical handling may provide possible guidance for use in surgery and surgical education. Members of American Society for Peripheral Nerve and PASSIO Education (video-based learning platform) were surveyed and 182 responses collected. The survey introduced the historical origin of Pernkopf's atlas, and respondents were asked whether they would use the atlas under specific conditions to serve as a recommendation for its ethical handling. An anatomical plate comparison between Netter's and Pernkopf's atlases was performed to compare anatomical accuracy and surgical utility. Fifty-nine percent of respondents were aware of Pernkopf's atlas, with 13% currently using it. Aware of the historical facts, 69% were comfortable using the atlas, 15% uncomfortable, and 17% undecided. Additional information on conditions for an ethical approach to the use of the atlas led 76% of those "uncomfortable" and "undecided" to becoming "comfortable" with use. While the use of Pernkopf's atlas remains controversial, a proposal detailing conditions for an ethical approach in its use provides new guidance in surgical planning and education.

  3. Functional anatomy of the colonic bioreactor: Impact of antibiotics and Saccharomyces boulardii on bacterial composition in human fecal cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Schulz, Stefan; Manowsky, Julia; Verstraelen, Hans; Swidsinski, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Sections of fecal cylinders were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting 180 bacterial groups. Samples were collected from three groups of women (N=20 each) treated for bacterial vaginosis with ciprofloxacin+metronidazole. Group A only received the combined antibiotic regimen, whereas the A/Sb group received concomitant Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 treatment, and the A_Sb group received S. boulardii prophylaxis following the 14-day antibiotic course. The number of stool cylinders analyzed was 188 out of 228 in group A, 170 out of 228 in group A/Sb, and 172 out of 216 in group A_Sb. The colonic biomass was organized into a separate mucus layer with no bacteria, a 10-30μm broad unstirred transitional layer enriched with bacteria, and a patchy fermentative area that mixed digestive leftovers with bacteria. The antibiotics suppressed bacteria mainly in the fermentative area, whereas abundant bacterial clades retreated to the transitional mucus and survived. As a result, the total concentration of bacteria decreased only by one order. These effects were lasting, since the overall recovery of the microbial mass, bacterial diversity and concentrations were still below pre-antibiotic values 4 months after the end of antibiotic treatment. Sb-prophylaxis markedly reduced antibiotic effects and improved the recovery rates. Since the colon is a sophisticated bioreactor, the study indicated that the spatial anatomy of its biomass was crucial for its function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching Strategy: Human Rights Around the World and at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson on human rights for middle and secondary school students in which they identify human rights, cite examples of human-rights abuses and affirmations, and relate actions to the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Explains that students identify human-rights issues globally and at home. (CMK)

  5. Complementary Machine Intelligence and Human Intelligence in Virtual Teaching Assistant for Tutoring Program Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Huang, Bau-Hung; Lin, Chi-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a virtual teaching assistant (VTA) to share teacher tutoring tasks in helping students practice program tracing and proposes two mechanisms of complementing machine intelligence and human intelligence to develop the VTA. The first mechanism applies machine intelligence to extend human intelligence (teacher answers) to evaluate…

  6. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  7. Literature and the Human Condition in Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Julie Cooper; Schaffner Goldberg, Gertrude; Quiros, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of literature are countless. Social workers, however, are usually not inclined to count the teaching and practice of social work among its beneficiaries. We believe that literature is one of the ways to enrich vital components of social work knowledge, attitudes, and skills. In this article, we begin by calling attention to a…

  8. Witnessing change with aspiring nurses: a human becoming teaching-learning process in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Deborah C; Yancey, Nan Russell

    2004-01-01

    Nurse educators have the opportunity to encourage meaningful reflections of nursing students. Dr. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse's teaching-learning processes provide a framework for such experiences. Student reflection through journaling and student participation in dialogue using these processes brings about an opportunity for students to discover new meaning for themselves and others. The process of how two nurse educators incorporated the human becoming teaching-learning model into students' experiences is discussed. Excerpts of student journals, themes of student work, and considerations for future development of the teaching-learning model with students are discussed.

  9. Neutron anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  10. Neutron anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone

  11. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, Elke R. [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Maderwald, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Linn, Jennifer; Bochmann, Katja [LMU Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Dassinger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  12. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Georg N. Koskinas (1885-1975) and his scientific contributions to the normal and pathological anatomy of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2005-12-30

    Georg N. Koskinas is invariably recognised by neuroanatomists as Constantin von Economo's co-author on the celebrated Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen, published 80 years ago in Vienna and Berlin. That text and Atlas are generally accepted as a monumental landmark in the evolution of morphological brain research. A number of neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists continue to use to this day the parcellation scheme of the cerebral cortex into 107 areas, proposed by von Economo and Koskinas (and logically denoted by alphabetical characters from the initials of the respective lobes), despite the commoner adoption of Brodmann's scheme of 52, randomly numbered, areas. Several works have been written about the life and work of von Economo; on the other hand, virtually nothing can be found in the biomedical literature about Koskinas. This study aims at posthumously restoring part of the fame due this illustrious man of 20th century science -- and giant figure of brain anatomy -- whom history has not treated in the fairest of ways. We present newly gathered biographical data, as well as lesser known aspects of his scientific productivity. Koskinas' neuropathological studies, in collaboration with Ernst Sträussler -- of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease fame -- include findings from patients inoculated with malaria as a form of therapy for progressive general paresis (research related to psychiatrist Wagner von Jauregg's 1927 Nobel Prize), colloid degeneration, and the laminar distribution of status spongiosus lesions. Koskinas' neuropsychiatric activities in Greece upon his return from Vienna in 1927, and until his parting in 1975, are further related, including his successful -- and "Hippocratic" -- practice in the suburbs of Athens, his association with the Vogt Institute for Brain Research at Neustadt, and lesser known neuroanatomical works.

  14. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizewski, Elke R.; Maderwald, Stefan; Linn, Jennifer; Bochmann, Katja; Dassinger, Benjamin; Forsting, Michael; Ladd, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  15. «Fantastic Voyage» (1966: an attractive approach to the study of anatomy through a tour inside the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. JUANES MÉNDEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fantastic Voyage is a science-fiction film that develops its action inside the human body, standing halfway between scientific documentary and fantasy. In its plot, a scientific possessing a valuable information for the State security suffers from a terrorist attack which leaves him in comma at death’s door. To save his life, it is necessary to carry out an operation in a part of his brain to which there is no access through conventional surgery. Thanks to scientific advances achieved, a nuclear submarine is miniaturized with a crew of neurosurgeons inside, who will be incorporated into the patient’s bloodstream intravenously. Its mission will be that of reaching the brain, through the circulatory system, and try to cure the lesion. A real amazing journey. Destination: the brain.The originality of its plot makes this film be an outstanding title among those of its genre. This film also constitutes a very useful resource for critical value and analysis of concepts on human anatomy.

  16. Human Rights Education: A Pedagogical and Didactic (Teaching Strategy Focused in a Controversial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Magendzo-Kolstrein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, which can be envision as an essay, is to present a pedagogical-didactic strategy for human rights education focusing on the controversy. Advancements and setbacks faced by human rights education in Latin America are exposed in order to support this strategy. Therefore, it indicates that education has denied the conflict and explains the need for its inclusion under the idea of ‘controversial issue’. Additionally, the existence of conflicts in the interpretation, violation and/or respect for human rights is pointed out. The principal tensions that cross human rights are displayed. Based on the above, the need to support the existence of a human rights education focusing on the conflict and central components of its teaching strategy are described, and it ends by referring to its didactic approach and the role which should be assumed by faculty when teaching human rights including the conflict.

  17. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on Human…

  18. Teaching Human Rights through Global Education to Teachers in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadruddin, Munir Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is home to religious and cultural ideologies that greatly support the values of human rights. Nevertheless, the multilayered philosophies of human rights in Pakistan have at times heightened clashes and bred a culture of tension among higher education learners. Ideological filters in national education policies have removed human rights…

  19. The development of a core syllabus for the teaching of oral anatomy, histology, and embryology to dental students via an international 'Delphi Panel'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard John; McHanwell, Stephen; Berkovitz, Barry

    2018-03-01

    The formulation of core syllabuses for the biomedical sciences within medical and dental courses is partially driven by the need to cope with decreased time allocations for these subjects as a result of major curricular changes taking place worldwide. There is also a requirement to deal with the request for increased clinical relevance. In response to such demands, the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) is devising core syllabuses for the anatomical sciences relating to the education and training of both scientific and clinical professions. The process initially involves using Delphi Panels consisting of a team of anatomists, scientists, and clinicians who evaluate syllabus content in detail and accord each element/topic 'essential,' 'important,' 'acceptable,' or 'not required' status. Their conjectures, published on the IFAA website, provide merely a framework to enable other stakeholders to comment. The approach is international in scope, is conceptually 'democratic,' and is developmentally fluid in being readily available for amendment. The aim is to set internationally recognized standards and thus to provide guidelines concerning anatomical knowledge when engaged in course development. This article presents the deliberations of an IFAA Delphi Panel into a core syllabus for oral anatomy, histology, and embryology within the dental curriculum. Clin. Anat. 31:231-249, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-destructive, preclinical evaluation of root canal anatomy of human teeth with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidrich, G.; Hassepass, F.; Dullin, C.; Grabbe, E.; Attin, T.; Hannig, C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Successful endodontic diagnostics and therapy call for adequate depiction of the root canal anatomy with multimodal diagnostic imaging. The aim of the present study is to evaluate visualization of the endodont with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT). Materials and methods: 13 human teeth were examined with the prototype of a FD-VCT. After data acquisition and generation of volume data sets in volume rendering technology (VRT), the findings obtained were compared to conventional X-rays and cross-section preparations of the teeth. Results: The anatomical structures of the endodont such as root canals, side canals and communications between different root canals as well as dentricles could be detected precisely with FD-VCT. The length of curved root canals was also determined accurately. The spatial resolution of the system is around 140 μm. Only around 73% of the main root canals detected with FD-VCT and 87% of the roots could be visualized with conventional dental X-rays. None of the side canals, shown with FD-VCT, was detectable on conventional X-rays. In all cases the enamel and dentin of the teeth could be well delineated. No differences in image quality could be discerned between stored and freshly extracted teeth, or between primary and adult teeth. (orig.)

  2. Lower pole anatomy and mid-renal-zone classification applied to flexible ureteroscopy: experimental study using human three-dimensional endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroig, Bruno; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Fortes, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomy of the inferior pole collecting system and the mid-renal-zone classification in human endocasts applied to flexible ureteroscopy. 170 three-dimensional polyester resin endocasts of the kidney collecting system were obtained from 85 adult cadavers. We divided the endocasts into four groups: A1--kidney midzone (KM), drained by minor calices (mc) that are dependent on the superior or the inferior caliceal groups; A2--KM drained by crossed calices; B1--KM drained by a major caliceal group independent of both the superior and inferior groups; and B2--KM drained by mc entering directly into the renal pelvis. We studied the number of calices, the angle between the lower infundibulum and renal pelvis and the angle between the lower infundibulum and the inferior mc (LIICA). Means were statistically compared using ANOVA and the unpaired T test (p kidney midzone drained by minor calices that are dependent on the superior or on the inferior caliceal groups presented at least two restrictive anatomical features. The mid-renal-zone classification was predictive of anatomical risk factors for lower pole ureteroscopy difficulties.

  3. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  4. Pragmatic Frames for Teaching and Learning in Human-Robot Interaction: Review and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Wrede, Britta; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    One of the big challenges in robotics today is to learn from human users that are inexperienced in interacting with robots but yet are often used to teach skills flexibly to other humans and to children in particular. A potential route toward natural and efficient learning and teaching in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is to leverage the social competences of humans and the underlying interactional mechanisms. In this perspective, this article discusses the importance of pragmatic frames as flexible interaction protocols that provide important contextual cues to enable learners to infer new action or language skills and teachers to convey these cues. After defining and discussing the concept of pragmatic frames, grounded in decades of research in developmental psychology, we study a selection of HRI work in the literature which has focused on learning-teaching interaction and analyze the interactional and learning mechanisms that were used in the light of pragmatic frames. This allows us to show that many of the works have already used in practice, but not always explicitly, basic elements of the pragmatic frames machinery. However, we also show that pragmatic frames have so far been used in a very restricted way as compared to how they are used in human-human interaction and argue that this has been an obstacle preventing robust natural multi-task learning and teaching in HRI. In particular, we explain that two central features of human pragmatic frames, mostly absent of existing HRI studies, are that (1) social peers use rich repertoires of frames, potentially combined together, to convey and infer multiple kinds of cues; (2) new frames can be learnt continually, building on existing ones, and guiding the interaction toward higher levels of complexity and expressivity. To conclude, we give an outlook on the future research direction describing the relevant key challenges that need to be solved for leveraging pragmatic frames for robot learning and teaching.

  5. Felix Vicq d'Azyr: anatomy, medicine and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2007-02-01

    Félix Vicq d'Azyr was born in 1748 in the small town of Valognes, Normandy. He studied medicine in Paris but he was particularly impressed by the lectures given at the Jardin du Roi by the comparative anatomist Louis Daubenton and the surgeon Antoine Petit. In 1773, Vicq d'Azyr initiated a series of successful lectures on human and animal anatomy at the Paris Medical School, from which he received his medical degree in 1774. He was elected the same year at the Academy of Sciences at age 26, thanks to his outstanding contributions to comparative anatomy. Vicq d'Azyr became widely known after his successful management of a severe cattle plague that occurred in the southern part of France in 1774, an event that led to the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1778. As Permanent Secretary of this society, Vicq d'Azyr wrote several eulogies that were models of eloquence and erudition and worth him a seat at the French Academy in 1788. Vicq d'Azyr published in 1786 a remarkable anatomy and physiology treatise: a large in-folio that contained original descriptions illustrated by means of nature-sized, colored, human brain figures of a quality and exactitude never attained before. In 1789, Vicq d'Azyr was appointed physician to the Queen Marie-Antoinette and, in 1790, he presented to the Constituent Assembly a decisive plan to reform the teaching of medicine in France. Unfortunately, Vicq d'Azyr did not survive the turmoil of the French Revolution; he died at age 46 on June 20, 1794.

  6. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  7. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  8. Relevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondelinger, R.F.; Ghysels, M.P.; Brisbois, D.; Donkers, E.; Snaps, F.R.; Saunders, J.; Deviere, J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. (orig.)

  9. An Argument for Teaching a Human Sexuality Course within the Context of a Women and Gender Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Briana L.

    2012-01-01

    The course proposed is planned as an undergraduate Human Sexuality course within a Women and Gender Studies program. Teaching a course on Human Sexuality with an interdisciplinary approach allows for students to gain knowledge from several different academic disciplines. This course would teach from a sex-positive and holistic view of sexuality as…

  10. Clinically related anatomy for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of CT and MR imaging, delineation of malignancies and the shaping of radiation treatment fields have become much more precise. Treatment planning in more than one transverse plane is more widely practiced as the use of sophisticated computers grow. These developments emphasize the need for the physicist to have a basic knowledge of human anatomy. This course is designed to familiarize the clinical physicist with the gross anatomy and topographic landmarks used by the physician in planning three-dimensional radiation treatment volumes. The significance of the various anatomic structures and their related lymphatics in the spread of disease is discussed. Emphasis is placed on disease entities that pose particular problems due to overlying or nearby healthy structures at risk

  11. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  13. Interdisciplinary Teaching of Theatre and Human Rights in Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since spring 2012, the author has taught a 300-level Theatre and Human Rights class in the University of New Mexico Honors College. One of the centerpieces of honors education is careful research and thorough analysis of what is taught and why it is taught. In creating the honors class Theatre and Human Rights, the author explored how she would…

  14. Teaching through Trade Books: Humans and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2016-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. Elementary students are beginning to understand the Earth's natural processes and humans' impact on the Earth. Humans need the natural resources that the Earth produces, use these resources to develop civilizations, and make decisions to offset the damage they cause, as well as…

  15. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Re-living anatomy: medical student use of lecture capture

    OpenAIRE

    Diss, L; Sharp, A; Scott, F; Moore, L; Daniel, P; Memon, S; Smith, C

    2017-01-01

    Lecture capture resources have become common place within UK Higher education to enhance and support learning in addition to the tradition lecture. These resources can be particularly useful for medical students in anatomy teaching where time dedicated to anatomy within the curriculum has been reduced compared to previous generations(1).\\ud \\ud This study aimed to investigate how lecture capture aided student learning Qualitative feedback was also collected in view to further improve the reso...

  17. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. Inciting the Metric Oriented Humanist: Teaching Bibliometrics in a Faculty of Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann

    2016-01-01

    principles and practices associated with teaching bibliometrics to humanists, with the aim of encouraging students to reflect upon new indicators relevant to scholarly research outputs across the humanities. Emphasis is placed on the “biblio” in bibliometrics (i.e., books), digital record-keeping across...

  19. Is Queen Victoria Lecturing Today? Teaching Human Sexuality Using Famous Personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Andrea

    1987-01-01

    Describes a technique for teaching human sexuality in the undergraduate classroom in which the teacher portrays a famous person presenting sexuality topics from his or her perspective. Describes the content of several of these "guest lecturers." Explains the benefits and potential problems of the method. (AEM)

  20. An Approach to Teaching Ethics Courses in Human Services and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Gerald; Corey, Schneider Marianne; Callanan, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article presents multiple facets of a team approach to teaching and facilitating an ethics course for undergraduate human services students and a graduate ethics course for students majoring in counseling. Starting with general points, this article describes a specific, week-to-week approach to a 1-semester course, concluding with sample…

  1. Professional Learning in Human Resource Management: Problematising the Teaching of Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, V.; Holden, R.; Rae, J.; Lawless, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice are much discussed aspects of professional education. This paper conveys our efforts to problematise teaching reflective practice in human resources (HR) education. The research, on which the paper is based, engages with stakeholders involved in the professional learning and education of reflective practice in…

  2. A Comparative Study of Taoism and American Transcendentalism: A Humanities Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Nancy

    This teaching unit, designed for advanced high school students and average junior college students in a humanities oriented literature course, has one primary objective: to correlate similar thinking in two different time periods and locales. The philosophy of Taoism in ancient China and the philosophy of transcendentalism in nineteenth century…

  3. Development of a Teaching Methodology for Undergraduate Human Development in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Espinoza, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a teaching methodology for the undergraduate Psychology course Human Development II in a private university in Lima, Peru is described. The theoretical framework consisted of an integration of Citizen Science and Service Learning, with the application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), specifically Wikipedia and…

  4. Teaching Human Values in Pharmacy Education: Case Studies from the Classroom and the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    It is proposed that literature can contribute to the teaching of human values in pharmaceutical education. Two texts illustrating pertinent issues are examined, and the process and relevance of literature instruction in humanistic education are discussed. Where, when, and why to integrate literature into the pharmacy curriculum are also addressed.…

  5. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  6. Comparative Anatomy of the Subsynovial Connective Tissue in the Carpal Tunnel of the Rat, Rabbit, Dog, Baboon, and Human

    OpenAIRE

    Ettema, Anke M.; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    The tenosynovium in the human carpal tunnel is connected to the flexor tendons and the median nerve by the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). The most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve, is noninflammatory fibrosis of the SSCT. The relationship, if any, between the fibrosis and nerve pathology is unknown, although some have speculated that a change in the SSCT volume or stiffness might be the source of the compression. ...

  7. Development and evaluation of a hypermedia system that integrates basic concepts of mechanics, biomechanics and human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Rezende

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the modeling of a hypermedia learning system (called “Biomec” that integrates physical, biomechanical and anatomical concepts involved in the human motion and a study carried out with undergraduate students who interacted with the system. The instructional design of the “Biomec” hypermedia system was developed on the basis of a theoretical framework which articulates the Cognitive Flexibility Theory and the interdisciplinary approach to knowledge. The system was evaluated based on its use by students of Biomechanics I and Kinesiology in a Pre Service Teachers Training Course of Physical Education aiming to discuss the following questions: (i what is its impact on the students’ attitude related to Physics? (ii in what extent does the hypertextual approach to the content favor the interdisciplinary conception of human motion? (iii in what extent do the students’ navigation profiles adapt to conceptual needs of the different disciplines of the course? The students answered instruments that assessed affective and cognitive aspects before and after the interaction with the system, and had their navigation registered and analyzed. The set of data obtained allowed to conclude that the “Biomec” system is a relevant instructional material, capable of positively influence the students’ attitude related to Physics, to favor the interdisciplinary approach of human motion and to attend the students enrolled in Biomechanics I better than the students enrolled in Kinesiology.

  8. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Holladay, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  9. Teaching Negotiation Skills through Practice and Reflection with Virtual Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark; Traum, David; Lane, H. Chad; Swartout, William; Gratch, Jonathan; van Lent, Michael; Marsella, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Although the representation of physical environments and behaviors will continue to play an important role in simulation-based training, an emerging challenge is the representation of virtual humans...

  10. Astronomy Teaching through the Humanities: Literature, the Visual Arts and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.; Greenstein, George

    2004-12-01

    We will examine how the humanities -- the visual arts, science fiction, poetry, music, etc. -- can be used in teaching introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors. A number of instructors have found innovative ways to show how astronomy has a deep influence on other areas of human culture and how the humanities can illuminate our students' understanding of the universe. A few astronomers are also making original contributions at the interface of astronomy and the humanities. The panel of speakers for the session will consists of: Gregory Benford (U. of California, Irvine): Using Science Fiction to Teach Astronomy: Promise and Pitfalls William Hartmann (Planetary Science Institute): Science and Art in the Classroom Andrew Fraknoi (Foothill College & A.S.P.): The Humanities in the Astronomy Classroom: Activities and Projects George Greenstein (Amherst College) will be the session moderator. Time will be set aside for brief summaries of the poster papers associated with this session and for discussion. Participants will receive a resource guide to using the humanities for astronomy teaching.

  11. A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: the anatomy of a modern pandemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci D. Bilbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The field of autism research is currently divided based on a fundamental question regarding the nature of autism: Some are convinced that autism is a pandemic of modern culture, with environmental factors at the roots. Others are convinced that the disease is not pandemic in nature, but rather that it has been with humanity for millennia, with its biological and neurological underpinnings just now being understood. Objective: In this review, two lines of reasoning are examined which suggest that autism is indeed a pandemic of modern culture. First, given the widely appreciated derailment of immune function by modern culture, evidence that autism is strongly associated with aberrant immune function is examined. Second, evidence is reviewed indicating that autism is associated with ‘triggers’ that are, for the most part, a construct of modern culture. In light of this reasoning, current epidemiological evidence regarding the incidence of autism, including the role of changing awareness and diagnostic criteria, is examined. Finally, the potential role of the microbial flora (the microbiome in the pathogenesis of autism is discussed, with the view that the microbial flora is a subset of the life associated with the human body, and that the entire human biome, including both the microbial flora and the fauna, has been radically destabilized by modern culture. Conclusions: It is suggested that the unequivocal way to resolve the debate regarding the pandemic nature of autism is to perform an experiment: monitor the prevalence of autism after normalizing immune function in a Western population using readily available approaches that address the well-known factors underlying the immune dysfunction in that population.

  12. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  13. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  14. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  15. A multidisciplinary framework for (teaching) human product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; van der Bijl-Brouwer, Mieke; Boks, C.; McMahon, C.; Ion, W.; Parkinson, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a framework for dealing with the complexity of human-product relationships. The actual framework is a matrix of design perspectives, with three cooperating disciplines on the one hand and three levels of abstraction on the other hand. Basis of the framework is the notion

  16. The Contemplative Life and the Teaching of the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Meditation nowadays plays a part in mind/body medicine and in some branches of educational psychology. In ancient and medieval times, these functions formed a part of the humanities curriculum as it was taught in philosophical schools, monastic communities, and universities. This article claims that it is by returning to a holistic view of the…

  17. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  18. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  19. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  20. Teaching Humanities at the National University of la Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Leopoldo E

    2003-10-01

    In this article the author begins by giving a brief history of medical education in Argentina, then provides some background information on the National University of La Plata. He describes two major initiatives at La Plata: a new and pioneering admission policy (implemented in 1993) and a change in the number of hours and years in the curriculum. He then looks back to the introduction in 1976 of La Plata's medical humanities program. Over its 20 year existence, the program has undergone a number of changes in response both to students' interests and financial concerns. The revised humanities curriculum now consists of four elective courses: medicine and literature, anthropology, history of medicine, and "medical kalology" (which focuses on music and dance). Unfortunately, the program, while it has been well received by both students and faculty and has inspired programs at other Argentinean schools, is threatened by Argentina's economic crisis.

  1. Novel Application of Postmortem CT Angiography for Evaluation of the Intracranial Vascular Anatomy in Cadaver Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van der Zwan, Albert; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Regli, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem CT angiography is a common procedure used to visualize the entire human vasculature. For visualization of a specific organ's vascular anatomy, casting is the preferred method. Because of the permanent and damaging nature of casting, the organ cannot be further used as an experimental model after angiography. Therefore, there is a need for a minimally traumatic method to visualize organ-specific vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a contrast enhancement technique that is capable of visualizing the intracranial vascular anatomy while preserving the anatomic integrity in cadaver heads. Seven human heads were used in this study. Heads were prepared by cannulating the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Contrast agent was injected as a mixture of tap water, polyethylene glycol 600, and an iodinated contrast agent. Postmortem imaging was executed on a 64-MDCT scanner. Primary image review and 3D reconstruction were performed on a CT workstation. Clear visualization of the major cerebral arteries and smaller intracranial branches was achieved. Adequate visualization was obtained for both the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation. The minimally traumatic angiography method preserved the vascular integrity of the cadaver heads. A novel application of postmortem CT angiography is presented here. The technique can be used for radiologic evaluation of the intracranial circulation in cadaver heads. After CT angiography, the specimen can be used for further experimental or laboratory testing and teaching purposes.

  2. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. Susanne; Durward, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  3. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  5. Aportaciones del Alumnado al estado actual de la calidad de la docencia en Anatomía Student’s contribution to the current situation of the teaching quality evaluation in anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Prada

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el presente trabajo nos hemos planteado el desarrollo de un sistema de recogida de información acerca de las expectativas y valencias en la docencia universitaria en los alumnos. Para ello hemos diseñado una encuesta específica donde se analizan los aspectos concretos que intervienen en el aprendizaje de la Anatomía, así como el valor subjetivo que el Alumno aporta a los mismos. De los resultados obtenidos hemos extraído el concepto de "Calidad referida" que es aquella que perciben los Alumnos. Los factores que los Alumnos piensan que dan Calidad a la enseñanza, como receptores finales del sistema, difieren de los aspectos contextuales que las actuales encuestas estudian. Consideramos que las opiniones del Alumnado no quedan suficientemente expuestas en la redacción actual de las encuestas, a pesar de que suponen un poderoso elemento de retroalimentación en la mejora de la calidad. Sobre la base de nuestro criterio de "Calidad referida" los Alumnos definen más claramente los aspectos relevantes que afectan al aprendizaje. Para ello pensamos que las encuestas deben ser específicas bajo las peculiaridades de cada área de conocimiento. Los resultados de dichas encuestas probablemente serían más útiles para los Docentes, a los que aportaría un conocimiento cierto de las expectativas del Alumnado.In the present work we confront the development of a capture information system about the Student values and expectations in the universitary teaching. Thus, we designed a specific questionnaire accordingly to an analyse of the concrete items that affects Anatomy learning. The Students expressed the subjective importance that the items had in the learning. According to the results, we reported the concept of "referred quality" as the Student awareness quality. The Students are the final receptors of teaching, and they showed many different factors related to the quality. These factors were different to those studied in the usual

  6. Teaching medical humanities in the digital world: affordances of technology-enhanced learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sandra Joy; Day, Giskin

    2014-12-01

    Medical humanities courses are typically taught in face-to-face teaching environments, but now medical humanities educators, alongside educators from other disciplines, are facing shifts in higher education towards online (and sometimes open) courses. For the medical humanities educator, there is limited guidance regarding how technology-enhanced learning design can support the learning outcomes associated with medical humanities. This article aims to provide useful direction for such educators on how digital technologies can be used through learner-focused pedagogies. Specific examples are provided as to how the affordances of Web 2.0 and other tools can be realised in innovative ways to help achieve skills development within the medical humanities. The guidance, alongside the practical suggestions for implementation, can provide important conceptual background for medical humanities educators who wish to embrace technology-enhanced learning, and reconceptualise or redesign medical humanities for an online or blended teaching environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Orientar la asignatura de Anatomía y Fisiología hacia las competencias profesionales de enfermería: Propuesta de un proyecto docente Orienting the subjects of anatomy and physiology to nursing professional competence: A teaching proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Falcó Pegueroles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la anatomía y la fisiología del cuerpo humano forma parte de las materias básicas e imprescindibles en la formación de los profesionales de la salud. Sin embargo, las competencias profesionales de la enfermería actual, el entorno sanitario, y la interrelación con otras materias del currículum, establecen unas necesidades de formación muy específicas en el campo de la anatomía, la fisiología, y la bioquímica. En la actualidad, muchos de los proyectos docentes relativos a estas materias que se imparten en las Escuelas universitarias de Enfermería están diseñados a partir de un modelo tradicional que introduce con éxito al alumno en los conceptos anatómicos y fisiológicos más importantes y fundamentales del cuerpo humano, sin duda, pero no permite a éste integrarlos con el resto de asignaturas ni asegurar el aprendizaje de contenidos útiles y necesarios desde un punto de vista práctico. El presente artículo analiza los factores que explican este desajuste entre los contenidos de la asignatura de anatomía y fisiología y las necesidades de formación; también expone un proyecto docente que orienta los contenidos y los métodos pedagógicos a estas exigencias de formación en enfermería; y busca compartir con otros docentes la experiencia de creación y ejecución de un proyecto de estas características en un momento de transformación académica con motivo de la integración del sistema universitario español al espacio europeo de enseñanza superior.The study of anatomy and physiology of the human body is an essential part in the education of all health professionals. However, the professional competence in today’s nursing, the health environment, and their interrelation with other subjects in the nursing curriculum require very specific educational needs in the field of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Nowadays, most of the teaching projects on this subject at nursing university schools are designed

  8. Building Virtual Models by Postprocessing Radiology Images: A Guide for Anatomy Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D. B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiology and radiologists are recognized as increasingly valuable resources for the teaching and learning of anatomy. State-of-the-art radiology department workstations with industry-standard software applications can provide exquisite demonstrations of anatomy, pathology, and more recently, physiology. Similar advances in personal computers and…

  9. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  10. Practicing Handoffs Early: Applying a Clinical Framework in the Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Dos Santos, Jason A.; Haidet, Paul M.; Whitcomb, Tiffany L.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy laboratory provides an ideal environment for the integration of clinical contexts as the willed-donor is often regarded as a student's "first patient." This study evaluated an innovative approach to peer teaching in the anatomy laboratory using a clinical handoff context. The authors introduced the "Situation,…

  11. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anatomy Learning: Learning Styles and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Barry S.; Xu, Qin; Jin, Lixian; Patten, Debra; Gouldsborough, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Cultural influences on anatomy teaching and learning have been investigated by application of a questionnaire to medical students in British and Chinese Medical Schools. Results from the responses from students of the two countries were analyzed. Both groups found it easier to understand anatomy in a clinical context, and in both countries,…

  12. Using Independent Research Projects to Foster Learning in the Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…

  13. Development of a Supported Self-Directed Learning Approach for Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlater, Gordon S.; Kristmundsdottir, Fanney; Parson, Simon H.; Gillingwater, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deliver sufficient core anatomical knowledge and understanding to medical students with limited time and resources remains a major challenge for anatomy educators. Here, we report the results of switching from a primarily didactic method of teaching to supported self-directed learning for students studying anatomy as part of…

  14. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  15. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Teaching Human Rights from Below: Towards Solidarity, Resistance and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Canlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss our approaches, pedagogies, and practices for a weekly human rights club that serves immigrant and refugee youth.  The research team is involved in a research collaboration with a public high school in a large urban area on the West Coast.  In this article, we discuss some of our curricular and pedagogical strategies and students’ responses to lesson plans and activities that aimed to build solidarity, resistance to dominant and assimilative narratives, and action towards social justice.  Our approach focuses on intersecting a transforamtive human rights perspective with the praxes of critical pedagogies and social justice.  This article discusses a radical approach to teaching Human Rights along three key themes: student-centered human rights pedagogy, cultural wealth and HRE, and students’ articulation of human rights language into action.

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  20. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Nuevas metodologías docentes aplicadas al estudio de la fisiología y la anatomía: estudio comparativo con el método tradicional Novel methodologies applied to Physiology and Anatomy teaching: comparison with traditional teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gal-Iglesias

    2009-06-01

    paradigm in Europe is a methodological challenge due to the curricular complexity and specific competencies profiles involved. Aims. To evaluate a mixed methodology in the Physiology and Anatomy teaching aimed to measure knowledge and competencies. We also propose an evaluation scale to score learning. Subjects and methods. Data were gathered from a control group (classical methodology: lectures which was compared with an experimental group (mixed methodology: problem-based learning (PBL, clinical cases, team working and lectures in the Podiatric School at the Universidad Europea de Madrid. Knowledge was measured with multiple choice exams and PBL, clinical cases and team working evaluation. Results. We show that the students gain knowledge and competences during the academic course using a new mixed methodology for teaching. In contrast to the control group, knowledge in the experimental group stabilizes over the academic course making individual differences between the students insignificant. This homogenization becomes evident as a lower variability of the average scores of the experimental group and gives support to the value of a mixed methodology for students with more difficulties. There is a strong linear regression between class attendance and exam scores, confirming the importance of face-to-face supervision for learning. Conclusions. A mixed methodology for Physiology and Anatomy teaching allows the students to acquire abilities and competencies, also helping to equilibrate individual differences during the learning process.

  2. Toward a unified method for analysing and teaching Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    , drawing on key theories and methods from both communications- and interaction-theory. The aim is to provide a single unified method for analysing interaction, through means of video analysis and then applying theories, with proven mutual compatibility, to reach a desired granularity of study.......This abstract aims to present key aspect of a future paper, which outlines the ongoing development ofa unified method for analysing and teaching Human-Robot-Interaction. The paper will propose a novel method for analysing both HRI, interaction with other forms of technologies and fellow humans...

  3. 3D printed reproductions of orbital dissections: a novel mode of visualising anatomy for trainees in ophthalmology or optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Paxton, Lisa; Dawes, Kathryn; Burlak, Kateryna; Quayle, Michelle; McMenamin, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    The teaching of human head, neck and orbital anatomy forms a critical part of undergraduate and postgraduate medical and allied health professional training, including optometry. While still largely grounded in cadaveric dissection, this method of instruction is constrained in some countries and regional areas by access to real human cadavers, costs of cadaver bequest programmes, health and safety of students and staff and the shortage of adequate time in modern curricula. Many candidates choosing a postgraduate pathway in ophthalmological training, such as those accepted into the Royal Colleges of Ophthalmology in the UK, Australia and New Zealand programmes and the American Academy of Ophthalmologists in the USA, are compelled as adult learners to revise or revisit human orbital anatomy, ocular anatomy and select areas of head and neck anatomy. These candidates are often then faced with the issue of accessing facilities with dissected human cadaveric material. In light of these difficulties, we developed a novel means of creating high-resolution reproductions of prosected human cadaver orbits suitable for education and training. 3D printed copies of cadaveric orbital dissections (superior, lateral and medial views) showing a range of anatomical features were created. These 3D prints offer many advantages over plastinated specimens as they are suitable for rapid reproduction and as they are not human tissue they avoid cultural and ethical issues associated with viewing cadaver specimens. In addition, they are suitable for use in the office, home, laboratory or clinical setting in any part of the world for patient and doctor education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  5. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  6. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  7. Medical Humanities Teaching in North American Allopathic and Osteopathic Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-11-07

    Although the AAMC requires annual reporting of medical humanities teaching, most literature is based on single-school case reports and studies using information reported on schools' websites. This study sought to discover what medical humanities is offered in North American allopathic and osteopathic undergraduate medical schools. An 18-question, semi-structured survey was distributed to all 146 (as of June 2016) member schools of the American Association of Medical Colleges and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. The survey sought information on required and elective humanities content, hours of humanities instruction, types of disciplines, participation rates, and humanities administrative structure. The survey was completed by 134 schools (145 AAMC; 31 AACOM). 70.8% of schools offered required and 80.6% offered electives in humanities. Global health and writing were the most common disciplines. Schools required 43.9 mean (MD 45.4; DO 37.1) and 30 (MD 29; DO 37.5) median hours in humanities. In the first two years, most humanities are integrated into other course work; most electives are offered as stand-alone classes. 50.0% of schools report only 0-25% of students participating in humanities electives. Presence of a certificate, concentration or arts journal increased likelihood of humanities content but decreased mean hours. Schools with a medical humanities MA had a higher number of required humanities hours. Medical humanities content in undergraduate curriculum is lower than is indicated in the AAMC annual report. Schools with a formal structure have a greater humanities presence in the curriculum and are taken by more students.

  8. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Yang Xiaoqing; Zhu Haihua; Kong Weiwei; Zhu Jiaming; Li Guozhao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design and program the multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment. Methods: By collecting the teaching material and images of 'imaging anatomy', the images were obtained with digital cameras and scanners, and processed with graphic software, and then the multimedia didactic courseware was archived with Dreamweaver MX. Results: Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy with friendly interface for network environment had been completed. Reliable, stable, and flexible operation in campus network and Internet environment was achieved. Conclusion: Being not conditioned by time and space factor, multimedia didactic courseware for network environment with an abundance of information and more freedom in teaching and studying, which saves manpower and material resources and makes an effective disposal of educational resources, will have broad prospects to develop. (authors)

  10. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  11. 3D digital anatomy modelling - Practical or pretty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgitroyd, Ellen; Madurska, Marta; Gonzalez, Jasmina; Watson, Angus

    2015-06-01

    With an increasing move towards digitalisation of medical records and medical teaching, such as online exams and webinars, one of the questions that persists asks 'is there a place for digital anatomy teaching and can it effectively replace the traditional teaching methods such as cadaveric dissection?' Cadaveric dissection has a number of benefits as a teaching method but it also has its limitations. Although these can be partially addressed by prosections and new more "life-like" fixatives, it does not address the lack of resources and the increasing pressure to be able to study and learn at home. This paper reviews the literature with regards to the suitability of digital models for teaching and the wider uses a 3D digital anatomy model could have, such as postgraduate teaching, patient education and surgical planning. It also looks briefly at the learning model that anatomy as art contributes. The literature has scattered examples of digital models used for teaching at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, which demonstrate a number of positive outcomes, mostly surrounding user satisfaction and convenience. 3D modelling for patient education and operation planning has less exploration, and these papers generate a number of discussion points, mostly surrounding the practicality of digital models, which can be more time consuming and require the technology to be widely available and reliable. 3D digital anatomy is a useful adjunct to teaching and its use in patient education and operation planning have interesting possibilities still to be fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  14. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  16. Factors that affect medical students' performance in Anatomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Much attention has been drawn to the area of medical education in contemporary times with the aim of developing effective teaching strategies in our medical schools. Objectives: To identify the problems encountered by students in the study of Anatomy and suggest ways of enhancing their performance in the ...

  17. Humanizing Teaching English to Young Learners with Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Ghosn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High quality children’s fiction can be used in the young learner classroom to advance the broader social intent of language education and humanize it, while enriching language learning. Children are naturally drawn to picturebooks, which can provide a highly motivating and engaging instructional medium in pre-primary and lower primary classes. Short, illustrated chapter books can be used with intermediate level learners. Children’s literature not only enhances language learning, as proven by extensive research, but it can also nurture moral reasoning skills, emotional intelligence and empathy, as well as help children work through difficult issues. Language teaching tasks around literature can further these goals. This paper argues that quality children’s literature, therefore, has a rightful place in teaching English to young learners, and no less so in the very young learner classes that are becoming increasingly common in many parts of the world.

  18. The name cranial ovarian suspensory ligaments in mammalian anatomy should be used only to indicate the structures derived from the foetal cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot (P.)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe term ovarian suspensory ligament appears ambiguous when human adult anatomy textbooks are compared with human embryology or with general mammalian anatomy textbooks. The term ovarian suspensory ligament in laboratory rodents and domestic animals indicates homologous structures during

  19. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  20. You and Me and Human Sexuality: A Student Booklet Written for Deaf Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas School for the Deaf, Austin.

    This student booklet, designed to teach deaf adolescents about human sexuality, is written for students with a second- to fourth-grade reading level. Topics include: (1) relationships; (2) adolescent growth and development; (3) female and male anatomy; (4) conception, fetal development, and birth; (5) contraception; and (6) sexual intercourse and…