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Sample records for human anatomy students

  1. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  2. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  3. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  4. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  5. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  6. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATED HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY COURSE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Bryant*1, Manjunatha Goud BK2, Anand Srinivasan3 and Vijayalakshmi SB3

    2016-01-01

    Human Anatomy and Physiology is an important core component for all allied healthcare professional education. At our university, we offer an integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology course (HAP) to the first year Pharmacy students. The main objective of this study was to ascertain and compare Pharmacy undergraduate students’ opinions and attitudes towards the integrated course of human anatomy and physiology. A pre-validated questionnaire was given to students of first year pharma...

  7. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  8. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  9. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  10. Mixed Methods Student Evaluation of an Online Systemic Human Anatomy Course with Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M.; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A.

    2016-01-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a…

  11. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  12. The use of computers to teach human anatomy and physiology to allied health and nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Valerie J.

    Educational institutions are under tremendous pressure to adopt the newest technologies in order to prepare their students to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. For the last twenty years huge amounts of money have been spent on computers, printers, software, multimedia projection equipment, and so forth. A reasonable question is, "Has it worked?" Has this infusion of resources, financial as well as human, resulted in improved learning? Are the students meeting the intended learning goals? Any attempt to develop answers to these questions should include examining the intended goals and exploring the effects of the changes on students and faculty. This project investigated the impact of a specific application of a computer program in a community college setting on students' attitudes and understanding of human anatomy and physiology. In this investigation two sites of the same community college with seemingly similar students populations, seven miles apart, used different laboratory activities to teach human anatomy and physiology. At one site nursing students were taught using traditional dissections and laboratory activities; at the other site two of the dissections, specifically cat and sheep pluck, were replaced with the A.D.A.M.RTM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) computer program. Analysis of the attitude data indicated that students at both sites were extremely positive about their laboratory experiences. Analysis of the content data indicated a statistically significant difference in performance between the two sites in two of the eight content areas that were studied. For both topics the students using the computer program scored higher. A detailed analysis of the surveys, interviews with faculty and students, examination of laboratory materials, and observations of laboratory facilities in both sites, and cost-benefit analysis led to the development of seven recommendations. The recommendations call for action at the level of the

  13. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.

  14. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  16. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  17. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  18. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  19. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Students helping students: Evaluating a pilot program of peer teaching for an undergraduate course in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A; Love Green, Jennifer K; Illerbrun, Sara L; Holness, Duncan A; Illerbrun, Samantha J; Haus, Kara A; Poirier, Sylvianne M; Sveinson, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on the number of peer teaching sessions they attended: nonattendees (0 sessions), infrequently attended (1-3 sessions), and frequently attended (≥ 4 sessions). After controlling for academic preparedness [i.e., admission grade point average (AGPA)] using an analysis of covariance, the final grades of frequent attendees were significantly higher than those of nonattendees (P = 0.025) and infrequent attendees (P = 0.015). A multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative independent contribution of several variables in predicting the final grade. The results suggest that frequent attendance (β = 0.245, P = 0.007) and AGPA (β = 0.555, P < 0.001) were significant positive predictors, while being a first-year student (β = -0.217, P = 0.006) was a significant negative predictor. Collectively, these results suggest that attending a certain number of sessions may be required to gain a noticeable benefit from the program, and that first-year students (particularly those with a lower level of academic preparedness) would likely stand to benefit from maximally using the program. End-of-semester surveys and reports indicate that the program had several additional benefits, both to the students taking the course and to the students who served as program leaders. Published 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M

    2016-11-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P < 0.001, effect size d = -0.32) and 0.3% lower, respectively, with DAVR available compared to previous years. However, there were positive correlations between students' cadaveric anatomy question scores with the number and total time of DAVR viewed (Y2, r = 0.171, 0.090, P = 0.002, n.s., respectively; and Y3, r = 0.257, 0.253, both P < 0.001). Students accessing all DAVR scored 7.2% and 11.8% higher than those accessing none (Y2, P = 0.015, d = 0.48; and Y3, P = 0.005, d = 0.77, respectively). Further development and promotion of DAVR are needed to improve engagement and learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  3. An Empirical Study of Neural Network-Based Audience Response Technology in a Human Anatomy Course for Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training.

  4. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  5. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  6. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  7. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  8. Use of an audience response system during peer teaching among physical therapy students in human gross anatomy: perceptions of peer teachers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Kevin R; Cloud, Beth A; Forster, Lindsey A; Jones, Tiffany M; Nokleby, Jessica J; Wolfe, Cortney R; Youdas, James W

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals. The unique feature of each peer teaching session was a nongraded 12-15 item ARS quiz assembled by six second-year doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students and purposely placed at the beginning of the review session for those first-year DPT students in attendance. This study used a ten-item questionnaire and a five-point Likert scale in addition to three open ended questions to survey perceptions of both first-year and second-year DPT students about the usefulness of ARS technology implemented during weekly interactive peer teaching sessions during a semester course in Anatomy for Physical Therapists. First-year students overwhelmingly acknowledged the ARS system permitted each student to self-assess his/her preparedness for a quiz or examination and compare his/her performance with that of classmates. Peer teachers recognized an ARS quiz provided them an opportunity to: (1) estimate first-year students' level of understanding of anatomical concepts; and (2) effectively prepare first-year students for their weekly quizzes and future examinations. On the basis of the mutual benefits derived by both students/tutees and teachers/tutors, physical therapist educators may wish to consider using ARS technology to enhance teaching methods for a class in gross human anatomy.

  9. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...

  10. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics.

  11. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  12. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  13. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention. Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators…

  15. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  16. TEACHING ANATOMY TO UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  17. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  18. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  19. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  20. Methods to learn human anatomy: perceptions of medical students in paraclinical and clinical phases regarding cadaver dissection and other learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyee Mutalik

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Perception of knowledge by an individual student is different based on the individual primary mental abilities. Therefore, some individuals may show better learning by particular methods. Hence a blend of different methodologies to teach a subject is helpful for majority of the students. In the teaching of human gross anatomy too, a combination of different methods has been in use. However, in the era of decrease in course duration, high and ldquo;student:cadaver ratio and rdquo;, and easy availability of newer technologies, there is a need to review the priorities and preferences of the methods or to find out different ways to use the existing methods to increase their effectiveness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2536-2541

  1. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  2. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  3. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  4. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  5. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans , and physician competencies , because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be...

  6. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  7. Cat dissection vs. sculpting human structures in clay: an analysis of two approaches to undergraduate human anatomy laboratory education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R; Van Meter, Peggy; Perrotti, William; Drogo, Salvatore; Cyr, Richard J

    2005-03-01

    Many human anatomy courses are taught using cat dissection. Alternatives are available, but information regarding learning outcomes is incomplete. In 2003, approximately 120 undergraduates enrolled in a human anatomy course were assigned to one of two treatment groups. In the control group, students performed cat dissections (emphasizing isolation and identification) of the muscular, digestive, and cardiovascular systems. In the experimental treatment group, students built clay sculptures of each human body system. Student learning was evaluated by using both low- and high-difficulty questions. On pre- and postexperiment control exams, there were no significant differences in student performance. On exams after a cat dissection vs. a human-clay sculpting experience, the students in the human-clay sculpting treatment group scored significantly higher than their classmates in the cat dissection group on both the low- and high-difficulty questions. Student attitudes toward dissection and taking future human anatomy courses were also measured. There were no differences in student attitudes at the beginning of the experiment; afterward, students exposed to a cat dissection experience viewed dissection more favorably than students in the human-clay sculpting treatment group. There were no treatment effects on student willingness to take future human anatomy courses. The experimental design makes it difficult to conclude precisely why students assigned to the human-clay sculpting experience performed better on exams, but as each method was performed in this particular human anatomy course, our data indicate that human-clay sculpting may be a viable alternative to cat dissection in an anatomy course in which the students focus on human anatomy.

  8. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J.; Mohseni, B. Tanya; Hill, Derek C.; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A.; Leo, Jonathan T.; Langley, Natalie R.

    2017-01-01

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group…

  9. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  10. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  11. Functional anatomy of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágothai, J

    1993-01-01

    The outlines of an investigation into side differences between the Planum temporale (The Geschwind-Levitzky areas) of ten human brains are given. Volume of this area and cell numbers are clearly asymmetric, the left side being consequently larger by 38-34% over the same area at right. Cell density (cell No/volume) is virtually the same on both sides. Some comments upon the data are being made.

  12. Structure and Anatomy of the Human Pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E Rene; Tan, Carmela D

    The normal gross anatomy and light microscopy of the human pericardium are presented in detail that allows easy correlation with current cardiac imaging modalities. The anatomical structures of the parietal pericardium are shown from its mediastinal surface, including its ligaments to the sternum, diaphragm and vertebral column. The attachments of the parietal pericardium to the great vessels showing the intrapericardial location of the root of the aorta and pulmonary artery are documented. Also the attachments of the parietal pericardium to the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins are illustrated in detail. The internal anatomy of the parietal pericardium emphasizing the oblique and transverse sinuses is explained. The microscopic differences between the structures of the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium (epicardium) are shown as the basis that allows understanding the spectrum of adaptation of the pericardium to diverse pathologic processes. However, the pathology of the pericardium is not discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  14. The development and evaluation of the use of a virtual learning environment (Blackboard 5) to support the learning of pre-qualifying nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sue M; Weaver, Mike; Voegeli, David; Fitzsimmons, Debs; Knowles, Jess; Harrison, Maureen; Shephard, Kerry

    2006-07-01

    Students commence nurse education with varying levels of understanding of human anatomy and physiology due to a wide range of previous exposure to the topic. All students, however, are required to attain a broad knowledge of this topic prior to qualification. This paper describes the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), Blackboard 5, and the associated development of appropriate resources aimed at supporting nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module at Higher Education Level 1. The VLE was used as part of a blended learning approach. The results suggested that the majority of students utilised the VLE throughout the academic year. Opportunities for independent and self-directed learning were available in that students chose when and where to learn. Students generally commented favourably on ease of use and type of resources available. Frequency of use of the VLE, however, did not correlate strongly with the final examination mark achieved. Overall the VLE and the associated available resources appeared useful in supporting student learning and has been adopted for use in subsequent years.

  15. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  16. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  17. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  18. Audio-Tutorial Project: An Audio-Tutorial Approach to Human Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Joseph N.; And Others

    A two course sequence on human anatomy and physiology using the audiotutorial method of instruction was developed for use by nursing students and other students in the health or medical fields at the Kingsborough Community College in New York. The project was motivated by the problems of often underprepared students coming to learn a new field and…

  19. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  20. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  1. Meeting the family: promoting humanism in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Sheila M; O'Donoghue, Dan; Vannatta, Jerry B; Thompson, Britta M

    2012-01-01

    Human dissection commonly occurs early in the undergraduate medical school curriculum, thus presenting an immediate opportunity for educators to teach and encourage humanistic qualities of respect, empathy, and compassion. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the Donor Luncheon, a unique program in which medical students meet the families of the anatomical donor prior to dissection in the anatomy course at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine. Students were randomized into groups of 8 to attend the luncheon and either met with family of the donor or attended the luncheon with no donor family present. A questionnaire measured students' attitudes at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and at the conclusion of the anatomy course. Factor analysis revealed 5 scales. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences across time for Donor as Person, Dissection Process, and Donor as Patient and statistically significant differences between groups for Donor as Person and Donor as Patient. These results suggest that this program can provide students with the opportunity to maintain more humanistic attitudes at the beginning of their medical education career.

  2. Human anatomy teaching to the minority medical students in higher medical vocational education%高职高专少数民族医学生人体解剖学教学方法的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝霞; 朱平; 张卫光

    2007-01-01

    人体解剖学是高职高专医学教育中的一门重要基础课程,人体解剖学教学方法的研究对于提高该学科的教学质量具有重要意义.本文针对少数民族地区医学生的特点,在几年的高职高专人体解剖学教学中总结出几种行之有效的教学方法,提出在高职高专少数民族医学生人体邋解剖学教学过程中,要注重少数民族医学生学习兴趣及主观能动性的培养,因材施教,采用启发讨论式教学,注重实验,增加实践机会,以期提高少数民族医学生人体解剖学教学质量,增强人体解剖学教学效果.%Human anatomy is an important elementary course in higher medical vocational education.To study its teaching method is a necessity to increase its quality.According to the character of minority medical students,we summarized several effective teaching methods,including paying attention to cultivate the studying interest and positive motivation of minority medical students in the process of anatomy teaching,teaching students in accordance with their aptitude,using heuristic and discussion method,emphasizing experiment to have more opportunity for students'practice et al.In a word,our goal is to improve the teaching quality and effect of minority medical students in human anatomy teaching in higher medical vocational education.

  3. The anatomy room: a positive learning experience for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Garvey, A; Hickey, A; Conroy, R

    2015-01-01

    Management of death and dying is an important aspect of nursing practice. Many nursing students have not been exposed to death prior to their commencement in nurse education and typically do not encounter dying and death until their clinical experience begins. To examine the effects and impact of exposure of nursing students to an anatomy room for anatomy teaching compared with students taught anatomy in a laboratory using plastic anatomical specimens. Two groups of first year nursing students were surveyed; one group received tuition in anatomy using plastic specimens and the second group used dissected cadavers. Questionnaires were administered before and immediately after the first teaching experience and again 9 weeks later. Students studying anatomy using cadaveric specimens were more apprehensive of subsequent visits to the anatomy room. However, after 9 weeks there was no significant difference when compared to students using plastic specimens. The students using cadavers felt significantly more stressed and reported significantly more symptoms than those using plastic specimens after their first lesson. There was no significant difference in stress levels and symptom reporting between the groups after 9 weeks. While a large proportion of the students using both cadavers (97%) and plastic specimens (88%) found their learning experiences positive, 43% of the respondents using cadavers stated that as a result of this experience they felt more prepared to deal with death in a hospital and that they were happy to see death in a stress free environment. The responses from the group using plastic specimens were positive as essentially they had found the theory easier to learn. The results suggest that learning anatomy using cadavers is a beneficial learning experience and could be a valuable way to encounter death for the first time in a protected environment rather than in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  5. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  6. Medical Students' Assessment of Eduard Pernkopf's Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Demetrius M; Peitzman, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    To date, there has been no study examining the perceptions of first-year medical students regarding Eduard Pernkopf's atlas, particularly during their study of gross anatomy and prior to coursework in medical ethics. We present a discussion of Pernkopf's Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man from the perspective of U.S. medical students, and sought to determine whether medical students view Pernkopf's Topographical Anatomy of Man as a resource of greater accuracy, detail, and potential educational utility as compared to Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy. The entire first-year class at Drexel University College of Medicine (265 students) was surveyed at approximately the midpoint of their gross anatomy course and 192 responses were collected (72% response rate). Of these, 176 (95%) were unaware of the existence of Pernkopf's atlas. Another 71% of students found the Pernkopf atlas more likely complete and accurate, whereas 76% thought the Netter atlas more useful for learning (pmedical school bioethics course. The relationship between level of self-reported knowledge and whether or not students would advocate removal of the atlas was statistically significant (p=.013). Discussing ethical violations in medical history, especially the Pernkopf atlas, must attain a secure place in medical school curricula, and more specifically, within a bioethics course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation on medical students' attitudes towards body donation and human anatomy practicum%医学生对遗体捐献及人体解剖学实习态度的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晗洁; 张鹏; 李震中; 樊平

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查当前人体解剖学教学遗体的使用情况及医学生对遗体捐献和解剖实习课的态度,为人体解剖学教学提供建议.方法 对河北医科大学300名在校生进行现场问卷调查,对所得数据进行对比分析.结果 解剖实习课教学用尸体数量严重不足,直接影响解剖教学质量;医学生对解剖实习课态度欠佳,对遗体捐献了解程度较低;影响遗体捐献的主要因素是传统观念、缺乏人文关怀和遗体捐献程序复杂.结论 应对遗体捐献工作加强宣传、做好人文关怀;简化捐献程序、加强立法,以缓解解剖实习课尸源不足;通过教学改革提高学生解剖课实习兴趣及人文素养.%Objective To investigate the current application of teaching cadavers and attitudes of medical students towards body donation and anatomy practicum and to make proposals on teaching and learning of human anatomy.Methods A on the spot questionnaire survey among 300 students studying in Hebei Medical University was conducted and the acquired data were contrasted analyzed.Results The teaching cadavers were insufficient and the quality of anatomy education was directly affected.Medical students took unfavorable attitudes towards anatomy practice and knew little about body donation.The main factors affected body donations were traditional concepts,lack of humanistic concern and complicated procedures of donation.Conclusions The short of teaching cadavers would be relieved by enhancing propaganda and legislation,emphasizing humanistic concern,simplifying procedures of donation.By means of anatomy teaching reformations,the learning interest and humanistic literacy of medical students are supposed to be improved.

  8. Perceptions among Occupational and Physical Therapy Students of a Nontraditional Methodology for Teaching Laboratory Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. Jackson; Denham, Bryan E.; Dinolfo, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the perceptions of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students regarding the use of computer-assisted pedagogy and prosection-oriented communications in the laboratory component of a human anatomy course at a comprehensive health sciences university in the southeastern United States. The…

  9. An Audience Response System May Influence Student Performance on Anatomy Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Amy; McNulty, John A.; Gruener, Gregory; Chandrasekhar, Arcot; Espiritu, Baltazar; Ensminger, David; Price, Ron, Jr.; Naheedy, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This study integrated an in-house audience response system (ARS) in the human anatomy course over two years to determine whether students performed better on high-stakes examinations following exposure to similar interactive questions in a large lecture format. Questions in an interactive ARS format were presented in lectures via PowerPoint…

  10. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José A; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Merí, Alex; Molina-Ros, Antoni; Molina-Tomás, M Carmen; Masdeu, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to implement innovative teaching methods--blended learning strategies--that include the use of new information technologies in the teaching of human anatomy and to analyse both the impact of these strategies on academic performance, and the degree of user satisfaction. The study was carried out among students in Year 1 of the biology degree curriculum (human biology profile) at Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. Two groups of students were tested on knowledge of the anatomy of the locomotor system and results compared between groups. Blended learning strategies were employed in 1 group (BL group, n = 69); the other (TT group; n = 65) received traditional teaching aided by complementary material that could be accessed on the Internet. Both groups were evaluated using the same types of examination. The average marks presented statistically significant differences (BL 6.3 versus TT 5.0; P teaching received. Blended learning was more effective than traditional teaching for teaching human anatomy.

  11. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  12. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  13. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material.

  14. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals classes of Human Anatomy. The study was a descriptive systematic review, developed with scientific production indexed in electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE, GOOGLE ACADEMICO and SciELO; as well as Brazilian proceedings. Among the 17 articles found, 9 showed the use of anatomical models, 7 showed other methods used, and only 1 on the use of didactic manual on classroom practice of this discipline. From the study, it can be observed that the use of teaching scripts for teaching in practical classes of Human Anatomy is an innovative method and the use of anatomical models alternative has shown positive results in the teaching-learning process. However, these methods, ever can replace the use of the corpse in the teaching of this discipline.

  15. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz

    2002-11-01

    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

  16. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  17. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  18. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  19. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  20. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  1. Excruciating Effect of Formaldehyde Exposure to Students in Gross Anatomy Dissection Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OG Avwioro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is extensively used for preservation of cadavers in departments of anatomy. However, it is a noxious chemical which may cause serious health problems.Objective: To assess the effect of exposure of medical students to formaldehyde at the Department of Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. Methods: In a questionnaire-based study, 93 second-year medical students were surveyed at the Department of Human Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The average duration of exposure for each student in the dissection hall was 6 hr/wk. Participants with history of cough, respiratory or skin diseases were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 93 questionnaires distributed, 75 were completed and returned (response rate: 81%. Of 75 students, 58 (77% were strongly affected by unpleasant smell of formaldehyde. It was followed by “runny or congested nose” and “redness of the eyes.” “Skin-related diseases” was identified as the least ranked effect of formaldehyde.Conclusion: Due to the numerous health challenges that formaldehyde causes to students in the gross anatomy dissection laboratories, it cannot be considered as a suitable chemical for embalmment of cadaver for dissection.

  2. The availability of teaching-pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy.

  3. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning.

  4. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J; Mohseni, B Tanya; Hill, Derek C; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A; Leo, Jonathan T; Langley, Natalie R

    2016-09-23

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school. No grade is assigned for the course, therefore participants can study without the fear of potentially affecting grades. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the LMU-DCOM ABC course using data from four consecutive summers. Independent two-sample t-tests were used to compare ABC to non-ABC students for the following variables: incoming grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, MGA written and laboratory practical examination grades, and final MGA course grade. Additionally, a 26-question survey was administered to 2012-2014 boot camp participants. There were no significant differences in incoming GPA and MCAT scores. However, boot campers scored significantly higher on the first two lecture and laboratory examinations (P < 0.05) for each year of the study. Thereafter scores varied less, suggesting a faster head start for boot camp participants. Mean MGA final grade was on average 3% higher for the boot camp cohort. The survey feedback supports that the ABC course assists with the academic and social transition into medical school. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Students as teachers in an anatomy dissection course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomäki, Tiina; Laakkonen, Juha; Ruohoniemi, Mirja

    2014-01-01

    One way to improve students' learning outcomes and well-being is to change teaching practices to allow students to become more active participants. We used an anatomy dissection course to test a cooperative group work method in which first-year veterinary students took turns leading their peer group and were each responsible for teaching the anatomy of a particular topographic region. The important blood vessels, lymphatic system, and nerves of each region of the body were covered. Students felt that exploration of the entire topographic region helped them to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the respiratory apparatus and the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Assigning individual tasks to each group member resulted in sharing the workload equally. Open-ended comments revealed that support from other group members was important for the students' learning experience, but the results also offered insight into a lack of constructive criticism. While teaching was considered challenging, and even a stress factor that hindered learning for some students, group work was generally held to be supportive of learning. The results suggest that more thorough instruction of students in their group work and in their individual tasks is required. Some students experienced difficulty in expressing their concerns openly and in seeking guidance from teachers, demonstrating the need for further investigation regarding students' self-regulation skills. Comments from the open-ended responses suggest that use of a cooperative learning method in anatomy dissection courses not only deepens student understanding of a subject but also offers first-year students an opportunity to practice the generic skills that will be needed in their future profession.

  6. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  7. Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Rogers, Kem A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats.

  8. Willingness toward organ and body donation among anatomy professors and students in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Zarate-Garza, Pablo Patricio; Esparza-Hernández, Claudia Nallely; Gutierrez-de la O, Jorge; de la Fuente-Villarreal, David; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2017-06-02

    Most anatomists agree that cadaver dissection serves as a superior teaching tool in human anatomy education. However, attitudes toward body donation vary widely between different individuals. A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes toward body and organ donation among those who learn the most from cadavers: medical students, medical student teaching assistants, medical students involved in research, and anatomy professors. A cross-sectional, prospective study was designed in which the questionnaire was distributed among first-year human anatomy students before undertaking cadaver dissection at the beginning of the semester, and then again after a commemoration service at the end of the course. The questionnaire items included demographic data, as well as questions designed to characterize participants' attitudes regarding body/organ donation from strangers, family members, and whether participants would consider such practices with their own bodies. Out of a total of 517 students enrolled in the Human Anatomy course in the Medical School at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico during January to June 2016, 95% responded to the first (491) and second (490) surveys. Participants' opinions on their own organ donation was similar before and after exposure to cadaver dissection, with between 87% and 81% in favor of such practices, and only 3% against it, in both surveys. Participants' willingness to donate their own bodies, as well as those of family members, increased, while reluctance regarding such practices decreased by half (P donation (74.9%), with 18.8% undecided. Low opposition toward organ and body donation remains prevalent among both anatomists and physicians in training in Mexico. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  10. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P < 0.0001), pictorial question scores (+22.9 ±18.0%, 19.7 ±19.3%, P < 0.001) and non-pictorial question scores (+16.7 ±18.2%, +13 ±15.4%, P = 0.002). The ultrasound simulator appears equivalent to human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Near-Peer Teaching Strategy in a Large Human Anatomy Course: Perceptions of Near-Peer Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School…

  12. Relevance of anatomy to medical education and clinical practice: perspectives of medical students, clinicians, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbayeh, Amgad; Qaedi Choo, Mohammad A; Quane, Kathleen A; Finucane, Paul; McGrath, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-12-01

    Against a backdrop of ever-changing diagnostic and treatment modalities, stakeholder perceptions (medical students, clinicians, anatomy educators) are crucial for the design of an anatomy curriculum which fulfils the criteria required for safe medical practice. This study compared perceptions of students, practising clinicians, and anatomy educators with respect to the relevance of anatomy education to medicine. A quantitative survey was administered to undergraduate entry (n = 352) and graduate entry students (n = 219) at two Irish medical schools, recently graduated Irish clinicians (n = 146), and anatomy educators based in Irish and British medical schools (n = 30). Areas addressed included the association of anatomy with medical education and clinical practice, mode of instruction, and curriculum duration. Graduate-entry students were less likely to associate anatomy with the development of professionalism, teamwork skills, or improved awareness of ethics in medicine. Clinicians highlighted the challenge of tailoring anatomy education to increase student readiness to function effectively in a clinical role. Anatomy educators indicated dissatisfaction with the time available for anatomy within medical curricula, and were equivocal about whether curriculum content should be responsive to societal feedback. The group differences identified in the current study highlight areas and requirements which medical education curriculum developers should be sensitive to when designing anatomy courses.

  13. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students.Methods: Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise.Results: Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped fa...

  14. The availability of teaching–pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available José Aderval Aragão,1,5 Ana Terra Fonseca-Barreto,2 Ciro José Brito,1,3 Danilo Ribeiro Guerra,1 José Carlos Nunes-Mota,4 Francisco Prado Reis5 1Master's Degree Program in Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 2School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Department of Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 4Department of Morphology, (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 5School of Medicine, Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil Abstract: Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. Keywords: educational assessments, gross anatomy, dissection, education medical undergraduate, anatomic models

  15. Anatomy Education in a Changing Medical Curriculum in India: Medical Student Feedback on Duration and Emphasis of Gross Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan

    2009-01-01

    Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…

  16. Developing medical students as teachers: an anatomy-based student-as-teacher program with emphasis on core teaching competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Jay, Erie; Starkman, Sidney J; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is an increasingly recognized responsibility of the resident physician. Residents, however, often assume teaching responsibilities without adequate preparation. Consequently, many medical schools have implemented student-as-teacher (SAT) programs that provide near-peer teaching opportunities to senior medical students. Near-peer teaching is widely regarded as an effective teaching modality; however, whether near-peer teaching experiences in medical school prepare students for the teaching demands of residency is less understood. We explored whether the anatomy-based SAT program through the Human Structure didactic block at Mayo Medical School addressed the core teaching competencies of a medical educator and prepared its participants for further teaching roles in their medical careers. A web-based survey was sent to all teaching assistants in the anatomy-based SAT program over the past five years (2007-2011). Survey questions were constructed based on previously published competencies in seven teaching domains--course development, course organization, teaching execution, student coaching, student assessment, teacher evaluation, and scholarship. Results of the survey indicate that participants in the anatomy-based SAT program achieved core competencies of a medical educator and felt prepared for the teaching demands of residency.

  17. The anatomic basis for ventricular arrhythmia in the normal heart: what the student of anatomy needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jo Jo; Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Desimone, Christopher V; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-09-01

    The traditional route for teaching cardiac anatomy involves didactic instruction, cadaver dissections, and familiarization with the main structure and relationships of the cardiac chambers, valves, and vasculature. In contemporary cardiac electrophysiology, however, a very different view of anatomy is required including details rarely appreciated with a general overview. In this review, we discuss the critical advances in cardiac electrophysiology that were possible only because of understanding detailed anatomic relationships. While we briefly discuss the clinical relevance, we explain in depth the necessary structural information for the student of clinical anatomy. Interspersed through the text are boxes that highlight and summarize the critical pieces of knowledge to be borne in mind while studying the fascinating structural anatomy of the human heart. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An investigation of the relationship between having recent knowledge in basic biology and student success in Anatomy and Physiology I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward T.

    Allied Health Programs generally require that students complete coursework in Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II as part of their Pre-Allied Health curriculum. Human Anatomy and Physiology I generally has as a prerequisite some coursework in basic biology. Basic biology as a prerequisite should provide students with the foundation of knowledge in the basic biological principles and processes that will prepare them for the material presented in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course and the Allied Health Program. The principle question that prompted this study was, Do students need coursework in basic biology to be successful in Anatomy and Physiology I? The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the exam average obtained in Biology 202, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, for those students who have had, within the previous three years, a foundation course in basic biology as compared to those students who have not, within the previous three years, had a foundation course in basic biology. The current study analyzed data obtained on 642 students who were enrolled in Biology 202, Anatomy and Physiology I, during the Fall semester of 2000 to the Spring semester of 2003 at Wor-Wic Community College. Statistical techniques including an ANOVA, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and a Multiple Regression Analysis were conducted to reveal any relationships in the data. The dependent variable was the exam average obtained in the independent variables included the time period since the student had taken a basic biology course, sex, age, and college GPA. The results of the ANOVA indicated that there was no relationship between the exam average between current and non-current students, where alpha = 0.05 and p = 0.783. There was statistically significance for GPA, where p = 0 .000. There was also statistically significant interactions between last biology course and GPA, p = 0.05, last biology course, sex, and GPA, p = 0.002. The Pearson Product

  19. 21st century art of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Eleanor; Allen, Rachael; Cooper, Margot; Sulzmann, Catherine; Temple-Cox, Lisa; Hines, Tonya; Lyons, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Session looks at the contemporary role of the medical artist with strategies for the education of medical artists and medical students. The wider topic of medical art in forensics, research and literature is explored as a close look taken at European art and science courses and collaborations.

  20. Effect of an Interactive Web-Based Instruction in the Performance of Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Tamilselvi; Herron, Sherry S.; Mohn, Richard S.; Hartsell, Taralynn; Jawor, Jodie M.; Blickenstaff, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how different interactive technology tools that are integrated into a Website can be used for teaching undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratory students. Technology tools refer to a Website that the authors created to teach the Cardiovascular System that includes dynamic tools such as the…

  1. Effect of an Interactive Web-Based Instruction in the Performance of Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Tamilselvi; Herron, Sherry S.; Mohn, Richard S.; Hartsell, Taralynn; Jawor, Jodie M.; Blickenstaff, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how different interactive technology tools that are integrated into a Website can be used for teaching undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratory students. Technology tools refer to a Website that the authors created to teach the Cardiovascular System that includes dynamic tools such as the…

  2. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  4. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  5. Student learning styles in anatomy and physiology courses: Meeting the needs of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A N B; Hamill, J; Barton, M J; Baldwin, S; Percival, J; Williams-Pritchard, G; Salvage-Jones, J; Todorovic, M

    2015-11-01

    Anatomy and Physiology is a core course in pre-registration nursing programs, yet many students have difficulty successfully negotiating the large volume of content and the complex concepts in these bioscience courses. Typically students perform poorly in these 'threshold' courses', despite multiple interventions to support student engagement. Investigation of the shortcomings in these courses, based on feedback from students indicated several key areas of difficulty in the course, especially focused around a relative lack of hands-on 'concrete' activities in laboratories and tutorials. To attempt to address this, academic and technical staff developed activities for students that promoted discussion and allowed students to interact easily and repetitively with content. Interactive tables and posters that needed to be labelled or 'filled-in' using pre-prepared Velcro dots, as well as pre-prepared flash cards to promote group work, were some examples of the activities used to enhance student experiences and promote hands-on learning. Over the academic year of 2013 these activities were introduced into the laboratory and tutorial classes for first year Bachelor of Nursing anatomy and physiology students. Staff and student participants positively rated implementation of these new activities on surveys, as they allowed them to explore the difficult aspects of anatomy and physiology, utilising various learning styles that may have been neglected in the past. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  8. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  10. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  11. The use of brainstorming for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G

    2002-10-15

    Interactive teaching techniques have been used mainly in clinical teaching, with little attention given to their use in basic science teaching. With the aim of partially filling this gap, this study outlines an interactive approach to teaching anatomy based on the use of "brainstorming." The results of the students' critique of the teaching techniques are also included. Seventy-five students from the first-year nursing curriculum were tested by a structured questionnaire after three brainstorming sessions. The overall response to these sessions was very positive, indicating that students perceived this interactive technique as both interesting and useful. Furthermore, this approach may provide a useful strategy when learning the clinical courses of the upcoming academic years.

  12. Functional Anatomy of the Human Microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Jo, Myung Hyun; Choi, Yeon-Gil; Park, Joha; Kwon, S Chul; Hohng, Sungchul; Kim, V Narry; Woo, Jae-Sung

    2015-06-04

    MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is initiated by Microprocessor composed of RNase III DROSHA and its cofactor DGCR8, whose fidelity is critical for generation of functional miRNAs. To understand how Microprocessor recognizes pri-miRNAs, we here reconstitute human Microprocessor with purified recombinant proteins. We find that Microprocessor is an ∼364 kDa heterotrimeric complex of one DROSHA and two DGCR8 molecules. Together with a 23-amino acid peptide from DGCR8, DROSHA constitutes a minimal functional core. DROSHA serves as a "ruler" by measuring 11 bp from the basal ssRNA-dsRNA junction. DGCR8 interacts with the stem and apical elements through its dsRNA-binding domains and RNA-binding heme domain, respectively, allowing efficient and accurate processing. DROSHA and DGCR8, respectively, recognize the basal UG and apical UGU motifs, which ensure proper orientation of the complex. These findings clarify controversies over the action mechanism of DROSHA and allow us to build a general model for pri-miRNA processing.

  13. maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Wangwe Ongeti

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching ... In response, there is resurgence in the value and emphasis .... in relations to the three main divisions of anatomy ..... Importance of dissection in learning anatomy: personal dissection versus peer teaching. ... The prospect of anatomy as a career choice among.

  14. STUDY OF PASSIVE DIDACTIC TEACHER CENTERED APPROACH AND AN ACTIVE STUDENT CENTERED APPROACH IN TEACHING ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Anatomy in undergraduate medical education cannot be adequately emphasised. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form, will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice medicine safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if they do, it can improve their understanding and this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Teacher-centered typically refers to learning situations in which the teacher asserts control over the material that students study. In contrast,to teacher centered learning, student-centered typically refers to forms of instruction that, for example, give students opportunities to lead learning activities, participate more actively in discussions, design their own learning projects, explore topics that interest them, and generally contribute to the design of their own course of study. Additionally, student-centered instruction is often associated with classrooms that feature desks arranged in circles or small groups (rather than rows of desks that face the teacher, with “self-guided” or “self-paced” learning, or with learning experiences that occur outside of traditional classroom settings. Anatomy teaching has undergone major changes due to time constraints and the rapid advances in computer technology. Also there has been a shift a teaching methodologies from a passive didactic teacher- centered approach to an active student - centered approach. Conclusion: We should develop and implement an instructional design that focuses on incorporating active-learning and student-centered pedagogy into what is previously a traditional lecture-based course. These

  15. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students’ Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7% and medical students (68.1% were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37% and religious (20% barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors.

  16. Anatomy and physiology for nursing students: is problem-based learning effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayner, Lidia; Gillham, David; Sansoni, Julita

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) was an effective strategy for nursing students learning anatomy and physiology. Anatomy and physiology are subject areas that have posed long standing difficulty for nursing students. Since anatomy and physiology underpin clinical decision making it is important that nursing students are able to understand and retain this knowledge and apply it to practice. Problem-based learning offers potential advantages for teaching anatomy and physiology as clinical cases can provide the impetus for student problem solving. This project trialled a simple PBL scenario and investigated students' response to the task of problem solving in a laboratory setting adapted to simulate a hospital ward. The study found students learn better, retain the knowledge and merge theory with simulated practice when a PBL teaching mode is used. While PBL was effective, blended, web based and hybrid PBL models warrant investigation.

  17. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  18. Student Enrollment in a Supplement Course for Anatomy and Physiology Results in Improved Retention and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy and Physiology I (A&P 1) has one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates on campus. To increase academic success, a course to supplement A&P 1 (Supplement) was developed and taught by anatomy and physiology faculty. Primary goals for the Supplement included (1) early identification of students at risk for failing or withdrawal;…

  19. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  20. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  1. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. The use of thoracoscopy to enhance medical students' interest and understanding of thoracic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami A; Hajjar, Waseem; Rahal, Salah; Clifton, Joanne; Finley, Richard; Sidhu, Ravi

    2012-07-01

    To develop a video-based educational tool designed for teaching thoracic anatomy and to examine whether this tool would increase students' stimulation and motivation for learning anatomy. Our video-based tool was developed by recording different thoracoscopic procedures focusing on intraoperative live thoracic anatomy. The tool was then integrated into a pre-existing program for first year medical students (n = 150), and included cadaver dissection of the thorax and review of clinical problem scenarios of the respiratory system. Students were guided through a viewing of the videotape that demonstrated live anatomy of the thorax (15 minutes) and then asked to complete a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire assessing the video's usefulness. Apart from this, a small group of entirely different set of students was divided into two groups, one group to view the 15-minute video presentation of thoracoscopy and chest anatomy and the other group to attend a 15-minute lecture of chest anatomy using radiological images. Both groups took a 10-item pretest and post-test multiple choice questions examination to assess short-term knowledge gained. Of 150 medical students, 119 completed the questionnaires, 88.6% were satisfied with the thoracoscopic video as a teaching tool, 86.4% were satisfied with the quality of the images, 69.2% perceived it to be beneficial in learning anatomy, 96.2% increased their interest in learning anatomy, and 88.5% wanted this new teaching tool to be implemented to the curriculum. Majority (80.7%) of the students increased their interest in surgery as a future career. Post-test scores were significantly higher in the thoracoscopy group (P = 0.0175). Incorporating live surgery using thoracoscopic video presentation in the gross anatomy teaching curriculum had high acceptance and satisfaction scores from first year medical students. The video increased students' interest in learning, in clinically applying anatomic fact, and in surgery as a future career.

  3. Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher

    To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have

  4. Self-directed learning modules of CT scan images to improve students' perception of gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pananghat Achutha; Jothi, Ramakrishnan; Mathivanan, Dharmalingam

    2016-01-01

    A contemporary anatomy curriculum that aims to be clinically relevant requires medical students to be introduced to radiological anatomy in the preclinical years. Ideally, the curriculum should also support self-directed learning, a habit best instilled early. Based on these educational requirements, we designed an interesting and clinically-meaningful program of self-learning modules in radiological anatomy to augment students' learning of gross anatomy. The program is guided by current theories of learning, which emphasize an individualized learning pace for students. This program uses enlarged computerized tomography (CT) scan images and associated resource materials. Scans are posted on the first day of the week in a public area for students to review on their own time. On the second day penciled outlines of important structures are provided to help students identify structures, and students are encouraged to discuss the images with faculty. On the last day of the week the identity of the structures are revealed to students. An open-ended questionnaire used to evaluate the program revealed that 95.5% of students used the program and a great majority recommended the program should be continued for future students. The present program enhances learning of gross anatomical relations through having students use visual clues in logically interpreting unlabeled CT scans in an organized and sequential way. The program promotes self-directed learning. In addition to its use with preclinical students, the modules might also help students in the clinical phase of the curriculum bolster their knowledge of spatial anatomy.

  5. maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Wangwe Ongeti

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... at the UON with a view of elucidating the learning points from which other ... Key words: Anatomy teaching, University of Nairobi ... Bachelor of science Nursing. 90 ..... sessions in clinical anatomy: A strategy for educational ...

  6. Blended Learning in Anatomy Education: A Study Investigating Medical Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Mehmet Akif; Topal, Arzu Deveci

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines levels of satisfaction and perceptions of the students taking the blended anatomy course in Turkish Higher Education System. 15 students selected from 213 medical students participated in the study. An interview form was designed to identify the views of the students about the present study. The interview results were…

  7. Blended Learning in Anatomy Education: A Study Investigating Medical Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Mehmet Akif; Topal, Arzu Deveci

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines levels of satisfaction and perceptions of the students taking the blended anatomy course in Turkish Higher Education System. 15 students selected from 213 medical students participated in the study. An interview form was designed to identify the views of the students about the present study. The interview results were…

  8. Effect of the use of instructional anatomy videos on student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Varun; Natarajan, Pradeep; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Jain, Sharad

    2008-01-01

    Medical schools have reduced the time allotted to anatomy instruction. Consequently, schools engage students in more independent settings using information and communication technologies (ICT). There has been limited research in the use of video aids, a type of ICT, to enhance anatomy examination performance. The objective of this study is to describe the design, usage, and effect on examination performance of eight locally developed instructional anatomy videos. First-year UCSF medical students (n = 141) had access to the videos. They reported their video usage, reason for usage, and satisfaction. The prior year students (n = 141) served as a historical control group. Anatomy and radiology examination performance was compared between groups while controlling for prior performance. The students with and without access to the videos did not differ in examination performance. Sixty-one (43%) students in the experimental group responded to the survey. Of these, 79% reported using at least one video, viewing an average of 4.75 of the eight videos. They watched 3.27 (SD = 1.57, range 1-5) of the five anatomy videos and 1.48 (SD = 1.35; range 0-3) of the three radiology videos. In a regression analysis controlling for age and MCAT scores, using the anatomy videos at least once improved anatomy examination performance by 3.4% (P-value = 0.007). There was no relationship between radiology video usage and radiology exam score. Video resource availability did not enhance student performance in anatomy and radiology. However, when analyzing performance for those whom we knew level of video use, there was a statistically different and higher anatomy achievement.

  9. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). The atlantoaxial (C1-2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  10. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  11. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  12. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  13. The weak relationship between anatomy competence and clinical skills in junior medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    In modern curricula, the early integration of anatomy and clinical skills education at undergraduate level is seen as important. However, the direct relationship between medical students' competence in anatomy, and their clinical proficiency during early undergraduate years, has scarcely been studied. In this study, the marks for anatomy and clinical skills of three consecutive cohorts of medical students (n = 538 in total) during their first two years were correlated. The anatomy competence was measured using a new marker, the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS) which was calculated with equal contributions from theory knowledge and its practical and clinical application. Proficiency in clinical skills was determined by OSCE performance marks for stations which examined physical examination and practical procedural skills. The possible compounding effect of students' general academic ability was investigated by using the overall performance mark for each student based on their performance in all subjects over the first two years of the medical curriculum. We found that the correlation between anatomy and clinical skills marks was weak to moderate. However, this correlation was virtually nullified once the effect of academic ability was accounted for. Although these findings suggest that anatomy education does not compliment early clinical education, the lack of complexity of clinical problems used in clinical skills assessments (OSCEs) during the early stages may well be the primary contributing factor to this finding.

  14. Students' perception of anatomy education at a Korean medical college with respect to time and contents

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Min Joon; Hwang, Young-il

    2013-01-01

    Among medical education institutions worldwide, the time allotted for anatomy instruction has decreased without any reasonable time optimization suggestions. In addition, the utility of cadaver dissection has long been debated. Herein, we surveyed students' perceptions of anatomy education with respect to time and hands-on cadaver dissection, at Seoul National University College of Medicine. With the help of a questionnaire, we surveyed third- and fourth-year students at our institute who had...

  15. Quantification of human upper extremity nerves and fascicular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Natalie A; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-09-01

    In this study we provide detailed quantification of upper extremity nerve and fascicular anatomy. The purpose is to provide values and trends in neural features useful for clinical applications and neural interface device design. Nerve cross-sections were taken from 4 ulnar, 4 median, and 3 radial nerves from 5 arms of 3 human cadavers. Quantified nerve features included cross-sectional area, minor diameter, and major diameter. Fascicular features analyzed included count, perimeter, area, and position. Mean fascicular diameters were 0.57 ± 0.39, 0.6 ± 0.3, 0.5 ± 0.26 mm in the upper arm and 0.38 ± 0.18, 0.47 ± 0.18, 0.4 ± 0.27 mm in the forearm of ulnar, median, and radial nerves, respectively. Mean fascicular diameters were inversely proportional to fascicle count. Detailed quantitative anatomy of upper extremity nerves is a resource for design of neural electrodes, guidance in extraneural procedures, and improved neurosurgical planning. Muscle Nerve 56: 463-471, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  17. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  18. The use of electronic media to develop transferable skills in science students studying anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Transferable skills such as team working, communication, information gathering, critical thinking, and peer assessment are essential for graduates seeking employment in the competitive jobs market. Use of online discussion boards have grown to allow students to communicate with each other at a time and location of their choosing. This study aimed to develop transferable skills using specially developed online components supported by discussion boards and chat rooms. Students enrolled in the Human Anatomy and Histology module at the University of Manchester were put into groups of six or seven students (26 groups in total). Two e-learning components were constructed to develop transferable skills. Each group had a discussion board and chat room available to assist communication in completion of the components. Peer marking was also done on this media. Data collected showed the discussion boards were heavily utilized (average number of posts per group was 48). Eighty-three percent of students found the discussion boards useful to complete the tasks. Students felt their team building and critical analysis skills had improved. Peer assessment was well received by students. Using online discussion boards proved an excellent way to develop transferable skills in a large group of science students.

  19. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy:

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Materials and methods Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 ...

  20. VARK learning preferences and mobile anatomy software application use in pre-clinical chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Stomski, Norman J; Innes, Stanley I; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-05-06

    Ubiquitous smartphone ownership and reduced face-to-face teaching time may lead to students making greater use of mobile technologies in their learning. This is the first study to report on the prevalence of mobile gross anatomy software applications (apps) usage in pre-clinical chiropractic students and to ascertain if a relationship exists between preferred learning styles as determined by the validated VARK(©) questionnaire and use of mobile anatomy apps. The majority of the students who completed the VARK questionnaire were multimodal learners with kinesthetic and visual preferences. Sixty-seven percent (73/109) of students owned one or more mobile anatomy apps which were used by 57 students. Most of these students owned one to five apps and spent less than 30 minutes per week using them. Six of the top eight mobile anatomy apps owned and recommended by the students were developed by 3D4Medical. Visual learning preferences were not associated with time spent using mobile anatomy apps (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.12-1.40). Similarly, kinesthetic learning preferences (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 0.18-20.2), quadmodal preferences (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.06-9.25), or gender (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.48-4.81) did not affect the time students' spent using mobile anatomy apps. Learning preferences do not appear to influence students' time spent using mobile anatomy apps. Anat Sci Educ 9: 247-254. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Opportunities for learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, Lisa Marie

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the course conditions that support the development of meaningful student learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course. The study was conducted during an 8-week summer-session at a small mid-western university. Classroom observations and taped recordings of class sessions were used to determine content episodes within the instructional unit, opportunities for learning created by the instructor, demonstrations of information processing by the students, and the ways in which the instructor used the Personal Response System (PRS). Student interviews were used to determine students' level of understanding of pre-test and post-test items. Student interviews and a questionnaire were used to determine students' perceptions of the PRS as a learning tool. Findings reveal that the instructor had different expectations of students when posing verbal questions in-class than he had when posing PRS questions. The use of verbal questions did not permit demonstrations of student understanding; however, the use of the PRS did result in demonstrations of student understanding. Questions posed via the use of the PRS were categorized according to cognitive level. The cognitive level of the questions increased with time over the instructional unit and within the content episodes. Students demonstrated deeper understanding of the topics after instruction than they did before instruction. Students reported more in-class thinking about the content, more discussion of the content with their neighbors, more regular class attendance, more opportunities for deeper learning, and a general preference for the PRS over traditional lectures. Findings of the study indicate that the instructional decisions about the use of questions influences the opportunities for students to process information and demonstrate their understanding of the content and that students valued these opportunities. A better understanding of the

  2. Medical Student Use of Facebook to Support Preparation for Anatomy Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D.; Bickerdike, Suzanne R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of Facebook to support students is an emerging area of educational research. This study explored how a Facebook Page could support Year 2 medical (MBChB) students in preparation for summative anatomy assessments and alleviate test anxiety. Overall, Facebook analytics revealed that in total 49 (19.8% of entire cohort) students posted a…

  3. A Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Pedagogy and Lifestyle Factors in Undergraduate Medical Students in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. G.; Chifamba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on health pedagogy in medical students in African universities are lacking. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the following pedagogy influences on second year Zimbabwean medical students' well-being. A group of 100 students studying Physiology and Anatomy in MBChB. II program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health…

  4. "Applying anatomy to something i care about": Authentic inquiry learning and student experiences of an inquiry project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Lauren M

    2017-04-04

    Despite advances to move anatomy education away from its didactic history, there is a continued need for students to contextualize their studies to make learning more meaningful. This article investigates authentic learning in the context of an inquiry-based approach to learning human gross anatomy. Utilizing a case-study design with three groups of students (n = 18) and their facilitators (n = 3), methods of classroom observations, interviews, and artifact collection were utilized to investigate students' experiences of learning through an inquiry project. Qualitative data analysis through open and selective coding produced common meaningful themes of group and student experiences. Overall results demonstrate how the project served as a unique learning experience where learners engaged in the opportunity to make sense of anatomy in context of their interests and wider interdisciplinary considerations through collaborative, group-based investigation. Results were further considered in context of theoretical frameworks of inquiry-based and authentic learning. Results from this study demonstrate how students can engage anatomical understandings to inquire and apply disciplinary considerations to their personal lives and the world around them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  6. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy.

  7. Human temporomandibular joint disc: anatomy and measurements in prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Luis A; Brunotto, Mabel N; de Ferraris, María E Gómez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine morphological characteristics and measurements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc in human fetuses between 16 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life, and correlate it with oral-facial neuro-muscular maturing. Scanner images were used to record the length of the disc (D) and the thickness of its anterior middle and posterior bands in TMJ anteroposterior vertical sections from human fetuses of 16, 18 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life (WIL). Mean disc length was 1.98 mm, 2.69 mm and 2.90 mm at 16, 18 and 20 WIL respectively, and measurements differed significantly between those ages. The thicknesses of the anterior, middle and posterior bands also differed significantly. The results give normal morphological data for D between 16 and 20 WIL. TMJ anatomy and measurements appear to be related and agree with the neuro-muscular maturation time at which sucking and swallowing reflexes begin before birth. It is known that these functions, as well as the neuro-muscular capacity to perform prenatal mandibular movements (opening and closing), begin at 14 to 15 weeks of prenatal development and are fully attained at about 20 weeks of development. Knowledge of this reference pattern may be of major importance to future research, for assessing jaw biomechanics and detecting alterations of TMJ and prenatal development of a vital human function - suckling in preterm infants.

  8. Revisiting human nose anatomy: phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Roger

    2011-11-01

    This review suggests revisiting nose anatomy by considering the ethmoidal labyrinths as part of the olfactory nose and not as paranasal sinuses. Phylogenetically, the olfactory and respiratory organs of the most primitive vertebrates are separated. Exaptation, a mechanism of evolution, may explain the fusion of the olfactory and respiratory organs in dipnoi. The respiratory and olfactory noses remain anatomically separated by the transverse lamina in most mammals, whose olfactory labyrinth is a blind recess housing the ethmoturbinates. In humans, the partitioning between the olfactory cleft and the ethmoid labyrinth seems to be a consequence of ethmoid bone remodeling induced by the acquisition of an upright posture. The ethmoid bone is derived from the cartilaginous nasal capsule of primitive vertebrates and considered to be a highly conserved region among the bony elements of the skull base. It appears to be involved only in housing and protecting the olfactory function. During the early stages of human fetal development, rupture of the oronasal membrane leads to the integration of the primary olfactory sac in the future respiratory organ. The cartilaginous nasal capsule appears in the tissue under the brain and around the olfactory channels. Its early fetal development is classically regarded as the beginning of paranasal sinus formation. From phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives, it may be regarded as the development of the olfactory labyrinth as modified by the remodeling process of the human face and skull base. The endochondral bony origin of the ethmoid labyrinths makes them substantially different from the other paranasal sinuses.

  9. Near-peer teaching in an anatomy course with a low faculty-to-student ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Claudia Elisa Pámanes; Bahena, Eduardo Navarro; Rodríguez, María de Los Ángeles García; Baca, Guillermo Jacobo; Uresti, Antonio Sánchez; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; López, Santos Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Near-peer teaching is an educational format which utilizes tutors who are more advanced in a curriculum's content to supervise students' activities and to act as instructors in laboratory settings. This format is often used in anatomy laboratory courses. The goal of the present study is to describe the design and implementation of near-peer teaching in an anatomy course and to evaluate students' perceptions of the program. A total of 700 students were registered for this anatomy course which employed near-peer instructors. Of enrolled students, 558 (79.7%) agreed to participate in this study. In general, the practical section (e.g., the clinical hour, image-based anatomy session, and gross anatomy laboratory) of the course was viewed more favorably compared to the theory section (54.8%, n = 306), with dissection and prosection in the laboratory rated as the most valued experiences (34.9%, n = 195). Near-peer teaching is a viable option that satisfies the demands of modern curricula using small groups. This format stimulates learning within courses that have large numbers of students and low faculty-to-student ratios.

  10. Student perceptions of problem topics / concepts in a traditional veterinary anatomy course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Soley

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available While particular attention is paid to the nature and content of anatomy curricula, little has been published about the actual problem topics/concepts experienced by students of anatomy. This information is relevant to modifying existing courses and methods of teaching. The present study thus sought to identify, by means of a questionnaire administered to students of veterinary anatomy, perceived problem topics, the possible reasons for the problems, as well as student suggestions for solving the problems. Awide range of problem topics was identified by this survey, of which neuroanatomy, neurohistology and organogenesis recurred most frequently. A major reason given for the problems experienced was an inability to conceptualise 3- dimensional structures. Students requested more time, more lectures and appealed for a reduction in detail of textual information. Many of the problems experienced by this group of students are reflected in other studies of veterinary, medical and dental students, which suggests the existence of 'universal' problem topics in the various fields of anatomy. We believe that these universal problem topics exist in many anatomy courses, despite the application of innovative teaching methods and advanced audio-visual technologies. Only by identifying these topics can suitable strategies (within the constraints of the particular curriculum be devised to resolve them.

  11. What motivates surgeons to teach dissection anatomy to medical students and surgical trainees?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Disciplines of Surgery and Anatomy and Histology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Introduction: Although a fading tradition in some institutions, having clinicians teach anatomy by whole-body dissection provides a clinical context to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students, increasing their depth of learning. The ...

  12. Joining the virtual teaching and learning (Moodle) space for students of anatomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzotti, Andrea M.; Algieri, Ruben D.; Dogliotti, Claudia G.; Mazzoglio y Nabar, Martín J.; Rey, Lorena; Jiménez Villarruel, Humberto N.; Gómez, Ananquel; Pró, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual teaching and learning spaces (VTLS) are a type of e-learning based on information and communication technology (ICT) with wide possibilities of application. The objective is to evaluate the degree of students’ adherence to the virtual space (Moodle) used as a complementary pedagogical tool in the teaching of Anatomy. The Moodle system was used from March to July 2010. A standardized and regulated survey was implemented for students attending courses in Anatomy (Medicine - UBA) during ...

  13. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  14. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  15. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  16. Student Perceptions of Independent versus Facilitated Small Group Learning Approaches to Compressed Medical Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J.; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J. D.; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and…

  17. VARK Learning Preferences and Mobile Anatomy Software Application Use in Pre-Clinical Chiropractic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Stomski, Norman J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitous smartphone ownership and reduced face-to-face teaching time may lead to students making greater use of mobile technologies in their learning. This is the first study to report on the prevalence of mobile gross anatomy software applications (apps) usage in pre-clinical chiropractic students and to ascertain if a relationship exists…

  18. Medical Students' Attitudes toward the Anatomy Dissection Room in Relation to Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Courtois, Robert; Toussaint, Paule Joanne; Mendelsohn, Gerald A.; John, Oliver P.; Delmas, Vincent; Moxham, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students could enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. In this article, we focus on the experience of students in the anatomy dissecting room. While there have been many attempts to evaluate the emotional responses of medical…

  19. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  20. The development of a core syllabus for the teaching of head and neck anatomy to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Sorenson, Edward P; Sharma, Amit; Benninger, Brion; Norton, Neil; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-04-01

    The study of human anatomy has traditionally served as a fundamental component in the basic science education of medical students, yet there exists a remarkable lack of firm guidance on essential features that must be included in a gross anatomy course, which would constitute a "Core Syllabus" of absolutely mandatory structures and related clinical pathologies. While universal agreement on the details of a core syllabus is elusive, there is a general consensus that a core syllabus aims to identify the minimum level of knowledge expected of recently qualified medical graduates in order to carry out clinical procedures safely and effectively, while avoiding overloading students with unnecessary facts that have less immediate application to their future careers as clinicians. This paper aims to identify consensus standards of essential features of Head and Neck anatomy via a Delphi Panel consisting of anatomists and clinicians who evaluated syllabus content structures (greater than 1,000) as "essential", "important", "acceptable", or "not required." The goal is to provide guidance for program/course directors who intend to provide the optimal balance between establishing a comprehensive list of clinically relevant essential structures and an overwhelming litany, which would otherwise overburden trainees in their initial years of medical school with superficial rote learning, which potentially dilutes the key and enduring fundamental lessons that prepare students for training in any medical field. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interprofessional anatomy education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to report on their institutions' uptake of AIPE. Second, a series of case studies explored the experiences of students by using evaluation forms and an in-depth analysis of thematic concepts to understand the learners' perspectives on designing and delivering AIPE. Out of the 13 institutions that took part in the survey, eight did not offer an AIPE program. Between the remaining five institutions that deliver AIPE programs, 10 different modules are offered with the majority involving healthcare professions. The AIPE component is rated highly by students. The themes from the case studies highlight how valuable AIPE is from the student perspective both in terms of engaging them in anatomy as well as in the broader skills of teamwork and communication. The case studies also revealed how AIPE can be engaging for groups of students who might not have previously had access to cadaveric anatomy, for example, engineers and archeologists. The results of this study have implications for curriculum design in medicine and healthcare but also for further engagement of professional groups from non-healthcare backgrounds. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Student Project in Anatomy (SPA) – Making the First Year Medical Students Responsible and Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Snigdha; George, Bincy M; Kumar, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Creativity is a combination of ones’ capacity to think outside the box, the gained knowledge and the passion for creating something. It very easily and effectively provides the creator a chance to be responsible for his/her creation and acts as a confidence booster for him/her. Creativity is inherent, but needs to be polished and nurtured. If nurtured well through proper motivation, the creator excels leaps and bounds. It develops an empathetic behaviour in the creator, when he allows his creations to be used by others. Aim The study was done to generate learning resources through academically good students and make them available for the entire class. Materials and Methods Academically, top 16 students were involved in a project of their choice. The projects included preparation of question answers, powerpoint presentations, cross-word puzzles, videos, models, atlases and wall hangers etc., ten weeks were given to finish the project. The project was guided and monitored by teachers. The end product of the project was given to the entire class for use. The perception of users of the end products of the projects was recorded through mini interviews. Results All the students who took part in the project liked working on the project. They felt motivated, rewarded and had mastery on the topic which they used in the project. The students who did not do the project but used the end product of the project also liked the project work. They felt that the end products of the projects were simple, informative and creative. Conclusion By participating in Student Project in Anatomy (SPA), the students get to show their total potential through these creative ways. It provides a fresh and welcome change from the common routine followed otherwise in medical schools. The outcome of the projects can help the entire class. This type of projects can be easily tailored into existing curriculum and in disciplines other than anatomy too. PMID:27790469

  3. Social media and anatomy education: Using twitter to enhance the student learning experience in anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Catherine M; Kirkpatrick, Emma; Smith, Claire F; Border, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Neuroanatomy is a difficult subject in medical education, with students often feeling worried and anxious before they have even started, potentially decreasing their engagement with the subject. At the University of Southampton, we incorporated the use of Twitter as a way of supporting students' learning on a neuroanatomy module to evaluate how it impacted upon their engagement and learning experience. The #nlm2soton hashtag was created and displayed (via a widget) on the university's virtual learning environment (VLE) for a cohort of 197 Year 2 medical students studying neuroanatomy. Student usage was tracked to measure levels of engagement throughout the course and frequency of hashtag use was compared to examination results. Student opinions on the use of Twitter were obtained during a focus group with eleven students and from qualitative questionnaires. The hashtag was used by 91% of the student cohort and, within this, more students chose to simply view the hashtag rather than make contributions. The completed questionnaire responses (n = 150) as well as focus group outcomes revealed the value of using Twitter. A negligible correlation was found between student examination scores and their viewing frequency of the hashtag however, no correlation was found between examination scores and contribution frequency. Despite this, Twitter facilitated communication, relieved anxieties and raised morale, which was valued highly by students and aided engagement with neuroanatomy. Twitter was successful in creating and providing a support network for students during a difficult module. Anat Sci Educ 9: 505-515. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-03-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first- and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  5. [The human body and the computer as pedagogic tools for anatomy: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captier, G; Canovas, F; Bonnel, F

    2005-09-01

    Since the first dissections, the human body has been the main tool for the teaching of anatomy in medical courses. For the last 30 years, university anatomy laboratory dissection has been brought into question and the total hours of anatomy teaching have decreased. In parallel, new technologies have progressed and become more competitive and more attractive than dissection. The aim of this review of the literature was to evaluate the use of the human body as a pedagogic tool compared to today's computer tools. Twenty comparative studies were reviewed. Their analysis showed that the human body remains the main tool in anatomy teaching even if anatomic demonstration (prosection) can replace dissection, and that the computer tools were complementary but not a substitute to dissection.

  6. Use of Eye Tracking as an Innovative Instructional Method in Surgical Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luísa; Grima-Murcia, María Dolores; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Hernández-Peñalver, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Sánchez Del Campo, Francisco

    Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof. An additional aim of the study was to test the use of the glasses during laparoscopies performed on Thiel-embalmed cadavers (that allows pneumoinsufflation and exact reproduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique). The device was also tried out in actual surgery (both laparoscopy and open surgery). We performed a pilot study using the Tobii glasses. Dissection room at our School of Medicine and in the operating room at our Hospital. To evaluate usefulness, a survey was designed for use among students, instructors, and practicing physicians. The results were satisfactory, with the usefulness of this tool supported by more than 80% positive responses to most questions. There was no inconvenience for surgeons and that patient safety was ensured in the real laparoscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first publication to demonstrate the usefulness of eye tracking in practical instruction of human anatomy, as well as in teaching clinical anatomy and surgical techniques in the dissection and operating rooms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How the Integration of Pathology in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Affects Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, John R; Karpinski, Aryn C; McGoey, Robin; Swartz, William

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to integrate pathologists into the gross anatomy laboratory setting to increase the exposure that early medical students receive to pathologists as clinicians. Pathologists visited the gross anatomy laboratory 3 times throughout the 15-week course to assist medical students in determining the cause of death of the cadaver being dissected. This intervention was implemented with 1st-semester medical students for 2 consecutive years (a total of 100 dissection teams consisting of 4 students in each team). A quantitative content analysis was performed on the students' end of the course assignments to determine whether the students learned a greater percentage of pathologic information by having interactions with pathologists in the gross lab and to identify trends in the way medical students diagnosed their "first patient" (i.e., the cadaver). The students who had interactions with pathologists in the laboratory had significantly more pathology in their narrative than the students who did not receive pathologist interaction. They were also more likely to conclude that the cadaver they dissected actually died from a cause other than the one listed on the death certificate (18.3%; n = 15) compared to the students who had no pathologist interaction (1.8%; n = 2). A postintervention survey indicated that 65% of students felt that interaction with pathologists helped them understand the clinical application of gross anatomy, more than 40% become more interested in pathology, and 74% would have liked to have had more pathologist interaction. This intervention demonstrated a way to increase pathologist interaction within the undergraduate medical curriculum and enhance the educational environment of the gross anatomy laboratory.

  8. Anatomía Humana: estudio de las reacciones de los estudiantes de primero de medicina ante la sala de disección Human Anatomy: reactions of first year medical students to the dissection room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Miguel Pérez

    2007-06-01

    reactions the students used some methods such as being and joking with friends, expanding their study of anatomy and seeking advice to their friends and teachers. Conclusions: For first-year medical students the dissection room produces the first in a long series of adverse reactions towards different stimuli and towards unpleasant stimuli and death. Would be doctors are obligated to develop mechanisms of adaptation in order to cope with the demands of the profession. As for teachers of anatomy, their role involves not only imparting information, but also providing support for students throughout the course.

  9. Innovation in internship preparation: an operative anatomy course increases senior medical students' knowledge and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Nikki; Brunsvold, Melissa; Kabbani, Loay; Lin, Jules; Stansfield, Brent; Mueller, Dean; Minter, Rebecca M

    2013-08-01

    An operative anatomy course was developed within the construct of a surgical internship preparatory curriculum. This course provided fourth-year medical students matching into a surgical residency the opportunity to perform intern-level procedures on cadavers under the guidance of surgical faculty members. Senior medical students performed intern-level procedures on cadavers with the assistance of faculty surgeons. Students' confidence, anxiety, and procedural knowledge were evaluated both preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative data were compared both collectively and based on individual procedures. Student confidence and procedural knowledge significantly increased and anxiety significantly decreased when preoperative and postoperative data were compared (P < .05). Students reported moderate to significant improvement in their ability to perform a variety of surgical tasks. The consistent improvement in confidence, knowledge, and anxiety justifies further development of an operative anatomy course, with future assessment of the impact on performance in surgical residency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does Ultrasound-Enhanced Instruction of Musculoskeletal Anatomy Improve Physical Examination Skills of First-Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrod, Bryant J; Schroeder, Allison; Conroy, Mark J; Boucher, Laura C; Bockbrader, Marcia; Way, David P; McCamey, Kendra L; Hartz, Clinton A; Jonesco, Michael A; Bahner, David P

    2017-08-10

    Ultrasound imaging is commonly used to teach basic anatomy to medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether learning musculoskeletal anatomy with ultrasound improved performance on medical students' musculoskeletal physical examination skills. Twenty-seven first-year medical students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 instructional groups: either shoulder or knee. Both groups received a lecture followed by hands-on ultrasound scanning on live human models of the assigned joint. After instruction, students were assessed on their ability to accurately palpate 4 anatomic landmarks: the acromioclavicular joint, the proximal long-head biceps tendon, and the medial and lateral joint lines of the knee. Performance scores were based on both accuracy and time. A total physical examination performance score was derived for each joint. Scores for instructional groups were compared by a 2-way analysis of variance with 1 repeated measure. Significant findings were further analyzed with post hoc tests. All students performed significantly better on the knee examination, irrespective of instructional group (F = 14.9; df = 1.25; P = .001). Moreover, the shoulder instruction group performed significantly better than the knee group on the overall assessment (t = -3.0; df = 25; P physical examination of soft tissue landmarks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Near-Peer Teaching in an Anatomy Course with a Low Faculty-to-Student Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Claudia Elisa Pamanes; Bahena, Eduardo Navarro; Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles Garcia; Baca, Guillermo Jacobo; Uresti, Antonio Sanchez; Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Lopez, Santos Guzman

    2012-01-01

    Near-peer teaching is an educational format which utilizes tutors who are more advanced in a curriculum's content to supervise students' activities and to act as instructors in laboratory settings. This format is often used in anatomy laboratory courses. The goal of the present study is to describe the design and implementation of near-peer…

  12. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  13. Medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive gender bias within imagery featuring anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al. , J. Anat. 224:352-365; , Clin. Anat. 29:892-910). To further investigate this issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n = 142) and professional anatomists (n = 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained from the universities at both Cardiff and Paris. In the light of previous findings, the hypothesis tested was that medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive a gender bias when reflected in imagery that is based on anatomical iconography. Our survey results support this hypothesis and suggest that most students and anatomists are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within the culture of anatomy. We consequently recommend that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomical textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues when using imagery. Clin. Anat. 30:711-732, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Student's Dilemma, Liver Edition: Incorporating the Sonographer's Language into Clinical Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. Kennedy; Mirjalili, S. Ali; Moore, Christopher L.; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy students are often confused by multiple names ascribed to the same structure by different clinical disciplines. Increasingly, sonography is being incorporated into clinical anatomical education, but ultrasound textbooks often use names unfamiliar to the anatomist. Confusion is worsened when ultrasound names ascribed to the same structure…

  15. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a

  16. 3D Digitization and Prototyping of the Skull for Practical Use in the Teaching of Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Maria Teresa Ugidos; Haro, Fernando Blaya; Diaz, Carlos Molino; Manzoor, Sadia; Ugidos, Gonzalo Ferrer; Mendez, Juan Antonio Juanes

    2017-05-01

    The creation of new rapid prototyping techniques, low cost 3D printers as well as the creation of new software for these techniques have allowed the creation of 3D models of bones making their application possible in the field of teaching anatomy in the faculties of Health Sciences. The 3D model of cranium created in the present work, at full scale, present accurate reliefs and anatomical details that are easily identifiable by undergraduate students in their use for the study of human anatomy. In this article, the process of scanning the skull and the subsequent treatment of these images with specific software until the generation of 3D model using 3D printer has been reported.

  17. Self-efficacy's influence on student academic achievement in the medical anatomy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Jennifer Marie; Meece, Judith L; Granger, Noelle A

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is defined as a person's beliefs in his or her own abilities to successfully complete a task and has been shown to influence student motivation and academic behaviors. More specifically, anatomical self-efficacy is defined as an individual's judgment of his or her ability to successfully complete tasks related to the anatomy curriculum; these include dissecting, learning anatomical concepts, and applying anatomical knowledge to clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of anatomical self-efficacy on the academic performance of students enrolled in a medical gross anatomy course. To obtain students' anatomical self-efficacy ratings, surveys containing the same anatomical self-efficacy instrument were completed by first-year medical students at a southeastern United States allopathic medical school after each of four gross anatomy assessments. Additional data collected included student demographic information, Medical College Admission Test(®) (MCAT(®)) scores, and anatomy assessment scores, both written examination and laboratory practical. To investigate the potential predictive nature of self-efficacy for academic performance on both the written examination and the laboratory practical components of medical anatomy assessments, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted. For these analyses, academic ability (defined as the sum of the physical sciences and biological sciences MCAT scores) was controlled. The results of the hierarchical linear regressions indicated that all four laboratory practical scores were predicted by the corresponding self-efficacy ratings, while two (i.e., thorax/abdomen and pelvis/lower limb) of the four written examination scores were predicted by the corresponding self-efficacy ratings (P ≤ 0.05).

  18. What motivates surgeons to teach dissection anatomy to medical students and surgical trainees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Disciplines of Surgery and Anatomy and Histology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Introduction: Although a fading tradition in some institutions, having clinicians teach anatomy by whole-body dissection provides a clinical context to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students, increasing their depth of learning. The reasons for a clinician's motivation to teach may be articulated in accordance with self-determination theory (SDT. SDT proposes that for individuals to be intrinsically motivated, three key elements are needed: 1 autonomy, 2 competence, and 3 relatedness. Materials and methods: Data were collected through semistructured interviews with eight surgeons who were supervisors/facilitators in the anatomy by whole-body dissection course for undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery program and postgraduate students in the Master of Surgery program at the University of Sydney. Qualitative analysis methods were used to code and categorize data into themes. Results: Our study used SDT as a conceptual framework to explore surgeons' motivation to supervise students in the anatomy by whole-body dissection courses. Elements that facilitated their desire to teach included satisfaction derived from teaching, a sense of achievement in providing students with a clinical context, a strong sense of community within the dissection courses, and a sense of duty to the medical/surgical profession and to patient welfare. Conclusion: The surgeons' motivation for teaching was largely related to their desire to contribute to the training of the next generation of doctors and surgeons, and ultimately to future patient welfare. Keywords: motivation, surgery, anatomy, whole-body dissection

  19. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. Methods A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Results Data was categorized into fo...

  20. Ultrasound imaging in medical student education: Impact on learning anatomy and physical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Sokpoleak; Patel, Rita M; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound use has expanded dramatically among the medical specialties for diagnostic and interventional purposes, due to its affordability, portability, and practicality. This imaging modality, which permits real-time visualization of anatomic structures and relationships in vivo, holds potential for pre-clinical instruction of students in anatomy and physical diagnosis, as well as providing a bridge to the eventual use of bedside ultrasound by clinicians to assess patients and guide invasive procedures. In many studies, but not all, improved understanding of anatomy has been demonstrated, and in others, improved accuracy in selected aspects of physical diagnosis is evident. Most students have expressed a highly favorable impression of this technology for anatomy education when surveyed. Logistic issues or obstacles to the integration of ultrasound imaging into anatomy teaching appear to be readily overcome. The enthusiasm of students and anatomists for teaching with ultrasound has led to widespread implementation of ultrasound-based teaching initiatives in medical schools the world over, including some with integration throughout the entire curriculum; a trend that likely will continue to grow. Anat Sci Educ 10: 176-189. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Desing of a virtual interactive tutorial of the equine encephalon macroscopic anatomy for veterinary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Venegas Cortes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer the problem of what could be the most appropriate innovative didactic to improve the learning process of equine encephalon anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine of La Salle University, this project began to design, apply and evaluate a didactic prototype Computerized Educative Media CEM in macroscopic anatomy of equine encephalon, to improve the «significant learning» in this subject. The project was developed in three phases regarding the Galviz software engineering, as well as the selected environment for learning, within the framework of the conceptual Novak maps, the significant learning of Ausubel, and the test of usability adapted and applied to the anatomy students, as a MEC evaluation.

  2. Impact of introduction of blended learning in gross anatomy on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y

    2016-10-01

    Blended learning has become increasingly common, in a variety of disciplines, to take advantage of new technology and potentially increase the efficiency and flexibility of delivery. This study aimed to describe blended delivery of a gross anatomy course and to evaluate the effectiveness of the delivery in terms of student outcomes. A gross anatomy course for second-year physiotherapy students across two campuses was delivered in traditional face-to-face teaching mode in 2013 (n = 150 students), some online content was introduced in 2014 (n = 160) and the subject was fully blended in 2015 (n = 151). The final 'blend' consisted of one lecture per week with most content delivered using online video resources (prepared by staff using a structured peer-reviewed process) and retention of face-to-face practical classes. Outcomes evaluated included student grades, student engagement with content through online discussion forums and student feedback using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Grades were higher in 2014 and 2015 than in 2013 (P blended version in 2015 resulted in more balanced comments about online content but higher perceived workload (P learning. Blended learning appears to be well-suited to gross anatomy teaching on the proviso that face-to-face practical classes are maintained, but may result in higher perceived workloads. Anat Sci Educ 9: 422-430. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  4. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Selecting Anatomy and Physiology Textbooks for Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Annie K.; Carline, Jan D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the criteria used for textbook selection or rejection, how the criteria differ depending on the level of students, and how the criteria differ according to the instructor's training. Discusses results and implications for students, instructors, and publishers. (CW)

  6. Are Your Students Ready for Anatomy and Physiology? Developing Tools to Identify Students at Risk for Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online…

  7. Are Your Students Ready for Anatomy and Physiology? Developing Tools to Identify Students at Risk for Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online…

  8. The visible human and digital anatomy learning initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Senger, Steven

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative initiative is starting within the Internet2 Health Science community to explore the development of a framework for providing access to digital anatomical teaching resources over Internet2. This is a cross-cutting initiative with broad applicability and will require the involvement of a diverse collection of communities. It will seize an opportunity created by a convergence of needs and technical capabilities to identify the technologies and standards needed to support a sophisticated collection of tools for teaching anatomy.

  9. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.

  10. Participation in asynchronous online discussion forums does improve student learning of gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L; Chan, Siew-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to improved learning outcomes. This study used a path model to analyze the contribution of forum participation, previous academic ability, and student campus of enrolment to final marks in a multicampus gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. The course has a substantial online learning management system (LMS) that incorporates asynchronous forums as a learning tool, particularly to answer learning objectives. Students were encouraged to post new threads and answer queries in threads started by others. The forums were moderated weekly by staff. Discussion forums were the most used feature of the LMS site with 31,920 hits. Forty-eight percent of the students posted at least once with 186 threads initiated by students and a total of 608 posts. The total number of posts made a significant direct contribution to final mark (P = 0.008) as did previous academic ability (P = 0.002). Although campus did not contribute to final mark, there was a trend for students at the campus where the course coordinator was situated to post more often than those at the other campus (P = 0.073). These results indicate that asynchronous online discussion forums can be an effective tool for improving student learning outcomes as evidenced by final marks in gross anatomy teaching.

  11. Short communication: Characteristics of student success in an undergraduate physiology and anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwazdauskas, F C; McGilliard, M L; Corl, B A

    2014-10-01

    Several factors affect the success of students in college classes. The objective of this research was to determine what factors affect success of undergraduate students in an anatomy and physiology class. Data were collected from 602 students enrolled in the Agriculture and Life Sciences (ALS) 2304 Animal Physiology and Anatomy course from 2005 through 2012. The data set included 476 females (79.1%) and 126 males (20.9%). Time to complete exams was recorded for each student. For statistical analyses, students' majors were animal and poultry sciences (APSC), agricultural sciences, biochemistry, biological sciences, dairy science, and "other," which combined all other majors. All analyses were completed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Gender, major, matriculation year, major by year interaction, gender by year interaction, and time to complete the exam affected final course grade. The significant gender effect was manifested in the final grade percentage of 75.9 ± 0.4 for female students compared with 72.3 ± 0.6 for male students. Junior males had final course grades comparable with those of females, but sophomore and senior males had lower final course grades than other combinations. Biology majors had a final grade of 82.4 ± 0.6 and this grade was greater than all other majors. Students classified as "other" had a final score of 74.4 ± 0.8, which was greater than agricultural science majors (69.5 ± 0.9). The APSC grade (72.6 ± 0.5) was higher than the agricultural science majors. Junior students had significantly greater final grades (76.1 ± 0.5) than sophomores (73.3 ± 0.6) and seniors (72.9 ± 0.9). All biology students had greater final grades than all other majors, but biochemistry juniors had greater final course grades than APSC, agricultural science, and dairy science juniors. "Other" seniors had greater final course grades than agricultural science seniors. The regression for time to complete the exam was

  12. Student experiences in undergraduate anatomy: An exploration of inquiry learning as an authentic experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Lauren M.

    Anatomy education is challenged to develop contemporary approaches to teaching and learning that move beyond factual recall to elicit from students meaningful and deep understandings of the discipline. Inquiry-based learning is one such pedagogy that involves students' active and increasingly independent investigation of questions and problems that are of interest to them. Because inquiry-based learning aims to encourage learners to draw upon wider contexts for learning and emphasizes the development of skills that extend beyond the confines of the classroom, there is a potential that students' experiences are authentic in nature. This study sought to explore undergraduate students' experiences of an Inquiry Project for learning anatomy. The project's aims were twofold. First, to document, describe, and explain the essence of students' experiences of engagement throughout the Inquiry Project, and second, to explore students' experiences as potentially reflective of authentic learning. A hermeneutic phenomenology and case study methodology was used to explore students' experiences of an Inquiry Project within a second-year undergraduate anatomy course at a mid-sized university in Ontario, Canada. Students (18) and facilitators (3) were observed during group work sessions and inquiry presentations, curricular documents and students' work were analyzed, and interviews were conducted. Data analysis sought to describe students' experiences and as a result, common meaningful themes of groups' and students' engagement were characterized. These results were then further analyzed through a theoretical framework of authentic learning, informed mainly by the Theory of Authentic Learning. While confirmatory and novel connections between factors were found to reflect Authentic Learning, five qualities of Authentic Inquiry Learning emerged from analysis of the data to represent how students' learning was neither solely authentic nor inquiry-based, but a hybrid of the two

  13. Links between Evolution, Development, Human Anatomy, Pathology, and Medicine, with A Proposition of A Re-defined Anatomical Position and Notes on Constraints and Morphological "Imperfections".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Surprisingly the oldest formal discipline in medicine (anatomy) has not yet felt the full impact of evolutionary developmental biology. In medical anatomy courses and textbooks, the human body is still too often described as though it is a "perfect machine." In fact, the study of human anatomy predates evolutionary theory; therefore, many of its conventions continue to be outdated, making it difficult to study, understand, and treat the human body, and to compare it with that of other, nonbipedal animals, including other primates. Moreover, such an erroneous view of our anatomy as "perfect" can be used to fuel nonevolutionary ideologies such as intelligent design. In the section An Evolutionary and Developmental Approach to Human Anatomical Position of this paper, we propose the redefinition of the "human standard anatomical position" used in textbooks to be consistent with human evolutionary and developmental history. This redefined position also simplifies, for students and practitioners of the health professions, the study and learning of embryonic muscle groups (each group including muscles derived from the same/ontogenetically closely related primordium/primordia) and joint movements and highlights the topological correspondence between the upper and lower limbs. Section Evolutionary and Developmental Constraints, "Imperfections" and Sports Pathologies continues the theme by describing examples of apparently "illogical" characteristics of the human body that only make sense when one understands the developmental and evolutionary constraints that have accumulated over millions of years. We focus, in particular, on musculoskeletal functional problems and sports pathologies to emphasize the links with pathology and medicine. These examples demonstrate how incorporating evolutionary theory into anatomy education can be helpful for medical students, teachers, researchers, and physicians, as well as for anatomists, functional morphologists, and evolutionary and

  14. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício SCAINI; Fabio Leal BRAGA; Irdival Cristino FIGUEIREDO JÚNIOR; Rafael Brandão FERREIRA; Baratto Filho,Flares; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A cas...

  15. Application of Information Technology and Communication in the teaching of anatomy for nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first stage of a study that is part of the research project n° 187 is presented, it belongs to the School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica. The study was based on the fundamentals of descriptive andquantitative research. The participant population consisted of students enrolled in the Anatomy course for nursing (67 students Enclosure Golfito, of which 22 of them participated in the study. The course is given during the first cycle of the curriculum of Nursing. To collect data, a questionnaire was applied. The study showed that the use of Information Technology and Communication (TIC in the teaching of anatomy to nursing contributes to meaningful learning process, in addition, the relationship established in the development of theoretical concepts of anatomy in specific situations of nursing practice served of extrinsic motivator and essential to achieve the objectives of the course, in the second phase of the proposed investigation arose: analysis of the effectiveness of this course in the formation of the pupils enrolled in the final year of the race. We conclude that the use of TIC in the various courses of the curriculum of nursing represents a novel strategy that benefits the teaching-learning process, however, clearly does not replace the teacher, demand great domain as part of the new technology information, handling of amount data, selection capacity and quality of the information available to the students.

  16. Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (CAI) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of CAI, on examination…

  17. Tracheobronchial Cast Production and Use in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Silastic E RTV silicone was used to produce tracheobronchial cast for use in an undergraduate human anatomy course. Following air-drying, the trachea and lungs were injected with E RTV silicone and allowed to cure for 24 hr. The parenchyma was then removed from the tracheobronchial cast by maceration and boiling and then whitened in a 10% solution…

  18. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students' learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Ramsey-Stewart, George

    2015-01-01

    The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students' interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD) within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students' perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. At the end of the course, all students (n=24) were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. In total, 20/24 (83%) students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students' learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students' learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying teaching methods and frequent assessments, prompting student-student and student-teacher interaction, was also beneficial for student learning.

  19. The Visible Heart® project and free-access website 'Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Pre- and post-evaluations of implantable cardiac devices require innovative and critical testing in all phases of the design process. The Visible Heart(®) Project was successfully launched in 1997 and 3 years later the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website was online. The Visible Heart(®) methodologies and Atlas website can be used to better understand human cardiac anatomy, disease states and/or to improve cardiac device design throughout the development process. To date, Visible(®) Heart methodologies have been used to reanimate 75 human hearts, all considered non-viable for transplantation. The Atlas is a unique free-access website featuring novel images of functional and fixed human cardiac anatomies from >400 human heart specimens. Furthermore, this website includes education tutorials on anatomy, physiology, congenital heart disease and various imaging modalities. For instance, the Device Tutorial provides examples of commonly deployed devices that were present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including: leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings, leadless pacemakers and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of vasculature, blood volumes, and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of various heart specimens. A new section allows the user to interact with various heart models. Visible Heart(®) methodologies have enabled our laboratory to reanimate 75 human hearts and visualize functional cardiac anatomies and device/tissue interfaces. The website freely shares all images, video clips and CT/MRI DICOM files in honour of the generous gifts received from donors and their families. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Funeral and human anatomy%殡葬与人体解剖学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 康小燕; 李志军

    2015-01-01

    从遗体的捐献,清洁,保存等方面,说明殡葬和人体解剖学对遗体(尸体)的处理的异同,联系、沟通、促进殡葬与人体解剖学的共同发展。%the paper describes the similarities and differences between funeral and anatomy in the body donation, cleaning, storage and other aspects. to contact, communicate and achieve common development of funeral and interment of human anatomy.

  1. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  2. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-08

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P higher by 3.0% in control and unlimited access conditions, respectively. Unlimited access students scored higher than control and limited access (82.8 ± 2.2 vs 71.5 ± 2.6 and 74.3 ± 1.7%; P higher than control students (78.7 ± 2.1 vs 70.6 ± 2.0%; P tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Association between learning style preferences and anatomy assessment outcomes in graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Sbayeh, Amgad; Horgan, Mary; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-07-08

    An improved understanding of the relationship between anatomy learning performance and approaches to learning can lead to the development of a more tailored approach to delivering anatomy teaching to medical students. This study investigated the relationship between learning style preferences, as measured by Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) inventory style questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire (LSQ), and anatomy and clinical skills assessment performance at an Irish medical school. Additionally, mode of entry to medical school [undergraduate/direct-entry (DEM) vs. graduate-entry (GEM)], was examined in relation to individual learning style, and assessment results. The VARK and LSQ were distributed to first and second year DEM, and first year GEM students. DEM students achieved higher clinical skills marks than GEM students, but anatomy marks did not differ between each group. Several LSQ style preferences were shown to be weakly correlated with anatomy assessment performance in a program- and year-specific manner. Specifically, the "Activist" style was negatively correlated with anatomy scores in DEM Year 2 students (rs = -0.45, P = 0.002). The "Theorist" style demonstrated a weak correlation with anatomy performance in DEM Year 2 (rs = 0.18, P = 0.003). Regression analysis revealed that, among the LSQ styles, the "Activist" was associated with poorer anatomy assessment performance (P styles contribute little to variation in academic performance in medical students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 391-399. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.

  5. Application of Information Technology and Communication in the teaching of anatomy for nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Viriam Leiva Díaz; Elena Mora Escalante

    2014-01-01

    The results of the first stage of a study that is part of the research project n° 187 is presented, it belongs to the School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica. The study was based on the fundamentals of descriptive andquantitative research. The participant population consisted of students enrolled in the Anatomy course for nursing (67 students Enclosure Golfito), of which 22 of them participated in the study. The course is given during the first cycle of the curriculum of Nursing. To...

  6. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades.

  7. medical students perception of problem topics in anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-08-08

    Aug 8, 2002 ... Main outcome measures: The questionnaire included identification of problem areas, reasons for problems and ... regional dissection of the entire human body, which is .... of the eye (9%) were identified as other areas of concern. (Table 2). ..... psychologists is visual imagery(ll)" Studies suggest that there ...

  8. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  9. Dental anatomy carving computer-assisted instruction program: an assessment of student performance and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Elizabeth T; Lanning, Sharon K; Gunsolley, John C

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of students exposed to two different instructional modalities for dental anatomy wax carving: CAI (computer-assisted instruction) using DVD technology, or traditional laboratory instruction. Students' self-assessment scores were also compared to faculty scores, and students' perceptions of their teaching modality were analyzed. Seventy-three first-year dental students (response rate 81 percent) participated in this randomized single blind trial, in which faculty graders were blinded to student group assignment. There were no statistical differences, as determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test and a t-test, between the faculty grades on the wax carving from the two teaching methods the students experienced. The student self-assessments revealed higher mean grades (3.0 for the DVD-only group and 3.1 for the traditional group) than the faculty actual mean grades (2.2 for both the DVD-only group and the traditional group) by almost one grade level on a 4.0 grade scale. Similar percentages of students in the traditional group had either favorable or unfavorable perceptions of their learning experience, while more students in the DVD-only group reported favorable perceptions. Students from both groups said they wanted more faculty feedback in the course. Based on these objective and subjective data, merging CAI and traditional laboratory teaching may best enhance student learning needs.

  10. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  11. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P attended believed they had more knowledge of IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P attendance could name a significantly greater number of IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P attended would consider a career in IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P attended had knowledge of the IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning methods and strategies of anatomy among medical students in two different Institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Ayedh, Noura K; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S

    2017-04-01

    Anatomy instructors adopt individual teaching methods and strategies to convey anatomical information to medical students for learning. Students also exhibit their own individual learning preferences. Instructional methods preferences vary between both instructors and students across different institutions. In attempt to bridge the gap between teaching methods and the students' learning preferences, this study aimed to identify students' learning methods and different strategies of studying anatomy in two different Saudi medical schools in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study, conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2015, utilized a three-section questionnaire, which was distributed to a consecutive sample of 883 medical students to explore their methods and strategies in learning and teaching anatomy in two separate institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical students' learning styles and preferences were found to be predominantly affected by different cultural backgrounds, gender, and level of study. Many students found it easier to understand and remember anatomy components using study aids. In addition, almost half of the students felt confident to ask their teachers questions after class. The study also showed that more than half of the students found it easier to study by concentrating on a particular part of the body rather than systems. Students' methods of learning were distributed equally between memorizing facts and learning by hands-on dissection. In addition, the study showed that two thirds of the students felt satisfied with their learning method and believed it was well suited for anatomy. There is no single teaching method which proves beneficial; instructors should be flexible in their teaching in order to optimize students' academic achievements.

  13. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  14. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  15. Students' Illustrations of the Human Nervous System as a Formative Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Sisika Priyani Nelum; Montplaisir, Lisa Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' knowledge and learning of the human nervous system (HNS) in an introductory undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course. Classroom observations, demographic data, a preinstructional unit test with drawings, and a postinstructional unit test with drawings were used to identify students'…

  16. Students' Illustrations of the Human Nervous System as a Formative Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Sisika Priyani Nelum; Montplaisir, Lisa Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' knowledge and learning of the human nervous system (HNS) in an introductory undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course. Classroom observations, demographic data, a preinstructional unit test with drawings, and a postinstructional unit test with drawings were used to identify students'…

  17. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  18. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  19. Ready for the OR? - Clinical anatomy and basic surgical skills for students in their preclinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckers, Anja; Lippold, Dominique; Fassnacht, Ulrich; Schelzig, Hubert; Böckers, Tobias M

    2011-01-01

    Medical students' first experience in the operating theatre often takes place during their electives and is therefore separated from the university's medical curriculum. In the winter term 2009/10, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Ulm implemented an elective called "Ready for the OR" for 2nd year medical students participating in the dissection course. We attempted to improve learning motivation and examination results by transferring anatomical knowledge into a surgical setting and teaching basic surgical skills in preparation of the students' first participation in the OR. Out of 69 online applicants, 50 students were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group (FOP) or the Control Group. In 5 teaching session students learned skills like scrubbing, stitching or the identification of frequently used surgical instruments. Furthermore, students visited five surgical interventions which were demonstrated by surgical colleagues on donated bodies that have been embalmed using the Thiel technique. The teaching sessions took place in the institute's newly built "Theatrum Anatomicum" for an ideal simulation of a surgical setting. The learning outcomes were verified by OSPE. In a pilot study, an intervention group and a control group were compared concerning their examination results in the dissection course and their learning motivation through standardized SELLMO-test for students. Participants gained OSPE results between 60.5 and 92% of the maximum score. "Ready for the OR" was successfully implemented and judged an excellent add-on to anatomy teaching by the participants. However, we could not prove a significant difference in learning motivation or examination results. Future studies should focus on the learning orientation, the course's long-term learning effects and the participants' behavior in a real surgery setting.

  20. Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh K.; Rathinam, Bertha A. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of innovative teaching methodologies introduced to final year occupational and physical therapy students in Christian Medical College in India. Students' satisfactions along the long-term retention of knowledge and clinical application of the respiratory anatomy have been…

  1. Gateway to Healthcare Careers for Vulnerable Students: A New Approach to the Teaching of Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiccio, Albert; Kenny, Tammy; Lippacher, Linda; Flanary, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Many first-year students interested in healthcare careers do not succeed in Anatomy and Physiology I (A&PI), which they take in their first semester. These first-year students withdraw from the course or the institution, or their final grade may be below the identified threshold for progressing in their programs. A&PI has become a…

  2. Thinking outside the (Voice) Box: A Case Study of Students' Perceptions of the Relevance of Anatomy to Speech Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Kristy A.

    2008-01-01

    Speech pathology students readily identify the importance of a sound understanding of anatomical structures central to their intended profession. In contrast, they often do not recognize the relevance of a broader understanding of structure and function. This study aimed to explore students' perceptions of the relevance of anatomy to speech…

  3. Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh K.; Rathinam, Bertha A. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of innovative teaching methodologies introduced to final year occupational and physical therapy students in Christian Medical College in India. Students' satisfactions along the long-term retention of knowledge and clinical application of the respiratory anatomy have been…

  4. Comparisons between the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the clinical importance of gross anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowo-Ofayoku, Anthony; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-10-01

    Marked changes are occurring within both the medical and dental curricula and new ways of teaching the basic sciences have been devised and traditional methods (e.g., dissection for gross anatomy and of bench-based animal preparations for physiology) are increasingly no longer the norm. Although there is much anecdotal evidence that students are not in favor of such changes, there is little evidence for this based on quantitative analyses of students' attitudes. Using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses, we assessed the attitudes of first year medical and dental students at Cardiff University toward gross anatomy and physiology in terms of their perceived clinical importance. In addition, we investigated the appropriateness ("fitness for purpose") of teaching methodologies used for anatomy and physiology. The hypotheses tested recognized the possibility that medical and dental students differed in their opinions, but that they had a preference to being taught gross anatomy through the use of dissection and had no preference for physiology teaching. It was found that both medical and dental students displayed positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of gross anatomy and that they preferred to be taught by means of dissection. Although both medical and dental students displayed positives attitudes toward the clinical relevance of physiology, this was greater for the medical students. Both medical and dental students showed a preference for being taught physiology through didactic teaching in small groups but the medical students also appreciated being taught by means of practicals. Overall, this study highlights the expectations that students have for the basic science foundation teaching within their professional training and signals a preference for being taught experientially/practically. Differences were discerned between medical and dental students that might reflect the direct association between systems physiology and pathophysiology and the

  5. How legitimate is the use of human cadavers in modern-day anatomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  6. The Anatomy of Human Trafficking: Learning About the Blues: A Healthcare Provider's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.

  7. Sexism within anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists and in comparison with the perceptions of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. We recommend that teachers of anatomy should become more aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. Clin. Anat. 29:892-910, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Attitudes and views of medical students toward anatomy learnt in the preclinical phase at King Khalid University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Kemeir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the views and attitude of clinical medical students toward gross anatomy courses taught to them in preclinical years and their relevance to their medical practice. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire of 16 items was distributed to 146 clinical students. The study group included both genders (104 males and 42 females. A total of 121 students (83% responded to the questionnaire. Results: The responses obtained in relation to the clarity of the anatomy course outline its impact on their ability to think and solve problems, develop their skills as members of a team, and its relevance to their clinical practice and their ability to engage in common clinical practices were negative. Conclusion : There is an urgent need to redesign the anatomy curriculum in King Khalid University in order to enable the graduates to deliver adequate health care to the community.

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of 3D vascular stereoscopic models in anatomy instruction for first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongmei; Wilson, Timothy D; Rockhold, Robin W; Lehman, Michael N; Lynch, James C

    2017-01-01

    The head and neck region is one of the most complex areas featured in the medical gross anatomy curriculum. The effectiveness of using three-dimensional (3D) models to teach anatomy is a topic of much discussion in medical education research. However, the use of 3D stereoscopic models of the head and neck circulation in anatomy education has not been previously studied in detail. This study investigated whether 3D stereoscopic models created from computed tomographic angiography (CTA) data were efficacious teaching tools for the head and neck vascular anatomy. The test subjects were first year medical students at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. The assessment tools included: anatomy knowledge tests (prelearning session knowledge test and postlearning session knowledge test), mental rotation tests (spatial ability; presession MRT and postsession MRT), and a satisfaction survey. Results were analyzed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test and linear regression analysis. A total of 39 first year medical students participated in the study. The results indicated that all students who were exposed to the stereoscopic 3D vascular models in 3D learning sessions increased their ability to correctly identify the head and neck vascular anatomy. Most importantly, for students with low-spatial ability, 3D learning sessions improved postsession knowledge scores to a level comparable to that demonstrated by students with high-spatial ability indicating that the use of 3D stereoscopic models may be particularly valuable to these students with low-spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 10: 34-45. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Do collaborative practical tests encourage student-centered active learning of gross anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Cates, Tanya; White, Lloyd; Farchione, Davide

    2016-05-06

    Benefits of collaborative testing have been identified in many disciplines. This study sought to determine whether collaborative practical tests encouraged active learning of anatomy. A gross anatomy course included a collaborative component in four practical tests. Two hundred and seven students initially completed the test as individuals and then worked as a team to complete the same test again immediately afterwards. The relationship between mean individual, team, and difference (between team and individual) test scores to overall performance on the final examination (representing overall learning in the course) was examined using regression analysis. The overall mark in the course increased by 9% with a decreased failure rate. There was a strong relationship between individual score and final examination mark (P learning occurring during the collaborative testing and that weaker students gained the benefit from team marks without significant active learning taking place. This negative outcome may be due to insufficient encouragement of the active learning strategies that were expected to occur during the collaborative testing process. An improved understanding of the efficacy of collaborative assessment could be achieved through the inclusion of questionnaire based data to allow a better interpretation of learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 9: 231-237. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  12. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  13. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P teamwork (P teamwork. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Human thoracic anatomy relevant to implantable artificial hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.B.; Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1976-10-01

    The objective of the study is to define the human thorax in a quantitative statistical manner such that the information will be useful to the designers of cardiac prostheses, both total replacement and assist devices. This report pertains specifically to anatomical parameters relevant to the total cardiac prosthesis. This information will also be clinically useful in that the proposed recipient of a cardiac prosthesis can by simple radiography be assured of an adequate fit with the prosthesis prior to the implantation.

  15. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Maarten Luursema; Marc Vorstenbosch; Jan Kooloos

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  16. Human knee joint anatomy revisited: morphometry in the light of sex-specific total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargel, Jens; Michael, Joern W P; Feiser, Janna; Ivo, Roland; Koebke, Juergen

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates differences in the anatomy of male and female knee joints to contribute to the current debate on sex-specific total knee implants. Morphometric data were obtained from 60 human cadaver knees, and sex differences were calculated. All data were corrected for height, and male and female specimens presenting with an identical length of the femur were analyzed as matched pairs. Male linear knee joint dimensions were significantly larger when compared with females. When corrected for differences in height, medial-lateral dimensions of male knees were significantly larger than female; however, matched paired analysis did not prove these differences to be consistent. Although implant design should focus interindividual variations in knee joint anatomy, our data do not support the concept of a female-specific implant design.

  17. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lukas; Wieser, Heike; Waldboth, Simone; Mischo-Kelling, Maria

    2016-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Data was categorized into four themes: 1. Approaching the course material, 2. Understanding the material, 3. Consolidating the material, and 4. Perceived learning outcome. Students appreciated the clear structure of the course, and reported that online activities encouraged them towards a first engagement with the material. They felt that they were more active during in-class sessions, described self-study before the end-of-term exam as easier, and believed that contents would remain in their memories for a longer time. By adjusting already existing resources, lectures can be combined fairly easily and cost-effectively with preparatory e-learning activities. The creation of online components promote well-structured courses, can help minimize 'student passivity' as a characteristic element of lectures, and can support students in distributing their studies throughout the term, thus suggesting enhanced learning. Further research work should be designed to confirm the afore-mentioned findings through objective measurements of student learning outcomes.

  18. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Szpinda; Waldemar Siedlaczek; Anna Szpinda; Alina Woźniak; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska; Mateusz Badura

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagit...

  19. The molecular anatomy of spontaneous germline mutations in human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Calabrese, Peter; Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Shinde, Deepali Narendra; Yoon, Song-Ro; Gelfand, David; Bauer, Keith; Arnheim, Norman

    2007-09-01

    The frequency of the most common sporadic Apert syndrome mutation (C755G) in the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) is 100-1,000 times higher than expected from average nucleotide substitution rates based on evolutionary studies and the incidence of human genetic diseases. To determine if this increased frequency was due to the nucleotide site having the properties of a mutation hot spot, or some other explanation, we developed a new experimental approach. We examined the spatial distribution of the frequency of the C755G mutation in the germline by dividing four testes from two normal individuals each into several hundred pieces, and, using a highly sensitive PCR assay, we measured the mutation frequency of each piece. We discovered that each testis was characterized by rare foci with mutation frequencies 10(3) to >10(4) times higher than the rest of the testis regions. Using a model based on what is known about human germline development forced us to reject (p < 10(-6)) the idea that the C755G mutation arises more frequently because this nucleotide simply has a higher than average mutation rate (hot spot model). This is true regardless of whether mutation is dependent or independent of cell division. An alternate model was examined where positive selection acts on adult self-renewing Ap spermatogonial cells (SrAp) carrying this mutation such that, instead of only replacing themselves, they occasionally produce two SrAp cells. This model could not be rejected given our observed data. Unlike the disease site, similar analysis of C-to-G mutations at a control nucleotide site in one testis pair failed to find any foci with high mutation frequencies. The rejection of the hot spot model and lack of rejection of a selection model for the C755G mutation, along with other data, provides strong support for the proposal that positive selection in the testis can act to increase the frequency of premeiotic germ cells carrying a mutation deleterious to an

  20. The molecular anatomy of spontaneous germline mutations in human testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the most common sporadic Apert syndrome mutation (C755G in the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2 is 100-1,000 times higher than expected from average nucleotide substitution rates based on evolutionary studies and the incidence of human genetic diseases. To determine if this increased frequency was due to the nucleotide site having the properties of a mutation hot spot, or some other explanation, we developed a new experimental approach. We examined the spatial distribution of the frequency of the C755G mutation in the germline by dividing four testes from two normal individuals each into several hundred pieces, and, using a highly sensitive PCR assay, we measured the mutation frequency of each piece. We discovered that each testis was characterized by rare foci with mutation frequencies 10(3 to >10(4 times higher than the rest of the testis regions. Using a model based on what is known about human germline development forced us to reject (p < 10(-6 the idea that the C755G mutation arises more frequently because this nucleotide simply has a higher than average mutation rate (hot spot model. This is true regardless of whether mutation is dependent or independent of cell division. An alternate model was examined where positive selection acts on adult self-renewing Ap spermatogonial cells (SrAp carrying this mutation such that, instead of only replacing themselves, they occasionally produce two SrAp cells. This model could not be rejected given our observed data. Unlike the disease site, similar analysis of C-to-G mutations at a control nucleotide site in one testis pair failed to find any foci with high mutation frequencies. The rejection of the hot spot model and lack of rejection of a selection model for the C755G mutation, along with other data, provides strong support for the proposal that positive selection in the testis can act to increase the frequency of premeiotic germ cells carrying a mutation

  1. A comparison of the effects of computer-enhanced with traditional instruction on the learning outcomes of high-school students in anatomy classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Norma B.

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of computer-enhanced instruction (CEI), using A.D.A.M.sp°ler The Inside Story (1997a) anatomy software, compared with traditional instruction (TI) on student learning outcomes in high school anatomy classes. Learning outcomes are comprised of student achievement. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether there were relationships between learning style theories and student learning outcomes. The study was conducted in two human anatomy classes at a suburban high school near Pittsburgh. One class was chosen randomly to receive CEI. The other class received identical instruction but with no software enhancement. The same instructor taught both classes. Before the study began, the Thurstone and Jeffrey Closure Flexibility Test was administered to measure students' visual perception levels and classify them as either visually perceptive or nonvisually perceptive. The Dunn Dunn and Price Learning Style Inventory was administered to the students to identify their learning styles. CEI students worked in groups at computers using A.D.A.M.sp°ler software. Students in the TI class worked in groups on word processors for written assignments. Students in both classes received the same lectures, assignments, and study guides. After the three-week instruction period, a posttest was administered to each student in both classes to compare their achievement in the endocrine unit. Two way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between the mean posttest scores of students who received CEI and TI. However, a significant difference in mean posttest scores was found between visually perceptive students and nonvisually perceptive students (p < .01). There was no interaction between the instruction methods and students' visual perception levels. Regardless of the type of instruction received, visually perceptive students scored higher than nonvisually perceptive students on the posttest

  2. MuscleBuilder:A Modeling Tool for Human Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amaury Aubel; Daniel Thalmann

    2004-01-01

    A traditional multi-layered approach is adopted to human body modeling and deformation. The model is split into three general anatomical structures: the skeleton, musculature and skin. It is shown that each of these layers is modeled and deformed by using fast, procedural, ad-hoc methods that can painlessly be reimplemented. The modeling approach is generic enough to handle muscles of varying shape, size and characteristics and does not break in extreme skeleton poses. It is also described that the integrated MuscleBuilder system whose main features are: i) easy and quick creation of muscle deformation models; ii) automatic deformation of an overlying skin. It is shown that visually realistic results can be obtained at interactive frame rates with very little input from the designer.

  3. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  4. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  5. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56±0.08 and 0.52±0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74±0.09 to 0.92±0.08 and from 0.56±0.07 to 0.79±0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41±0.23 to 1.66±0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27±0.17 to 1.48±0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  6. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16-25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  7. Determination of nursing students’ self-efficacy belief levels in anatomy lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Tasdemir Rabia; Sivri İsmail; Güzelordu Dilsat; Yener Mehmet Deniz; Aksu Elif; Colak Serap; Bamac Belgin; Colak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    The Anatomy is the most basic lecture of the departments that give health education. The human anatomy is need to be comprehended to success in nursing field. Anatomy subjects are taught independently in each committee in Nursing Department that is in School of Health in Kocaeli University. The aim of our study is assessment of the impact of the Anatomy lectures on Anatomy Self-Efficacy Beliefs of nursing students. Totally 95 students (mean of ages 19,13 ± 1,595) who are 25 boys (%26,3) and 7...

  8. Causal-comparative study analyzing student success in hybrid anatomy and physiology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of hybrid course offerings at community colleges are rapidly increasing. Research has delineated that creating online collaborative communities and increasing student engagement all function to increase student successful outcomes. This causal-comparative study was conducted using student data from four sections of hybrid, introductory anatomy and physiology courses over the 2011 and 2012 calendar years. The study included two sources of data: unit exam scores and student surveys. Analysis of the unit exam scores determined that there were statistically significant differences in student success and achievement by the implementation of the following web-enhanced technologies: a) discussion boards, b) Breeze, and c) Wiki tools. In the scope of this study, student success and achievement was defined as a student earning a C (70%) or higher at the completion of the course. There were a total of 29 surveys conducted per each unit during the 2012 semesters that related to the web-enhanced technologies implemented into the course: Discussion boards, BreezeRTM, and Wiki tools. Demographic data was also compiled on all of the students enrolled in the classes during this study to demonstrate that there is no specified niche or trend seen in the students enrolling for this particular course. Unit 1 was used as a baseline to compare the students from the two years. It was determined that the students were not significantly different in aptitude levels at the beginning of the courses based on their Unit 1 exam scores. Inferential statistical analysis was done to examine student success and achievement using the following tools: t-test of

  9. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  10. Perceptions of Junior Doctors and Undergraduate Medical Students as Anatomy Teachers: Investigating Distance along the Near-Peer Teaching Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel; Stephens, Jonathan; Andrade, Teu; Davids, Joseph; Powell, Matthew; Border, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Near-peer teaching involves more experienced students acting as tutors and has been widely used in anatomy education. This approach has many advantages for the learner due to the social and cognitive congruence they share with the teacher, however, the influence of distance between the teacher and learner on these congruences has yet to be…

  11. An Exploration of the Factors That Contribute to Learning Satisfaction of First-Year Anatomy and Physiology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2015-01-01

    Lecturers have reverted to using a "blended" approach when teaching anatomy and physiology. Student responses as to how this contributes to their learning satisfaction were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of closed- and open-ended questions that were based on three determinants of…

  12. Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), a pedagogical technique initially developed for college chemistry courses, has been implemented for 2 yr in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course at a small private college. The course is populated with students with backgrounds ranging from no previous college-level science to junior and…

  13. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  14. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  15. Use of High-Definition Audiovisual Technology in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Effect on Dental Students' Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maha; Sleiman, Naama H; Thomas, Maureen; Kashani, Nahid; Ditmyer, Marcia M

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory cadaver dissection is essential for three-dimensional understanding of anatomical structures and variability, but there are many challenges to teaching gross anatomy in medical and dental schools, including a lack of available space and qualified anatomy faculty. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of high-definition audiovisual educational technology in the gross anatomy laboratory in improving dental students' learning outcomes and satisfaction. Exam scores were compared for two classes of first-year students at one U.S. dental school: 2012-13 (no audiovisual technology) and 2013-14 (audiovisual technology), and section exams were used to compare differences between semesters. Additionally, an online survey was used to assess the satisfaction of students who used the technology. All 284 first-year students in the two years (2012-13 N=144; 2013-14 N=140) participated in the exams. Of the 140 students in the 2013-14 class, 63 completed the survey (45% response rate). The results showed that those students who used the technology had higher scores on the laboratory exams than those who did not use it, and students in the winter semester scored higher (90.17±0.56) than in the fall semester (82.10±0.68). More than 87% of those surveyed strongly agreed or agreed that the audiovisual devices represented anatomical structures clearly in the gross anatomy laboratory. These students reported an improved experience in learning and understanding anatomical structures, found the laboratory to be less overwhelming, and said they were better able to follow dissection instructions and understand details of anatomical structures with the new technology. Based on these results, the study concluded that the ability to provide the students a clear view of anatomical structures and high-quality imaging had improved their learning experience.

  16. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  17. Assessing student engagement and self-regulated learning in a medical gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, Marc A; Axelson, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    In courses with large enrollment, faculty members sometimes struggle with an understanding of how individual students are engaging in their courses. Information about the level of student engagement that instructors would likely find most useful can be linked to: (1) the learning strategies that students are using; (2) the barriers to learning that students are encountering; and (3) whether the course materials and activities are yielding the intended learning outcomes. This study drew upon self-regulated learning theory (SRL) to specify relevant information about learning engagement, and how the measures of particular scales might prove useful for student/faculty reflection. We tested the quality of such information as collected via the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). MSLQ items were administered through a web-based survey to 150 students in a first-year medical gross anatomy course. The resulting 66 responses (44% response rate) were examined for information quality (internal reliability and predictive validity) and usefulness of the results to the course instructor. Students' final grades in the course were correlated with their MSLQ scale scores to assess the predictive validity of the measures. These results were consistent with the course design and expectations, showing that greater use of learning strategies such as elaboration and critical thinking was associated with higher levels of performance in the course. Motivation subscales for learning were also correlated with the higher levels of performance in the course. The extent to which these scales capture valid and reliable information in other institutional settings and courses needs further investigation.

  18. Hypothesis of human penile anatomy, erection hemodynamics and their clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Long Hsu

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To summarize recent advances in human penile anatomy, hemodynamics and their clinical applications. Methods:Using dissecting, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy the fibroskeleton structure, penile venous vasculature,the relationship of the architecture between the skeletal and smooth muscles, and erection hemodynamics were studied on human cadaveric penises and clinical patients over a period of 10 years. Results: The tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa is a bi-layered structure with inner circular and outer longitudinal collagen bundles. Although there is no bone in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament acts as a trunk of the glans penis. A guaranteed method of local anesthesia for penile surgeries and a tunical surgery was developed accordingly. On the venous vasculature it is elucidated that a deep dorsal vein, a couple of cavernosal veins and two pairs of para-arterial veins are located between the Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Furthermore, a hemodynamic study suggests that a fully rigid erection may depend upon the drainage veins as well, rather than just the intracavernosal smooth muscle. It is believed that penile venous surgery deserves another look, and that it may be meaningful if thoroughly and carefully performed. Accordingly, a penile venous surgery was developed. Conclusion: Using this new insight into penile anatomy and physiology, exact penile curvature correction, refined penile implants and promising penile venous surgery, as well as a venous patch, for treating Peyronie's deformity might be performed under pure local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.

  19. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  20. The utility of cadaver-based approaches for the teaching of human anatomy: A survey of British and Irish anatomy teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2017-03-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire based approach was used to gain a better insight into the opinion of anatomists on the use of preserved cadavers for the teaching of human anatomy. This study focused on anatomy teachers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. From the 125 participating anatomists, 34.4% were medically qualified, 30.4% had a PhD in a non-anatomical science and 22.4% had a PhD in an anatomical science, these figures include ten anatomists who had combinations of MD with the two other PhD qualifications. The main findings from the questionnaire were that 61.6% of participants agreed that hard-fixed formalin cadavers accurately resemble features of a human body whereas 21.6% disagreed. Moreover, anatomists rated the teaching aids on how accurately they resemble features of the human body as follows: plastic models the least accurate followed by plastinated specimens, hard fixed cadavers; soft preserved cadavers were considered to be the most accurate when it comes to resembling features of the human body. Though anatomists considered soft preserved cadavers as the most accurate tool, further research is required in order to investigate which techniques or methods provide better teaching tool for a range of anatomical teaching levels and for surgical training. Anat Sci Educ 10: 137-143. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Practice and thinking of open experimental teaching in human anatomy%人体解剖学开放性实验教学的实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄林; 杨耀防; 江会勇; 车向新; 傅文学

    2013-01-01

    Experimental teaching is an important part of human anatomy teaching,while traditional teaching methods have many disadvantages.Basic Medical College of Jiujiang University takes the student as the main body,teacher-led open teaching in the process of human anatomy experiment teaching,makes students become the main body of teaching,stimulates students' subjective initiative,and focuses on students' innovative ability training.Teacher can update the teaching idea at the same time and improve the teaching level and the ability to control the classroom.The practice has achieved good results.%实验教学是人体解剖学教学的一个重要组成部分,传统的教学方式存在较多弊端.在人体解剖学实验教学过程中,九江学院基础医学院采取“学生为主体、教师为主导”的开放性教学,让学生成为教学中的主体,激发学生的主观能动性,注重学生创新能力的培养;同时,教师更新教学观念,提高教学水平,取得了较好的教学效果.

  2. 提高口腔医学专业人体解剖学教学效果的几点思考%Some Thoughts on Improving the Teaching Effect of Human Anatomy in the Specialty of Oral Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振全; 李文明; 董立珉; 王建中

    2016-01-01

    Human anatomy is not only the most important basic course of oral medicine, but also the foundation of learning other basic medical courses. For students of oral medicine, it is very important to learn the anatomy of human body. For a long time, the anatomy teaching mode of most medical college oral medicine major in our country, is to offer two courses of systematic anatomy and local anatomy. Oral medicine professional students do not have professional anatomy textbook, they use the same set of anatomy textbook for clinical medicine and other professional students. Since entering in twenty-first Century, although the National Health Organization has repeatedly organized experts for the preparation of oral professional human anatomy textbook, but has not been widely used. Therefore, in order to improve the teaching quality of oral profession, it is very important to do well in the teaching of human anatomy.%人体解剖学不仅是口腔医学最重要的基础课程,也是学习其他基础医学课程的基础,对于口腔医学专业的学生来说,学好人体解剖学至关重要。长期以来,我国多数医学院校口腔专业人体解剖学的教学模式,都是采用开设系统解剖学和局部解剖学二门课程来实现的,口腔医学专业的学生没有专业的教材,和临床医学等专业的学生共同使用一套解剖学教材。自从进入21世纪以来,尽管国家的卫生组织曾多次组织专家为口腔专业编写专业的人体解剖学教材,但是一直没有得到推广使用。所以为了提高口腔专业的教学质量,做好人体解剖学的教学至关重要。

  3. Improvement of Motivation and Learning Level in Neuroanatomy Among Hamadan Medical Students Using Human Brain Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Using new methods in teaching anatomy could have a significant impact on students’ learning. Objectives Neuroanatomy is one of the most complicated courses in anatomy. Absence of educational assistance equipment is one the most important problems in this field. Using human brain sections could solve some of the problems and enhance students’ learning. Materials and Methods The brains of cadavers in dissection room of medicine faculty of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences were used in the present study. After fixation, the brains cut in three coronal, transverse and sagittal sections. Then, the sections were presented to one group of students in practical classes. Another group continued as control with routine educational method. The students filled out a questionnaire and declared their ideas about the new methods in Neuroanatomy education. Finally, two groups were compared for marks gained in the final exam. Results Using present method had remarkable effect on learning progress and prevention of exhaustion of students in the classroom. Moreover, it increased marvelously their ability in three-dimensional imagination in anatomy. Quantitative analysis of the final examination showed significant increase in the marks of experimental group (P < 0.05. Conclusions According to the subjective and objective results, the new method used in anatomy education had a good effect on learning of anatomy and interested students in anatomy. Besides, it decreased students’ stress at exam time. It can be a complementary method for conventional methods. It is very useful for those who need retraining courses.

  4. [Anatomy: the bodily order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2004-01-01

    In this essay I try to show the source of the knowledge that determines a certain view that the healthcare team, particularly the nursing team, has developed on the body, especially the sick body. I understand that this knowledge determines ways of caring for the hospitalized bodies. Based on texts by Foucault I analyze the subject of Anatomy. I present a brief history of its construction as a field of knowledge since Versalius until today, when we find plastinated and digitized bodies. I highlight the cadaver as the student's first contact with a human body and observe that the illustrations contained in Anatomy books privilege male and white bodies. I characterize the body as a radically historical invention and observe that we are culturally trained to perceive it, in an organized way, from given viewpoints and by using certain lenses.

  5. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  6. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Raj

    Full Text Available Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  7. A functional and clinical reinterpretation of human perineal neuromuscular anatomy: Application to sexual function and continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Adrian, Brent; Ruiz, Saul A; Hall, Margaret I

    2016-11-01

    Modern anatomical and surgical references illustrate perineal muscles all innervated by branches of the pudendal nerve but still organized into anatomically distinct urogenital and anal triangles with muscles inserting onto a central perineal body. However, these conflict with the anatomy commonly encountered during dissection. We used dissections of 43 human cadavers to characterize the anatomical organization of the human perineum and compare our findings to standard references. We found bulbospongiosus and the superficial portion of the external anal sphincter (EAS) were continuous anatomically with a common innervation in 92.3% of specimens. The superficial transverse perineal muscle inserted anterior and lateral to the midline, interdigitating with bulbospongiosus. The three EAS subdivisions were anatomically discontinuous. Additionally, in 89.2% of our sample the inferior rectal nerve emerged as a branch of S3 and S4 distinct from the pudendal nerve and innervated only the subcutaneous EAS. Branches of the perineal nerve innervated bulbospongiosus and the superficial EAS and nerve to levator ani innervated the deep EAS. In conclusion, we empirically demonstrate important and clinically relevant differences with perineal anatomy commonly described in standard texts. First, independent innervation to the three portions of EAS suggests the potential for functional independence. Second, neuromuscular continuity between bulbospongiosus and superficial EAS suggests the possibility of shared or overlapping function of the urogenital and anal triangles. Clin. Anat. 29:1053-1058, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L; Boots, Mathew T; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions.

  9. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  10. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  11. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of me

  12. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  13. Simulating the multi-disciplinary care team approach: Enhancing student understanding of anatomy through an ultrasound-anchored interprofessional session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetmer, Marianne T; Cloud, Beth A; Youdas, James W; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2017-09-15

    Quality of healthcare delivery is dependent on collaboration between professional disciplines. Integrating opportunities for interprofessional learning in health science education programs prepares future clinicians to function as effective members of a multi-disciplinary care team. This study aimed to create a modified team-based learning (TBL) environment utilizing ultrasound technology during an interprofessional learning activity to enhance musculoskeletal anatomy knowledge of first year medical (MD) and physical therapy (PT) students. An ultrasound demonstration of structures of the upper limb was incorporated into the gross anatomy courses for first-year MD (n = 53) and PT (n = 28) students. Immediately before the learning experience, all students took an individual readiness assurance test (iRAT) based on clinical concepts regarding the assigned study material. Students observed while a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician demonstrated the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic and procedural tool for the shoulder and elbow. Following the demonstration, students worked within interprofessional teams (n = 14 teams, 5-6 students per team) to review the related anatomy on dissected specimens. At the end of the session, students worked within interprofessional teams to complete a collaborative clinical case-based multiple choice post-test. Team scores were compared to the mean individual score within each team with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Students scored higher on the collaborative post-test (95.2 ±10.2%) than on the iRAT (66.1 ± 13.9% for MD students and 76.2 ±14.2% for PT students, P Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. [Draft of Guidelines for Human Body Dissection for Clinical Anatomy Education and Research and commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Ide, Chizuka; Higuchi, Norio; Aiso, Sadakazu; Sakai, Tatsuo; Matsumura, George; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Eiji; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Hishikawa, Shuji; Sugimoto, Maki; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Imanishi, Nobuaki

    2011-07-01

    This article analyses the Draft of Guidelines for Human Body Dissection for Clinical Anatomy Education and Research drawn by the Study Group for Future Training Systems of Surgical Skills and Procedures established by the Fiscal Year 2010 research program of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The purpose of the Draft of Guidelines is: First, to lay out the required basic guidelines for human cadaver usage to allow medical and dental faculty to conduct clinical education and research in accordance with existing regulations. Second, the guidelines are expected to give physicians a regulatory framework to carry out cadaver training in accordance with the current legal framework. This article explains the Draft of Guidelines in detail, outlines the future of cadaver training, and describes issues which must still be solved.

  15. [Draft of guidelines for human body dissection for clinical anatomy education and research and commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Ide, Chizuka; Higuchi, Norio; Aiso, Sadakazu; Sakai, Tatsuo; Matsumura, George; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Eiji; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Hishikawa, Shuji; Sugimoto, Maki; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Imanishi, Nobuaki

    2011-06-01

    This article analyses the Draft of Guidelines for Human Body Dissection for Clinical Anatomy Education and Research drawn by the Study Group for Future Training Systems of Surgical Skills and Procedures established by the Fiscal Year 2010 research program of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The purpose of the Draft of Guidelines is: First, to lay out the required basic guidelines for human cadaver usage to allow medical and dental faculty to conduct clinical education and research in accordance with existing regulations. Second, the guidelines are expected to give physicians a regulatory framework to carry out cadaver training in accordance with the current legal framework. This article explains the Draft of Guidelines in detail, outlines the future of cadaver training, and describes issues which must still be solved.

  16. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  17. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  18. Interactive radiological anatomy eLearning solution for first year medical students: Development, integration, and impact on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; Choi, Sunhea

    2014-01-01

    A technology enhanced learning and teaching (TELT) solution, radiological anatomy (RA) eLearning, composed of a range of identification-based and guided learning activities related to normal and pathological X-ray images, was devised for the Year 1 nervous and locomotor course at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton. Its effectiveness was evaluated using a questionnaire, pre- and post-tests, focus groups, summative assessment, and tracking data. Since introduced in 2009, a total of 781 students have used RA eLearning, and among them 167 Year 1 students in 2011, of whom 116 participated in the evaluation study. Students enjoyed learning (77%) with RA eLearning, found it was easy to use (81%) and actively engaged them in their learning (75%), all of which were associated to the usability, learning design of the TELT solution and its integration in the curriculum; 80% of students reported RA eLearning helped their revision of anatomy and 69% stated that it facilitated their application of anatomy in a clinical context, both of which were associated with the benefits offered by the learning and activities design. At the end of course summative assessment, student knowledge of RA eLearning relevant topics (mean 80%; SD ±16) was significantly better as compared to topics not relevant to RA eLearning (mean 63%; SD ±15) (mean difference 18%; 95% CI 15% to 20%; P < 0.001). A well designed and integrated TELT solution can be an efficient method for facilitating the application, integration, and contextualization of anatomy and radiology to create a blended learning environment.

  19. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. P.; Zhang, M.; Hwang, T. S.; Bailey, S. T.; Wilson, D. J.; Jia, Y.; Huang, D.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based on these data, we propose an improved system of nomenclature and segmentation boundaries for detailed 3-dimensional retinal vascular anatomy by OCTA. This could serve as a basis for future investigation of both normal retinal anatomy, as well as vascular malformations, nonperfusion, and neovascularization.

  20. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. P.; Zhang, M.; Hwang, T. S.; Bailey, S. T.; Wilson, D. J.; Jia, Y.; Huang, D.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based on these data, we propose an improved system of nomenclature and segmentation boundaries for detailed 3-dimensional retinal vascular anatomy by OCTA. This could serve as a basis for future investigation of both normal retinal anatomy, as well as vascular malformations, nonperfusion, and neovascularization. PMID:28186181

  1. When Students Struggle with Gross Anatomy and Histology: A Strategy for Monitoring, Reviewing, and Promoting Student Academic Success in an Integrated Preclinical Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortsch, Michael; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Gross anatomy and histology are now often taught as parts of an integrated medical or dental curriculum. Although this puts these foundational basic sciences into a wider educational context, students may not fully appreciate their importance as essential components of their medical education and may not develop a sufficient level of competency,…

  2. When Students Struggle with Gross Anatomy and Histology: A Strategy for Monitoring, Reviewing, and Promoting Student Academic Success in an Integrated Preclinical Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortsch, Michael; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Gross anatomy and histology are now often taught as parts of an integrated medical or dental curriculum. Although this puts these foundational basic sciences into a wider educational context, students may not fully appreciate their importance as essential components of their medical education and may not develop a sufficient level of competency,…

  3. Practice of anatomy teaching based on developing the innovative ability of the medical students%以培养医学生创新能力为主的解剖学教学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙平; 赵毅玲; 张洋; 刘艳翠

    2015-01-01

    随着高等教育改革的不断深化,培养学生的实践能力和创新意识,已成为实验教学的关键任务。牡丹江医学院解剖教研室以培养“创新型”人才为指导思想,根据不同专业,通过引入动物器官、开展科研活动等措施,设置丰富的实践教学内容,制定科学的考核方法,构建了以培养医学生创新能力为主的解剖学实践教学体系。激发了学生的学习热情,提升了解剖学教学质量。%With the development of higher education reform, cultivating students' practice ability and innovation consciousness has become the key task of experimental teaching . Aimed at training innovative talent, human anatomy department of Mudanjiang Medical University took mea-sures to reform practical contents of human anatomy such as introduction of animal organs, development of scientific research, and by setting the abundant practical teaching content and appraisal method, constructed the anatomy practice teaching system based on cultivating the innovation ability of medical students, which stimulated the enthusiasm of students for anatomy and improved quality of human anatomy teaching.

  4. The caecocolonic junction in humans has a sphincteric anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussone Pellegrini, M S; Manneschi, L I; Manneschi, L

    1995-01-01

    Sphincteric anatomy and function are present at the caecocolonic junction in several mammals. In humans, radiologists and endoscopists have respectively reported a circumferential contraction and a prominent ileocaecal fold at the border area between the caecum and the ascending colon. Anatomical findings on necropsy material failed to confirm its presence. Microscopic studies on surgical specimens showed the existence of muscular and innervational patterns different from those of adjacent areas. The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of a specialised fold at the caecocolonic junction in humans and to ascertain its role by carrying out a study of functional anatomy. Pancolonoscopies were performed on 100 patients and ileocaecal fold behaviour was observed before and after mechanical stimulation. Isolated ileocaecocolonic regions, surgically obtained, were filled with a fixative solution to study their macro and microscopic morphology after stimulation. Endoscopically, the ileocaecal fold was semilunar or circular in shape and spontaneous or evoked spasms occurred in 52 patients. A prominent circular fold could be seen in surgical specimens after stimulation. The entire muscle coat deeply penetrated this fold, showing the features characteristic of the ileocaecal junction. In particular, the inner portion of the circular muscle showed a peculiar arrangement and was thicker than elsewhere. These results show that in humans the caecocolonic junction is provided with a sphincter morphology and function. Little is known about its physiological relevance in ileal flow accommodation and caecal filling and emptying but it should not be underestimated with regard to some colonic motility disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7489934

  5. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  6. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions to Participate in a Short "Dissection Experience" within a Systemic Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Theresa A.; McAndrew, Darryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in medical education have affected both curriculum design and delivery. Many medical schools now use integrated curricula and a systemic approach, with reduced hours of anatomy teaching. While learning anatomy via dissection is invaluable in educational, professional, and personal development, it is time intensive and supports a regional…

  7. 2D and 3D stereoscopic videos used as pre-anatomy lab tools improve students' examination performance in a veterinary gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Sereen M; Coppoc, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis for the research described in this article was that viewing an interactive two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic pre-laboratory video would improve efficiency and learning in the laboratory. A first-year DVM class was divided into 21 dissection teams of four students each. Primary variables were method of preparation (2D, 3D, or laboratory manual) and dissection region (thorax, abdomen, or pelvis). Teams were randomly assigned to a group (A, B, or C) in a crossover design experiment so that all students experienced each of the modes of preparation, but with different regions of the canine anatomy. All students were instructed to study normal course materials and the laboratory manual, the Guide, before coming to the laboratory session and to use them during the actual dissection as usual. Video groups were given a DVD with an interactive 10-12 minute video to view for the first 30 minutes of the laboratory session, while non-video groups were instructed to review the Guide. All groups were allowed 45 minutes to dissect the assigned section and find a list of assigned structures, after which all groups took a post-dissection quiz and attitudinal survey. The 2D groups performed better than the Guide groups (p=.028) on the post-dissection quiz, despite the fact that only a minority of the 2D-group students studied the Guide as instructed. There was no significant difference (p>.05) between 2D and 3D groups on the post-dissection quiz. Students preferred videos over the Guide.

  8. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  9. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  10. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  11. Larynx Anatomy

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    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  12. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  13. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  14. Building an open academic environment - a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through 'Shadow Modules'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan L; Moxham, Bernard J; Rutherford, Stephen M

    2014-03-01

    Teaching and learning in anatomy is undertaken by a variety of methodologies, yet all of these pedagogies benefit from students discussing and reflecting upon their learning activities. An approach of particular potency is peer-mediated learning, through either peer-teaching or collaborative peer-learning. Collaborative, peer-mediated, learning activities help promote deep learning approaches and foster communities of practice in learning. Students generally flourish in collaborative learning settings but there are limitations to the benefits of collaborative learning undertaken solely within the confines of modular curricula. We describe the development of peer-mediated learning through student-focused and student-led study groups we have termed 'Shadow Modules'. The 'Shadow Module' takes place parallel to the formal academically taught module and facilitates collaboration between students to support their learning for that module. In 'Shadow Module' activities, students collaborate towards curating existing online open resources as well as developing learning resources of their own to support their study. Through the use of communication technologies and Web 2.0 tools these resources are able to be shared with their peers, thus enhancing the learning experience of all students following the module. The Shadow Module activities have the potential to lead to participants feeling a greater sense of engagement with the subject material, as well as improving their study and group-working skills and developing digital literacy. The outputs from Shadow Module collaborative work are open-source and may be utilised by subsequent student cohorts, thus building up a repository of learning resources designed by and for students. Shadow Module activities would benefit all pedagogies in the study of anatomy, and support students moving from being passive consumers to active participants in learning.

  15. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  16. To quiz or not to quiz: Formative tests help detect students at risk of failing the clinical anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Alain J; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Smith, Jennifer; Dionne, Éric; Jalali, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Through a modified team-based learning (TBL) in the anatomy pre-clerkship curriculum, formative evaluations are utilized in the University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine to assess and predict students' outcomes on summative examinations. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of formative assessments to predict student's performance on summative examinations, during the first two semesters of medical school. Formative assessments included multiple-choice quizzes (MCQ) for each laboratory session and a practical midterm examination (MIDTERM), while the summative assessment corresponded to the final practical examination (FINAL). A moderate correlation between MCQs and FINAL (r = 0.353 and 0.301, respectively), and strong correlation between MIDTERM and FINAL assessments (r = 0.688 and 0.610, respectively) were found in the first two semesters. The MIDTERM-FINAL correlations were enhanced for students who scored under 61% in the MIDTERM (r = 0.887 and 0.717, respectively). Despite limitations, mostly related to particularities of the used tests, the analysis revealed an efficient method to identify students at risk of failing the FINAL in a TBL-based anatomy program. Future developments include the elaboration of strategies to predict and support those underperforming students.

  17. Medical student knowledge regarding radiology before and after a radiological anatomy module: implications for vertical integration and self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; O'Connor, Owen J; Cryan, John F; Maher, Michael M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the impact that anatomy-focused radiology teaching has on non-examined knowledge regarding radiation safety and radiology as a specialty. First-year undergraduate medical students completed surveys prior to and after undertaking the first-year anatomy programme that incorporates radiological anatomy. Students were asked opinions on preferred learning methodology and tested on understanding of radiology as a specialty and radiation safety. Pre-module and post-module response rates were 93 % (157/168) and 85 % (136/160), respectively. Pre-module and post-module, self-directed learning (SDL) ranked eighth (of 11) for preferred gross-anatomy teaching formats. Correct responses regarding radiologist/radiographer roles varied from 28-94 % on 16 questions with 4/16 significantly improving post-module. Identification of modalities that utilise radiation significantly improved for five of eight modalities post-module but knowledge regarding relative amount of modality-specific radiation use was variable pre-module and post-module. SDL is not favoured as an anatomy teaching method. Exposure of students to a radiological anatomy module delivered by senior clinical radiologists improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use, but there was no improvement in knowledge regarding radiation exposure relative per modality. A possible explanation is that students recall knowledge imparted in didactic lectures but do little reading around the subject when the content is not examined. • Self-directed learning is not favoured as a gross anatomy teaching format amongst medical students. • An imaging anatomy-focused module improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use. • Detailed knowledge of modality-specific radiation exposure remained suboptimal post-module. • Knowledge of roles within a clinical radiology department showed little change post-module.

  18. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011-2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues.

  19. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  20. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  1. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  2. The pars interna/media anatomy and histology in the human larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpied, George L

    2007-01-01

    The pars interna/media (PIM) is a small muscle found in the human larynx that has not been successfully described in contemporary literature on laryngeal structure. The objective of this study was to describe the PIM's anatomy in detail. Thirteen human larynges obtained from postmortem examination were cleaned and preserved. Exposure of the PIM was through a lateral disarticulation of the cricothyroid joint and reflection of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroid lamina. In the human, the PIM was found to be strap-like in form and to have two bellies with attachments to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage at the root of the inferior horn and anteriosuperior cricoid arch. It appears to be innervated by a middle division, vestibular branch, of the internal superior laryngeal nerve. The average fiber diameter is 40 mum. Its type 1-to-type 2 fiber ratio places it within the range of other intrinsic laryngeal muscles. A muscle spindle was identified in medial bundle at the PIM's thyroid attachment. Thyroid medial surface attachment is within few millimeters of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. These data show that the PIM is a robust muscle and deserves attention anatomically. Its orientation within the thyroid and nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve innervations of the human PIM may place it in the vocal fold tensor group rather than the laryngeal sphincter group. It is possible the PIM reports on cricothyroid distance and right versus left cricothyroid joint stresses. Electromyographic examination of the PIM in the Rhesus larynx may help elucidate its physiology to elaborate its human physiology.

  3. "No interest in human anatomy as such": Frederic Wood Jones dissects anatomical investigation in the United States in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross L

    2014-03-01

    In 1926, Frederic Wood Jones, professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide and a leading figure in the British anatomical world, took a Rockefeller Foundation funded trip to the United States in order to inspect anatomy programmes and medical museums and to meet leading figures in the anatomical and anthropological world. His later reflections paint a picture of a discipline in transition. Physical anthropology and gross anatomy were coming to a crisis point in the United States, increasingly displaced by research in histology, embryology and radiological anatomy. Meanwhile, in Britain and its colonial outposts, anatomists such as Wood Jones were attempting to re-invigorate the discipline in the field, studying biological specimens as functional and active agents in their particular milieus, but with human dissection at the core. Thus, an examination of this trip allows us to see how the interaction between two traditions in anatomy informed the process of the development of human biology in this critical period.

  4. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springer and Elsevier (Science Direct) for the years 1980-2008. Two reviewers extracted data on the anatomy of large animal spines from the identified articles. Each anatomical study of animals had to include at least three vertebral levels. The anatomical data from all animal studies were compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. Of the papers retrieved, seven were included in the review. The animals in the studies involved baboon, sheep, porcine, calf and deer. Distinct anatomical differences of vertebrae were found between the human and each large animal spine. In cervical region, spines of the baboon and human are more similar as compared to other animals. In thoracic and lumbar regions, the mean pedicle height of all animals was greater than the human pedicles. There was similar mean pedicle width between animal and the human specimens, except in thoracic segments of sheep. The human spinal canal was wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals. The mean human vertebral body width and depth were greater than that of the animals except in upper thoracic segments of the deer. However, the mean vertebral body height was lower than that of all animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review to compare vertebrae geometries of experimental animal models to the human vertebrae, and will help for choosing animal model in vivo and in vitro spine research. When the animal selected for spine research, the structural similarities and

  5. A Computer Simulation Study of Anatomy Induced Drift of Spiral Waves in the Human Atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R. Kharche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of spiral waves of excitation with atrial anatomy remains unclear. This simulation study isolates the role of atrial anatomical structures on spiral wave spontaneous drift in the human atrium. We implemented realistic and idealised 3D human atria models to investigate the functional impact of anatomical structures on the long-term (∼40 s behaviour of spiral waves. The drift of a spiral wave was quantified by tracing its tip trajectory, which was correlated to atrial anatomical features. The interaction of spiral waves with the following idealised geometries was investigated: (a a wedge-like structure with a continuously varying atrial wall thickness; (b a ridge-like structure with a sudden change in atrial wall thickness; (c multiple bridge-like structures consisting of a bridge connected to the atrial wall. Spiral waves drifted from thicker to thinner regions and along ridge-like structures. Breakthrough patterns caused by pectinate muscles (PM bridges were also observed, albeit infrequently. Apparent anchoring close to PM-atrial wall junctions was observed. These observations were similar in both the realistic and the idealised models. We conclude that spatially altering atrial wall thickness is a significant cause of drift of spiral waves. PM bridges cause breakthrough patterns and induce transient anchoring of spiral waves.

  6. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia.

  7. 人体解剖学课程教学改革浅析%A brief analysis of human anatomy teaching reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世富

    2014-01-01

    人体解剖学是学习基础医学和临床医学各学科不可动摇的基石,是学习其他医学课程坚实的形态学基础。为提高学生的学习兴趣,启发学生的立体思维能力和动手能力,在教学过程中,可通过“眼”、“脑”、“手”三者结合,使学生快速地熟悉和掌握解剖学知识,挖掘学生形态思维能力,并将临床常见病例与理论知识紧密结合引发学生的学习热情,以灵活的教学方式,提高解剖学知识的趣味性和实用性。%Objective:Human anatomy is the study basic medicine and clinical medicine of disciplinary unshakeable cornerstone, is to learn other medical solid morphological foundation course. In order to improve the students' interest in learning, inspire the student to the stereoscopic thinking ability and practical ability, in the process of teaching, through the"eye","brain"and"hand"combination, to make the students familiar with and master the anatomy knowledge quickly and excavate students thinking ability, and wil be closely integrated clinical common cases and theoretical knowledge cause student's study enthusiasm, in a flexible way of teaching, improve the anatomical knowledge of interesting and practical.

  8. Undergraduate perspectives on the teaching and learning of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Batty, Lachlan

    2009-03-01

    The volume of time dedicated to anatomy teaching has steadily decreased in the context of increasingly dense undergraduate curricula. We examine the complex topic of anatomical education from the undergraduate perspective, with a focus on student perceptions, their origins and their potential solutions. A limited dataset suggests students perceive their tuition in anatomy may be suboptimal. Multiple factors (including the intensity of pre-clinical studies, academic criticism of modern courses, surgical culture and misinformation) may account for the unrest. It is difficult to objectively measure the impact of modified anatomy curriculum on clinical performance and patient safety. While there is a case (on the basis of student perception at least) for reinvigorating elements of undergraduate anatomy education, the modern medical educational framework is here to stay, and students and clinicians must learn to adapt. Anatomy must be linked with contemporary approaches to medical education and it should be integrated, continuous and guided. It is critical that clinicians engage in the teaching of anatomy in the clinical environment and they must be adequately resourced to do so. Graduates must emerge with a core understanding of anatomy, but not an encyclopaedic knowledge of the human form. Undergraduate programme should simply strive to equip their graduates with a foundation for lifelong learning and a platform for safe practice as interns.

  9. Human Clay Models versus Cat Dissection: How the Similarity between the Classroom and the Exam Affects Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.; Van Meter, Peggy; Perrotti, William; Drogo, Salvatore; Cyr, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different anatomic representations on student learning in a human anatomy class studying the muscular system. Specifically, we examined the efficacy of using dissected cats (with and without handouts) compared with clay sculpting of human structures. Ten undergraduate laboratory sections were assigned to three…

  10. Human Clay Models versus Cat Dissection: How the Similarity between the Classroom and the Exam Affects Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.; Van Meter, Peggy; Perrotti, William; Drogo, Salvatore; Cyr, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different anatomic representations on student learning in a human anatomy class studying the muscular system. Specifically, we examined the efficacy of using dissected cats (with and without handouts) compared with clay sculpting of human structures. Ten undergraduate laboratory sections were assigned to three…

  11. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Paul Kirkpatrick; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-02-24

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings.

  12. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  13. Prof-in-a-Box: using internet-videoconferencing to assist students in the gross anatomy laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorman Stephen J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal learning environment for gross anatomy is the dissection laboratory. The Prof-in-a-Box (PiB system has been developed where an anatomist using distance-learning technologies 'helps' students in a dissection laboratory at a different site. Methods The PiB system consists of: (1 an anatomist in his/her office with a computer and video camera; (2 a computer and 2 video cameras in the lab; (3 iChat AV software; (4 a secure server to host the PiB-student 'consultation'. The PiB system allows the students and faculty to interact via audio and video providing an environment where questions can be asked and answered and anatomical structures can be identified 'at a distance' in real-time. The PiB system was set up at a prosected cadaver and made available for student use during 'office hours'. Results 25–30% of the students used the PiB system. Anatomical structures were identified, questions answered and demonstrations given 'at a distance' using the system. Students completed an optional questionnaire about the PiB system at the end of the semester. Results of the questionnaire indicate that the students were enthusiastic about the PiB system and wanted its use to be expanded in the future. Conclusion Many of the functions of a faculty member in the gross anatomy dissection laboratory can be performed 'at a distance' using the PiB system. This suggests that a geographically dispersed faculty could assist in providing instruction in the dissection labs at multiple medical schools without needing to be physically present.

  14. Design principles for developing an efficient clinical anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J; Stewart, William B; O'Brien, Michael; Haims, Andrew; Rando, William; Abrahams, James; Dunne, Shane; Wang, Silas; Aden, Marcus

    2006-03-01

    The exponential growth of medical knowledge presents a challenge for the medical school curriculum. Because anatomy is traditionally a long course, it is an attractive target to reduce course hours, yet designing courses that produce students with less understanding of human anatomy is not a viable option. Faced with the challenge of teaching more anatomy with less time, we set out to understand how students employ instructional media to learn anatomy inside and outside of the classroom. We developed a series of pilot programs to explore how students learn anatomy and, in particular, how they combine instructional technology with more traditional classroom and laboratory-based learning. We then integrated what we learned with principles of effective instruction to design a course that makes the most efficient use of students' in-class and out-of-class learning. Overall, we concluded that our new anatomy course needed to focus on transforming how medical students think, reason, and learn. We are currently testing the hypothesis that this novel approach will enhance the ability of students to recall and expand their base of anatomical knowledge throughout their medical school training and beyond.

  15. The effects of computer simulation models on middle school students' understanding of the anatomy and morphology of the frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Joseph Paul

    Science teachers, school administrators, educators, and the scientific community are faced with ethical controversies over animal dissection in school biology classrooms. Computer simulation has been proposed as a way of dealing with this issue. One intriguing tentative finding in previous research was that use of an interactive videodisc dissection facilitated performance on a subsequent actual dissection. This study was designed to replicate and extend that finding to computer-based dissection. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of a computer simulation model of frog dissection in improving students' actual dissection performance and learning of frog anatomy and morphology and (2) to determine whether the effectiveness of the simulation is dependent upon the sequence in which simulation is presented. Class periods were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: simulation before dissection, dissection before simulation, or dissection-only. Results of the study indicated that students in the simulation before dissection condition (SBD) performed significantly better than the dissection before simulation (DBS) and dissection-only (DO) conditions on both the actual dissection and on knowledge of the anatomy and morphology. There were no significant differences between the latter two conditions. Students attitudes toward the use of animals for dissection did not change significantly from pretest to posttest and did not interact with treatment. The genders did not differ in achievement, but males were more favorable towards dissection and computers than were females. Attitudes were not influenced by the experimental treatments.

  16. Application of People-Oriented Teaching Conception for Human Anatomy%以人为本的高师“人体解剖学”教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆丰

    2014-01-01

    Human anatomy is characterized with broad content and a great amount of boring terminologies that strongly hinder students to comprehend and memorize the knowledge. Even worse, the teaching hours and experimental conditions for this subject in normal university are usually insufficient, which remarkably reduce audience's learning interest. This paper is sought to improve the teaching effects for Human Anatomy by adopting people-oriented teaching conception, such as esteeming life value, integrating hu-manistic cultivation, stimulating students' interest and fostering their scientific ideality, based on the course arrangement and the teaching status in our school. Some experience has been summarized that may be universally suitable for other normal universities, and some actual practice has been illustrated that may contribute to push students to combine theory with practice and further promote their application abilities.%人体结构复杂繁多,名词术语枯燥乏味,滞碍学生对人体知识的理解和记忆。高等师范院校该课程的学时偏少,且实验条件不足,不少学生对该课程缺乏学习兴趣。针对我校“人体解剖学”课程设置特点与教学现状,从尊重生命价值、融入人文教育、激发主体兴趣、培养科学素养等方面,构筑“以人为本”的教学观,探索提高“人体解剖学”教学效果的途径及措施,促进学生将理论知识与生活实践相结合,培养学以致用的新型人才。

  17. Modifizierte objective structured practical examination (OSPE als Leistungskontrolle im Kurs der Mikroskopischen Anatomie an der Universität Ulm [A modified objective structured practical examination (OSPE for medical student assessment in microscopic anatomy at Ulm University, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeckers, Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] In 2005 we introduced a modified objective structured examination (OSPE to assess practical capabilities in the course of microscopical anatomy for medical students at Ulm university. This test was intended to change and improve the working behaviour of students with respect to active participation during the course hours. During the OSPE examination the students had to examine 8 different tissue slides and pinpoint on substructures in a given time. The results were checked and documented by the supervisors in a standardized manner. The practical course and the novel examination procedure were subsequently evaluated by the students. The OSPE showed to be a practical, well accepted and personal ressources saving instrument for student assessment. The test showed a positive influence on student behaviour. [german] Im Sommersemster 2005 wurde an der Universität Ulm eine modifizierte objective practical examination als Erfolgskontrolle der mikroskopisch anatomischen Fähigkeiten von Medizinstundenten eingeführt. Dieser Test sollte als ein integrierendes Instrument, die vorhandenen Lehrangebote auf die Prüfung orientiert sinnvoll miteinander verknüpfen, und dadurch die Motivation zum eigenständigen Lern- und praktischen Arbeitsverhalten während der Kurszeiten erhöhen. In der Prüfung wurden den Studierenden 8 unterschiedliche histologische Schnittbild-präparate vorgelegt, in denen je eine Substruktur in einer vorgegeben Zeit bezeichnet werden sollte. Die Ergebnisse wurden vom Prüfer in standardisierter Weise kontrolliert und dokumentiert. Anschließend wurden der praktische Kurs der mikroskopischen Anatomie sowie die neue Prüfungsart von den Studierenden evaluiert. Zusammenfassend konnte gezeigt werden, dass ein OSPE in der mikroskopischen Anatomie einfach zu organisieren und praktikabel durchführbar ist. Es gelang durch die Einführung der OSPE-Prüfung in der mikroskopischen Anatomie unter Schonung der personellen Ressourcen

  18. 人体解剖学教学内容与方法改革探索%Probing on reform of teaching methods and contents of human anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀防

    2007-01-01

    Human anatomy is a hard subject for teachers to teach and a hard course for medical students to learn.For good memorization of the human anatomy knowledge by students,the teacher should learn and master the teaching skills and techniques.Author has probed the instructional reform on the teaching contents and methods and introduced some experiences on them such as making a pithy formula,combining with clinics and human body,drawing,giving an example and pushing self-study.%人体解剖学是一门难教难学的医学基础课程,要使学生学好记牢解剖学知识,教师必须学习和掌握一定的教学方法和技巧.本文介绍了笔者多年教学过程中积累的教学经验,从抓重点一教学内容典型化、编口诀-复杂内容简单化、系临床-理论知识应用化、用人体-讲授内容形象化四方面优化教学内容,从描绘简图-教学直观式、列举实例-授课趣味式、动静结合-手段多样式、倡导自学-学习主动式四方面改革教学方法,取得了较好的教学效果.

  19. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  20. Can Computer-Based Visual-Spatial Aids Lead to Increased Student Performance in Anatomy & Physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Michael H.; Linzey, Alicia V.

    2005-01-01

    InterActive Physiology (IAP) is one of a new generation of anatomy and physiology learning aids with a broader range of sensory inputs than is possible from a static textbook or moderately dynamic lecture. This best-selling software has modules covering the muscular, respiratory, urinary, cardiovascular, and nervous systems plus a module on fluids…

  1. Interactive Anatomical and Surgical Live Stream Lectures Improve Students' Academic Performance in Applied Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Thomas; Butz, Benjamin; Herlan, Stephan; Kramer, Andreas; Hirt, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Tuebingen's "Sectio Chirurgica" (TSC) is an innovative, interactive, multimedia, and transdisciplinary teaching method designed to complement dissection courses. The Tuebingen's "Sectio Chirurgica" (TSC) allows clinical anatomy to be taught via interactive live stream surgeries moderated by an anatomist. This method aims to…

  2. Evolutionary trends and functional anatomy of the human expanded autophagy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Andreas; Saito, Rintaro; Merkurjev, Daria; Liu, Jing-Jing; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kolnik, Martin; Siddiqui, Aleem; Glas, Martin; Scheffler, Björn; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells utilize autophagy for protein and organelle turnover, thus assuring subcellular quality control, homeostasis, and survival. In order to address recent advances in identification of human autophagy associated genes, and to describe autophagy on a system-wide level, we established an autophagy-centered gene interaction network by merging various primary data sets and by retrieving respective interaction data. The resulting network ('AXAN') was analyzed with respect to subnetworks, e.g. the prime gene subnetwork (including the core machinery, signaling pathways and autophagy receptors) and the transcription subnetwork. To describe aspects of evolution within this network, we assessed the presence of protein orthologs across 99 eukaryotic model organisms. We visualized evolutionary trends for prime gene categories and evolutionary tracks for selected AXAN genes. This analysis confirms the eukaryotic origin of autophagy core genes while it points to a diverse evolutionary history of autophagy receptors. Next, we used module identification to describe the functional anatomy of the network at the level of pathway modules. In addition to obvious pathways (e.g., lysosomal degradation, insulin signaling) our data unveil the existence of context-related modules such as Rho GTPase signaling. Last, we used a tripartite, image-based RNAi - screen to test candidate genes predicted to play a role in regulation of autophagy. We verified the Rho GTPase, CDC42, as a novel regulator of autophagy-related signaling. This study emphasizes the applicability of system-wide approaches to gain novel insights into a complex biological process and to describe the human autophagy pathway at a hitherto unprecedented level of detail.

  3. Anatomy curriculum for medical students: what can be learned for future curricula from evaluations and questionnaires completed by students, anatomists and clinicians in different countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Reinhard

    2009-12-01

    In recent years an international debate has culminated in the questions "How much anatomy is necessary in the medical curriculum?" and "Should dissection be replaced by prosection or computer-aided learning?". This article will deal with data published on evaluations of the anatomical knowledge of students, on experience with different teaching forms documented by anatomists, and on the assessment of the anatomical knowledge of young doctors by clinicians responsible for residency programmes. Due to the great variability in the number of teaching hours, type of teaching methods, previous qualifications of medical students, number and qualification of demonstrators and several other parameters it is impossible to assume experiences in one institute and/or country to be valid for another. However, there is an urgent need to fund research programmes evaluating the anatomy curriculum including long-term studies, as the aim of the medical curriculum is the well-trained medical doctor. No convincing data have been published on the advantages or disadvantages of problem-based learning curricula. Congresses of anatomical associations/societies should include sessions on teaching aspects, and the decision makers in medical faculties should be informed about internationally documented pro and cons of anatomy, not only for the undergraduates but also for the specialization of physicians.

  4. A method of providing engaging formative feedback to large cohort first-year physiology and anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Wallace, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates a critical role for effective, meaningful feedback to enhance student learning. Effective feedback can become part of the learning cycle that is not only a learning opportunity for the student but can also be used to inform the teacher and ongoing curriculum development. Feedback is considered particularly important during the first year of university and can even be viewed as a retention strategy that can help attenuate student performance anxieties and solidify perceptions of academic support. Unfortunately, the provision of individualized, timely feedback can be particularly challenging in first-year courses as they tend to be large and diverse cohort classes that pose challenges of time and logistics. Various forms of generic feedback can provide rapid and cost-effect feedback to large cohorts but may be of limited benefit to students other than signaling weaknesses in knowledge. The present study describes a method that was used to provide formative task-related feedback to a large cohort of first-year physiology and anatomy students. Based on student evaluations presented in this study, this method provided feedback in a manner that engaged students, uncovered underlying misconceptions, facilitated peer discussion, and provided opportunity for new instruction while allowing the lecturer to recognize common gaps in knowledge and inform ongoing curriculum development. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Ready for the OR? – Clinical anatomy and basic surgical skills for students in their preclinical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckers, Anja; Lippold, Dominique; Fassnacht, Ulrich; Schelzig, Hubert; Böckers, Tobias M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical students’ first experience in the operating theatre often takes place during their electives and is therefore separated from the university’s medical curriculum. In the winter term 2009/10, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Ulm implemented an elective called “Ready for the OR” for 2nd year medical students participating in the dissection course. We attempted to improve learning motivation and examination results by transferring anatomical knowledge into a surgical setting and teaching basic surgical skills in preparation of the students’ first participation in the OR. Out of 69 online applicants, 50 students were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group (FOP) or the Control Group. In 5 teaching session students learned skills like scrubbing, stitching or the identification of frequently used surgical instruments. Furthermore, students visited five surgical interventions which were demonstrated by surgical colleagues on donated bodies that have been embalmed using the Thiel technique. The teaching sessions took place in the institute’s newly built “Theatrum Anatomicum” for an ideal simulation of a surgical setting. The learning outcomes were verified by OSPE. In a pilot study, an intervention group and a control group were compared concerning their examination results in the dissection course and their learning motivation through standardized SELLMO-test for students. Participants gained OSPE results between 60.5 and 92% of the maximum score. “Ready for the OR” was successfully implemented and judged an excellent add-on to anatomy teaching by the participants. However, we could not prove a significant difference in learning motivation or examination results. Future studies should focus on the learning orientation, the course’s long-term learning effects and the participants’ behavior in a real surgery setting. PMID:21866247

  6. 高职“人体解剖学”实验教学改革初探%Preliminary Experimental Teaching Reform of Human Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小勇; 付庆; 刘菲

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy experimental teaching is an important teaching link of human anatomy. By constructing teaching mode of"take the teacher as the leadership, take the student as the main body", it should adjust the content of experiment teaching, increase teaching resources, use a variety of teaching methods, and establish the experimental evaluation system to achieve medicine basic course combined with clinical professional course.%实验教学是“人体解剖学”的重要教学环节。该文通过建立“以教师为主导、以学生为主体”的双主教学模式,调整实验教学内容,综合运用多种教学方法和手段,改革实验考核评价体系,实现高职院校医学基础课程与临床专业课程的良性接轨。

  7. Reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth: comparison of three different materials using injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, A; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Shrestha, P

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study compared the reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth taken by silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin using an injection technique to determine which material produced fewer voids. Twenty impressions/patterns using this technique were made for each material and compared with each other on the basis of number, location and size of voids. Length of each dowel impression/ pattern was also compared. The percentage of void free surfaces using silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin were 90%, 100% and 85% respectively. Most of the voids were less than 1mm in size and situated in the middle third of the impression/pattern. There was no significant difference in the length of the impression/ pattern taken by the three materials. Using the injection technique to reproduce the intra-radicular anatomy of the dowel space, all three materials will show predictably good results.

  8. 人体解剖生理学课程引入虚拟现实技术的教改探索%Applying Virtual Reality Technology in"Human Anatomy ;and Physiology"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范敏; 戴培山

    2014-01-01

    "Human Anatomy and Physiology" is a course with many teaching contents, it contains complex anatomy structures. The course needs rich spatial imagination. It is very difficult for non-medical students in higher education institutions to under-stand human anatomy structure and physiology. In this paper, virtual reality technology was applied in "Human Anatomy and Physiology" teaching, and human eye, ear and cardiovascular system were taken as examples to show how to apply virtual real-ity technology in teaching. By contrast, we found that with its characters of intuitive and vivid, the virtual reality technology in creased students' interest in the course,improved the teaching effect.%人体解剖生理学课程教学内容多,涉及的人体结构复杂,需要较强的空间想象能力。非医学院校的学生理解人体解剖结构和生理功能比较困难。本文将虚拟现实技术引入到人体解剖生理学的教学当中,以人眼、耳和心血管系统的教学内容为例分析了如何在教学过程中引入虚拟现实技术。通过对比,我们发现虚拟现实技术利用其直观、形象的特点,增加了学生对课程的兴趣,提高了教学效果。

  9. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  10. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  11. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  12. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  13. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  14. An appraisal of anatomy teaching and learning by undergraduate nursing students in a multiprofessional context: a study done at a medical school in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnumaya, G; Ramnarayan, K

    2009-01-01

    This study was done to assess undergraduate nursing students' perception of the way anatomy is taught in a multiprofessional context. The study was done at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University in India. The first year undergraduate nursing students were quantitatively and qualitatively appraised for their perception of the merits and demerits of the present anatomy curriculum. Questionnaires with close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed to the students. It was then statistically analyzed using the software package SPSS. A summative assessment of university examination results of the undergraduate students of the nursing course of the years 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 were empirically compared. The students have rated the time allocated for anatomy teaching as insufficient. Nursing curriculum worldwide has undergone innovative changes bringing in newer methods of teaching and learning. It is high time that, the developing countries also follow in their wake and take up the issue of undergraduate nursing curricular reform. After recognizing the drawbacks of the present anatomy curriculum it's high time it is revised for undergraduate nursing student level (Tab. 5, Ref. 17).

  15. [Contrastive analysis of Latin terms for denoting human organs and structural body parts and parts of organs in anatomy literature in English and Serbian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukčević-Lacković, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of the use of Latin terms in the field of human anatomy through the contrastive analysis of examples from anatomy atlases and textbooks, and research papers in the area of human anatomy in English and Serbian. The contrastive analysis of examples has highlighted a certain tendency towards the use of original Latin terms in anatomy literature in the Serbian language, while the tendency of anatomy literature in English is towards the use of English terms which most often have a Latin root. It has also been noted that Serbian literature, in addition to original Latin terms, uses a significant number of terms with a Latin root. The noted tendencies differ depending on the type of literature (anatomy atlas, textbook or research paper). A significantly greater uniformity in the use of terminology has been noted in editions in English as compared to the Serbian anatomy literature where a lack of such a uniform system is evident. Bearing in mind the ever increasing significance of the English language in the world of science, one of the conclusions of this paper is that these differences may be of practical significance for authors from Serbia looking to publish their work in English as well as for translators of medical literature.

  16. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses.

  17. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications.

  18. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  19. Global Health Values of a Multidirectional Near Peer Training Program in Surgery, Pathology, Anatomy, Research Methodology, and Medical Education for Haitian, Rwandan, and Canadian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elharram, Malik; Dinh, Trish; Lalande, Annie; Ge, Susan; Gao, Sophie; Noël, Geoffroy

    As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students. Students from the University of Kigali, Rwanda and Université Quisqueya, Haiti, participated in a 3-week program at McGill University. The students spanned from the first to sixth year of their respective medical training. The program consisted of anatomy dissections, surgical simulations, clinical pathology shadowing, and interactive sessions in research methodology and medical education. To evaluate the program, a survey was administered to students using a mixed methodology approach. Common benefits pointed out by the participants included personal and professional growth. The exchange improved career development, sense of responsibility toward one's own community, teaching skills, and sociocultural awareness. The participants all agreed that the anatomy dissections improved their knowledge of anatomy and would make them more comfortable teaching the material when the returned to their university. The clinical simulation activities and shadowing experiences allowed them to integrate the different disciplines. However, the students all felt the research component had too little time devoted to it and that the knowledge presented was beyond their educational level. The development of an integrated international program in surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education provided medical students with an opportunity to learn about differences in health care and medical education

  20. 人体解剖教学中课前十分钟讲课的作用%The Role of Ten Minutes before the Lecture in Human Anatomy Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建江; 王水泉; 古丽尼沙·克热木; 甘子明; 阿地力江·伊明

    2014-01-01

    在五年制本科2012级临床医学定向学生采用课前十分钟讲课教学模式,通过问卷调查对人体解剖教学和学生接受知识的影响。结果显示2012级临床医学定向语言表达能力、团队协作、综合分析和查阅文献能力均有不同程度的提高,表明课前十分钟教学模式有利于加强学生对解剖学主要内容的掌握和消化,为边疆医学解剖教学实践提供了一种尝试模式。%Before the five-year undergraduate students using the 2012 clinical orientation ten-minute lecture class teaching model, human anatomy through a questionnaire survey of the impact of teaching and students receive knowledge. The results showed that 2012 Clinical directional language skills, teamwork, comprehensive analysis and literature to improve the ability to varying degrees, indicating that ten minutes before class teaching model will help strengthen students' mastery of anatomy and digestive main content, provides a try for frontier medical anatomy teaching practice mode.

  1. Computer-assisted learning in anatomy at the international medical school in Debrecen, Hungary: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A; Kis, Gréta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an introduction to anatomical digital images along with clinical cases. This low-budget course has a large visual component using images from magnetic resonance imaging and computer axial tomogram scans, ultrasound clinical studies, and readily available anatomy software that presents topics which run in parallel to the university's core anatomy curriculum. From the combined computer images and CHA lecture information, students are asked to solve computer-based clinical anatomy problems in the CHA computer laboratory. A statistical comparison was undertaken of core anatomy oral examination performances of English program first-year medical students who took the elective CHA course and those who did not in the three academic years 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010. The results of this study indicate that the CHA-enrolled students improved their performance on required anatomy core curriculum oral examinations (P students benefit from computer-assisted learning in a multilingual and diverse cultural environment.

  2. On the Clinical professional human anatomy Teaching innovation and Practice%论临床医学专业人体解剖学的教学创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王湘军

    2013-01-01

    This article is shallow state from sticking to a student-centered teaching philosophy, focusing on students learning emotion and desire for knowledge, and adhere to the student-centered teaching mode, improve classroom teaching, and adhere to the student-centered teaching goals, improve studentthe overall quality of the three aspects of the human anatomy teaching innovation.%  人体解剖学所涉及的内容广泛、抽象、繁杂,因而在教与学的两个方面都需要认真的对待和研究。本文浅述了从坚持以学生为本的教学理念、注重培养学生的学习情感和求知欲望,坚持以学生为主体的教学模式、提高课堂教学效果,坚持以学生为本的教学目标,提高学生的综合素质等三个方面入手的人体解剖学教学创新。

  3. Preliminary exploration of training students' critical thinking in anatomy teaching%解剖学教学中培养学生批判性思维初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全鹏; 易西南; 马志健

    2013-01-01

    批判性思维对于培养具有创新意识的新型医学人才具有重要的意义.解剖学是医学生的基础课,在解剖学教学中,引进批判性思维对培养学生的创新意识具有重要作用.本文就解剖学教学中如何培养医学生的批判性思维进行初步探索.%Critical thinking is great significance to train one new medical personnel who possesses creativity consciousness. The anatomy is a basic course for medical students, it is important for training their creativity consciousness to introduce critical thinking in the anatomy teaching. This article is talking about how to train medical students' critical thinking in anatomy teaching.

  4. Anatomy atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  5. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: clinical implications for physicians and surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery.

  6. What impact does anatomy education have on clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire France; Mathias, Haydn Socrates

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate regarding doctors' knowledge of anatomy as an appropriate preparation for professional practice. This exploratory case study examined alumni's experiences of learning anatomy. The aim was to inform curriculum development and to gain a better understanding of how anatomy knowledge is applied in practice. A total of 140 medical student alumni from the University of Southampton participated in this study (49% males, 51% females). Participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire with free comment sections. Descriptive results found that: using cadaveric material was an effective way of learning anatomy; assessment was a major motivator; and around half of students forgot a lot of anatomy but that knowledge came back easily. Statistical analysis revealed associations between certain positive and negative factors in learning. Links were also seen with current job role, revealing that those who responded to positive factors were involved in careers which involved a great deal of anatomy and vice versa. To facilitate learning, anatomy should be taught throughout the curriculum and use human cadavers. Relating knowledge to practice requires transformation of knowledge and is best facilitated by the learning being situated in clinical contexts.

  7. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  8. Die Integration eines computerbasierten Anatomie-Lernprogramms im Curriculum der Ausbildung Medizinisch-technischer Assistenten der Fachrichtung Radiologie [The integration of a computer-based tutorial in anatomy into an educational curriculum for student radiographers/technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewald, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: Anatomy is an important subject in the education of radiographers and radiotherapy technicians. The enormous amount of information may render efficient learning more difficult and lead to sub-optimal results. The purpose of this study was to test whether the introduction of a computer-based tutorial enhances learning success in anatomy. Methods: A commercially available tutorial in anatomy especially adapted to the requirements of the education of radiographers and which facilitated and structured the frequent repetition of the material was introduced into the conventional curriculum. The tutorial was used during normal lessons, and work with it was obligatory. The students could learn anatomical structures and landmarks repeatedly as well as test themselves. The scores obtained in the final examinations two years prior to introduction of this tutorial were compared with those obtained two years after introduction. Results: Students’ knowledge in anatomy could be markedly improved. Conclusion: An efficient and time-saving method of learning became possible. It was important to integrate the tutorial into the normal curriculum. The test results show the feasibility of this educational concept. [german] Zielsetzung: In der MTA-Ausbildung nimmt Anatomie einen wichtigen Platz ein. Die große Stofffülle erschwert jedoch ein effizientes zeitsparendes Lernen und führt auch bei motivierten Schülern oft zu mangelndem Lernerfolg. Es sollte geprüft werden, ob dieser durch Einführung computerbasierten Lernens verbessert werden kann. Methodik: Ein auf die Erfordernisse der MTRA-Ausbildung von den Autoren angepasstes kommerzielles Anatomie-Lernprogramm, das den Schülern das notwendige häufige Wiederholen des Materials erleichtert und strukturiert, wurde im Rahmen des Pflichtunterrichtes den Schülern zur Verfügung gestellt. Diese konnten damit anatomische Sachverhalte sich einprägen, beliebig oft wiederholen und ihr Wissen testen

  9. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of 3D Vascular Stereoscopic Models in Anatomy Instruction for First Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongmei; Wilson, Timothy D.; Rockhold, Robin W.; Lehman, Michael N.; Lynch, James C.

    2017-01-01

    The head and neck region is one of the most complex areas featured in the medical gross anatomy curriculum. The effectiveness of using three-dimensional (3D) models to teach anatomy is a topic of much discussion in medical education research. However, the use of 3D stereoscopic models of the head and neck circulation in anatomy education has not…

  10. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of 3D Vascular Stereoscopic Models in Anatomy Instruction for First Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongmei; Wilson, Timothy D.; Rockhold, Robin W.; Lehman, Michael N.; Lynch, James C.

    2017-01-01

    The head and neck region is one of the most complex areas featured in the medical gross anatomy curriculum. The effectiveness of using three-dimensional (3D) models to teach anatomy is a topic of much discussion in medical education research. However, the use of 3D stereoscopic models of the head and neck circulation in anatomy education has not…

  11. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations

  12. Evaluation of a 3-D interactive tooth atlas by dental students in dental anatomy and endodontics courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward F; Hendricson, William D

    2010-02-01

    Advances in information and communication technology continually offer innovations to assist faculty in their efforts to help students learn new information or develop new skills. However, faculty members are often hesitant to incorporate these innovations into their courses out of fear that these new methods may not provide the anticipated outcomes. Hence, students are often the subjects of educational trials to evaluate curriculum innovations by comparing a new teaching/learning method to traditional lecture-based instruction. The most typical finding is that students can learn equally well by either method. However, two questions that have not been studied extensively in dental education are whether dental students will actually use computer-based educational resources made available to them and whether students perceive these materials to provide a value-added learning experience. Accordingly, the goals of this study were to determine whether first-year dental students (D1), second-year dental students (D2), and third-year dental students (D3) would 1) use an interactive tooth atlas, available on a DVD, as a study aid and 2) perceive that the atlas provided sufficient value-added benefit for their dental anatomy (D1), preclinical laboratory endodontics (D2), and clinical endodontics (D3) courses to recommend adding it to their school's comprehensive electronic resources. A low percentage of the students (14 percent; 40/289) voluntarily downloaded the atlas from a DVD to their laptops prior to the addition of incentives in the form of atlas-related examination questions. Even after incentives were added, only 43 percent of the students (126/289) downloaded the DVD. After using the atlas, students responded to the statement "Using the 3D Interactive Tooth Atlas was beneficial for me" on a 0 to 10 scale with 0 representing strongly disagree, 5 representing unsure, and 10 representing strongly agree. The mean rankings were 5.34 for D1s, 6.79 for D2s, and 7.28 for D

  13. Improving learning of anatomy with reusable learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of modern educational technologies is useful for learning, durability, sociability, and upgrading professionalism. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of reusable learning objects on improving learning of anatomy. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Fourteen (reusable learning objects RLO from different parts of anatomy of human body including thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were prepared for medical student in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The length of the time for RLO was between 11-22 min. Because their capacities were low, so they were easy to use with cell phone or MP4. These materials were available to the students before the classes. The mean scores of students in anatomy of human body group were compared to the medical students who were not used this method and entered the university in 2008. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher to evaluate the effect of RLO and on, content, interest and motivation, participation, preparation and attitude. Result: The mean scores of anatomy of human body of medical student who were entered the university in 2009 have been increased compare to the students in 2008, but this difference was not significant. Based on the questionnaire data, it was shown that the RLO had a positive effect on improving learning anatomy of human body (75.5% and the effective relationship (60.6%. The students were interested in using RLO (74.6%, some students (54.2% believed that this method should be replaced by lecture. Conclusion: The use of RLO could promote interests and effective communication among the students and led to increasing self-learning motivation.

  14. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Jennifer Elaine; Randall, K; Anderson, M P

    2015-02-01

    Distance education is a solution to expand medical imaging education to students who might not otherwise be able to obtain the education. It can be a mechanism to reduce the health care worker shortage in underserved areas. In some cases, distance education may be a disruptive technology, and might lower student performance. This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design. The means and medians of the lecture exam average, the laboratory component score, and the final course score of the nondistance education cohorts were compared with those of the distance education cohorts using nonparametric statistical analysis. Scores in an anatomy course were compared by campus placement among the distance education cohorts, and the independent effect of distance education on the laboratory component, lecture examination average, and final course scores, while controlling for cumulative grade point average and site (originating/distant), was assessed. Students receiving the course in a nondistance education environment scored higher in the anatomy course than the students who took the course in a distance education environment. Students on the distant campus scored lower than students on the originating site. Distance education technology creates new opportunities for learning, but can be a disruptive technology. Programs seeking to implement distance education into their curriculum should do so with knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages.

  15. The Effect of a Prior Dissection Simulation on Middle School Students' Dissection Performance and Understanding of the Anatomy and Morphology of the Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Joseph Paul; Andre, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Science teachers, school administrators, educators, and the scientific community are faced with ethical controversies over animal dissection in classrooms. Simulation has been proposed as a way of dealing with this issue. One intriguing previous finding was that use of an interactive videodisc dissection facilitated performance on a subsequent actual dissection. This study examined the prior use of simulation of frog dissection in improving students' actual dissection performance and learning of frog anatomy and morphology. There were three experimental conditions: simulation before dissection (SBD); dissection before simulation (DBS); or dissection-only (DO). Results of the study indicated that students receiving SBD performed significantly better than students receiving DBS or DO on both actual dissection and knowledge of the anatomy and morphology. Students' attitudes toward the use of animals for dissection did not change significantly from pretest to posttest and did not interact with treatment. The genders did not differ in achievement, but males were more favorable towards dissection and computers than were females.

  16. Physical therapy students’ perceptions of team-based learning in gross anatomy using the Team-Based Learning Student Assessment Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beven Livingston

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The physical therapy students reported an overall positive experience in using TBL to learn gross anatomy in terms of accountability, preference for learning mode, and satisfaction. This positive experience with TBL was accompanied by their successful academic performance. Given the traits and learning preferences in this generation of graduate students, TBL could be a teaching method that is received positively elsewhere and results in successful academic performance and learning.

  17. Determination of nursing students’ self-efficacy belief levels in anatomy lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasdemir Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anatomy is the most basic lecture of the departments that give health education. The human anatomy is need to be comprehended to success in nursing field. Anatomy subjects are taught independently in each committee in Nursing Department that is in School of Health in Kocaeli University. The aim of our study is assessment of the impact of the Anatomy lectures on Anatomy Self-Efficacy Beliefs of nursing students. Totally 95 students (mean of ages 19,13 ± 1,595 who are 25 boys (%26,3 and 70 girls (%73,7 attended to our research. Anatomy Self-Efficacy Belief (ASEB scale and personal information survey(age, gender, the geographical region that he/she came from, the place that he/she resides are applied to these students. Statistically, when the relation between ASEB levels of the students and their residences was assessed, it is found that there is a significant difference on between the ASEB levels of the students who reside in dormitory and that of the students who reside at home (p<0.05. This outcome makes think that the residences of students can be effective on their success levels on the lectures. Due to the fact that dormitories that are in campus are close to the university, the attendances of lectures of students who reside in dormitory are more than the others and it shows that these students are able to study better than the others.

  18. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  19. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  20. Liver anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Formative evaluation of a frame-based model of locative relationships in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C A

    1997-01-01

    The verb structure of narrative text in a gross anatomy textbook was analyzed to identify locative relationships. The 169 locative indicators were organized semantically to construct a frame-based model. The validity and coverage of the model was assessed and compared with the UMLS Semantic Net Relations using a novel test set of 71 indicators. All mapped directly to the frame model, while 60% mapped directly to UMLS.

  2. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  3. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  4. [Anatomy as theatre. From the library of the Society of the Dutch Journal of Medicine. Govard Bidloo: Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body); 1689; and William Cowper: The Anatomy of Humane Bodies; 1698].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, J C

    2004-12-25

    Opinions differ regarding the scientific quality of the atlas by Govard Bidloo, Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body) (1689) and the plagiarism made thereof by William Cowper, The Anatomy of Humane Bodies (1698). Both books were also published in Latin; the Society of the Dutch Journal of Medicine has acquired a copy of all 4 atlases. The anatomical plates were made by the artist Gerard de Lairesse (Liège 1640-Amsterdam 1711) and their great artistic value is beyond all doubt. De Lairesse settled in Amsterdam in 1665, a few months after the reopening of the city theatre, and subsequently achieved fame as an innovative creator of theatre sets. He also became one of the favourite artists of prince William III and many other well-to-do citizens of Amsterdam. The great artistic value of his anatomical plates justifies more attention for his importance as a medical illustrator in medical history.

  5. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  6. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL CHALK AND BOARD LECTURE SYSTEM VERSUS POWER POINT PRESENTATION AS A TEACHING TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING GROSS ANATOMY TO THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally and conventionally, gross anatomy is taught by lectures and cadaveric dissection and the lectures are taken with chalk and board (C&B or chalk and talk method in, India. But there is always a debate over the most effective method of lecture delivery. AIM : The aim of this study was to compare the role and effectiveness chalk and board method versus power point presentation ( S tudent’s perception as a lecture delivering method for teaching gross anatomy. METHODS: This was a questionnaire based study where 140 out of 150 first professional MBBS students of Medical College Jammu, were asked to fill anonymously a questionnaire about their perceptions of these two lecture delivery methods. The results were analyzed to see if there was any preference of students for any particular method. RESULTS: The majority of the medical students (90.7% preferred PPT presentations, while only 9.3% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard method. CONCLUSION: Most of the students clearly preferred and accepted the use of PPT presentations, as compared to conventional board teaching for delivery method. So teaching gross anatomy should be carefully amalgamated with use of power point in lecture hall.

  7. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  8. Body Painting as a Tool in Clinical Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as…

  9. Gregorc Learning Styles and Achievement in Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Results from the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD), administered to 260 undergraduate nursing students, were compared with achievement scores in a human anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis and VARIMAX rotation demonstrate that there is no relationship between any of the four learning styles allegedly identified by the GSD and achievement…

  10. The anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in relation to its contractile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M; Jones, D A; Chapman, S J; Edwards, R H; Ward, P S; Fodden, D L

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in muscles taken post mortem. Histochemical staining of muscle fibres showed that type I fibres predominated in all cases with a mean occurrence of 80%. This composition is similar to that of the soleus muscle and unlike that of the quadriceps which has approximately equal proportions of the two fibre types. Comparing the contractile characteristics, however, the adductor pollicis has similar properties to the quadriceps and both are quite distinct from those of the slowly contracting soleus muscle. The lack of correlation between fibre composition, as revealed by histochemical staining, and contractile properties in these muscles must mean that fibres of the same type from different muscles do not necessarily have the same contractile speed. The results also suggest that the type I fibres of the human adductor pollicis are faster than those of both the soleus and quadriceps muscles.

  11. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities; Orbita - Anatomie, Entwicklung und Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Golinski, M. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Schroeder, A.C. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung der Strukturen der menschlichen Orbita ist sehr komplex. Ihre Kenntnis erleichtert jedoch das Verstaendnis von Anatomie und Fehlbildungen. In dieser Uebersicht wird zunaechst auf die embryonale Entwicklung eingegangen, bevor die ''normale'' radiologische Anatomie bei verschiedenen Untersuchungstechniken und die haeufigsten Fehlbildungen thematisiert werden. (orig.)

  12. Predicting Academic Success of Health Science Students for First Year Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Evans, Tess; Chivers, Paola T.

    2016-01-01

    Students commencing tertiary education enter through a number of traditional and alternative academic pathways. As a result, tertiary institutions encounter a broad range of students, varying in demographic, previous education, characteristics and academic achievement. In recent years, the relatively constant increase in tertiary applications in…

  13. Cognitive Anatomy of Tutor Learning: Lessons Learned with SimStudent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Yarzebinski, Evelyn; Keiser, Victoria; Raizada, Rohan; Cohen, William W.; Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an advanced learning technology used to investigate hypotheses about learning by teaching. The proposed technology is an instance of a teachable agent, called SimStudent, that learns skills (e.g., for solving linear equations) from examples and from feedback on performance. SimStudent has been integrated into an online,…

  14. The Cerefy Atlas of brain anatomy. An interactive reference tool for students, teachers and researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowinski, W.L.; Thirunavuukarasuu, A.; Bryan, R.N.

    2002-07-01

    The Cerefy {sup registered} Atlas of Brain Anatomy is a remarkable accomplishment combining the best of current neuroanatomical methodology with the amazing capability of the modern personal computer. This CD-ROM not only demonstrates the power of digital technology, but also provides a view of the future of medical education. Through the use of magnetic resonance images (MRI) combined with interactive image labeling it is possible to use this CD-ROM to rapidly name any structure within the brain in three planes of section presented simultaneously. With the simple click of a mouse of most intricate of brain structures can be identified in sagittal, axial, and coronal planes. By selecting the ''label'' function, whatever brain structure the cursor is placed upon is named in real time. It is possible to literally browse across the brain and watch every structure that is touched be named on the screen as fast as you can move the cursor. This incredible functionality is further enhanced by the ability to select the test mode and provide a self-guided quiz of neuroanatomy. This atlas is perfect for preparing teaching materials as it also contains a ''save'' function to preserve labeled images. This low-cost CD-ROM will no doubt be used by those who study and/or teach neuroanatomy, neurology, neurosurgery, neuroradiology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, and psychiatry. This unique contribution to the field of neuroanatomy is a most impressive accomplishment. (orig.)

  15. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  16. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24% while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy.

  17. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic Performance in ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... while the dependent variables were students' academic performance.

  18. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  20. The public display of plastinates as a challenge to the integrity of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy has been thrust into the public domain by the highly successful public displays of dissected and plastinated human bodies. This is anatomy in modern guise, anatomy as perceived by the general public. If this is the case, the message it is giving the public about the nature of anatomy is that it is an impersonal analysis of the human body of value within a medical and health care environment. While this is in part true, and while it reflects important aspects of anatomy's history, it fails to reflect the humanistic strands within an increasing swathe of contemporary anatomy. These are manifested in growing recognition of the centrality of informed consent in the practice of anatomy, awareness of the personal dimensions and relationships of those whose bodies are being dissected, and manifested in thanksgiving ceremonies involving staff and students. The notion that the bodies undergoing dissection can be students' first teachers and/or patients is gaining ground, another indication of the human dimensions of the anatomical enterprise. Exhibitions such as Body Worlds ignore these dimensions within anatomy by dislocating it from its clinical and relational base. The significance of this is that loss of these dimensions leads to a loss of the human face of anatomy by isolating it from the people whose body bequests made this knowledge possible. What is required is greater transparency and openness in the practices of all who deal with the dead human body, trends that owe much to the writings of scholars from within a range of humanities disciplines as they have responded to the public displays of dissected plastinated bodies. Anatomists have much to learn from these debates.

  1. Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning on Students' Dental Anatomy Waxing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Hernández, Marcela; Blanchette, Derek R; Lam, Matthew T; Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer-assisted learning on first-year dental students' waxing abilities and self-evaluation skills. Additionally, this study sought to determine how well digital evaluation software performed compared to faculty grading with respect to students' technical scores on a practical competency examination. First-year students at one U.S. dental school were assigned to one of three groups: control (n=40), E4D Compare (n=20), and Sirona prepCheck (n=19). Students in the control group were taught by traditional teaching methodologies, and the technology-assisted groups received both traditional training and supplementary feedback from the corresponding digital system. Five outcomes were measured: visual assessment score, self-evaluation score, and digital assessment scores at 0.25 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.35 mm tolerance. The scores from visual assessment and self-evaluation were examined for differences among groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Correlation between the visual assessment and digital scores was measured using Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. At completion of the course, students were asked to complete a survey on the use of these digital technologies. All 79 students in the first-year class participated in the study, for a 100% response rate. The results showed that the visual assessment and self-evaluation scores did not differ among groups (p>0.05). Overall correlations between visual and digital assessment scores were modest though statistically significant (5% level of significance). Analysis of survey responses completed by students in the technology groups showed that profiles for the two groups were similar and not favorable towards digital technology. The study concluded that technology-assisted training did not affect these students' waxing performance or self-evaluation skills and that visual scores given by faculty and digital assessment scores correlated moderately.

  2. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  3. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  4. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  5. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  6. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  7. Effects of image-based and text-based active learning exercises on student examination performance in a musculoskeletal anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M Melissa; Wright, Mary C; Anderson, Olivia S

    2017-09-01

    Research on the benefits of visual learning has relied primarily on lecture-based pedagogy, but the potential benefits of combining active learning strategies with visual and verbal materials on learning anatomy has not yet been explored. In this study, the differential effects of text-based and image-based active learning exercises on examination performance were investigated in a functional anatomy course. Each class session was punctuated with an average of 12 text-based and image-based active learning exercises. Participation data from 231 students were compared with their examination performance on 262 questions associated with the in-class exercises. Students also rated the helpfulness and difficulty of the in-class exercises on a survey. Participation in the active learning exercises was positively correlated with examination performance (r = 0.63, P image-based exercises was significantly correlated with performance on examination questions associated with image-based exercises (P learning exercises were helpful for seeing images of key ideas (94%) and clarifying key course concepts (80%), and that the image-based exercises were significantly less demanding, less hard and required less effort than text-based exercises (P images and active learning strategies on student learning, and suggest that integrating them may be especially beneficial for learning anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 10: 444-455. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Constancy and characteristics of the anterior cutaneous branch of the first intercostal nerve: correcting the descriptions in human anatomy texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Makoto

    2006-12-01

    Human anatomy texts state that the anterior cutaneous branch of the first intercostal nerve (Rca-Th1) does not exist or that, even if it does, it is poorly developed. However, an anterior cutaneous branch in the first intercostal space (Rca-1) was observed in 74.8% of cases examined (104/139 sides) and was not poorly developed at all. Some of the observed Rca-I were even larger than the anterior cutaneous branches in the second intercostal space (Rca-ll). The segment of origin of the Rca-I was analyzed in 37 sides and 66.2% (49/74 branches) were confirmed to be from Th1. As a result, in contrast with traditional beliefs, it was shown that Rca-Th1 exists. The Rca-I was classified into two types according to the course and distribution: (i) an anterior cutaneous branch that appeared at the anterior end of the first intercostal space (ICS), ran through the pectoralis major muscle and extended in the first ICS (Rca-1); and (ii) another branch that appeared at the same place but ran downward along the anterior surface of the second costal cartilage, deep to the pectoralis major muscle, to reach the inferior edge of the second costal cartilage or the second ICS, passed through the pectoralis major muscle and extended to the second rib or the second ICS (pseudo Rca-2). It was found that 77.8% (35/45 branches) of Rca-1 and 48.3% (14/29 branches) of pseudo Rca-2 were derived from Th1. Accordingly, the author suggests that the description in human anatomy texts should be revised to read, '... the Rca-Th1 exists quite constantly and some of appear at a position resembling Rca-Th2'.

  9. Environmental Waste Management in a School Hospital and in a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lusa Manfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and professional activities developed in a Hospital School and a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a university can generate parallel, chemical residues from various degrees of angerousness, which may require physical treatment and / or suitable chemical, before being sent to final destination. The General Hospital (GH generates monthly 10 L of xylenes and 50 L of glutaraldehyde to provide ass instance to their patients. Already the Laboratory of Human Anatomy of University de Caxias do Sul (AL-UCS uses more than 10,000 liters for preserving corpses in tanks. The present study aims to analyze the chemical waste management of the GH and the AL-UCS and propose techniques for recovery and reuse of chemicals formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and xylenes, minimizing the impacts generated by the use, often indispensable and sometimes questionable, of such waste. So far two sets of samples were collected (in March and April 2013 of xylene, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in the GH and also at the AL-UCS and it is intended to repeat the collections with monthly periodicity, in the next two semesters. Partial results show that, comparing the relationship of area and the medium areas of the chromatographic (in µV.s of patterns with compounds of interest, an increase in the percentage of formaldehyde relative to the samples in standard formalin (121.84% may be due to contamination with organic compounds with a retention time close to the compound of interest, the xylene was little degradation in the samples, indicating that this compound can be reused in the common procedures of healthcare institutions, with respect to glutaraldehyde significant degradation was observed for the compound in samples represents only 61.88% of the chromatographic peak area of the standard, therefore the reuse of these compounds may require the use of purification methods such as simple distillation and fractional distillation

  10. Modelling of the Human Inner Ear Anatomy and Variability for Cochlear Implant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin

    several challenges concerning data processing and analysis. Our approach is to describe the inner ear as a statistical shape model. The thesis covers our work with regards to data segmentation, shape characterization, development of image registration model suited for the inner ear and construction......This thesis takes the biomedical engineering approach to working with and understanding the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear. The purpose is to apply the acquired knowledge in the development of implantable hearing aids. The so-called Cochlear Implant (CI) is a fascinating technology...... of statistical deformation models. The thesis results in a series of applications relating to CIs. The shape model can be used by CI-manufacturers for virtual product development and testing. At the same time, it can be applied to estimate the detailed inner ear shape from a clinical patient CT scan. This opens...

  11. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  12. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  13. Optimizing the teaching of human anatomy by applying non-verbal communicative approaches%运用非语言交际优化解剖教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新庆; 梁邦领; 王旭; 吴效普; 皮全民

    2011-01-01

    菏泽医学专科学校解剖学教研室在教学改革中,提出了一种新的解剖学教学手段——非语言交际教学.合理地运用副语言、表情语、目光语、手势语、姿势语等非语言交际手段,可以优化解剖学教学,取得良好的教学效果.%In the teaching reform of anatomy,department of human anatomy in Heze medical college put forward a new teaching means-Non-verbal communication teaching.The reasonable use of the paralanguage,gesture,posture,eye contact,facial expressions can optimize the teaching of anatomy and achieve good teaching effect.

  14. 数字化人体图像和三维模型在解剖教学中的应用%Digital images and three-dimensional model of human anatomy teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周启良; 邓雪英; 胡明华

    2015-01-01

    通过在教学过程中,将数字化人体图像和三维模型进行融入其中,能有效提高学生对人体的理解和认识,从而有效提高教学质量。通过应用现代影像学和人体解剖学,实现数字化模型的建立,并将实物断层面图像和影像进行对照,从而加深对图像的理解,并深刻记忆影像之间的联系和区别。总的来说,数字化人体图像和三维模型在解剖学应用中,能有效提高其教学质量,值得在解剖教学中推广应用。%Through the teaching process, the digitized images and three-dimensional model of the human body into which can effectively improve the students' understanding and awareness of the human body, thus effectively improving the quality of teaching. Through the application of modern imaging and human anatomy, to achieve the establishment of digital models and physical fault plane images and video were compared, in order to deepen ties and understanding of the distinction between exercise and deep memory between the images. In general, digital images and three-dimensional models of human anatomy application, can effectively improve the quality of their teaching, is worth promoting in anatomy teaching applications.

  15. Articulating scientific reasoning improves student learning in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontiris-Litowitz, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In many life science classrooms, instructors rely upon lecture presentations to efficiently present course content. Students, in this case, act as passive learners with little opportunity to test their knowledge for gaps or misconceptions. The goal of the project described here was to determine whether a collaborative quiz protocol that guided students to discuss their understanding with their peers would improve learning and academic performance. The project took place during a single semester and was composed of two studies: a preliminary study that incorporated short-answer quizzes into the curriculum and a comprehensive study that incorporated short-answer quizzes and justify/explain quizzes in which students were expected to select an answer and then justify or explain it. Students took all quizzes twice, first independently and then collaboratively with classmate(s). Learning was assessed using multiple-choice exam questions based upon quiz topics. Students scored significantly higher on exam questions associated with justify/explain quiz topics than on those associated with short-answer quiz topics.

  16. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  17. Causal-Comparative Study Analyzing Student Success in Hybrid Anatomy and Physiology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    2013-01-01

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of…

  18. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Castillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT, to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n=247 correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n=7 incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times or the navicular (6 times. Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies.

  19. The Use of Electronic Media to Develop Transferable Skills in Science Students Studying Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Transferable skills such as team working, communication, information gathering, critical thinking, and peer assessment are essential for graduates seeking employment in the competitive jobs market. Use of online discussion boards have grown to allow students to communicate with each other at a time and location of their choosing. This study aimed…

  20. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  1. Developing Medical Students as Teachers: An Anatomy-Based Student-as-Teacher Program with Emphasis on Core Teaching Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Erie Andrew; Starkman, Sidney J.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is an increasingly recognized responsibility of the resident physician. Residents, however, often assume teaching responsibilities without adequate preparation. Consequently, many medical schools have implemented student-as-teacher (SAT) programs that provide near-peer teaching opportunities to senior medical students. Near-peer teaching…

  2. Students halls – humane lifestyle for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Seljak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of students at the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia, the shortage of student’s accommodation in student’s halls has increased. Alongside the necessity for building new accommodation capacities an opportunity has emerged for the enforcement of new living standards that should replace outdated guidelines from the sixties. During the preparation of the project we analysed all the important elements of students accommodation in students halls. Analyses of the present conditions in existing halls were performed, including positive and negative elements. We also conducted a comparative research of student’s halls in various European countries. In conclusion a list of recommendations with real guidelines was prepared that could be used by investors when proposing new development of such buildings, as well as architects and planners.

  3. Design and validation of a novel learning tool, the "Anato-Rug," for teaching equine topographical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Francesca; Williams, Sarah B; Weller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of anatomical landmarks in live animals (and humans) is key for clinical practice, but students often find it difficult to translate knowledge from dissection-based anatomy onto the live animal and struggle to acquire this vital skill. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate the use of an equine anatomy rug ("Anato-Rug") depicting topographical anatomy and key areas of lung, heart, and gastrointestinal auscultation, which could be used together with a live horse to aid learning of "live animal" anatomy. Over the course of 2 weeks, 38 third year veterinary students were randomly allocated into an experimental group, revising topographical anatomy from the "Anato-Rug," or a control group, learning topographical anatomy from a textbook. Immediately post activity, both groups underwent a test on live anatomy knowledge and were retested 1 week later. Both groups then completed a questionnaire to ascertain their perceptions of their learning experiences. Results showed that the experimental groups scored significantly higher than the control group at the first testing session, experienced more enjoyment during the activity and gained more confidence in identifying anatomical landmarks than the control group. There was not a significant difference in scores between groups at the second testing session. The findings indicate that the anatomy rug is an effective learning tool that aids understanding, confidence, and enjoyment in learning equine thorax and abdominal anatomy; however it was not better than traditional methods with regards to longer term memory recall. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. An Integrated Teaching Method of Gross Anatomy and Computed Tomography Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tohru; Tajika, Yuki; Ueno, Hitoshi; Awata, Sachiko; Hirasawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Maki; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to learn and comprehend human anatomy in three dimensions (3D). With this in mind, a new system was designed in order to integrate anatomical dissections with diagnostic computed tomography (CT) radiology. Cadavers were scanned by CT scanners, and students then consulted the postmortem CT images during cadaver…

  5. An Integrated Teaching Method of Gross Anatomy and Computed Tomography Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tohru; Tajika, Yuki; Ueno, Hitoshi; Awata, Sachiko; Hirasawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Maki; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to learn and comprehend human anatomy in three dimensions (3D). With this in mind, a new system was designed in order to integrate anatomical dissections with diagnostic computed tomography (CT) radiology. Cadavers were scanned by CT scanners, and students then consulted the postmortem CT images during cadaver…

  6. Anatomy of British Business School Brands: Attributes Affecting Choice Among Pakistani Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research studies that investigate business school brands from an Asian consumer perspective are scarce. Current study aims at discovering the branding attributes of UK Business Schools that influence Pakistani business students to apply for admission in higher degrees. Following a naturalistic tradition, data has been collected through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 25 students who were planning to study in United Kingdom. The respondents were identified through personal sources and were later selected using the purposive sampling technique. Thematic analysis was performed to generate themes from the collected data. The data analysis generated four dominant themes that influence the choice of a business school in United Kingdom. These are “financial assistance”, “employability”, “brand reputation” and “rankings”. The study is a pioneer work in the field of university branding from a developing country perspective of Pakistan. The research will be useful to British higher education marketers in devising student-centered branding initiatives. It will also benefit the Pakistani academia, as the country can develop business school brands as well by imparting these attributes to better compete with business schools in UK.

  7. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  8. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  9. Building an open academic environment – a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through ‘Shadow Modules’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan L; Moxham, Bernard J; Rutherford, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning in anatomy is undertaken by a variety of methodologies, yet all of these pedagogies benefit from students discussing and reflecting upon their learning activities. An approach of particular potency is peer-mediated learning, through either peer-teaching or collaborative peer-learning. Collaborative, peer-mediated, learning activities help promote deep learning approaches and foster communities of practice in learning. Students generally flourish in collaborative learning settings but there are limitations to the benefits of collaborative learning undertaken solely within the confines of modular curricula. We describe the development of peer-mediated learning through student-focused and student-led study groups we have termed ‘Shadow Modules’. The ‘Shadow Module’ takes place parallel to the formal academically taught module and facilitates collaboration between students to support their learning for that module. In ‘Shadow Module’ activities, students collaborate towards curating existing online open resources as well as developing learning resources of their own to support their study. Through the use of communication technologies and web 2.0 tools these resources are able to be shared with their peers, thus enhancing the learning experience of all students following the module. The Shadow Module activities have the potential to lead to participants feeling a greater sense of engagement with the subject material, as well as improving their study and group-working skills and developing digital literacy. The outputs from Shadow Module collaborative work are open-source and may be utilised by subsequent student cohorts, thus building up a repository of learning resources designed by and for students. Shadow Module activities would benefit all pedagogies in the study of anatomy, and support students moving from being passive consumers to active participants in learning. PMID:24117249

  10. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  11. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  13. The influence of study methods and knowledge processing on academic success and long-term recall of anatomy learning by first-year veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter J; Walker, James J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantitatively and qualitatively identify the study methods and learning strategies that veterinary students used to study anatomy during their first year of professional school and to correlate these with their academic achievement and long-term recall of information. It was surmised that active study methods would be more beneficial than passive method, but this hypothesis was not supported. The activity or passivity of each study method was secondary to the way in which the students processed the learning. No single study method was associated with academic success or long-term recall; instead, successful students used a multitude of study methods while the struggling students relied on a single method alone, although these methods varied from student to student. Students and their study methods were profiled using the qualitative technique known as phenomenographic analysis to find those who studied in a deep or surface way. The deep-processing students, who commonly used multiple study methods, not only succeeded in the class but also had better recall. Students who relied on a memorization-heavy surface approach to learning had limited recall and tended to perform poorly in the class. These results strongly suggest that by encouraging students to integrate their studying by using multiple methods educators can improve both student grades and recall of complex topics.

  14. Complexity of Human Circulation Design: Tips for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven; Gros, Mario; Maric, Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    Medical students are faced with a challenge to comprehend the enormous complexity of the circulatory systems. There is a gap between courses of anatomy, with detailed description of all normally present macroscopic vessels, and histology, which is focused on microscopic tissue architecture. Both courses leave arterioles, capillaries, and venules…

  15. Exploring the use of a Facebook page in anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional classroom. Observations were made on students' perceptions and effectiveness of using the Page, potential benefits and challenges of such use, and which Insights metrics best reflect user's engagement. The Human Anatomy Education Page was launched on Facebook and incorporated into anatomy resources for 157 medical students during two academic years. Students' use of Facebook and their perceptions of the Page were surveyed. Facebook's "Insights" tool was also used to evaluate Page performance during a period of 600 days. The majority of in-class students had a Facebook account which they adopted in education. Most students perceived Human Anatomy Education Page as effective in contributing to learning and favored "self-assessment" posts. The majority of students agreed that Facebook could be a suitable learning environment. The "Insights" tool revealed globally distributed fans with considerable Page interactions. The use of a faculty-administered Facebook Page provided a venue to enhance classroom teaching without intruding into students' social life. A wider educational use of Facebook should be adopted not only because students are embracing its use, but for its inherent potentials in boosting learning. The "Insights" metrics analyzed in this study might be helpful when establishing and evaluating the performance of education-oriented Facebook Pages.

  16. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only, and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was learned from the partner-prosected cadavers. Performance for each student on the exams was then assessed as a function of the regions those students actually dissected. While the results indicated a small performance advantage for MIs answering questions on material they had dissected on the NBME Subject Exam questions relevant to dissection (78-88% of total exam, the results were not statistically significant. However, a similar, small performance advantage on the course practical exams was highly significant.

  17. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  18. Experiencing Our Anatomy: Incorporating Human Biology into Dance Class via Imagery, Imagination, and Somatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a model for introducing biological perspectives into teaching dance as a means to encourage students toward deeper, healthier, and more personal relationships with their art form as well as appreciation for their physical and cognitive abilities, both inside and outside of the dance studio. It recommends that dance teachers…

  19. Experiencing Our Anatomy: Incorporating Human Biology into Dance Class via Imagery, Imagination, and Somatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a model for introducing biological perspectives into teaching dance as a means to encourage students toward deeper, healthier, and more personal relationships with their art form as well as appreciation for their physical and cognitive abilities, both inside and outside of the dance studio. It recommends that dance teachers…

  20. Instructional Objectives for a Junior College Course in Human Anatomy-Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Leslie, Comp.

    These instructional objectives, written by Norman E. Rich, have been selected from materials used at Golden West College (California). These objectives are offered simply as samples that may be used where they correspond to the skills, abilities, and attitudes instructors want their students to acquire. These objectives may also serve as models…

  1. Comparison of Dental Students' Self-Directed, Faculty, and Software-Based Assessments of Dental Anatomy Wax-Ups: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Pauline H; Faraone, Karen L; Patzelt, Sebastian B M; Keaser, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about self-directed and self-reflective assessment in preclinical dental curricula. The aim of this study was to evaluate a visual dental anatomy teaching tool to train dental students to self-assess their dental anatomy wax carving practical examinations. The students self-assessed two waxing practical examinations (tooth #8 and tooth #19) using high-quality digital images in an assessment tool incorporated into a digital testing program. Student self-assessments were compared to the faculty evaluations and the results of a software-based evaluation tool (E4D Compare). Out of a total 130 first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school, wax-ups from 57 participants were available for this study. The assessment data were submitted to statistical analyses (p<0.05). For tooth #8, the student self-assessments were significantly different from the faculty and software assessments at a 400 micrometer level of tolerance (p=0.036), whereas the faculty assessment was not significantly different from the software assessment at a 300 micrometer level of tolerance (p=0.69). The evaluation of tooth #19 resulted in no significant differences between faculty members (p=0.94) or students (p=0.21) and the software at a level of tolerance of 400 micrometers. This study indicates that students can learn to self-assess their work using self-reflection in conjunction with faculty guidance and that it may be possible to use software-based evaluation tools to assist in faculty calibration and as objective grading tools.

  2. Cortex-sparing fiber dissection: an improved method for the study of white matter anatomy in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Vergani, Francesco; Brogna, Christian; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; García-Porrero, Juan A; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Classical fiber dissection of post mortem human brains enables us to isolate a fiber tract by removing the cortex and overlying white matter. In the current work, a modification of the dissection methodology is presented that preserves the cortex and the relationships within the brain during all stages of dissection, i.e. ‘cortex-sparing fiber dissection’. Thirty post mortem human hemispheres (15 right side and 15 left side) were dissected using cortex-sparing fiber dissection. Magnetic resonance imaging study of a healthy brain was analyzed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based tractography software. DTI fiber tract reconstructions were compared with cortex-sparing fiber dissection results. The fibers of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) were isolated so as to enable identification of their cortical terminations. Two segments of the SLF were identified: first, an indirect and superficial component composed of a horizontal and vertical segment; and second, a direct and deep component or arcuate fasciculus. The IFOF runs within the insula, temporal stem and sagittal stratum, and connects the frontal operculum with the occipital, parietal and temporo-basal cortex. The UF crosses the limen insulae and connects the orbito-frontal gyri with the anterior temporal lobe. Finally, a portion of the ILF was isolated connecting the fusiform gyrus with the occipital gyri. These results indicate that cortex-sparing fiber dissection facilitates study of the 3D anatomy of human brain tracts, enabling the tracing of fibers to their terminations in the cortex. Consequently, it is an important tool for neurosurgical training and neuroanatomical research. PMID:21767263

  3. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  4. Human Sexuality: A Student Taught Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Four senior female students presented seminars in human sexuality to freshmen coeds. The seminar topics were (1) petting and intercourse, (2) masturbation, (3) venereal disease and problematic sexual behavior, and (4) abortion and sterilization. Improvement in knowledge was determined by pre- and post-course questionnaires. Student evaluations…

  5. Fit für den OP? – Klinische Anatomie und chirurgische Basisfertigkeiten für Studierende im vorklinischen Studienabschnitt [Ready for the OR? – Clinical anatomy and basic surgical skills for students in their preclinical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böckers, Anja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Medical students’ first experience in the operating theatre often takes place during their electives and is therefore separated from the university’s medical curriculum. In the winter term 2009/10, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Ulm implemented an elective called “Ready for the OR” for 2nd year medical students participating in the dissection course. We attempted to improve learning motivation and examination results by transferring anatomical knowledge into a surgical setting and teaching basic surgical skills in preparation of the students’ first participation in the OR. Out of 69 online applicants, 50 students were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group (FOP or the Control Group. In 5 teaching session students learned skills like scrubbing, stitching or the identification of frequently used surgical instruments. Furthermore, students visited five surgical interventions which were demonstrated by surgical colleagues on donated bodies that have been embalmed using the Thiel technique. The teaching sessions took place in the institute’s newly built “Theatrum Anatomicum” for an ideal simulation of a surgical setting. The learning outcomes were verified by OSPE. In a pilot study, an intervention group and a control group were compared concerning their examination results in the dissection course and their learning motivation through standardized SELLMO-test for students. Participants gained OSPE results between 60.5 and 92% of the maximum score. “Ready for the OR” was successfully implemented and judged an excellent add-on to anatomy teaching by the participants. However, we could not prove a significant difference in learning motivation or examination results. Future studies should focus on the learning orientation, the course’s long-term learning effects and the participants’ behavior in a real surgery setting.[german] Medizinstudierende machen ihre ersten Erfahrungen im

  6. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  7. Comparative anatomy of the prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, postsubiculum, and parasubiculum in human, monkey, and rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin

    2013-12-15

    The subicular complex, including the prosubiculum (ProS), subiculum (Sub), presubiculum, postsubiculum (PoS), and parasubiculum (PaS), plays important roles in the medial temporal memory system and is heavily involved in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. In the literature, the ProS (in primate) and PoS (in rodent) are inconstantly identified, making data comparison difficult across species. This review is an attempt to discuss equivalencies and extent of the five subicular components in human, monkey, and rodent based on available information on their cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, molecular signature, and neural connectivity. All five subicular cortices exist in human, monkey, and rodent. In human and monkey, the ProS and Sub extend into the uncal region anteriorly, and the PoS and PaS reach the cingulate isthmus posteriorly. In rodent, most of the typical subicular cortices are located in the dorsal and caudal portions of the hippocampal formation, and the modified version of the ventral ProS and Sub corresponds to the modified description of the uncal ProS and Sub in monkey and human. An interesting triangular region in rodent located at the juncture of the PoS, PaS, retrosplenial cortex, and visual cortex appears to be the equivalent of the monkey area prostriata. Major connections of the five subicular cortices are also summarized based on unified criteria discussed in this review, with distinct connections revealed between the ProS and the Sub.

  8. Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Based Research on Human White Matter Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-guo Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the white matter by the diffusion tensor imaging and the Chinese visible human dataset and to provide the 3D anatomical data of the corticospinal tract for the neurosurgical planning by studying the probabilistic maps and the reproducibility of the corticospinal tract. Diffusion tensor images and high-resolution T1-weighted images of 15 healthy volunteers were acquired; the DTI data were processed using DtiStudio and FSL software. The FA and color FA maps were compared with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset. The probability maps of the corticospinal tract were generated as a quantitative measure of reproducibility for each voxel of the stereotaxic space. The fibers displayed by the diffusion tensor imaging were well consistent with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset and the existing anatomical knowledge. The three-dimensional architecture of the white matter fibers could be clearly visualized on the diffusion tensor tractography. The diffusion tensor tractography can establish the 3D probability maps of the corticospinal tract, in which the degree of intersubject reproducibility of the corticospinal tract is consistent with the previous architectonic report. DTI is a reliable method of studying the fiber connectivity in human brain, but it is difficult to identify the tiny fibers. The probability maps are useful for evaluating and identifying the corticospinal tract in the DTI, providing anatomical information for the preoperative planning and improving the accuracy of surgical risk assessments preoperatively.

  9. Interactive Radiological Anatomy eLearning Solution for First Year Medical Students: Development, Integration, and Impact on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; Choi, Sunhea

    2014-01-01

    A technology enhanced learning and teaching (TELT) solution, radiological anatomy (RA) eLearning, composed of a range of identification-based and guided learning activities related to normal and pathological X-ray images, was devised for the Year 1 nervous and locomotor course at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton. Its…

  10. Interactive Radiological Anatomy eLearning Solution for First Year Medical Students: Development, Integration, and Impact on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; Choi, Sunhea

    2014-01-01

    A technology enhanced learning and teaching (TELT) solution, radiological anatomy (RA) eLearning, composed of a range of identification-based and guided learning activities related to normal and pathological X-ray images, was devised for the Year 1 nervous and locomotor course at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton. Its…

  11. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  12. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  13. Can anatomists teach living anatomy using ultrasound as a teaching tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Dimorier, Kathryn; Brown, Kirsten; Slaby, Frank; Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of bedside ultrasound by an increasing number of medical specialties has created the need for more ultrasound exposure and teaching in medical school. Although there is a widespread support for more vertical integration of ultrasound teaching throughout the undergraduate curriculum, little is known about whether the quality of ultrasound teaching differs if performed by anatomists or clinicians. The purpose of this study is to compare medical students' evaluation of ultrasound anatomy teaching by clinicians and anatomists. Hands-on interactive ultrasound sessions were scheduled as part of the gross anatomy course following principles of adult learning and instructional design. Seven teachers (three anatomists and four clinicians) taught in each session. Before each session, anatomists were trained in ultrasound by clinicians. Students were divided into groups, rotated teachers between sessions, and completed evaluations. Results indicated students perceived the two groups as comparable for all factors except for knowledge organization and the helpfulness of ultrasound for understanding anatomy (P teach living anatomy using ultrasound with minimal training as well as clinicians, and encourage the teaching of living anatomy by anatomists in human anatomy courses using ultrasound. Repeating this study at a multicenter level is currently being considered to further validate our conclusion. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  15. [Anatomy of the skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits.

  16. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Vangal R; Jan, Stephen; Ram Prasad, S

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the trade in human organs in India. This paper examines both the extent to which regulatory controls through the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (1994) are effective in curbing commercialization and the nature of the constraints on the effective implementation of this Act. The study, a politico-economic analysis of health sector regulation, is based on a stakeholder analysis drawing on the views of key decision makers, service providers, organ donors and recipients. The findings indicate widespread acknowledgement of an organs trade and highlight four major constraints on the effective implementation of the Act: the commercial interests of middlemen and service providers, the ambiguities and loopholes in the Act; the low monitoring capacity of the regulatory authorities, and the pressures and responsibilities exerted upon the Authorizing Committees. A feature of the Act is that its implementation is subject to a major incentive compatibility constraint - it is seemingly not in the interests of any of the key players, including the regulatory authorities, to restrict the organ trade. To some extent, this institutional problem is created by the specific nature of the regulatory intervention, and, as a consequence, measures involving straightforward redrafting of the regulation might go some way to addressing this incentive problem. Another solution may entail a 'harm-reduction' strategy involving a controlled trade where procurement and organ matching is carried out by a government agency (this would require, however, the prior resolution of the broader ethical question concerning the legitimacy of such trade).

  17. CONOCIMIENTOS, SENTIDOS Y ACTITUDES EN RELACIÓN CON LA ANATOMÍA EN ESTUDIANTES DE SEGUNDO AÑO DE MEDICINA. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA, 2009 Second year students of medicine from Universidad Nacional de Colombia: knowledge sense and attitudes regarding anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Mauricio Rodríguez Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    of medicine programs. In this course it teaches knowledge about human body, skills and attitudes necessary for the clinical practice. Don´t exist previous studies in Colombia that explores students attitudes toward anatomy. Objetive. Describe knowledge and explore ways and attitudes toward anatomy and its relation to clinical students in second year medical students enrolled in basic sciences. Materials and methods. A descriptive study was done with data collected by a structured questionnaire for investigated by the degree of knowledge in basic science subjects, attitudes toward anatomy and its relationship with feeling students about clinic in second year medical students. We performed a quantitative analysis of the information and descriptive statistics were applied. Results. Second year students think that anatomy is an essential subject inside his curriculum, especially in the surgical area.Dissection laboratory practice, solving basedproblems, and knowledge about diagnostic images were learning strategies of more interest. Medical students think that anatomy should not be given only as basic science but it must be given along the whole career. Conclusion. Anatomy is an essential subject inside the process of being a doctor. Medical students have positive attitudes towards this subject. It is necessary to establish programs that allow a transcurricular education of the anatomy in medicine programs.

  18. Multidisciplinary approach in the teaching of dental sculpture and anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Buchaim, Rogério Leone; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues,Antonio de Castro; Gonçalves, Jéssica Barbosa de Oliveira; Daré, Letícia Rossi; Rosa Junior, Geraldo Marco; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Oliveira,José Américo de

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Dental Sculpture and Anatomy discipline is to introduce undergraduate students to the study of the anatomic and morphological characteristics of permanent and primary human dentition, through classes, books and cognitive and psychomotor activities. This discipline supports the teaching of specific knowledge necessary for a more extensive education, involving interdisciplinarity as a means of knowledge exchange among several areas of dentistry, to achieve comprehensive profe...

  19. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  20. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  1. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  2. ["Acute human glanders". Contribution for the scientific history of the Museum of pathological anatomy established in Trieste Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulin, F

    2005-12-01

    The Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the Regina Elena City Hospital of Trieste houses various pathological preparations of infective and contagious diseases, dating back to the early 1900's (ileo-typhus, dysentery, tuberculosis, syphillis, pulmonary plague, etc.) together with their relative diagnostic certificates. These bear witness to the key role of the Hospital's Anatomical Institute (in operation operating since 1872) during the height of the Pasteurian age. In fact, the Institute houses several anatomical-pathological preparations from a fatal clinical case of "acute human glanders". These preparations were correlated by laboratory animal experiments using Strauss' method and emblematically recall the eziological determinism of the new bacteriological science. The preparations served in their day not only as indisputable diagnostic evidence, but can now be considered a promotional metaphor of the scientific mission the Triestine Anatomical Institutés Director, Dr. Enrico Ferrarri (a disciple of Richard Paltauf), endeavored to assign to the Triestine Pathological and Anatomical Institute by strenghthening it with new laboratory methodologies. The establishment of a new "predominant and determining vision" in the international diagnostics of infectious disease was also emerging from the Haspurg city's hospital medicine. Indeed, it was here that in 1907, the brief scientific debate focussing on the cadaver of a coachman who had been infected by a glanders-infected horse was apparently taking place only locally. Yet, it can now be seen as referring to what was happening on the international scale, in a setting that after a century of empiricism and morphologism, was characterized by the progressive penetration of laboratory medicine into clinical-anatomical medicine.

  3. The vascular anatomy of the human temporalis muscle: implications for surgical splitting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, L K

    1996-12-01

    Despite the wide application of the temporalis muscle flap and its modifications, understanding of the vascular pattern and territories within the muscle remains poor. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular architecture in the human temporalis muscle for surgical application. The material comprised 15 fresh cadavers (30 muscle specimens), which were divided into three groups for vascular infusion by either Indian ink solution, lead oxide solution, or methylmethacrylate resin. The vascular network in the temporalis muscle was analyzed by stereomicroscopy, radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The human temporalis muscle was found to have vascular supply from three primary arteries: the anterior deep temporal artery (ADTA), the posterior deep temporal artery (PDTA), and the middle temporal artery (MTA). Each primary artery branched into the secondary arterioles and then the terminal arterioles. The venous network accompanied the arteries, and double veins pairing one artery was a common finding. The capillaries formed a dense, interlacing network with orientation along the muscle fibres. Arteriovenous anastomosis was absent. In the coronal plane, the vessels were located mainly on the lateral and medial aspects of the muscle with a significantly lower vascular density in the midline. Morphometric analysis of the arterial network showed that the PDTA was larger in size at primary and secondary branching levels than the ADTA and the MTA, whereas no differences were present at the terminal arteriolar levels. The distribution of the arterial territories was as follows: the ADTA occupied 21% anteriorly, the PDTA occupied 41% in the middle region, and the MTA occupied 38% in the posterior region. This improved understanding of the vascular architecture within the temporalis muscle complements the anatomic basis of the flap-splitting technique and increases the safety of its application.

  4. A little healthy competition: using mixed methods to pilot a team-based digital game for boosting medical student engagement with anatomy and histology content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Goodyear, Peter; Kerfoot, B Price; Bryce, Deborah

    2015-10-12

    Digital games have been demonstrated to be beneficial for a range of non-recreational purposes, with a particular focus on their value for education. There is a limited amount of research supporting their use for medical education, but their are several studies on their use in areas such as surgical training, and life-support re-training. However, a significant gap exists in demonstrating how they engage with learners and games can be used most effectively in medical education. This pilot study assessed the value of digital games for teaching anatomy, by evaluating participant engagement and their attitudes towards a team-based strategy game. A digital game platform was designed, and then populated with anatomy questions developed by subject matter experts. Second year medical students were recruited to play three matches of the game. At the end of each match participants were asked to complete a Likert rating of their experiences of the game across five domains. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess engagement with the platform and perceived value to learners. Sixteen participants volunteered to participate. Post-match ratings indicated that participants had a generally positive experience with the game, with 89 % of respondents agreeing the game was engaging, 93 % of respondents agreeing the game was challenging and 74 % indicating they would like to play the game again if given the opportunity. A total of fourteen participants agreed to be interviewed after playing three matches of the game. Interview responses supported the findings of the post-match ratings that the game was considered enjoyable and engaging. Participants noted they particularly enjoyed the competitive aspect of the game, particularly the opportunity to play against peers they consider their academic equals. In addition to finding the game engaging interview participants indicated they perceived the game impacted on their knowledge around anatomy. In particular, participants

  5. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  6. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  7. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P brain disorders had lesions that were significantly more likely to be located in hubs (P human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically abnormal than non-hubs in many (if not all) brain disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  8. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Are medical students being taught anatomy in a way that best prepares them to be a physician?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meral Savran, Mona; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen; Frost Clementsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reasoning in a clinical context is an attribute of medical expertise. Clinical reasoning in medical school can be encouraged by teaching basic science with a clinical emphasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anatomy is being taught in a way that facilitates the dev......, implying that the teaching they have received has not encouraged clinical reasoning. Clin. Anat., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  10. Teaching dental anatomy with light-activated resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, Y; Denehy, G E; Schulein, T M

    1984-04-01

    A method has been described in which light-activated resins are incorporated into the dental anatomy laboratory. This procedure is a valuable addition to the anatomy course because students (1) work with a restorative material appropriate for anterior teeth, (2) learn the unique properties of the light-activated resins, and (3) apply the principles of dental anatomy to a clinically relevant task.

  11. Expanding the Scope of Anatomical Sciences: The Case of "Human Evolution--The Fossil Evidence" Course at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzer, Netta; Abramovitz, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Anatomy Department at Tel-Aviv University Medical School offers its students an elective course of 26 didactic hours on human evolution. The course is open to students from all faculties, who must fulfill all academic requirements, without a prerequisite of a background in anatomy. Approximately 120 students attend annually, a third of them…

  12. Expanding the Scope of Anatomical Sciences: The Case of "Human Evolution--The Fossil Evidence" Course at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzer, Netta; Abramovitz, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Anatomy Department at Tel-Aviv University Medical School offers its students an elective course of 26 didactic hours on human evolution. The course is open to students from all faculties, who must fulfill all academic requirements, without a prerequisite of a background in anatomy. Approximately 120 students attend annually, a third of them…

  13. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  15. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  16. An analysis of the educational value of low-fidelity anatomy models as external representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M W

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the literature on cognition, learning, and external representations. A literature search on these physical models in three popular anatomy journals published over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010 found that all of them have low fidelity: they oftentimes do not closely resemble the regions of the human body they are representing. They include only a small number of the structures that exist in these regions of the human body and do not accurately represent the shape and surface details of these structures. However, these models strongly correspond to the human body in the spatial relationship of the represented structures, which is crucial to achieving their educational purpose of teaching three-dimensional comprehension and anatomical reasoning. The educational value of these models includes acting as memory aids, reducing cognitive overload, facilitating problem solving, and arousing students' enthusiasm and participation. Because these models often lack a close resemblance to the human body, their use in anatomy teaching should always be accompanied by adequate explanations to the students to establish the correspondence between the models and the parts of the human body they are representing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. 数码互动技术在人体解剖学实验教学中的应用%Application of Digital Interactive Technology in Human Anatomy Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文明; 田志逢

    2015-01-01

    Human anatomy is the science of studying normal structure, an ancient morphology, organ position and adjacent relationship of the body. It is the basis of all medical specialties main subjects. But also a highly experimental science, since now a serious lack of cadaveric experimental teaching anatomy bring trouble, current use of digital interactive technology, intuitive learning through virtual adjacency body structure, form and position, in addition to by voice response, computer teaching software and other components, to achieve effective interaction of teachers and students. Application of the system to change the traditional teaching model, to stimulate the students' enthusiasm for learning, greatly improving the quality of teaching practice course.%人体解剖学是研究正常人体形态、结构、器官位置和毗邻关系的一门古老形态科学,是医学各专业的基础主干学科。同时也是实验性极强的一门科学,由于现在尸体标本的严重缺乏,给解剖学的实验教学带来困扰,目前使用数码互动技术,通过虚拟的人体结构、形态和位置毗邻关系直观学习,此外还可以通过语音问答、计算机教学软件等部分,实现师生有效互动。该系统的应用改变了传统教学模式,激发了学生学习积极性,大大提高了实践课教学质量。

  18. "The Purple Island" of Phineas Fletcher: allusions to the anatomy of the human body in English poetry up to the end of the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Riddington

    2005-06-01

    The Bible declared that God created man in His own image. The concept that this divine pattern occurred not only in Man (the Microcosm), but was eternally repeated throughout Creation in the Macrocosm (Universe) and the Geocosm (Earth), was the basis of the important Doctrine of Correspondences, in which similarities were sought between man and nature, (e.g. the comparable morphology of a human brain and a walnut). This article outlines the relevance of this concept in early herbal medicine. Contemporary poems describing correspondences to the anatomy of the human body are the examined, in particular The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher. The Reverend Phineas Fletcher (1582 - 1650) was an English metaphysical poet and The Purple Island (1633), his most famous work, was an epic poem describing the anatomy of the human body in allegorical terms. It is compared to an island, with veins and arteries as purple rivers flowing through the chief cities of Liver, Heart and Braine. This has been acknowledged as one of the best and also one of the last great examples of the tradition of poetic correspondence in English literature.

  19. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-21

    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P structures (2.97 ±0.86 versus 4.03 ±0.59), demonstrating the success of the ACUS curriculum in students with limited prior experience. Views on the value of US to anatomy education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  1. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  2. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially th

  4. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality ...

  5. Google Glass, ultrasound and palpation: the anatomy teacher of the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion

    2015-03-01

    Traditional palpation techniques are used less often in today's modern medical arena. Technological advances in imaging, for example, often supplant the need for such types of tactility. Herein, we discuss our recent experience using Google Glass in the teaching of anatomy to medical students, a method that melds traditional medical palpation with cutting edge technology. Based on our study, teachers of the new millennium might use Google Glass coupled with ultrasound and palpation in the teaching of human anatomy to medical students. Such a technology combines palpation, diagnosis, visualization, and learning of anatomy. Glass has provided a platform to position a live ultrasound image for us to view while examining the patient. This technology will allow the physicians of the future to embrace placing ones hand on the body while receiving both palpation and visual stimulation.

  6. Integration of the musculature in the course "functional anatomy of the locomotor system"-Preparing medical students for the dissection course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Christian M; Paulsen, Friedrich; Burger, Pascal H M; Scholz, Michael

    2016-11-01

    To enhance the efficacy of the preclinical first-year course for medical and dental students 'functional anatomy of the locomotor system' (demo course) which serves as a preparation for the dissection course at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany. The muscular system was integrated into the curriculum of the demo course. Moreover, the number of tutors was increased from around 5 to 15 for approximately 120 students. A detailed course agenda, which had been lacking hitherto, was developed for each course day. Extensive preparation and briefing of course tutors was introduced. Self-prepared questionnaires were applied to compare student attitudes towards the demo course before and after the restructuring process. Surveys were conducted at the end of the unchanged demo course, at the end of the dissection course in the following term (same students) and at the end of the restructured demo course. The mark given for overall course quality improved from 3 ("satisfactory") to 2 ("good"). The students felt significantly better prepared for the dissection course after the restructuring process, although they perceived the work load as more challenging in relation to the limited time available. They assessed the new course as better structured and stated that the muscular system had been important for the functional comprehension of the locomotor system. According to student opinion, the attempt to improve the demo course quality by providing a detailed course agenda and enhanced tutelage had been successful. As expected, the musculature is critical to functional understanding of the locomotor system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Creating Clay Models of a Human Torso as an Alternative to Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Gwendolyn

    2010-01-01

    Instead of dissecting animals, students create small clay models of human internal organs to demonstrate their understanding of the positioning and interlocking shapes of the organs. Not only is this approach more environmentally friendly, it also forces them to learn human anatomy--which is more relevant to them than the anatomy of other…

  8. [History of anatomy in Lyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, A

    1978-06-01

    1. We know very little concerning the teaching of anatomy during the Middle Ages. Only two authors, who both came to live in Lyon, Lanfranc and Guy de Chauliac, wrote on the subject. On the other hand, the important development of printing in Lyon from the sixteenth century onwards, made it possible to spread the translations of classic works and most of the books on Anatomy of the Renaissance. 2. However, Lyonese Anatomy developed very slowly because hospital training was more often badly organized. The only true supporter of Anatomy has been Marc Antoine Petit, chief surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu before the French Revolution. 3. Apart from the parallel but only transient teaching of the Royal College of Surgery, one will have to wait for the creation of an official teaching first assumed by "schools" (secondary school and preparatory school) and finally by the Faculty of Medicine created in 1877. The names of Testut and of Latarjet contributed to the reknown of the Faculty of Medicine by their anatomical studies of great value for several generations of students. 4. Recently the Faculty of Medicine has been divided into four "universities". The new buildings are larger. The "gift of corpses" has brought a remedy to the shortage of the last twenty years. Anatomical research can be pursued thanks to micro-anatomy and bio-mechanics while conventional teaching is completed by dissection.

  9. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    2016-01-01

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  10. Broadening Student Learning Experiences via a Novel Cross-Disciplinary Art and Anatomy Education Program--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Caroline J.; Kleiner, Adina; Macaulay, Janet O.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning and engagement in a novel cross-disciplinary education program, in particular whether medical students learning experiences can be enhanced through interaction and exchange of knowledge with students of varying disciplines. The program, entitled AnaRtomy, studies the historical relationship between art and…

  11. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  12. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  13. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  14. A Simple Discussion on Teaching Methods of Anatomy Nouns in English for English Nursing Profession Students%英护专业英语解剖学名词教学方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵克芳; 王振全; 周媛媛; 田志逢

    2014-01-01

    具备一定的专业英语能力,是英护专业学生胜任涉外护理工作所必须。很多英语医学名词与解剖学名词直接相关。但英语解剖学名词的记忆一直都是学生的难处。本文从四个方面介绍了如何有效帮助学生提高记忆效果,以与大家共享。%To be competent at foreign nursing, the English nursing profession students must possess the necessary professional English skills. Many English medical terminologies have great relationship to anatomy nouns and anatomy nouns in English are always hard to master for students. This article shared four useful methods to help students to improve their memory effect.

  15. Body painting as a tool in clinical anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as the primary method of learning is driving changes to more varied and novel learning and teaching methodologies. The present article describes the introduction and evaluation of a range of body painting exercises in a medical curriculum. Body painting was introduced into integrated clinical skills teaching sessions which included clinically important aspects of respiratory system, musculoskeletal system, and topics in regional anatomy including head and neck. Nontoxic body paints, easels, a mixture of brush sizes, and anatomical images were supplied. Students were allowed between 20 and 40 min to complete body painting tasks, in which they were encouraged to alternate between painting and acting as a model. Students were encouraged to use life-like rendering and coloration where appropriate. Evaluation of these sessions was performed at the end of the semester as part of a larger evaluation process. The kinesthetic nature and active participation together with the powerful visual images of underlying anatomy appear to contribute to the value of body painting as a teaching exercise. In addition, it may have the added bonus of helping break down apprehension regarding peer-peer examination. Some practical advice on introducing this method of teaching in medical curricula based on the outcomes of the evaluation is given. On the basis of our experience and student feedback, we strongly advocate the use of body painting as an adjunct to surface anatomy and clinical skills teaching classes.

  16. 提高人体解剖生理学实验教学效果的探讨%Study on the Effect of Improving Human Anatomy and Physiology Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红英

    2015-01-01

    为了更好发挥人体解剖生理学实验教学在培养学生动手能力、独立分析问题能力和解决问题能力方面的作用,在人体解剖生理学实验教学中,围绕以学生为主体,调动学生学习积极性和开发探究创新思维为主导,进行教学内容、教学方法和实验方法等方面的改革探讨,提高实验教学效果。%In the human anatomy and physiology experiment teaching,regarding the students as the main body, the paper discussed the methods of mobilizing the learning enthusiasms and innovation thinking of the students. Furthermore, it explored the reform of teaching content, teaching method and experiment method for improving the effects of experiment teaching.

  17. PBL在人体中枢神经解剖学教学中的应用%Application of problem-based learning in the teaching practice of human central nervous system anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳长杰; 曲德伟; 王德广

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the scheme,form and measures of implementing problem-based learning in the teaching practice of human central nervous system anatomy.This paper discussed on the depth and scope of the issue,how to mobilize the enthusiasm of the students in the process of discussion,how to be conscious of curriculum knowledge system and logic in the teaching process,how to make students expose to clinical at early stage,how to provide corresponding assessment methods and other aspects of the practice in an aim to help peers to improve the teaching practice.%介绍在人体中枢神经解剖学课程教学中实施以问题为基础的学习(problem-based learning,PBL)的具体方案、形式和措施.并探讨拟定讨论问题的深度与范围,在学生讨论过程中如何调动其积极性,教师在教学过程中如何注意课程知识的系统性和逻辑性,如何让学生早期接触临床,如何配套相应的考核方式等.

  18. The 'morbid anatomy' of the human genome: tracing the observational and representational approaches of postwar genetics and biomedicine the William Bynum Prize Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores evolving conceptions and depictions of the human genome among human and medical geneticists during the postwar period. Historians of science and medicine have shown significant interest in the use of informational approaches in postwar genetics, which treat the genome as an expansive digital data set composed of three billion DNA nucleotides. Since the 1950s, however, geneticists have largely interacted with the human genome at the microscopically visible level of chromosomes. Mindful of this, I examine the observational and representational approaches of postwar human and medical genetics. During the 1970s and 1980s, the genome increasingly came to be understood as, at once, a discrete part of the human anatomy and a standardised scientific object. This paper explores the role of influential medical geneticists in recasting the human genome as being a visible, tangible, and legible entity, which was highly relevant to traditional medical thinking and practice. I demonstrate how the human genome was established as an object amenable to laboratory and clinical research, and argue that the observational and representational approaches of postwar medical genetics reflect, more broadly, the interdisciplinary efforts underlying the development of contemporary biomedicine.

  19. The quail anatomy portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  20. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  1. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  2. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  3. Using Guided Inquiry and the Information Search Process to Develop Research Confidence among First Year Anatomy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Danielle Christine; Robinson, Andrea Cristina; Ruscitti, Robert Joseph

    2015-01-01

    With the growing volume of obtainable medical information and scientific literature, it is crucial that students in the field of allied health professions develop and refine the research skill set necessary to effectively find, retrieve, analyze, and use this information. This skill set can be effectively developed using student inquiry; an active…

  4. Biomedical Science, Unit I: Respiration in Health and Medicine. Respiratory Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology; The Behavior of Gases; Introductory Chemistry; and Air Pollution. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text deals with the human respiratory system and its relation to the environment. Topics include the process of respiration, the relationship of air to diseases of the respiratory system, the chemical and physical properties of gases, the impact on air quality of human activities and the effect of this air pollution on health.…

  5. FLASHLIGHT Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    Explains how a flashlight can be used to introduce a unit on blood, muscles, and bones for elementary science students. Describes activities which focus on anatomical features. Includes a diagram of a paper hand which is used in one of the investigations. (ML)

  6. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  7. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  8. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  9. Introduction to Construction and Management of Museum of Human Anatomy%浅谈新型人体科学标本馆的建设和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽霞; 潘荣斌; 侯吉华; 李青

    2016-01-01

    现代新型人体科学标本馆是集教学,科研,对外交流于一体的展馆。标本馆的文化建设和管理团队的建设直接影响标本馆的服务功能和服务质量。制度化管理和数字化管理是实现标本馆多元化利用的有效保障。%The modern museum of human anatomy contains the function of teaching, scientific research and cultural communication. The culture construction and the management team construction directly affect the service function and service quality. According to the system management and digital management is the effective safeguard to the diversified utilization.

  10. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  11. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-03-01

    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0 × 2.0 to 5.0 × 5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field.

  12. Using interactive videodiscs to teach gross anatomy to undergraduates at the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J F; Frisby, A J

    1992-02-01

    To determine whether interactive-videodisc lessons can effectively replace some of the labor-intensive laboratories in human gross anatomy, pre-nursing and allied-medical-professions undergraduates at The Ohio State University were randomly assigned to either a traditional cadaver-demonstration lab or an interactive-videodisc computer lab covering the same material. In a one-unit pilot study in the autumn quarter of 1989 (involving 190 students) and a full-quarter course in the spring quarter of 1991 (283 students), the performances of the computer-lab students were not significantly different from those of the students in the traditional cadaver-demonstration-lab groups.

  13. Rethinking Anatomy: How to Overcome Challenges of Medical Education's Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bruno; Dourado, Luís; Tsisar, Stanislav; Diniz, José Miguel; Madeira, Maria Dulce; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-02-27

    Due to scientific and technological development, Medical Education has been readjusting its focus and strategies. Medical curriculum has been adopting a vertical integration model, in which basic and clinical sciences coexist during medical instruction. This context favours the introduction of new complementary technology-based pedagogical approaches. Thus, even traditional core sciences of medical curriculum, like Anatomy, are refocusing their teaching/learning paradigm. We performed a bibliographic review aiming to reflect on Medical Education's current pedagogical trend, by analysing the advantages of the introduction and diversification of pedagogical approaches in Anatomy Education. Anatomy Education's status quo is characterized by: less available teaching time, increasing demands from radiology and endoscopy imaging and other invasive and non-invasive medical techniques, increasing number of medical students and other logistical restrains exposed by the current Medical Education scenario. The traditional learning approach, mainly based on cadaveric dissection, is drifting to complementary newer technologies - such as 3D models or 2D/3D digital imaging - to examine the anatomy of the human body. Also, knowledge transfer is taking different channels, as learning management systems, social networks and computer-assisted learning and assessment are assuming relevant roles. The future holds promising approaches for education models. The development of Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality and Learning Analytics could provide analytic tools towards a real-time and personalized learning process. A reflection on Anatomy Education, as a comprehensive model, allows us to understand Medical Education's complexity. Therefore, the present Medical Education context favours a blended learning approach, in which multi-modality pedagogical strategies may become the landmark.

  14. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques.

  15. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  16. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  17. Knowledge towards post-mortem examination and reasons for not specialising in morbid anatomy: study among medical undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit Singh Bagga

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Students possess a reasonable knowledge about post-mortem but knowledge alone may not be enough for increasing the post-mortem/autopsy rate, unless they acquire the skills required for the procedure as currently they are not provided with any training during their medical curriculum. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2792-2795

  18. Team-Based Learning in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Improves Academic Performance and Students' Attitudes toward Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, Tiffany W.; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S.

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving…

  19. Team-Based Learning in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Improves Academic Performance and Students' Attitudes toward Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, Tiffany W.; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S.

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving…

  20. An evaluation of the contouring abilities of medical dosimetry students for the anatomy of a prostate cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kevin S., E-mail: kscollin@siu.edu [School of Allied Health, College of Applied Sciences and Arts, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common diseases treated in a radiation oncology department. One of the major predictors of the treatment outcome and patient side effects is the accuracy of the anatomical contours for the treatment plan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine which anatomical structures are most often contoured correctly and incorrectly by medical dosimetry students. The author also wanted to discover whether a review of the contouring rules would increase contouring accuracy. To achieve this, a male computed tomography dataset consisting of 72 transverse slices was sent to students for contouring. The students were instructed to import this dataset into their treatment planning system and contour the following structures: skin, bladder, rectum, prostate, penile bulb, seminal vesicles, left femoral head, and right femoral head. Upon completion of the contours, the contour file was evaluated against a 'gold standard' contour set using StructSure software (Standard Imaging, Inc). A review of the initial contour results was conducted and then students were instructed to contour the dataset a second time. The results of this study showed significant differences between contouring sessions. These results and the standardization of contouring rules should benefit all individuals who participate in the treatment planning of cancer patients.