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Sample records for human amyloid protein

  1. Small heat shock proteins potentiate amyloid dissolution by protein disaggregases from yeast and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Duennwald

    Full Text Available How small heat shock proteins (sHsps might empower proteostasis networks to control beneficial prions or disassemble pathological amyloid is unknown. Here, we establish that yeast sHsps, Hsp26 and Hsp42, inhibit prionogenesis by the [PSI+] prion protein, Sup35, via distinct and synergistic mechanisms. Hsp42 prevents conformational rearrangements within molten oligomers that enable de novo prionogenesis and collaborates with Hsp70 to attenuate self-templating. By contrast, Hsp26 inhibits self-templating upon binding assembled prions. sHsp binding destabilizes Sup35 prions and promotes their disaggregation by Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. In yeast, Hsp26 or Hsp42 overexpression prevents [PSI+] induction, cures [PSI+], and potentiates [PSI+]-curing by Hsp104 overexpression. In vitro, sHsps enhance Hsp104-catalyzed disaggregation of pathological amyloid forms of α-synuclein and polyglutamine. Unexpectedly, in the absence of Hsp104, sHsps promote an unprecedented, gradual depolymerization of Sup35 prions by Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. This unanticipated amyloid-depolymerase activity is conserved from yeast to humans, which lack Hsp104 orthologues. A human sHsp, HspB5, stimulates depolymerization of α-synuclein amyloid by human Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Thus, we elucidate a heretofore-unrecognized human amyloid-depolymerase system that could have applications in various neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  3. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Several human disorders are caused by a common general disease mechanism arising from abnormal folding and aggregation of the underlying protein. These include the prevalent dementias like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, where accumulation of protein fibrillar structures, known as amyloid fibrils......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...

  4. Cerebral microvascular amyloid beta protein deposition induces vascular degeneration and neuroinflammation in transgenic mice expressing human vasculotropic mutant amyloid beta precursor protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, J.; Xu, F.; Davis, J.; Otte-Holler, I.; Verbeek, M.M.; Nostrand, W.E. van

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral vascular amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) deposition, also known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy, is a common pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, several familial forms of cerebral amyloid angiopathy exist including the Dutch (E22Q) and Iowa (D23N) mutations of Abeta. Incr

  5. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) affects global protein synthesis in dividing human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Liang, Shuang; Rambo, Brittany; Skucha, Sylvia; Weber, Megan J; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    Hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on Notch-1 signaling for survival. Targeting Notch-1 by means of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) proved effective in killing hypoxic NSCLC. Post-mortem analysis of GSI-treated, NSCLC-burdened mice suggested enhanced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at threonines 37/46 in hypoxic tumor tissues. In vitro dissection of this phenomenon revealed that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) inhibition was responsible for a non-canonical 4E-BP1 phosphorylation pattern rearrangement-a process, in part, mediated by APP regulation of the pseudophosphatase Styx. Upon APP depletion we observed modifications of eIF-4F composition indicating increased recruitment of eIF-4A to the mRNA cap. This phenomenon was supported by the observation that cells with depleted APP were partially resistant to silvestrol, an antibiotic that interferes with eIF-4A assembly into eIF-4F complexes. APP downregulation in dividing human cells increased the rate of global protein synthesis, both cap- and IRES-dependent. Such an increase seemed independent of mTOR inhibition. After administration of Torin-1, APP downregulation and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC-1) inhibition affected 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and global protein synthesis in opposite fashions. Additional investigations indicated that APP operates independently of mTORC-1. Key phenomena described in this study were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain. The presented data suggest that APP may be a novel regulator of protein synthesis in dividing human cells, both cancerous and primary. Furthermore, APP appears to affect translation initiation using mechanisms seemingly dissimilar to mTORC-1 regulation of cap-dependent protein synthesis.

  6. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  7. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrPC has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5. Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production.

  8. Intermolecular alignment in Y145Stop human prion protein amyloid fibrils probed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Jonathan J; Surewicz, Krystyna; Apostol, Marcin I; Surewicz, Witold K; Jaroniec, Christopher P

    2011-09-07

    The Y145Stop mutant of human prion protein, huPrP23-144, has been linked to PrP cerebral amyloid angiopathy, an inherited amyloid disease, and also serves as a valuable in vitro model for investigating the molecular basis of amyloid strains. Prior studies of huPrP23-144 amyloid by magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed a compact β-rich amyloid core region near the C-terminus and an unstructured N-terminal domain. Here, with the focus on understanding the higher-order architecture of huPrP23-144 fibrils, we probed the intermolecular alignment of β-strands within the amyloid core using MAS NMR techniques and fibrils formed from equimolar mixtures of (15)N-labeled protein and (13)C-huPrP23-144 prepared with [1,3-(13)C(2)] or [2-(13)C]glycerol. Numerous intermolecular correlations involving backbone atoms observed in 2D (15)N-(13)C spectra unequivocally suggest an overall parallel in-register alignment of the β-sheet core. Additional experiments that report on intermolecular (15)N-(13)CO and (15)N-(13)Cα dipolar couplings yielded an estimated strand spacing that is within ∼10% of the distances of 4.7-4.8 Å typical for parallel β-sheets.

  9. Janus faces of amyloid proteins in neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B; Kurnellas, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Amyloid forming molecules are generally considered harmful. In Alzheimer's Disease two amyloid molecules Aβ A4 and tau vie for consideration as the main pathogenic culprit. But molecules obey the laws of chemistry and defy the way we categorize them as humans with our well-known proclivities to bias in our reasoning. We have been exploring the brains of multiple sclerosis patients to identify molecules that are associated with protection from inflammation and degeneration. In 2001 we noted that aB crystallin (cryab) was the most abundant transcript found in MS lesions, but not in healthy brains. Cryab can reverse paralysis and attenuate inflammation in several models of inflammation including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and various models of ischemia. Cryab is an amyloid forming molecule. We have identified a core structure common to many amyloids including amyloid protein Aβ A4, tau, amylin, prion protein, serum amyloid protein P, and cryab. The core hexapeptide structure is highly immune suppressive and can reverse paralysis in EAE when administered systemically. Administration of this amyloid forming hexapeptide quickly lowers inflammatory cytokines in plasma like IL-6 and IL-2. The hexapeptide bind a set of proinflammatory mediators in plasma, including acute phase reactants and complement components. The beneficial properties of amyloid forming hexapeptides provide a potential new therapeutic direction. These experiments indicate that amyloid forming molecules have Janus faces, providing unexpected benefit for neuroinflammatory conditions.

  10. Diurnal patterns of soluble amyloid precursor protein metabolites in the human central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna A Dobrowolska

    Full Text Available The amyloid-β (Aβ protein is diurnally regulated in both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood in healthy adults; circadian amplitudes decrease with aging and the presence of cerebral Aβ deposits. The cause of the Aβ diurnal pattern is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP is diurnally regulated, leading to APP product diurnal patterns. APP in the central nervous system is processed either via the β-pathway (amyloidogenic, generating soluble APP-β (sAPPβ and Aβ, or the α-pathway (non-amyloidogenic, releasing soluble APP-α (sAPPα. To elucidate the potential contributions of APP to the Aβ diurnal pattern and the balance of the α- and β- pathways in APP processing, we measured APP proteolytic products over 36 hours in human cerebrospinal fluid from cognitively normal and Alzheimer's disease participants. We found diurnal patterns in sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ40, and Aβ42, which diminish with increased age, that support the hypothesis that APP is diurnally regulated in the human central nervous system and thus results in Aβ diurnal patterns. We also found that the four APP metabolites were positively correlated in all participants without cerebral Aβ deposits. This positive correlation suggests that the α- and β- APP pathways are non-competitive under normal physiologic conditions where APP availability may be the limiting factor that determines sAPPα and sAPPβ production. However, in participants with cerebral Aβ deposits, there was no correlation of Aβ to sAPP metabolites, suggesting that normal physiologic regulation of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ is impaired in the presence of amyloidosis. Lastly, we found that the ratio of sAPPβ to sAPPα was significantly higher in participants with cerebral Aβ deposits versus those without deposits. Therefore, the sAPPβ to sAPPα ratio may be a useful biomarker for cerebral amyloidosis.

  11. Expression Characterization and Preparation of Human Amyloid Precursor Protein in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; WANG Jia-peng; HUANG Xue-mei; ZHANG Ying-jiu

    2009-01-01

    To analyze whether expressed amyloid precursor protein(APP) existed in hydrophilic(cytoplasmid) or hy-drophobic(lipid bilayer) environment in E. coli and to obtain intact APP for study on its function, we investigated the expression characterization and preparation of the three intact isoforms APP770, APP751, and APP695 in E. coli. The results show that these expressed APPs existed both in hydrophilic cytoplasm region as inclusion bodies and hy-drophobic membrane region as membrane-bound state in E. coll. APPs in inclusion bodies were purified on an NTA-Ni2. agarose column after dissolving in the urea buffer and APPs in membrane-bound state were obtained by ultracentrifugation. The activity analysis indicates that APP770 and APP751 exhibited strong trypsin-inhibitory activity like the natural ones. These results indicate that E. coil cells can be used as host cells for the expression of human integral membrane protein like APP in either soluble or membrane-bound state unless the interest protein undergone post-translational modification is required.

  12. Phosphorylated human tau associates with mouse prion protein amyloid in scrapie-infected mice but does not increase progression of clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Kraus, Allison; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-07-03

    Tauopathies are a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which fibrils of human hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) are believed to cause neuropathology. In Alzheimer disease, P-tau associates with A-beta amyloid and contributes to disease pathogenesis. In familial human prion diseases and variant CJD, P-tau often co-associates with prion protein amyloid, and might also accelerate disease progression. To test this latter possibility, here we compared progression of amyloid prion disease in vivo after scrapie infection of mice with and without expression of human tau. The mice used expressed both anchorless prion protein (PrP) and membrane-anchored PrP, that generate disease associated amyloid and non-amyloid PrP (PrPSc) after scrapie infection. Human P-tau induced by scrapie infection was only rarely associated with non-amyloid PrPSc, but abundant human P-tau was detected at extracellular, perivascular and axonal deposits associated with amyloid PrPSc. This pathology was quite similar to that seen in familial prion diseases. However, association of human and mouse P-tau with amyloid PrPSc did not diminish survival time following prion infection in these mice. By analogy, human P-tau may not affect prion disease progression in humans. Alternatively, these results might be due to other factors, including rapidity of disease, blocking effects by mouse tau, or low toxicity of human P-tau in this model.

  13. Synaptotrophic effects of human amyloid beta protein precursors in the cortex of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucke, L; Masliah, E; Johnson, W B; Ruppe, M D; Alford, M; Rockenstein, E M; Forss-Petter, S; Pietropaolo, M; Mallory, M; Abraham, C R

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) because its degradation products accumulate abnormally in AD brains and APP mutations are associated with early onset AD. However, its role in health and disease appears to be complex, with different APP derivatives showing either neurotoxic or neurotrophic effects in vitro. To elucidate the effects APP has on the brain in vivo, cDNAs encoding different forms of human APP (hAPP) were placed downstream of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter. In multiple lines of NSE-hAPP transgenic mice neuronal overexpression of hAPP was accompanied by an increase in the number of synaptophysin immunoreactive (SYN-IR) presynaptic terminals and in the expression of the growth-associated marker GAP-43. In lines expressing moderate levels of hAPP751 or hAPP695, this effect was more prominent in homozygous than in heterozygous transgenic mice. In contrast, a line with several-fold higher levels of hAPP695 expression showed less increase in SYN-IR presynaptic terminals per amount of hAPP expressed than the lower expressor lines and a decrease in synaptotrophic effects in homozygous compared with heterozygous offspring. Transgenic mice (2-24 months of age) showed no evidence for amyloid deposits or neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that APP may be important for the formation/maintenance of synapses in vivo and that its synaptotrophic effects may be critically dependent on the expression levels of different APP isoforms. Alterations in APP expression, processing or function could contribute to the synaptic pathology seen in AD.

  14. Goodpasture Antigen-binding Protein/Ceramide Transporter Binds to Human Serum Amyloid P-Component and Is Present in Brain Amyloid Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mencarelli, Chiara; Bode, Gerard H.; Losen, Mario; Kulharia, Mahesh; Molenaar, Peter C.; Veerhuis, Robert; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; De Baets, Marc H.; Nicolaes, Gerry A. F.; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a non-fibrillar glycoprotein belonging to the pentraxin family of the innate immune system. SAP is present in plasma, basement membranes, and amyloid deposits. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP) binds to

  15. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Modulators of Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing in Human Stem Cell Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Brownjohn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human stem cell models have the potential to provide platforms for phenotypic screens to identify candidate treatments and cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Amyloid precursor protein (APP processing and the accumulation of APP-derived amyloid β (Aβ peptides are key processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD. We designed a phenotypic small-molecule screen to identify modulators of APP processing in trisomy 21/Down syndrome neurons, a complex genetic model of AD. We identified the avermectins, commonly used as anthelmintics, as compounds that increase the relative production of short Aβ peptides at the expense of longer, potentially more toxic peptides. Further studies demonstrated that this effect is not due to an interaction with the core γ-secretase responsible for Aβ production. This study demonstrates the feasibility of phenotypic drug screening in human stem cell models of Alzheimer-type dementia, and points to possibilities for indirectly modulating APP processing, independently of γ-secretase modulation.

  16. FKBP12 regulates the localization and processing of amyloid precursor protein in human cell lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fan-Lun Liu; Ting-Yi Liu; Fan-Lu Kung

    2014-03-01

    One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease is the presence of insoluble extracellular amyloid plaques. These plaques are mainly constituted of amyloid beta peptide (A), a proteolytic product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP processing also generates the APP intracellular domain (AICD). We have previously demonstrated that AICD interacts with FKBP12, a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) ubiquitous in nerve systems. This interaction was interfered by FK506, a clinically used immunosuppressant that has recently been reported to be neuroprotective. To elucidate the roles of FKBP12 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, the effect of FKBP12 overexpression on APP processing was evaluated. Our results revealed that APP processing was shifted towards the amyloidogenic pathway, accompanied by a change in the subcellular localization of APP, upon FKBP12 overexpression. This FKBP12-overexpression-induced effect was reverted by FK506. These findings support our hypothesis that FKBP12 may participate in the regulation of APP processing. FKBP12 overexpression may lead to the stabilization of a certain isomer (presumably the cis form) of the Thr668-Pro669 peptide bond in AICD, therefore change its affinity to flotillin-1 or other raft-associated proteins, and eventually change the localization pattern and cause a shift in the proteolytic processing of APP.

  17. N-Acetyl-L-Cystein downregulates beta-amyloid precursor protein gene transcription in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, R; Baysang, G; Brack, C

    2001-01-01

    The causes for the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still poorly understood, except from the fact that age is an important risk factor. The main component of the characteristic amyloid plaques in brains of AD patients are Abeta peptides, derivatives of the amyloid precursor protein APP. Oxidative stress may contribute to the aetiology of AD by dysregulation of APP metabolism. Overexpression of the APP gene could result in an increased secretion of neurotoxic Abeta peptides, while preventing the overexpression might be protective. We here report that the antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-Cystein (NAC) downregulates APP gene transcription in human neuroblastoma cells. The effect is reversible when cells are returned to NAC free medium. These results open up new possibilities for the development of therapeutic agents that intervene at the transcriptional level.

  18. Chemical Methods to Knock Down the Amyloid Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid proteins are closely related with amyloid diseases and do tremendous harm to human health. However, there is still a lack of effective strategies to treat these amyloid diseases, so it is important to develop novel methods. Accelerating the clearance of amyloid proteins is a favorable method for amyloid disease treatment. Recently, chemical methods for protein reduction have been developed and have attracted much attention. In this review, we focus on the latest progress of chemical methods that knock down amyloid proteins, including the proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC strategy, the “recognition-cleavage” strategy, the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA strategy, the selectively light-activatable organic and inorganic molecules strategy and other chemical strategies.

  19. Intracellular Aβ pathology and early cognitive impairments in a transgenic rat overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein: a multidimensional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iulita, M Florencia; Allard, Simon; Richter, Luise; Munter, Lisa-Marie; Ducatenzeiler, Adriana; Weise, Christoph; Do Carmo, Sonia; Klein, William L; Multhaup, Gerhard; Cuello, A Claudio

    2014-06-05

    Numerous studies have implicated the abnormal accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid-β (Aβ) as an important contributor to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, capable of triggering neuroinflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive deficits. However, the occurrence and pathological relevance of intracellular Aβ remain a matter of controversial debate. In this study, we have used a multidimensional approach including high-magnification and super-resolution microscopy, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) mass spectrometry analysis and ELISA to investigate the Aβ pathology and its associated cognitive impairments, in a novel transgenic rat model overexpressing human APP. Our microscopy studies with quantitative co-localization analysis revealed the presence of intraneuronal Aβ in transgenic rats, with an immunological signal that was clearly distinguished from that of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its C-terminal fragments (CTFs). The early intraneuronal pathology was accompanied by a significant elevation of soluble Aβ42 peptides that paralleled the presence and progression of early cognitive deficits, several months prior to amyloid plaque deposition. Aβ38, Aβ39, Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides were detected in the rat CSF by MALDI-MS analysis even at the plaque-free stages; suggesting that a combination of intracellular and soluble extracellular Aβ may be responsible for impairing cognition at early time points. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the intraneuronal development of AD-like amyloid pathology includes a mixture of molecular species (Aβ, APP and CTFs) of which a considerable component is Aβ; and that the early presence of these species within neurons has deleterious effects in the CNS, even before the development of full-blown AD-like pathology.

  20. Human J-protein DnaJB6b Cures a Subset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Prions and Selectively Blocks Assembly of Structurally Related Amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Michael; Sharma, Ruchika; Roberts, Brittany-Lee; Masison, Daniel C

    2016-02-19

    Human chaperone DnaJB6, an Hsp70 co-chaperone whose defects cause myopathies, protects cells from polyglutamine toxicity and prevents purified polyglutamine and Aβ peptides from forming amyloid. Yeast prions [URE3] and [PSI(+)] propagate as amyloid forms of Ure2 and Sup35 proteins, respectively. Here we find DnaJB6-protected yeast cells from polyglutamine toxicity and cured yeast of both [URE3] prions and weak variants of [PSI(+)] prions but not strong [PSI(+)] prions. Weak and strong variants of [PSI(+)] differ only in the structural conformation of their amyloid cores. In line with its anti-prion effects, DnaJB6 prevented purified Sup35NM from forming amyloids at 37 °C, which produce predominantly weak [PSI(+)] variants when used to infect yeast, but not at 4 °C, which produces mostly strong [PSI(+)] variants. Thus, structurally distinct amyloids composed of the same protein were differentially sensitive to the anti-amyloid activity of DnaJB6 both in vitro and in vivo. These findings have important implications for strategies using DnaJB6 as a target for therapy in amyloid disorders.

  1. Differential gene expression in human brain pericytes induced by amyloid-beta protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, A.A.M.; Otte-Holler, I.; Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Waal, R.M.W. de; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is one of the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this accumulation of fibrillar amyloid-beta (Alphabeta) in the vascular wall is accompanied by marked vascular damage. In vitro, Abeta1-40 carrying the 'Dutch' mutation (DAbeta1-40) induces degeneration of cult

  2. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-β peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  3. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Modulators of Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing in Human Stem Cell Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownjohn, Philip W; Smith, James; Portelius, Erik; Serneels, Lutgarde; Kvartsberg, Hlin; De Strooper, Bart; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Livesey, Frederick J

    2017-04-11

    Human stem cell models have the potential to provide platforms for phenotypic screens to identify candidate treatments and cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the accumulation of APP-derived amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are key processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We designed a phenotypic small-molecule screen to identify modulators of APP processing in trisomy 21/Down syndrome neurons, a complex genetic model of AD. We identified the avermectins, commonly used as anthelmintics, as compounds that increase the relative production of short Aβ peptides at the expense of longer, potentially more toxic peptides. Further studies demonstrated that this effect is not due to an interaction with the core γ-secretase responsible for Aβ production. This study demonstrates the feasibility of phenotypic drug screening in human stem cell models of Alzheimer-type dementia, and points to possibilities for indirectly modulating APP processing, independently of γ-secretase modulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of human FE65, a ligand of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein, by Sp1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yu, Hoi-Tin

    2010-03-01

    FE65 is a neuronal-enriched adaptor protein that binds to the Alzheimer\\'s disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). FE65 forms a transcriptionally active complex with the APP intracellular domain (AICD). The precise gene targets for this complex are unclear but several Alzheimer\\'s disease-linked genes have been proposed. Additionally, evidence suggests that FE65 influences APP metabolism. The mechanism by which FE65 expression is regulated is as yet unknown. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanism, we cloned a 1.6 kb fragment upstream of the human FE65 gene and found that it possesses particularly strong promoter activity in neurones. To delineate essential regions in the human FE65 promoter, a series of deletion mutants were generated. The minimal FE65 promoter was located between -100 and +5, which contains a functional Sp1 site. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 potentiates the FE65 promoter activity. Conversely, suppression of the FE65 promoter was observed in cells either treated with an Sp1 inhibitor or in which Sp1 was knocked down. Furthermore, reduced levels of Sp1 resulted in downregulation of endogenous FE65 mRNA and protein. These findings reveal that Sp1 plays a crucial role in transcriptional control of the human FE65 gene.

  5. Amyloid-like protein inclusions in tobacco transgenic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Villar-Piqué

    Full Text Available The formation of insoluble protein deposits in human tissues is linked to the onset of more than 40 different disorders, ranging from dementia to diabetes. In these diseases, the proteins usually self-assemble into ordered β-sheet enriched aggregates known as amyloid fibrils. Here we study the structure of the inclusions formed by maize transglutaminase (TGZ in the chloroplasts of tobacco transplastomic plants and demonstrate that they have an amyloid-like nature. Together with the evidence of amyloid structures in bacteria and fungi our data argue that amyloid formation is likely a ubiquitous process occurring across the different kingdoms of life. The discovery of amyloid conformations inside inclusions of genetically modified plants might have implications regarding their use for human applications.

  6. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    , underlining the importance of understanding this relationship. The monomeric C-36 peptide was investigated by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy and found to be intrinsically disordered with minor propensities towards β-sheet structure. The plasticity of such a peptide makes it suitable for a whole range......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... of this mechanism were investigated through a series of interaction experiments. Despite a very buried location in the native structure, evidence here suggest that the C-terminal tail is labile under slightly destabilizing conditions, providing new detail to this matter. A small infectious polymer unit was also...

  7. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and serum amyloid A secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells during the acute phase response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, A C; Dentener, M A; Snoek, A M; Greve, J W; Buurman, W A

    1999-09-01

    The acute phase proteins LPS binding protein (LBP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are produced by the liver and are present in the circulation. Both proteins have been shown to participate in the immune response to endotoxins. The intestinal mucosa forms a large surface that is continuously exposed to these microbial products. By secretion of antimicrobial and immunomodulating agents, the intestinal epithelium contributes to the defense against bacteria and their products. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of the inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta on the release of LBP and SAA by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In addition, the induction of LBP and SAA release by cell lines of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatic cells was compared. The data obtained show that in addition to liver cells, IEC also expressed LBP mRNA and released bioactive LBP and SAA upon stimulation. Regulation of LBP and SAA release by IEC and hepatocytes was typical for class 1 acute phase proteins, although differences in regulation between the cell types were observed. Endotoxin did not induce LBP and SAA release. Glucocorticoids were demonstrated to strongly enhance the cytokine-induced release of LBP and SAA by IEC, corresponding to hepatocytes. The data from this study, which imply that human IEC can produce LBP and SAA, suggest a role for these proteins in the local defense mechanism of the gut to endotoxin. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tissues other than the liver are involved in the acute phase response.

  8. Effects of ethanol on aggregation, serotonin release, and amyloid precursor protein processing in rat and human platelets.

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    Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    It is known that oxidative stress leads to amyloid precursor protein (APP) dysregulation in platelets. Ethanol (EtOH) is a vascular risk factor and induces oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate whether EtOH affects APP processing in rat and human platelets. Platelets were exposed to 50 mM EtOH with and without 2 mM calcium-chloride (CaCl₂) for 20 or 180 minutes at 37°C. Platelet aggregation, serotonin release and APP isoforms 130 and 106/110 kDa were analyzed. As a control, 100 mM H₂O₂ was tested in rat platelets. Our data show that EtOH alone did not affect any of the analyzed parameters, whereas CaCl₂ significantly increased aggregation of rat and human platelets. In addition, CaCl₂ alone enhanced serotonin release in rat platelets. EtOH counteracted CaCl₂-induced aggregation and serotonin release. In the presence of CaCl₂, EtOH reduced the 130 kDa APP isoform in rat and human platelets. In conclusion, this study shows that in the presence of CaCl₂, EtOH affects the platelet function and APP processing in rat and human platelets.

  9. The acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A induces lipolysis and inflammation in human adipocytes through distinct pathways.

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    Aurélie Faty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The acute phase response (APR is characterized by alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism leading to an increased delivery of energy substrates. In adipocytes, there is a coordinated decrease in Free Fatty acids (FFAs and glucose storage, in addition to an increase in FFAs mobilization. Serum Amyloid A (SAA is an acute phase protein mainly associated with High Density Lipoproteins (HDL. We hypothesized that enrichment of HDL with SAA, during the APR, could be implicated in the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro differentiated human adipocytes (hMADS were treated with SAA enriched HDL or recombinant SAA and the metabolic phenotype of the cells analyzed. In hMADS, SAA induces an increased lipolysis through an ERK dependent pathway. At the molecular level, SAA represses PPARγ2, C/EBPα and SREBP-1c gene expression, three transcription factors involved in adipocyte differentiation or lipid synthesis. In addition, the activation of the NF-κB pathway by SAA leads to the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as in the case of immune cells. These latter findings were replicated in freshly isolated mature human adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Besides its well-characterized role in cholesterol metabolism, SAA has direct metabolic effects on human adipocytes. These metabolic changes could be at least partly responsible for alterations of adipocyte metabolism observed during the APR as well as during pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and conditions leading to insulin resistant states.

  10. Kinesin light chain 1 suppression impairs human embryonic stem cell neural differentiation and amyloid precursor protein metabolism.

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    Rhiannon L Killian

    Full Text Available The etiology of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD is largely unknown, although evidence implicates the pathological hallmark molecules amyloid beta (Aβ and phosphorylated Tau. Work in animal models suggests that altered axonal transport caused by Kinesin-1 dysfunction perturbs levels of both Aβ and phosphorylated Tau in neural tissues, but the relevance of Kinesin-1 dependent functions to the human disease is unknown. To begin to address this issue, we generated human embryonic stem cells (hESC expressing reduced levels of the kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1 Kinesin-1 subunit to use as a source of human neural cultures. Despite reduction of KLC1, undifferentiated hESC exhibited apparently normal colony morphology and pluripotency marker expression. Differentiated neural cultures derived from KLC1-suppressed hESC contained neural rosettes but further differentiation revealed obvious morphological changes along with reduced levels of microtubule-associated neural proteins, including Tau and less secreted Aβ, supporting the previously established connection between KLC1, Tau and Aβ. Intriguingly, KLC1-suppressed neural precursors (NPs, isolated using a cell surface marker signature known to identify cells that give rise to neurons and glia, unlike control cells, failed to proliferate. We suggest that KLC1 is required for normal human neural differentiation, ensuring proper metabolism of AD-associated molecules APP and Tau and for proliferation of NPs. Because impaired APP metabolism is linked to AD, this human cell culture model system will not only be a useful tool for understanding the role of KLC1 in regulating the production, transport and turnover of APP and Tau in neurons, but also in defining the essential function(s of KLC1 in NPs and their progeny. This knowledge should have important implications for human neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. SERF Protein Is a Direct Modifier of Amyloid Fiber Assembly

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    S. Fabio Falsone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The inherent cytotoxicity of aberrantly folded protein aggregates contributes substantially to the pathogenesis of amyloid diseases. It was recently shown that a class of evolutionary conserved proteins, called MOAG-4/SERF, profoundly alter amyloid toxicity via an autonomous but yet unexplained mode. We show that the biological function of human SERF1a originates from its atypical ability to specifically distinguish between amyloid and nonamyloid aggregation. This inherently unstructured protein directly affected the aggregation kinetics of a broad range of amyloidogenic proteins in vitro, while being inactive against nonamyloid aggregation. A representative biophysical analysis of the SERF1a:α-synuclein (aSyn complex revealed that the amyloid-promoting activity resulted from an early and transient interaction, which was sufficient to provoke a massive increase of soluble aSyn amyloid nucleation templates. Therefore, the autonomous amyloid-modifying activity of SERF1a observed in living organisms relies on a direct and dedicated manipulation of the early stages in the amyloid aggregation pathway.

  12. Using BAC transgenesis in zebrafish to identify regulatory sequences of the amyloid precursor protein gene in humans

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    Shakes Leighcraft A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding DNA in and around the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP gene that is central to Alzheimer’s disease (AD shares little sequence similarity with that of appb in zebrafish. Identifying DNA domains regulating expression of the gene in such situations becomes a challenge. Taking advantage of the zebrafish system that allows rapid functional analyses of gene regulatory sequences, we previously showed that two discontinuous DNA domains in zebrafish appb are important for expression of the gene in neurons: an enhancer in intron 1 and sequences 28–31 kb upstream of the gene. Here we identify the putative transcription factor binding sites responsible for this distal cis-acting regulation, and use that information to identify a regulatory region of the human APP gene. Results Functional analyses of intron 1 enhancer mutations in enhancer-trap BACs expressed as transgenes in zebrafish identified putative binding sites of two known transcription factor proteins, E4BP4/ NFIL3 and Forkhead, to be required for expression of appb. A cluster of three E4BP4 sites at −31 kb is also shown to be essential for neuron-specific expression, suggesting that the dependence of expression on upstream sequences is mediated by these E4BP4 sites. E4BP4/ NFIL3 and XFD1 sites in the intron enhancer and E4BP4/ NFIL3 sites at −31 kb specifically and efficiently bind the corresponding zebrafish proteins in vitro. These sites are statistically over-represented in both the zebrafish appb and the human APP genes, although their locations are different. Remarkably, a cluster of four E4BP4 sites in intron 4 of human APP exists in actively transcribing chromatin in a human neuroblastoma cell-line, SHSY5Y, expressing APP as shown using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments. Thus although the two genes share little sequence conservation, they appear to share the same regulatory logic and are regulated by a similar set of transcription

  13. Human serum amyloid A3 (SAA3 protein, expressed as a fusion protein with SAA2, binds the oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor.

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    Takeshi Tomita

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A3 (SAA3 possesses characteristics distinct from the other serum amyloid A isoforms, SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4. High density lipoprotein contains the latter three isoforms, but not SAA3. The expression of mouse SAA3 (mSAA3 is known to be up-regulated extrahepatically in inflammatory responses, and acts as an endogenous ligand for the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. We previously reported that mSAA3 plays an important role in facilitating tumor metastasis by attracting circulating tumor cells and enhancing hyperpermeability in the lungs. On the other hand, human SAA3 (hSAA3 has long been regarded as a pseudogene, which is in contrast to the abundant expression levels of the other isoforms. Although the nucleotide sequence of hSAA3 is very similar to that of the other SAAs, a single oligonucleotide insertion in exon 2 causes a frame-shift to generate a unique amino acid sequence. In the present study, we identified that hSAA3 was transcribed in the hSAA2-SAA3 fusion transcripts of several human cell lines. In the fusion transcript, hSAA2 exon 3 was connected to hSAA3 exon 1 or hSAA3 exon 2, located approximately 130kb downstream from hSAA2 exon 3 in the genome, which suggested that it is produced by alternative splicing. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting and isolating hSAA3 protein for the first time by an immunoprecipitation-enzyme linked immune assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize the hSAA3 unique amino acid sequence. We also demonstrated that hSAA3 bound oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor (oxLDL receptor, LOX-1 and elevated the phosphorylation of ERK, the intracellular MAP-kinase signaling protein.

  14. Amyloid oligomer conformation in a group of natively folded proteins.

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    Yuji Yoshiike

    Full Text Available Recent in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that destabilized proteins with defective folding induce aggregation and toxicity in protein-misfolding diseases. One such unstable protein state is called amyloid oligomer, a precursor of fully aggregated forms of amyloid. Detection of various amyloid oligomers with A11, an anti-amyloid oligomer conformation-specific antibody, revealed that the amyloid oligomer represents a generic conformation and suggested that toxic beta-aggregation processes possess a common mechanism. By using A11 antibody as a probe in combination with mass spectrometric analysis, we identified GroEL in bacterial lysates as a protein that may potentially have an amyloid oligomer conformation. Surprisingly, A11 reacted not only with purified GroEL but also with several purified heat shock proteins, including human Hsp27, 40, 70, 90; yeast Hsp104; and bovine Hsc70. The native folds of A11-reactive proteins in purified samples were characterized by their anti-beta-aggregation activity in terms of both functionality and in contrast to the beta-aggregation promoting activity of misfolded pathogenic amyloid oligomers. The conformation-dependent binding of A11 with natively folded Hsp27 was supported by the concurrent loss of A11 reactivity and anti-beta-aggregation activity of heat-treated Hsp27 samples. Moreover, we observed consistent anti-beta-aggregation activity not only by chaperones containing an amyloid oligomer conformation but also by several A11-immunoreactive non-chaperone proteins. From these results, we suggest that the amyloid oligomer conformation is present in a group of natively folded proteins. The inhibitory effects of A11 antibody on both GroEL/ES-assisted luciferase refolding and Hsp70-mediated decelerated nucleation of Abeta aggregation suggested that the A11-binding sites on these chaperones might be functionally important. Finally, we employed a computational approach to uncover possible A11-binding sites on

  15. Divalent cation tolerance protein binds to β-secretase and inhibits the processing of amyloid precursor protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runzhong Liu; Haibo Hou; Xuelian Yi; Shanwen Wu; Huan Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of amyloid-beta is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-beta is derived from amyloid precursor protein through sequential proteolytic cleavages by β-secretase (beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1) and γ-secretase. To further elucidate the roles of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 in the development of Alzheimer's disease, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a human embryonic brain cDNA library for proteins directly interacting with the intracellular domain of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1. A potential beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1- interacting protein identified from the positive clones was divalent cation tolerance protein. Immunoprecipitation studies in the neuroblastoma cell line N2a showed that exogenous divalent cation tolerance protein interacts with endogenous beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1. The overexpression of divalent cation tolerance protein did not affect beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 protein levels, but led to increased amyloid precursor protein levels in N2a/APP695 cells, with a concomitant reduction in the processing product amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragment, indicating that divalent cation tolerance protein inhibits the processing of amyloid precursor protein. Our experimental findings suggest that divalent cation tolerance protein negatively regulates the function of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1. Thus, divalent cation tolerance protein could play a protective role in Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Cell-type dependent modulation of Notch signaling by the amyloid precursor protein.

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    Oh, Sun Young; Chen, Ci-Di; Abraham, Carmela R

    2010-04-01

    The amyloid precursor protein is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that has been long implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease but its normal biological function has remained elusive despite extensive effort. We have previously reported the identification of Notch2 as an amyloid precursor protein interacting protein in E18 rat neurons. Here, we sought to reveal the physiologic consequences of this interaction. We report a functional relationship between amyloid precursor protein and Notch1, which does not affect Delta ligand binding. First, we observed interactions between the amyloid precursor protein and Notch in mouse embryonic stem cells lacking both presenilin 1 and presenilin 2, the active proteolytic components of the gamma-secretase complex, suggesting that these two transmembrane proteins can interact in the absence of presenilin. Next, we demonstrated that the amyloid precursor protein affects Notch signaling by using Notch-dependent luciferase assays in two cell lines, the human embryonic kidney 293 and the monkey kidney, COS7. We found that the amyloid precursor protein exerts opposing effects on Notch signaling in human embryonic kidney 293 vs. COS7 cells. Finally, we show that more Notch Intracellular Domain is found in the nucleus in the presence of exogenous amyloid precursor protein or its intracellular domain, suggesting the mechanism by which the amyloid precursor protein affects Notch signaling in certain cells. Our results provide evidence of potentially important communications between the amyloid precursor protein and Notch.

  17. Activation of human microglia by fibrillar prion protein-related peptides is enhanced by amyloid-associated factors SAP and C1q

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerhuis, R.; Boshuizen, R.S.; Morbin, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Hoozemans, J.J.; Langedijk, J.P.; Tagliavini, F.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Eikelenboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    Complement activation products C1q and C3d, serum amyloid P component (SAP) and activated glial cells accumulate in amyloid deposits of conformationally changed prion protein (PrPSc) in Creutzfeldt¿Jakob disease, Gerstmann¿Sträussler¿Scheinker disease and scrapie-infected mouse brain. Biological pro

  18. Methods to uncover an antibody epitope in the KPI domain of Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein for immunohistochemistry in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E; Pearson, R C; Parkinson, D

    1999-11-15

    A novel polyclonal antibody (Ab993), specific for a KPI domain epitope of APP, was characterised for use in immunoprecipitation, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Conditioned medium from NTera2/D1 cells was used for immunoprecipitation and Western blots. Paraffin-embedded human brain sections were used for immunohistochemistry. The antibody recognised KPI-containing APP on Western blots after standard solubilisation but immunoprecipitation of soluble APP required reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol followed by alkylation of reduced sulphydryl bonds with sodium iodoacetate. Immunohistochemical staining of human brain sections was significantly enhanced by this pre-treatment. Microwaving of sections also increased immunolabelling, by a mechanism that was additive to reduction and alkylation. Incubation in 80% formic acid did not confer any enhancement of immunoreactivity. Ab993, applied with the methods reported here, is expected to be valuable in investigations of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease to determine the source of the beta-amyloid peptide.

  19. Interaction of amyloid inhibitor proteins with amyloid beta peptides: insight from molecular dynamics simulations.

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    Payel Das

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the detailed mechanism by which proteins such as human αB- crystallin and human lysozyme inhibit amyloid beta (Aβ peptide aggregation is crucial for designing treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Thus, unconstrained, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent have been performed to characterize the Aβ17-42 assembly in presence of the αB-crystallin core domain and of lysozyme. Simulations reveal that both inhibitor proteins compete with inter-peptide interaction by binding to the peptides during the early stage of aggregation, which is consistent with their inhibitory action reported in experiments. However, the Aβ binding dynamics appear different for each inhibitor. The binding between crystallin and the peptide monomer, dominated by electrostatics, is relatively weak and transient due to the heterogeneous amino acid distribution of the inhibitor surface. The crystallin-bound Aβ oligomers are relatively long-lived, as they form more extensive contact surface with the inhibitor protein. In contrast, a high local density of arginines from lysozyme allows strong binding with Aβ peptide monomers, resulting in stable complexes. Our findings not only illustrate, in atomic detail, how the amyloid inhibitory mechanism of human αB-crystallin, a natural chaperone, is different from that of human lysozyme, but also may aid de novo design of amyloid inhibitors.

  20. Non-targeted identification of prions and amyloid-forming proteins from yeast and mammalian cells.

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    Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Pripuzova, Natalia; Burnett, Barrington G; Shewmaker, Frank

    2013-09-20

    The formation of amyloid aggregates is implicated both as a primary cause of cellular degeneration in multiple human diseases and as a functional mechanism for providing extraordinary strength to large protein assemblies. The recent identification and characterization of several amyloid proteins from diverse organisms argues that the amyloid phenomenon is widespread in nature. Yet identifying new amyloid-forming proteins usually requires a priori knowledge of specific candidates. Amyloid fibers can resist heat, pressure, proteolysis, and denaturation by reagents such as urea or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Here we show that these properties can be exploited to identify naturally occurring amyloid-forming proteins directly from cell lysates. This proteomic-based approach utilizes a novel purification of amyloid aggregates followed by identification by mass spectrometry without the requirement for special genetic tools. We have validated this technique by blind identification of three amyloid-based yeast prions from laboratory and wild strains and disease-related polyglutamine proteins expressed in both yeast and mammalian cells. Furthermore, we found that polyglutamine aggregates specifically recruit some stress granule components, revealing a possible mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, core amyloid-forming proteins as well as strongly associated proteins can be identified directly from cells of diverse origin.

  1. Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Adwait BHADBHADE

    2012-03-01

    s disease. Trends in Cell Biology 1998;8(11:447-453. Thinakaran G, Koo EH. Amyloid precursor protein trafficking, processing, and function. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2008;283(44:29615. Zhang YW, Thompson R, Zhang H, Xu H. APP processing in Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Brain 2011;4:3. doi: 1756- 6606-4-3 [pii] 10.1186/1756-6606-4-3. Nunan J, Small DH. Regulation of APP cleavage by α-,β- and γ-secretases. J Biolog Chem 2000:483(1:6-10. Pearson HA, Peers C. Physiological roles for amyloid peptides. J Physiology 2006;575(1:5-10. Wang Y, Ha Y. The X-ray structure of an antiparallel dimer of the human amyloid precursor protein E2 domain. Molecular Cell 2004;15(3:343-353. Quitschke WW, Goldgaber D. The amyloid b-protein precursor promoter. Journal Biolog Chem 1992;267(24:17362-17368. Vostrov AA, Taheny MJ, Izkhakov N, Quitschke WW. A nuclear factor-binding domain in the 5’-untranslated region of the amyloid precursor protein promoter: implications for the regulation of gene expression. BMC Research Notes 2010;3:4. Ghosala K,Vogta D, Lianga M, Shenb Y, Lamba BT, Sanjay W, Pimplikara SW. Alzheimer’s disease-like pathological features in transgenic mice expressing the APP intracellular domain. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 2009;106(43:18367-77.  

  2. Differential interaction of Apolipoprotein-E isoforms with insulin receptors modulates brain insulin signaling in mutant human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elizabeth S; Chen, Christopher; Cole, Gregory M; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2015-09-08

    It is unclear how human apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Aβ levels can lead to insulin signaling impairment, these experiments were done in the absence of human ApoE. To examine ApoE role, we crossed the human ApoE-targeted replacement mice with mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice. In 26 week old mice with lower Aβ levels, the expression and phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins remained comparable among APP, ApoE3xAPP and ApoE4xAPP mouse brains. When the mice aged to 78 weeks, these proteins were markedly reduced in APP and ApoE4xAPP mouse brains. While Aβ can bind to insulin receptor, how ApoE isoforms modulate this interaction remains unknown. Here, we showed that ApoE3 had greater association with insulin receptor as compared to ApoE4, regardless of Aβ42 concentration. In contrast, ApoE4 bound more Aβ42 with increasing peptide levels. Using primary hippocampal neurons, we showed that ApoE3 and ApoE4 neurons are equally sensitive to physiological levels of insulin. However, in the presence of Aβ42, insulin failed to elicit a downstream response only in ApoE4 hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our data show that ApoE genotypes can modulate this Aβ-mediated insulin signaling impairment.

  3. Contrasting effects of nanoparticle-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation.

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    Radic, Slaven; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been experimentally found to either promote or inhibit amyloid aggregation of proteins, but the molecular mechanisms for such complex behaviors remain unknown. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the effects of varying the strength of nonspecific NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation of a model protein, the amyloid-beta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, with increasing NP-peptide attraction, amyloid aggregation on the NP surface was initially promoted due to increased local protein concentration on the surface and destabilization of the folded state. However, further increase of NP-peptide attraction decreased the stability of amyloid fibrils and reduced their lateral diffusion on the NP surface necessary for peptide conformational changes and self-association, thus prohibiting amyloid aggregation. Moreover, we found that the relative concentration between protein and NPs also played an important role in amyloid aggregation. With a high NP/protein ratio, NPs that intrinsically promote protein aggregation may display an inhibitive effect by depleting the proteins in solution while having a low concentration of the proteins on each NP's surface. Our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study offers a molecular mechanism for delineating the contrasting and seemingly conflicting effects of NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation and highlights the potential of tailoring anti-aggregation nanomedicine against amyloid diseases.

  4. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

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    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue

  5. Comparison of the aggregation of homologous β2-microglobulin variants reveals protein solubility as a key determinant of amyloid formation.

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    Pashley, Clare L; Hewitt, Eric W; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-13

    The mouse and human β2-microglobulin protein orthologs are 70% identical in sequence and share 88% sequence similarity. These proteins are predicted by various algorithms to have similar aggregation and amyloid propensities. However, whilst human β2m (hβ2m) forms amyloid-like fibrils in denaturing conditions (e.g. pH2.5) in the absence of NaCl, mouse β2m (mβ2m) requires the addition of 0.3M NaCl to cause fibrillation. Here, the factors which give rise to this difference in amyloid propensity are investigated. We utilise structural and mutational analyses, fibril growth kinetics and solubility measurements under a range of pH and salt conditions, to determine why these two proteins have different amyloid propensities. The results show that, although other factors influence the fibril growth kinetics, a striking difference in the solubility of the proteins is a key determinant of the different amyloidogenicity of hβ2m and mβ2m. The relationship between protein solubility and lag time of amyloid formation is not captured by current aggregation or amyloid prediction algorithms, indicating a need to better understand the role of solubility on the lag time of amyloid formation. The results demonstrate the key contribution of protein solubility in determining amyloid propensity and lag time of amyloid formation, highlighting how small differences in protein sequence can have dramatic effects on amyloid formation.

  6. Natural polyphenols binding to amyloid: a broad class of compounds to treat different human amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoungoure, Viviane L Ndam; Schluesener, Jan; Moundipa, Paul F; Schluesener, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large group of phytonutrients found in herbal beverages and foods. They have manifold biological activities, including antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Interestingly, some polyphenols bind to amyloid and substantially ameliorate amyloid diseases. Misfolding, aggregation, and accumulation of amyloid fibrils in tissues or organs leads to a group of disorders, called amyloidoses. Prominent diseases are Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, but there are other, less well-known diseases wherein accumulation of misfolded protein is a prominent feature. Amyloidoses are a major burden to public health. In particular, Alzheimer's disease shows a strong increase in patient numbers. Accelerated development of effective therapies for amyloidoses is a necessity. A viable strategy can be the prevention or reduction of protein misfolding, thus reducing amyloid build-up by restoring the cellular aggretome. Amyloid-binding polyphenols affect amyloid formation on various levels, e.g. by inhibiting fibril formation or steering oligomer formation into unstructured, nontoxic pathways. Consequently, preclinical studies demonstrate reduction of amyloid-formation by polyphenols. Amyloid-binding polyphenols might be suitable lead structures for development of imaging agents for early detection of disease and monitoring amyloid deposition. Intake of dietary polyphenols might be relevant to the prevention of amyloidoses. Nutraceutical strategies might be a way to reduce amyloid diseases.

  7. Early in vivo Effects of the Human Mutant AmyloidProtein Precursor (hAβPPSwInd) on the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusznák, Zoltán; Kim, Woojin Scott; Hsiao, Jen-Hsiang T; Halliday, Glenda M; Paxinos, George; Fu, YuHong

    2016-01-01

    The amyloidprotein precursor (AβPP) has long been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using J20 mice, which express human AβPP with Swedish and Indiana mutations, we studied early pathological changes in the olfactory bulb. The presence of AβPP/amyloid-β (Aβ) was examined in mice aged 3 months (before the onset of hippocampal Aβ deposition) and over 5 months (when hippocampal Aβ deposits are present). The number of neurons, non-neurons, and proliferating cells was assessed using the isotropic fractionator method. Our results demonstrate that although AβPP is overexpressed in some of the mitral cells, widespread Aβ deposition and microglia aggregates are not prevalent in the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulbs of the younger J20 group harbored significantly fewer neurons than those of the age-matched wild-type mice (5.57±0.13 million versus 6.59±0.36 million neurons; p = 0.011). In contrast, the number of proliferating cells was higher in the young J20 than in the wild-type group (i.e., 6617±425 versus 4455±623 cells; p = 0.011). A significant increase in neurogenic activity was also observed in the younger J20 olfactory bulb. In conclusion, our results indicate that (1) neurons participating in the mouse olfactory function overexpress AβPP; (2) the cellular composition of the young J20 olfactory bulb is different from that of wild-type littermates; (3) these differences may reflect altered neurogenic activity and/or delayed development of the J20 olfactory system; and (4) AβPP/Aβ-associated pathological changes that take place in the J20 hippocampus and olfactory bulb are not identical.

  8. Unraveling the mystery of protein-amyloid binding mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beringer, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are several diseases which are caused by amyloid, a deposit of aggregated protein. Examples of these diseases are Alzheimer’s disease, caused by the aggregation of the peptide Aβ, and Diabetes type 2, caused by hIAPP aggregates. A large number of proteins interact with these amyloid fibrils, s

  9. The proteome response to amyloid protein expression in vivo.

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    Ricardo A Gomes

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and transthyretin amyloidosis are characterized by the formation of protein amyloid deposits. Although the nature and location of the aggregated proteins varies between different diseases, they all share similar molecular pathways of protein unfolding, aggregation and amyloid deposition. Most effects of these proteins are likely to occur at the proteome level, a virtually unexplored reality. To investigate the effects of an amyloid protein expression on the cellular proteome, we created a yeast expression system using human transthyretin (TTR as a model amyloidogenic protein. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a living test tube, to express native TTR (non-amyloidogenic and the amyloidogenic TTR variant L55P, the later forming aggregates when expressed in yeast. Differential proteome changes were quantitatively analyzed by 2D-differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. We show that the expression of the amyloidogenic TTR-L55P causes a metabolic shift towards energy production, increased superoxide dismutase expression as well as of several molecular chaperones involved in protein refolding. Among these chaperones, members of the HSP70 family and the peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase (PPIase were identified. The latter is highly relevant considering that it was previously found to be a TTR interacting partner in the plasma of ATTR patients but not in healthy or asymptomatic subjects. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO expression is also increased. Our findings suggest that refolding and degradation pathways are activated, causing an increased demand of energetic resources, thus the metabolic shift. Additionally, oxidative stress appears to be a consequence of the amyloidogenic process, posing an enhanced threat to cell survival.

  10. Copper Promotes the Trafficking of the Amyloid Precursor Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Karla M.; Hung, Ya Hui; Dalziel, Andrew H.; Li, Qiao-Xin; Laughton, Katrina; Wikhe, Krutika; Rembach, Alan; Roberts, Blaine; Masters, Colin L.; Ashley I. Bush; Camakaris, James

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of the amyloid β peptide in the cortical and hippocampal regions of the brain is a major pathological feature of Alzheimer disease. Amyloid β peptide is generated from the sequential protease cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We reported previously that copper increases the level of APP at the cell surface. Here we report that copper, but not iron or zinc, promotes APP trafficking in cultured polarized epithelial cells and neuronal cells. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells ...

  11. Native human serum amyloid P component is a single pentamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, EH;

    1995-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are members of the pentraxin protein family. SAP is the precursor protein to amyloid P component present in all forms of amyloidosis. The prevailing notion is that SAP in circulation has the form of a double pentameric molecule (decamer...

  12. Protein misfolding, congophilia, oligomerization, and defective amyloid processing in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Irina A; Nayeri, Unzila A; Zhao, Guomao; Shook, Lydia L; Pensalfini, Anna; Funai, Edmund F; Bernstein, Ira M; Glabe, Charles G; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2014-07-16

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of unknown etiology and a leading contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because there is no cure other than delivery, preeclampsia is the leading cause of iatrogenic preterm birth. We show that preeclampsia shares pathophysiologic features with recognized protein misfolding disorders. These features include urine congophilia (affinity for the amyloidophilic dye Congo red), affinity for conformational state-dependent antibodies, and dysregulation of prototype proteolytic enzymes involved in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. Assessment of global protein misfolding load in pregnancy based on urine congophilia (Congo red dot test) carries diagnostic and prognostic potential for preeclampsia. We used conformational state-dependent antibodies to demonstrate the presence of generic supramolecular assemblies (prefibrillar oligomers and annular protofibrils), which vary in quantitative and qualitative representation with preeclampsia severity. In the first attempt to characterize the preeclampsia misfoldome, we report that the urine congophilic material includes proteoforms of ceruloplasmin, immunoglobulin free light chains, SERPINA1, albumin, interferon-inducible protein 6-16, and Alzheimer's β-amyloid. The human placenta abundantly expresses APP along with prototype APP-processing enzymes, of which the α-secretase ADAM10, the β-secretases BACE1 and BACE2, and the γ-secretase presenilin-1 were all up-regulated in preeclampsia. The presence of β-amyloid aggregates in placentas of women with preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction further supports the notion that this condition should join the growing list of protein conformational disorders. If these aggregates play a pathophysiologic role, our findings may lead to treatment for preeclampsia.

  13. Structural Characterization of the E2 Domain of APL-1, a C. Elegans Homolog of Human Amyloid Precursor Protein, and its Heparin Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopes, J.; Liu, X; Xu, X; Demeler, B; Folta-Stogniew, E; Li, C; Ha, Y

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid {beta}-peptide deposit found in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer disease is derived from a large heparin-binding protein precursor APP. The biological function of APP and its homologs is not precisely known. Here we report the x-ray structure of the E2 domain of APL-1, an APP homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, and compare it to the human APP structure. We also describe the structure of APL-1 E2 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a highly negatively charged disaccharide, which reveals an unexpected binding pocket between the two halves of E2. Based on the crystal structure, we are able to map, using site-directed mutagenesis, a surface groove on E2 to which heparin may bind. Our biochemical data also indicate that the affinity of E2 for heparin is influenced by pH: at pH 5, the binding appears to be much stronger than that at neutral pH. This property is likely caused by histidine residues in the vicinity of the mapped heparin binding site and could be important for the proposed adhesive function of APL-1.

  14. The amyloid stretch hypothesis: Recruiting proteins toward the dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteras-Chopo, Alexandra; Serrano, Luis; de la Paz, Manuela López

    2005-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying the conversion and self-association of normally soluble proteins into amyloid fibrils is fundamental to the identification of therapeutic strategies to prevent or cure amyloid-related disorders. Recent investigations indicate that amyloid fibril formation is not just a general property of the polypeptide backbone depending on external factors, but that it is strongly modulated by amino acid side chains. Here, we propose and address the validation of the premise that the amyloidogenicity of a protein is indeed localized in short protein stretches (amyloid stretch hypothesis). We demonstrate that the conversion of a soluble nonamyloidogenic protein into an amyloidogenic prone molecule can be triggered by a nondestabilizing six-residue amyloidogenic insertion in a particular structural environment. Interestingly enough, although the inserted amyloid sequences clearly cause the process, the protease-resistant core of the fiber also includes short adjacent sequences from the otherwise soluble globular domain. Thus, short amyloid stretches accessible for intermolecular interactions trigger the self-assembly reaction and pull the rest of the protein into the fibrillar aggregate. The reliable identification of such amyloidogenic stretches in proteins opens the possibility of using them as targets for the inhibition of the amyloid fibril formation process. PMID:16263932

  15. Astrocytes containing amyloid beta-protein (Abeta)-positive granules are associated with Abeta40-positive diffuse plaques in the aged human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Funato, H.; Yoshimura, M.; T. Yamazaki; Saido, T C; Ito, Y; Yokofujita, J.; Okeda, R.; Ihara, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the major component of senile plaques that emerge in the cortex during aging and appear most abundantly in Alzheimer's disease. In the course of our immunocytochemical study on a large number of autopsy cases, we noticed, in many aged nondemented cases, the presence of unique diffuse plaques in the cortex distinct from ordinary diffuse plaques by immunocytochemistry. The former were amorphous, very faintly Abeta-immunoreactive plaques resembling diffuse plaques...

  16. Targeted pharmacological depletion of serum amyloid P component for treatment of human amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepys, M B; Herbert, J; Hutchinson, W L; Tennent, G A; Lachmann, H J; Gallimore, J R; Lovat, L B; Bartfai, T; Alanine, A; Hertel, C; Hoffmann, T; Jakob-Roetne, R; Norcross, R D; Kemp, J A; Yamamura, K; Suzuki, M; Taylor, G W; Murray, S; Thompson, D; Purvis, A; Kolstoe, S; Wood, S P; Hawkins, P N

    2002-05-16

    The normal plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to fibrils in all types of amyloid deposits, and contributes to the pathogenesis of amyloidosis. In order to intervene in this process we have developed a drug, R-1-[6-[R-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, that is a competitive inhibitor of SAP binding to amyloid fibrils. This palindromic compound also crosslinks and dimerizes SAP molecules, leading to their very rapid clearance by the liver, and thus produces a marked depletion of circulating human SAP. This mechanism of drug action potently removes SAP from human amyloid deposits in the tissues and may provide a new therapeutic approach to both systemic amyloidosis and diseases associated with local amyloid, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Amyloid diseases of yeast: prions are proteins acting as genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Reed B; Edskes, Herman K; Bateman, David A; Kelly, Amy C; Gorkovskiy, Anton; Dayani, Yaron; Zhou, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The unusual genetic properties of the non-chromosomal genetic elements [URE3] and [PSI+] led to them being identified as prions (infectious proteins) of Ure2p and Sup35p respectively. Ure2p and Sup35p, and now several other proteins, can form amyloid, a linear ordered polymer of protein monomers, with a part of each molecule, the prion domain, forming the core of this β-sheet structure. Amyloid filaments passed to a new cell seed the conversion of the normal form of the protein into the same amyloid form. The cell's phenotype is affected, usually from the deficiency of the normal form of the protein. Solid-state NMR studies indicate that the yeast prion amyloids are in-register parallel β-sheet structures, in which each residue (e.g. Asn35) forms a row along the filament long axis. The favourable interactions possible for aligned identical hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues are believed to be the mechanism for propagation of amyloid conformation. Thus, just as DNA mediates inheritance by templating its own sequence, these proteins act as genes by templating their conformation. Distinct isolates of a given prion have different biological properties, presumably determined by differences between the amyloid structures. Many lines of evidence indicate that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions are pathological disease agents, although the example of the [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina shows that a prion can have beneficial aspects.

  18. Novel effects of FCCP [carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone] on amyloid precursor protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, B P; Thies, R L; Beyreuther, K; Ida, N; Reiner, P B

    1999-04-01

    Amyloidogenic processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Because it has been suggested that catabolic processing of the APP holoprotein occurs in acidic intracellular compartments, we studied the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and the H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 on APP catabolism in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing either wild-type or "Swedish" mutant APP. Unlike bafilomycin A1, which inhibits beta-amyloid production in cells expressing mutant but not wild-type APP, FCCP inhibited beta-amyloid production in both cell types. Moreover, the effects of FCCP were independent of alterations in total cellular APP levels or APP maturation, and the concentrations used did not alter either cellular ATP levels or cell viability. Bafilomycin A1, which had no effect on beta-amyloid production in wild-type cells, inhibited endocytosis of fluorescent transferrin, whereas concentrations of FCCP that inhibited beta-amyloid production in these cells had no effect on endosomal function. Thus, in wild-type-expressing cells it appears that the beta-amyloid peptide is not produced in the classically defined endosome. Although bafilomycin A1 decreased beta-amyloid release from cells expressing mutant APP but not wild-type APP, it altered lysosomal function in both cell types, suggesting that in normal cells beta-amyloid is not produced in the lysosome. Although inhibition of beta-amyloid production by bafilomycin A1 in mutant cells may occur via changes in endosomal/lysosomal pH, our data suggest that FCCP inhibits wild-type beta-amyloid production by acting on a bafilomycin A1-insensitive acidic compartment that is distinct from either the endosome or the lysosome.

  19. Computational Modelling of the Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skeby, Katrine Kirkeby

    2014-01-01

    When proteins do not fold correctly, it can lead to very serious diseases. One such group of diseases is the amyloid diseases, of which Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are members. The amyloid diseases are characterized by the aggregation...

  20. Small heat shock proteins inhibit amyloid-beta protein aggregation and cerebrovascular amyloid-beta protein toxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelmus, M.M.; Boelens, W.C.; Otte-Holler, I.; Kamps, B.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Verbeek, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins Hsp20 and HspB2/B3 co-localize with Abeta deposition in senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease brains, respectively. It was the aim of our study to investigate if these and other sHsps bind to wild-type Abeta1-42 or the more toxic Abeta1-40

  1. P206-M Understanding the Metabolism of Amyloid-Beta in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. According to the amyloid hypothesis, the disease is preceded by an accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which leads to downstream events including activation of microglia, inflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal loss. The objective of this research is to address the physiology of Aβ in humans by measuring its in vivo metabolic rates.

  2. Insights into the variability of nucleated amyloid polymerization by a minimalistic model of stochastic protein assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugène, Sarah; Xue, Wei-Feng; Robert, Philippe; Doumic, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid aggregates is an important biological phenomenon associated with human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid fibrils also have potential applications in nano-engineering of biomaterials. The kinetics of amyloid assembly show an exponential growth phase preceded by a lag phase, variable in duration as seen in bulk experiments and experiments that mimic the small volumes of cells. Here, to investigate the origins and the properties of the observed variability in the lag phase of amyloid assembly currently not accounted for by deterministic nucleation dependent mechanisms, we formulate a new stochastic minimal model that is capable of describing the characteristics of amyloid growth curves despite its simplicity. We then solve the stochastic differential equations of our model and give mathematical proof of a central limit theorem for the sample growth trajectories of the nucleated aggregation process. These results give an asymptotic description for our simple model, from which closed form analytical results capable of describing and predicting the variability of nucleated amyloid assembly were derived. We also demonstrate the application of our results to inform experiments in a conceptually friendly and clear fashion. Our model offers a new perspective and paves the way for a new and efficient approach on extracting vital information regarding the key initial events of amyloid formation.

  3. Serum amyloid A and protein AA: molecular mechanisms of a transmissible amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermark, Gunilla T; Westermark, Per

    2009-08-20

    Systemic AA-amyloidosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases and the fibril protein AA derives from the acute phase reactant serum AA. AA-amyloidosis can be induced in mice by an inflammatory challenge. The lag phase before amyloid develops can be dramatically shortened by administration of a small amount of amyloid fibrils. Systemic AA-amyloidosis is transmissible in mice and may be so in humans. Since transmission can cross species barriers it is possible that AA-amyloidosis can be induced by amyloid in food, e.g. foie gras. In mice, development of AA-amyloidosis can also be accelerated by other components with amyloid-like properties. A new possible risk factor may appear with synthetically made fibrils from short peptides, constructed for tissue repair.

  4. AMYLOID-β PEPTIDE BINDS TO MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1B (MAP1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H.; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:18079022

  5. Analysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein function in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Kretzschmar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amyloid precursor protein (APP has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer’s disease due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment. Although these fragments have received much less attention than Aβ, a picture about their function is finally emerging. In contrast to mammals, which express three APP family members, Drosophila expresses only one APP protein called Amyloid Precursor Protein-like or APPL. Therefore APPL functions can be studied in flies without the complication that other APP family members may have redundant functions. Flies lacking APPL are viable but show defects in neuronal outgrowth in the central and peripheral nervous system in addition to synaptic changes. Furthermore, APPL has been connected with axonal transport functions. In the adult nervous system, APPL, and more specifically its secreted fragments, can protect neurons from degeneration. APPL cleavage also prevents glial death. Lastly, APPL was found to be involved in behavioural deficits and in regulating sleep/activity patterns. This review, will describe the role of APPL in neuronal development and maintenance and briefly touch on its emerging function in circadian rhythms while an accompanying review will focus on its role in learning and memory formation.

  6. Amyloid precursor protein expression is enhanced in human platelets from subjects with Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a real-time PCR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignini, Arianna; Morganti, Stefano; Salvolini, Eleonora; Sartini, Davide; Luzzi, Simona; Fiorini, Rosamaria; Provinciali, Leandro; Di Primio, Roberto; Mazzanti, Laura; Emanuelli, Monica

    2013-12-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent the most frequent causes of early-onset and late-onset degenerative dementia, respectively. A correct diagnosis entails the choice of appropriate therapies. In this view the present study aimed to identify biomarkers that could improve the differential diagnosis. We recently found an overexpression of platelet amyloid precursor protein (APP) in AD; furthermore, recent studies have suggested the presence of changes in APP processing in FTLD. In this context, we analyzed the mRNA expression level of Total APP (TOT) and APP containing a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor domain (KPI) in platelets obtained from AD patients, subjects with FTLD, and healthy subjects. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between platelet APP mRNA expression levels and cognitive impairment.Differential gene expression measurements revealed a significant up-regulation of APP TOT and APP KPI in both AD and FTLD patients compared to the controls (being AD/Controls: 1.67 for APP TOT and 1.47 for APP KPI; FTLD/Controls: 1.62 for APP TOT and 1.51 for APP KPI; p < 0.05), although it is interesting to note that in FTLD patients this expression did not correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment.This could be related to a reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) formation, caused by an alteration of secretase enzymatic activity, even though a post-transcriptional regulation of APP mRNAs in FTLD cannot be excluded.

  7. hA molecular switch in amyloid assembly: Met35 and amyloid beta-protein oligomerization

    OpenAIRE

    Bitan, Gal; Tarus, Bogdan; Vollers, Sabrina S.; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Condron, Margaret M.; Straub, John E.; Teplow, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Aberrant protein oligomerization is an important pathogenetic process in vivo. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) forms neurotoxic oligomers. The predominant in vivo Abeta alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42, have distinct oligomerization pathways. Abeta42 monomers oligomerize into pentamer/hexamer units (paranuclei) which self-associate to form larger oligomers. Abeta40 does not form these paranuclei, a fact which may explain the particularly strong linkage of Abeta42 w...

  8. Structural properties of Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease amyloid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Mario; Morbin, Michela; Massignan, Tania; Colombo, Laura; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Capobianco, Raffaella; Diomede, Luisa; Thaler, Florian; Mollica, Luca; Musco, Giovanna; Kourie, Joseph J; Bugiani, Orso; Sharma, Deepak; Inouye, Hideyo; Kirschner, Daniel A; Forloni, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2003-11-28

    Prion protein (PrP) amyloid formation is a central feature of genetic and acquired forms of prion disease such as Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The major component of GSS amyloid is a PrP fragment spanning residues approximately 82-146. To investigate the determinants of the physicochemical properties of this fragment, we synthesized PrP-(82-146) and variants thereof, including entirely and partially scrambled peptides. PrP-(82-146) readily formed aggregates that were partially resistant to protease digestion. Peptide assemblies consisted of 9.8-nm-diameter fibrils having a parallel cross-beta-structure. Second derivative of infrared spectra indicated that PrP-(82-146) aggregates are primarily composed of beta-sheet (54%) and turn (24%) which is consistent with their amyloid-like properties. The peptide induced a remarkable increase in plasma membrane microviscosity of primary neurons. Modification of the amino acid sequence 106-126 caused a striking increase in aggregation rate, with formation of large amount of protease-resistant amorphous material and relatively few amyloid fibrils. Alteration of the 127-146 region had even more profound effects, with the inability to generate amyloid fibrils. These data indicate that the intrinsic properties of PrP-(82-146) are dependent upon the integrity of the C-terminal region and account for the massive deposition of PrP amyloid in GSS.

  9. Prediction of Peptide and Protein Propensity for Amyloid Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Família

    Full Text Available Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid formation and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber formation and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid formation, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔG° values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea. Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html capable of accurately and reliably predicting the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a prediction accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid formation.

  10. Eugenol prevents amyloid formation of proteins and inhibits amyloid-induced hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kriti; Anand, Bibin G.; Shekhawat, Dolat Singh; Kar, Karunakar

    2017-02-01

    Eugenol has attracted considerable attention because of its potential for many pharmaceutical applications including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic and anti-oxidant properties. Here, we have investigated the effect of eugenol on amyloid formation of selected globular proteins. We find that both spontaneous and seed-induced aggregation processes of insulin and serum albumin (BSA) are significantly suppressed in the presence of eugenol. Isothermal titration calorimetric data predict a single binding site for eugenol-insulin complex confirming the affinity of eugenol for native soluble insulin species. We also find that eugenol suppresses amyloid-induced hemolysis. Our findings reveal the inherent ability of eugenol to stabilize native proteins and to delay the conversion of protein species of native conformation into β-sheet assembled mature fibrils, which seems to be crucial for its inhibitory effect.

  11. Brain Endothelial Cells Produce Amyloid β from Amyloid Precursor Protein 770 and Preferentially Secrete the O-Glycosylated Form*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazume, Shinobu; Tachida, Yuriko; Kato, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Honda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Wada, Yoshinao; Saito, Takashi; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Saido, Takaomi; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is closely associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the actions of β- and γ-secretases. In addition to Aβ deposition in the brain parenchyma, deposition of Aβ in cerebral vessel walls, termed cerebral amyloid angiopathy, is observed in more than 80% of AD individuals. The mechanism for how Aβ accumulates in blood vessels remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that brain endothelial cells expressed APP770, a differently spliced APP mRNA isoform from neuronal APP695, and produced Aβ40 and Aβ42. Furthermore, we found that the endothelial APP770 had sialylated core 1 type O-glycans. Interestingly, Ο-glycosylated APP770 was preferentially processed by both α- and β-cleavage and secreted into the media, suggesting that O-glycosylation and APP processing involved related pathways. By immunostaining human brain sections with an anti-APP770 antibody, we found that APP770 was expressed in vascular endothelial cells. Because we were able to detect O-glycosylated sAPP770β in human cerebrospinal fluid, this unique soluble APP770β has the potential to serve as a marker for cortical dementias such as AD and vascular dementia. PMID:20952385

  12. Tensile deformation and failure of amyloid and amyloid-like protein fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-03-01

    Here we report a series of full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of six amyloid or amyloid-like protein fibrils in order to systematically understand the effect of different secondary structure motifs on the mechanical tensile and failure response of cross-\\beta protein fibrils. We find a similar failure behavior across the six structures; an initial failure event occurs at small strains involving cooperative rupture of a group of hydrogen bonds, followed by a slow one-by-one hydrogen bond rupture process as the remaining \\beta -sheets peel off with very low applied stress. We also find that the ultimate tensile strength of the protein fibrils investigated scales directly with the number of hydrogen bonds per unit area which break in the initial rupture event. Our results provide insights into structure-property relationships in protein fibrils important for disease and engineering applications and lay the groundwork for the development of materials selection criteria for the design of de novo amyloid-based functional biomaterials.

  13. Calcium-dependent and -independent binding of the pentraxin serum amyloid P component to glycosaminoglycans and amyloid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, B; Sørensen, I J; Nybo, Mads

    1997-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family of proteins, binds calcium-dependently to several ligands including glycosaminoglycans (GAG's). We have investigated the influence of pH on the Ca2(+)-dependent binding of SAP to solid phase GAG's and amyloid fibril proteins (AA...... and beta2M) by ELISA. An increase in the dose-dependent binding of SAP to heparan sulfate, AA-protein and beta2M was observed as the pH decreased from 8.0 to 5.0. Furthermore, a lower, but significant Ca2(+)-independent binding of SAP to heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, AA protein and the amyloid...

  14. Differential effects of 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol on β-amyloid precursor protein levels and processing in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schommer Eric

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of the liver × receptors (LXRs by exogenous ligands stimulates the degradation of β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ42, a peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The oxidized cholesterol products (oxysterols, 24-hydroxycholesterol (24-OHC and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC, are endogenous activators of LXRs. However, the mechanisms by which these oxysterols may modulate Aβ42 levels are not well known. Results We determined the effect of 24-OHC and/or 27-OHC on Aβ generation in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that while 27-OHC increases levels of Aβ42, 24-OHC did not affect levels of this peptide. Increased Aβ42 levels with 27-OHC are associated with increased levels of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP as well as β-secretase (BACE1, the enzyme that cleaves APP to yield Aβ. Unchanged Aβ42 levels with 24-OHC are associated with increased levels of sAPPα, suggesting that 24-OHC favors the processing of APP to the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Interestingly, 24-OHC, but not 27-OHC, increases levels of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, which regulate cholesterol transport within and between cells. Conclusion These results suggest that cholesterol metabolites are linked to Aβ42 production. 24-OHC may favor the non-amyloidogenic pathway and 27-OHC may enhance production of Aβ42 by upregulating APP and BACE1. Regulation of 24-OHC: 27-OHC ratio could be an important strategy in controlling Aβ42 levels in AD.

  15. Antibody-bound amyloid precursor protein upregulates ornithine decarboxylase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Tatjana; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Gabrielsson, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by extracellular accumulation of the Abeta peptide, derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The function of APP as a cell surface receptor was examined by ligand-mimicking using an antibody against the APP extracellular...

  16. Native human serum amyloid P component is a single pentamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, EH;

    1995-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are members of the pentraxin protein family. SAP is the precursor protein to amyloid P component present in all forms of amyloidosis. The prevailing notion is that SAP in circulation has the form of a double pentameric molecule (decamer...... by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy. Thus, electron micrographs of purified SAP showed a predominance of decamers. However, the decamer form of SAP reversed to single pentamers when purified SAP was incorporated into SAP-depleted serum....

  17. AMYPdb: A database dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamarche Christian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Misfolding and aggregation of proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is associated with a number of severe pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, and type II diabetes. The rapid accumulation of knowledge about the sequences and structures of these proteins allows using of in silico methods to investigate the molecular mechanisms of their abnormal conformational changes and assembly. However, such an approach requires the collection of accurate data, which are inconveniently dispersed among several generalist databases. Results We therefore created a free online knowledge database (AMYPdb dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins and we have performed large scale sequence analysis of the included data. Currently, AMYPdb integrates data on 31 families, including 1,705 proteins from nearly 600 organisms. It displays links to more than 2,300 bibliographic references and 1,200 3D-structures. A Wiki system is available to insert data into the database, providing a sharing and collaboration environment. We generated and analyzed 3,621 amino acid sequence patterns, reporting highly specific patterns for each amyloid family, along with patterns likely to be involved in protein misfolding and aggregation. Conclusion AMYPdb is a comprehensive online database aiming at the centralization of bioinformatic data regarding all amyloid proteins and their precursors. Our sequence pattern discovery and analysis approach unveiled protein regions of significant interest. AMYPdb is freely accessible 1.

  18. Diversity, biogenesis and function of microbial amyloids

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid is a distinct β-sheet-rich fold that many proteins can acquire. Frequently associated with neurodegenerative diseases in humans, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s, amyloids are traditionally considered the product of protein misfolding. However, the amyloid fold is now recognized as a ubiquitous part of normal cellular biology. ‘Functional’ amyloids have been identified in nearly all facets of cellular life, with microbial functional amyloids leading the way. Unlike ...

  19. Cell-type dependent modulation of Notch signaling by the amyloid precursor protein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oh, Sun Young; Chen, Ci-Di; Abraham, Carmela R

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that has been long implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease but its normal biological function has remained...

  20. Neuronal migration during development and the amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Philip F; Ramaker, Jenna M

    2016-12-01

    The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is the source of amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease. However, members of the APP family are strongly expressed in the developing nervous systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, where they regulate neuronal guidance, synaptic remodeling, and injury responses. In contrast to mammals, insects express only one APP ortholog (APPL), simplifying investigations into its normal functions. Recent studies have shown that APPL regulates neuronal migration in the developing insect nervous system, analogous to the roles ascribed to APP family proteins in the mammalian cortex. The comparative simplicity of insect systems offers new opportunities for deciphering the signaling mechanisms by which this enigmatic class of proteins contributes to the formation and function of the nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The formation of bioactive amyloid species by prion proteins in vitro and in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanbin; Ritter, Christiane; Riek, Roland; Schubert, David

    2006-10-09

    Amyloid proteins are a group of proteins that can polymerize into cross beta-sheeted amyloid species. We have found that enhancing cellular 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan exocytosis is a common property of bioactive amyloid species formed from all of the amyloid proteins tested to date. In this report, we show that the infectious amyloid species of the prion protein HET-s of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, like other amyloidogenic proteins, also enhances MTT formazan exocytosis. More strikingly, cellular MTT formazan exocytosis revealed the formation of bioactive amyloid species in prion-infected mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. These findings suggest that cellular MTT formazan exocytosis can be useful for studying the roles of bioactive amyloid species in prion infectivity and prion-induced neurodegeneration.

  2. Cellular prion protein expression is not regulated by the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lewis

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrP(C, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP, through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrP(C which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD, which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrP(C. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrP(C. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP(695, APP(751 and APP(770 in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrP(C. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrP(C levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of γ-secretase activity also had no effect on PrP(C levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrP(C in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrP(C levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested.

  3. The Components of Flemingia macrophylla Attenuate Amyloid β-Protein Accumulation by Regulating Amyloid β-Protein Metabolic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lian Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae is a popular traditional remedy used in Taiwan as anti-inflammatory, promoting blood circulation and antidiabetes agent. Recent study also suggested its neuroprotective activity against Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the effects of F. macrophylla on Aβ production and degradation were studied. The effect of F. macrophylla on Aβ metabolism was detected using the cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells N2a transfected with human Swedish mutant APP (swAPP-N2a cells. The effects on Aβ degradation were evaluated on a cell-free system. An ELISA assay was applied to detect the level of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. Western blots assay was employed to measure the levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE. Three fractions of F. macrophylla modified Aβ accumulation by both inhibiting β-secretase and activating IDE. Three flavonoids modified Aβ accumulation by activating IDE. The activated IDE pool by the flavonoids was distinctly regulated by bacitracin (an IDE inhibitor. Furthermore, flavonoid 94-18-13 also modulates Aβ accumulation by enhancing IDE expression. In conclusion, the components of F. macrophylla possess the potential for developing new therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Multiple isoforms of the human pentraxin serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, EH;

    1995-01-01

    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) isolated from 20 healthy individuals was analyzed by anion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing (IEF) in order to investigate the existence of multiple forms of SAP and interindividual structural differences. Anion exchange chromatography showed one...

  5. Betaine suppressed Aβ generation by altering amyloid precursor protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Ping; Qian, Xiang; Xie, Yue; Qi, Yan; Peng, Min-Feng; Zhan, Bi-Cui; Lou, Zheng-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Betaine was an endogenous catabolite of choline, which could be isolated from vegetables and marine products. Betaine could promote the metabolism of homocysteine in healthy subjects and was used for hyperlipidemia, coronary atherosclerosis, and fatty liver in clinic. Recent findings shown that Betaine rescued neuronal damage due to homocysteine induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) like pathological cascade, including tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ was derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and was a triggering factor for AD pathological onset. Here, we demonstrated that Betaine reduced Aβ levels by altering APP processing in N2a cells stably expressing Swedish mutant of APP. Betaine increased α-secretase activity, but decreased β-secretase activity. Our data indicate that Betaine might play a protective role in Aβ production.

  6. Neurotrophic and Neurotoxic Effects of Amyloid |beta Protein: Reversal by Tachykinin Neuropeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankner, Bruce A.; Duffy, Lawrence K.; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    1990-10-01

    The amyloid β protein is deposited in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease but its pathogenic role is unknown. In culture, the amyloid β protein was neurotrophic to undifferentiated hippocampal neurons at low concentrations and neurotoxic to mature neurons at higher concentrations. In differentiated neurons, amyloid β protein caused dendritic and axonal retraction followed by neuronal death. A portion of the amyloid β protein (amino acids 25 to 35) mediated both the trophic and toxic effects and was homologous to the tachykinin neuropeptide family. The effects of the amyloid β protein were mimicked by tachykinin antagonists and completely reversed by specific tachykinin agonists. Thus, the amyloid β protein could function as a neurotrophic factor for differentiating neurons, but at high concentrations in mature neurons, as in Alzheimer's disease, could cause neuronal degeneration.

  7. Heteromers of amyloid precursor protein in cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; López-Font, Inmaculada; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Brinkmalm, Gunnar; Blennow, Kaj; Molinuevo, José L.; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Soluble fragments of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generated by ?- and ?-secretases, sAPP? and sAPP?, have been postulated as promising new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). However, the capacity of these soluble proteins to assemble has not been explored and could be relevant. Our aim is to characterize possible sAPP oligomers that could contribute to the quantification of sAPP? and sAPP? in CSF by ELISA, as well as ...

  8. Amyloid β Is Not the Major Factor Accounting for Impaired Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Pan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in several Alzheimer's disease models overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP. However, the effects of wild-type hAPP on adult neurogenesis and whether the impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis was caused by amyloid β (Aβ or APP remained unclear. Here, we found that neurogenesis was impaired in the dentate gyrus (DG of adult mice overexpressing wild-type hAPP (hAPP-I5 compared with controls. However, the adult hippocampal neurogenesis was more severely impaired in hAPP-I5 than that in hAPP-J20 mice, which express similar levels of hAPP mRNA but much higher levels of Aβ. Furthermore, reducing Aβ levels did not affect the number of doublecortin-positive cells in the DG of hAPP-J20 mice. Our results suggested that hAPP was more likely an important factor inhibiting adult neurogenesis, and Aβ was not the major factor affecting neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of hAPP mice.

  9. Altered localization of amyloid precursor protein under endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Takashi; Okumura, Masayo; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Araki, Wataru; Morihara, Takashi; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Kamagata, Eiichiro; Tabuchi, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Ryo; Kanayama, Daisuke; Fukumori, Akio; Tagami, Shinji; Okochi, Masayasu; Kubo, Mikiko; Tanii, Hisashi; Tohyama, Masaya; Tabira, Takeshi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2006-06-02

    Recent reports have shown that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Following the amyloid cascade hypothesis, we therefore attempted to investigate the effects of ER stress on amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) generation. In this study, we found that ER stress altered the localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) from late compartments to early compartments of the secretory pathway, and decreased the level of Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 release by beta- and gamma-cutting. Transient transfection with BiP/GRP78 also caused a shift of APP and a reduction in Abeta secretion. It was revealed that the ER stress response facilitated binding of BiP/GRP78 to APP, thereby causing it to be retained in the early compartments apart from a location suitable for the cleavages of Abeta. These findings suggest that induction of BiP/GRP78 during ER stress may be one of the regulatory mechanisms of Abeta generation.

  10. Influence of Aluminium and EGCG on Fibrillation and Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Xue; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Gong-Li; Chen, Cong-Heng; He, Yan-Ming; Xu, Li-Hui; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Guang-Rong; Li, Zhen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The abnormal fibrillation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) has been implicated in the development of type II diabetes. Aluminum is known to trigger the structural transformation of many amyloid proteins and induce the formation of toxic aggregate species. The (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is considered capable of binding both metal ions and amyloid proteins with inhibitory effect on the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. However, the effect of Al(III)/EGCG complex on hIAPP fibrillation is unclear. In the present work, we sought to view insight into the structures and properties of Al(III) and EGCG complex by using spectroscopic experiments and quantum chemical calculations and also investigated the influence of Al(III) and EGCG on hIAPP fibrillation and aggregation as well as their combined interference on this process. Our studies demonstrated that Al(III) could promote fibrillation and aggregation of hIAPP, while EGCG could inhibit the fibrillation of hIAPP and lead to the formation of hIAPP amorphous aggregates instead of the ordered fibrils. Furthermore, we proved that the Al(III)/EGCG complex in molar ratio of 1 : 1 as Al(EGCG)(H2O)2 could inhibit the hIAPP fibrillation more effectively than EGCG alone. The results provide the invaluable reference for the new drug development to treat type II diabetes. PMID:28074190

  11. Influence of Aluminium and EGCG on Fibrillation and Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xue Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal fibrillation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP has been implicated in the development of type II diabetes. Aluminum is known to trigger the structural transformation of many amyloid proteins and induce the formation of toxic aggregate species. The (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is considered capable of binding both metal ions and amyloid proteins with inhibitory effect on the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. However, the effect of Al(III/EGCG complex on hIAPP fibrillation is unclear. In the present work, we sought to view insight into the structures and properties of Al(III and EGCG complex by using spectroscopic experiments and quantum chemical calculations and also investigated the influence of Al(III and EGCG on hIAPP fibrillation and aggregation as well as their combined interference on this process. Our studies demonstrated that Al(III could promote fibrillation and aggregation of hIAPP, while EGCG could inhibit the fibrillation of hIAPP and lead to the formation of hIAPP amorphous aggregates instead of the ordered fibrils. Furthermore, we proved that the Al(III/EGCG complex in molar ratio of 1 : 1 as Al(EGCG(H2O2 could inhibit the hIAPP fibrillation more effectively than EGCG alone. The results provide the invaluable reference for the new drug development to treat type II diabetes.

  12. Nucleofection of rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells with human mutated beta-amyloid precursor protein gene (APP-sw) leads to reduced viability, autophagy-like process, and increased expression and secretion of beta amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Beata; Kania, Elżbieta; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells are immune to physiological stimuli directed to evoke programmed cell death. Besides, metabolic inhibitors are incapable of sensitizing PC-12 cells to extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis unless they are used in toxic concentrations. Surprisingly, these cells become receptive to cell deletion after human APP-sw gene expression. We observed reduced cell viability in GFP vector + APP-sw-nucleofected cells (drop by 36%) but not in GFP vector - or GFP vector + APP-wt-nucleofected cells. Lower viability was accompanied by higher expression of Aβ 1-16 and elevated secretion of Aβ 1-40 (in average 53.58 pg/mL). At the ultrastructural level autophagy-like process was demonstrated to occur in APP-sw-nucleofected cells with numerous autophagosomes and multivesicular bodies but without autolysosomes. Human APP-sw gene is harmful to PC-12 cells and cells are additionally driven to incomplete autophagy-like process. When stimulated by TRAIL or nystatin, CLU protein expression accompanies early phase of autophagy.

  13. Nucleofection of Rat Pheochromocytoma PC-12 Cells with Human Mutated Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP-sw Leads to Reduced Viability, Autophagy-Like Process, and Increased Expression and Secretion of Beta Amyloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pająk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells are immune to physiological stimuli directed to evoke programmed cell death. Besides, metabolic inhibitors are incapable of sensitizing PC-12 cells to extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis unless they are used in toxic concentrations. Surprisingly, these cells become receptive to cell deletion after human APP-sw gene expression. We observed reduced cell viability in GFP vector + APP-sw-nucleofected cells (drop by 36% but not in GFP vector − or GFP vector + APP-wt-nucleofected cells. Lower viability was accompanied by higher expression of Aβ 1-16 and elevated secretion of Aβ 1-40 (in average 53.58 pg/mL. At the ultrastructural level autophagy-like process was demonstrated to occur in APP-sw-nucleofected cells with numerous autophagosomes and multivesicular bodies but without autolysosomes. Human APP-sw gene is harmful to PC-12 cells and cells are additionally driven to incomplete autophagy-like process. When stimulated by TRAIL or nystatin, CLU protein expression accompanies early phase of autophagy.

  14. Study of amyloids using yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, th...

  15. Conformational Stability of Mammalian Prion Protein Amyloid Fibrils Is Dictated by a Packing Polymorphism within the Core Region*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan J.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Chen, Shugui; Smirnovas, Vytautas; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian prion strains are believed to arise from the propagation of distinct conformations of the misfolded prion protein PrPSc. One key operational parameter used to define differences between strains has been conformational stability of PrPSc as defined by resistance to thermal and/or chemical denaturation. However, the structural basis of these stability differences is unknown. To bridge this gap, we have generated two strains of recombinant human prion protein amyloid fibrils that show dramatic differences in conformational stability and have characterized them by a number of biophysical methods. Backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments revealed that, in sharp contrast to previously studied strains of infectious amyloid formed from the yeast prion protein Sup35, differences in β-sheet core size do not underlie differences in conformational stability between strains of mammalian prion protein amyloid. Instead, these stability differences appear to be dictated by distinct packing arrangements (i.e. steric zipper interfaces) within the amyloid core, as indicated by distinct x-ray fiber diffraction patterns and large strain-dependent differences in hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics for histidine side chains within the core region. Although this study was limited to synthetic prion protein amyloid fibrils, a similar structural basis for strain-dependent conformational stability may apply to brain-derived PrPSc, especially because large strain-specific differences in PrPSc stability are often observed despite a similar size of the PrPSc core region. PMID:24338015

  16. Conformational stability of mammalian prion protein amyloid fibrils is dictated by a packing polymorphism within the core region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan J; Apostol, Marcin I; Chen, Shugui; Smirnovas, Vytautas; Surewicz, Witold K

    2014-01-31

    Mammalian prion strains are believed to arise from the propagation of distinct conformations of the misfolded prion protein PrP(Sc). One key operational parameter used to define differences between strains has been conformational stability of PrP(Sc) as defined by resistance to thermal and/or chemical denaturation. However, the structural basis of these stability differences is unknown. To bridge this gap, we have generated two strains of recombinant human prion protein amyloid fibrils that show dramatic differences in conformational stability and have characterized them by a number of biophysical methods. Backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments revealed that, in sharp contrast to previously studied strains of infectious amyloid formed from the yeast prion protein Sup35, differences in β-sheet core size do not underlie differences in conformational stability between strains of mammalian prion protein amyloid. Instead, these stability differences appear to be dictated by distinct packing arrangements (i.e. steric zipper interfaces) within the amyloid core, as indicated by distinct x-ray fiber diffraction patterns and large strain-dependent differences in hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics for histidine side chains within the core region. Although this study was limited to synthetic prion protein amyloid fibrils, a similar structural basis for strain-dependent conformational stability may apply to brain-derived PrP(Sc), especially because large strain-specific differences in PrP(Sc) stability are often observed despite a similar size of the PrP(Sc) core region.

  17. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  18. Self-assembling of amyloid-like proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, E.M.; Barbosa, L.R.S.; Itri, R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damalio, J.C.P.; Araujo, A.P.U. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-SC), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Spinozzi, F.; Mariani, P. [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Septins are proteins from the GTP-binding family and participate in cell division cycle performing functions such as secretion and cytoskeletal division. They can also be found in neurodegenerative conditions as Alzheimers and Parkinson's diseases, forming highly organized fiber-like aggregates known as amyloids. In this work, we used small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the formation and time evolution of septins aggregates under the influence of temperature and concentration. The SAXS measurements were performed with the GTPase domain of human Septin 2 (SEPT2G) at 0.5 and 1 mg/mL and temperatures between 4 and 45 deg C. At 0.5 mg/mL and 4 deg C, the protein self-aggregates as a dimer, being stable over one hour of observation. When the temperature was increased to 15 deg C, the results demonstrate that cylinder-like aggregates are formed and coexist with some dimer population and a small amount of larger aggregates. However, the number of very large aggregates increases with time concomitantly with the decrease of cylinder amount in the solution. At 37 deg C cylinder-like aggregates are not longer present in solution, whereas a significant amount of dimers decreases from 50% to 20% in less than 1 hour. At 45 deg C such an effect is even more accentuated: the percentage of dimers is only 6% in solution into a favor of 94% of very larger aggregates. When we analyze the protein at 1 mg/mL, at 4 deg C cylinder-like aggregates (36 nm-long and 12 nm-cross section) are already formed, coexisting with dimers and, as occurred for lower concentration, the two populations remained unchanged over one hour of observation. Out results also indicate that the dimensions of these cylinders increase with the concentration and the percentage of cylinders and larger aggregates are higher than those found for 0.5 mg/mL. In conclusion, our results showed the coexistence of dimers of SEPT2G with small fibers and larger aggregates in solution that evolve

  19. Expression of secreted human single-chain fragment variable antibody against human amyloid beta peptide in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Cai; Fang Li; Shizhen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that monoclonal or polyclonal antibody injections ofamyloid β peptide arc effective in removing amyloid β peptide overload in the brain.OBJECTIVE: Based on successful screening of a human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide, this paper aimed to express recombinant human single-chain variable antibody against amyloid β peptide.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A single sample experiment was performed at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Hospital (Beijing, China) from January to July 2006.MATERIALS: Human single-chain fragment variable antibody gene against amyloid β peptide was screened from a human phage-display antibody library.METHODS: Human single-chain fragment variable antibody gene was mutated to eliminate a BamHI restriction site and cloned into a Teasy plasmid for pT-seFvAβ construction, which was identified by PCR amplification and endonuclease digestion. Plasmid pT-scFvA β was cut by EcoRl and Notl endonucleases, and the antibody gene was cloned into pPIC9K plasmid to construct pPIC9K-scFvA β expression vector, which was confirmed by gene sequencing. Linearized pPICgK-scFvA β was used to transform a Pichia pastoris GS115 cell line, and the recombinant was induced by 0.5 % methanol to express human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Protein electrophoresis was used to identify PCR products, gene sequencing was uscd to verify the pPIC9K-scFvA sequence, and SDS-PAGE was used to detect recombinant expression of human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide in Pichia pastoris.RESULTS: Gene sequencing confirmed pPICgK-scFvA β orientation. Rccomhinants were obtained by lineadzed pPIC9K-scFvA β transformation. After induction with 0.5% methanol, the recombinant yeast cells secreted proteins of 33-ku size

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein APPsα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.

    2017-01-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein.

  1. The coarse-grained OPEP force field for non-amyloid and amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Pasquali, Samuela; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2012-08-02

    Coarse-grained protein models with various levels of granularity and degrees of freedom offer the possibility to explore many phenomena including folding, assembly, and recognition in terms of dynamics and thermodynamics that are inaccessible to all-atom representations in explicit aqueous solution. Here, we present a refined version of the coarse-grained optimized potential for efficient protein structure prediction (OPEP) based on a six-bead representation. The OPEP version 4.0 parameter set, which uses a new analytical formulation for the nonbonded interactions and adds specific side-chain-side-chain interactions for α-helix, is subjected to three tests. First, we show that molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K preserve the experimental rigid conformations of 17 proteins with 37-152 amino acids within a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 3.1 Å after 30 ns. Extending the simulation time to 100 ns for five proteins does not change the RMSDs. Second, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations recover the NMR structures of three prototypical β-hairpin and α-helix peptides and the NMR three-stranded β-sheet topology of a 37-residue WW domain, starting from randomly chosen states. Third, REMD simulations on the ccβ peptide show a temperature transition from a three-stranded coiled coil to amyloid-like aggregates consistent with experiments, while simulations on low molecular weight aggregates of the prion protein helix 1 do not. Overall, these studies indicate the effectiveness of our OPEP4 coarse-grained model for protein folding and aggregation, and report two future directions for improvement.

  2. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca(2+) concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  3. Immunohistochemical identification and crossreactions of amyloid-A fibril protein in man and eleven other species

    OpenAIRE

    Gruys, E.; Linke, R.P.; Hol, P.R.; Geisel, O.; Nathrath, W.B.J.; Trautwein, G

    1984-01-01

    Antisera were prepared in rabbits, sheep or chicken against purified amyloid fibril protein AA from man, mouse, stone marten, dog, cow and hamster. These antisera were tested by immunodiffusion against all purified antigens and applied to tissue sections containing amyloid from man, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, cat, dog, mink, stone marten, pine marten, cow and horse. The binding of the antibodies to amyloid in tissue sections was assessed by the indirect immunoperoxidase method. The s...

  4. Humanized Tau Mice with Regionalized Amyloid Exhibit Behavioral Deficits but No Pathological Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, Michael J.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) researchers have struggled for decades to draw a causal link between extracellular Aβ aggregation and intraneuronal accumulation of microtubule-associated protein tau. The amyloid cascade hypothesis posits that Aβ deposition promotes tau hyperphosphorylation, tangle formation, cell loss, vascular damage, and dementia. While the genetics of familial AD and the pathological staging of sporadic disease support this sequence of events, attempts to examine the molecular mechanism in transgenic animal models have largely relied on models of other inherited tauopathies as the basis for testing the interaction with Aβ. In an effort to more accurately model the relationship between Aβ and wild-type tau in AD, we intercrossed mice that overproduce human Aβ with a tau substitution model in which all 6 isoforms of the human protein are expressed in animals lacking murine tau. We selected an amyloid model in which pathology was biased towards the entorhinal region so that we could further examine whether the anticipated changes in tau phosphorylation occurred at the site of Aβ deposition or in synaptically connected regions. We found that Aβ and tau had independent effects on locomotion, learning, and memory, but found no behavioral evidence for an interaction between the two transgenes. Moreover, we saw no indication of amyloid-induced changes in the phosphorylation or aggregation of human tau either within the entorhinal area or elsewhere. These findings suggest that robust amyloid pathology within the medial temporal lobe has little effect on the metabolism of wild type human tau in this model. PMID:27070146

  5. Identification of a novel human islet amyloid polypeptide beta-sheet domain and factors influencing fibrillogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikaran, E T; Higham, C E; Serpell, L C; Zurdo, J; Gross, M; Clark, A; Fraser, P E

    2001-05-04

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) accumulates as pancreatic amyloid in type 2 diabetes and readily forms fibrils in vitro. Investigations into the mechanism of hIAPP fibril formation have focused largely on residues 20 to 29, which are considered to comprise a primary amyloidogenic domain. In rodents, proline substitutions within this region and the subsequent beta-sheet disruption, prevents fibril formation. An additional amyloidogenic fragment within the C-terminal sequence, residues 30 to 37, has been identified recently. We have extended these observations by examining a series of overlapping peptide fragments from the human and rodent sequences. Using protein spectroscopy (CD/FTIR), electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, a previously unrecognised amyloidogenic domain was localised within residues 8 to 20. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this region exhibited a transition from random coil to beta-sheet conformation and assembled into fibrils having a typical amyloid-like morphology. The comparable rat 8-20 sequence, which contains a single His18Arg substitution, was also capable of assembling into amyloid-like fibrils. Examination of peptide fragments corresponding to residues 1 to 13 revealed that the immediate N-terminal region is likely to have only a modulating influence on fibril formation or conformational conversion. The contributions of charged residues as they relate to the amyloid-forming 8-20 sequence were also investigated using IAPP fragments and by assessing the effects of pH and counterions. The identification of these principal amyloidogenic sequences and the effects of associated factors provide details on the IAPP aggregation pathway and structure of the peptide in its fibrillar state. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Isoforms of murine and human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hackler, R; Kold, B

    1998-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and immunofixation of murine serum amyloid P component (SAP), purified and in serum, showed a distinct and strain-dependent isoform pattern with up to seven bands (pI 5.1-5.7). Neuraminidase treatment caused a shift of the isoforms to more basic pI values, but did...... of isoforms of human SAP required the presence of urea and higher SAP concentrations. TEF and immunofixation of SAP monomers showed five to eight isoforms, ranging from pI 4.7-5.7. IEF of SAP in human serum resulted in a less distinct pattern and more acidic isoforms. As with murine SAP, neuraminidase...

  7. Nucleofection of Rat Pheochromocytoma PC-12 Cells with Human Mutated Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP-sw) Leads to Reduced Viability, Autophagy-Like Process, and Increased Expression and Secretion of Beta Amyloid

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Pająk; Elżbieta Kania; Arkadiusz Orzechowski

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells are immune to physiological stimuli directed to evoke programmed cell death. Besides, metabolic inhibitors are incapable of sensitizing PC-12 cells to extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis unless they are used in toxic concentrations. Surprisingly, these cells become receptive to cell deletion after human APP-sw gene expression. We observed reduced cell viability in GFP vector + APP-sw-nucleofected cells (drop by 36%) but not in GFP vector − or GFP vector + APP-wt-nucl...

  8. Mitochondria are devoid of amyloid β-protein (Aβ)-producing secretases: Evidence for unlikely occurrence within mitochondria of Aβ generation from amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamada, Naomi; Tanokashira, Daisuke; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Tamaoka, Akira; Araki, Wataru

    2017-04-29

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which plays a central role in AD pathogenesis, is reported to accumulate within mitochondria. However, a question remains as to whether Aβ is generated locally from amyloid precursor protein (APP) within mitochondria. We investigated this issue by analyzing the expression patterns of APP, APP-processing secretases, and APP metabolites in mitochondria separated from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and those expressing Swedish mutant APP. APP, BACE1, and PEN-2 protein levels were significantly lower in crude mitochondria than microsome fractions while those of ADAM10 and the other γ-secretase complex components (presenilin 1, nicastrin, and APH-1) were comparable between fractions. The crude mitochondrial fraction containing substantial levels of cathepsin D, a lysosomal marker, was further separated via iodixanol gradient centrifugation to obtain mitochondria- and lysosome-enriched fractions. Mature APP, BACE1, and all γ-secretase complex components (in particular, presenilin 1 and PEN-2) were scarcely present in the mitochondria-enriched fraction, compared to the lysosome-enriched fraction. Moreover, expression of the β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) of APP was markedly low in the mitochondria-enriched fraction. Additionally, immunocytochemical analysis showed very little co-localization between presenilin 1 and Tom20, a marker protein of mitochondria. In view of the particularly low expression levels of BACE1, γ-secretase complex proteins, and β-CTF in mitochondria, we propose that it is unlikely that Aβ generation from APP occurs locally within this organelle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunohistochemical identification and crossreactions of amyloid-A fibril protein in man and eleven other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruys, E.; Linke, R.P.; Hol, P.R.; Geisel, O.; Nathrath, W.B.J.; Trautwein, G.

    1984-01-01

    Antisera were prepared in rabbits, sheep or chicken against purified amyloid fibril protein AA from man, mouse, stone marten, dog, cow and hamster. These antisera were tested by immunodiffusion against all purified antigens and applied to tissue sections containing amyloid from man, mouse, hamster,

  10. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga

    2004-01-01

    beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP...

  11. Amyloid precursor protein is trafficked and secreted via synaptic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja W Groemer

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has implicated amyloid precursor protein (APP and its proteolytic derivatives as key players in the physiological context of neuronal synaptogenesis and synapse maintenance, as well as in the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Although APP processing and release are known to occur in response to neuronal stimulation, the exact mechanism by which APP reaches the neuronal surface is unclear. We now demonstrate that a small but relevant number of synaptic vesicles contain APP, which can be released during neuronal activity, and most likely represent the major exocytic pathway of APP. This novel finding leads us to propose a revised model of presynaptic APP trafficking that reconciles existing knowledge on APP with our present understanding of vesicular release and recycling.

  12. Lactic acid induces aberrant amyloid precursor protein processing by promoting its interaction with endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acid, a natural by-product of glycolysis, is produced at excess levels in response to impaired mitochondrial function, high-energy demand, and low oxygen availability. The enzyme involved in the production of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ of Alzheimer's disease, BACE1, functions optimally at lower pH, which led us to investigate a potential role of lactic acid in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lactic acid increased levels of Aβ40 and 42, as measured by ELISA, in culture medium of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, whereas it decreased APP metabolites, such as sAPPα. In cell lysates, APP levels were increased and APP was found to interact with ER-chaperones in a perinuclear region, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy studies. Lactic acid had only a very modest effect on cellular pH, did increase the levels of ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94 and led to APP aggregate formation reminiscent of aggresomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that sustained elevations in lactic acid levels could be a risk factor in amyloidogenesis related to Alzheimer's disease through enhanced APP interaction with ER chaperone proteins and aberrant APP processing leading to increased generation of amyloid peptides and APP aggregates.

  13. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingmin Yan; Shanping Mao; Huimin Dong; Baohui Liu; Qian Zhang; Gaofeng Pan; Zhiping Fu

    2012-01-01

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25-35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease.The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B.Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25-35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased.Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased.Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change.These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25-35 in a dose-dependent manner.This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein.PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25-35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease.The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B.Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25-35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased.Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased.Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change.These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25

  14. Islet amyloid polypeptide forms rigid lipid-protein amyloid fibrils on supported phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanov, Yegor A; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2008-02-08

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) forms fibrillar amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its misfolding and aggregation are thought to contribute to beta-cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that IAPP fibrillization is strongly influenced by lipid membranes and, vice versa, that the membrane architecture and integrity are severely affected by amyloid growth. Here, we report direct fluorescence microscopic observations of the morphological transformations accompanying IAPP fibrillization on the surface of supported lipid membranes. Within minutes of application in submicromolar concentrations, IAPP caused extensive remodeling of the membrane including formation of defects, vesiculation, and tubulation. The effects of IAPP concentration, ionic strength, and the presence of amyloid seeds on the bilayer perturbation and peptide aggregation were examined. Growth of amyloid fibrils was visualized using fluorescently labeled IAPP or thioflavin T staining. Two-color imaging of the peptide and membranes revealed that the fibrils were initially composed of the peptide only, and vesiculation occurred in the points where growing fibers touched the lipid membrane. Interestingly, after 2-5 h of incubation, IAPP fibers became "wrapped" by lipid membranes derived from the supported membrane. Progressive increase in molecular-level association between amyloid and membranes in the maturing fibers was confirmed by Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy.

  15. Cerebrolysin decreases amyloid-beta production by regulating amyloid protein precursor maturation in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenstein, Edward; Torrance, Magdalena; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Paulino, Amy; Rose, John B; Crews, Leslie; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2006-05-15

    Cerebrolysin is a peptide mixture with neurotrophic effects that might reduce the neurodegenerative pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown in an amyloid protein precursor (APP) transgenic (tg) mouse model of AD-like neuropathology that Cerebrolysin ameliorates behavioral deficits, is neuroprotective, and decreases amyloid burden; however, the mechanisms involved are not completely clear. Cerebrolysin might reduce amyloid deposition by regulating amyloid-beta (Abeta) degradation or by modulating APP expression, maturation, or processing. To investigate these possibilities, APP tg mice were treated for 6 months with Cerebrolysin and analyzed in the water maze, followed by RNA, immunoblot, and confocal microscopy analysis of full-length (FL) APP and its fragments, beta-secretase (BACE1), and Abeta-degrading enzymes [neprilysin (Nep) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE)]. Consistent with previous studies, Cerebrolysin ameliorated the performance deficits in the spatial learning portion of the water maze and reduced the synaptic pathology and amyloid burden in the brains of APP tg mice. These effects were associated with reduced levels of FL APP and APP C-terminal fragments, but levels of BACE1, Notch1, Nep, and IDE were unchanged. In contrast, levels of active cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta [GSK-3beta; but not stress-activated protein kinase-1 (SAPK1)], kinases that phosphorylate APP, were reduced. Furthermore, Cerebrolysin reduced the levels of phosphorylated APP and the accumulation of APP in the neuritic processes. Taken together, these results suggest that Cerebrolysin might reduce AD-like pathology in the APP tg mice by regulating APP maturation and transport to sites where Abeta protein is generated. This study clarifies the mechanisms through which Cerebrolysin might reduce Abeta production and deposition in AD and further supports the importance of this compound in the potential treatment of early AD.

  16. Amyloid precursor protein mediated changes in intestinal epithelial phenotype in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L Puig

    Full Text Available Although APP and its proteolytic metabolites have been well examined in the central nervous system, there remains limited information of their functions outside of the brain. For example, amyloid precursor protein (APP and amyloid beta (Aβ immunoreactivity have both been demonstrated in intestinal epithelial cells. Based upon the critical role of these cells in absorption and secretion, we sought to determine whether APP or its metabolite amyloid β (Aβ, had a definable function in these cells.The human colonic epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells, were cultured to examine APP expression and Aβ secretion, uptake, and stimulation. Similar to human colonic epithelium stains, Caco-2 cells expressed APP. They also secreted Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42, with LPS stimulating higher concentrations of Aβ 1-40 secretion. The cells also responded to Aβ 1-40 stimulation by increasing IL-6 cytokine secretion and decreasing cholesterol uptake. Conversely, stimulation with a sAPP-derived peptide increased cholesterol uptake. APP was associated with CD36 but not FATP4 in co-IP pull down experiments from the Caco-2 cells. Moreover, stimulation of APP with an agonist antibody acutely decreased CD36-mediated cholesterol uptake.APP exists as part of a multi-protein complex with CD36 in human colonic epithelial cells where its proteolytic fragments have complex, reciprocal roles in regulating cholesterol uptake. A biologically active peptide fragment from the N-terminal derived, sAPP, potentiated cholesterol uptake while the β secretase generated product, Aβ1-40, attenuated it. These data suggest that APP is important in regulating intestinal cholesterol uptake in a fashion dependent upon specific proteolytic pathways. Moreover, this biology may be applicable to cells beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Multiple isoforms of the human pentraxin serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, EH;

    1995-01-01

    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) isolated from 20 healthy individuals was analyzed by anion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing (IEF) in order to investigate the existence of multiple forms of SAP and interindividual structural differences. Anion exchange chromatography showed one...... major and several minor subpopulations of SAP. IEF of all SAP isolates showed a previously unreported degree of heterogeneity with six isoelectric forms (pKi range 5.5-6.1) and with minor interindividual differences in respect of isoelectric points. Total enzymatic deglycosylation of SAP reduced...

  18. Differential expression and redox proteomics analyses of an Alzheimer disease transgenic mouse model: effects of the amyloid-β peptide of amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R A S; Lange, M B; Sultana, R; Galvan, V; Fombonne, J; Gorostiza, O; Zhang, J; Warrier, G; Cai, J; Pierce, W M; Bredesen, D E; Butterfield, D A

    2011-03-17

    Among the pathological factors known to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), oxidative stress induced by the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) has been demonstrated to play a key role in human brain and animal models of AD. Recently, we reported elevated levels of oxidative damage in the brain of a transgenic (Tg) AD mouse model with Swedish and Indiana familial AD mutations in human amyloid precursor protein (APP) [PDAPP mice, line J20], as evidenced by increased levels of protein carbonyls, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. This oxidative damage was dependent on the methionine 35 residue within the Aβ peptide. Further insight into the molecular pathways affected in this Tg model of AD may be gained with discovery-based proteomics studies; therefore, two-dimensional gel-based expression proteomics was performed to compare differences in brain protein levels of J20 Tg mice with non-transgenic (NTg) littermate controls. Based on our studies, we identified six proteins that had significantly increased levels in J20 Tg relative to NTg mice: calcineurin subunit B type 1, ρ GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1, T-complex protein 1 subunit α A, α-enolase, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin-1), and ATP synthase subunit α mitochondrial. Several of these proteins have previously been implicated in in vitro and in vivo models and subjects with AD. Additionally, using redox proteomics analyses we identified two oxidatively-modified proteins: phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 and Pin-1 with decreased levels of protein 3-nitrotyrosine in J20 Tg mice relative to NTg. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation analyses were used to validate proteomics results. Overall, these studies provide information about changes in the brain proteome as a result of Aβ deposition and clues with which to further direct studies on elucidating AD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting vascular amyloid in arterioles of Alzheimer disease transgenic mice with amyloid β protein antibody-coated nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduslo, Joseph F; Hultman, Kristi L; Curran, Geoffry L; Preboske, Gregory M; Chamberlain, Ryan; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Garwood, Michael; Jack, Clifford R; Wengenack, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    The relevance of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia in general emphasizes the importance of developing novel targeting approaches for detecting and treating cerebrovascular amyloid (CVA) deposits. We developed a nanoparticle-based technology that uses a monoclonal antibody against fibrillar human amyloid-β42 that is surface coated onto a functionalized phospholipid monolayer. We demonstrate that this conjugated nanoparticle binds to CVA deposits in arterioles of AD transgenic mice (Tg2576) after infusion into the external carotid artery using 3 different approaches. The first 2 approaches use a blood vessel enrichment of homogenized brain and a leptomeningeal vessel preparation from thin tangential brain slices from the surface of the cerebral cortex. Targeting of CVA by the antibody-coated nanoparticle was visualized using fluorescent lissamine rhodamine-labeled phospholipids in the nanoparticles, which were compared with fluorescent staining of the endothelial cells and amyloid deposits using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The third approach used high-field strength magnetic resonance imaging of antibody-coated iron oxide nanoparticles after infusion into the external carotid artery. Dark foci of contrast enhancement in cortical arterioles were observed in T2*-weighted images of ex vivo AD mouse brains that correlated histologically with CVA deposits. The targeting ability of these nanoparticles to CVA provides opportunities for the prevention and treatment of CAA.

  20. Small heat shock protein HspB8: its distribution in Alzheimer's disease brains and its inhibition of amyloid-beta protein aggregation and cerebrovascular amyloid-beta toxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelmus, M.M.; Boelens, W.C.; Otte-Holler, I.; Kamps, B.; Kusters, B.; Maat-Schieman, M.L.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Verbeek, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by pathological lesions, such as senile plaques (SPs) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), both predominantly consisting of a proteolytic cleavage product of the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). CAA is also the major

  1. Selective translational control of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein transcript by iron regulatory protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Hee; Cahill, Catherine M; Vanderburg, Charles R; Scherzer, Clemens R; Wang, Bin; Huang, Xudong; Rogers, Jack T

    2010-10-08

    Iron influx increases the translation of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) via an iron-responsive element (IRE) RNA stem loop in its 5'-untranslated region. Equal modulated interaction of the iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) with canonical IREs controls iron-dependent translation of the ferritin subunits. However, our immunoprecipitation RT-PCR and RNA binding experiments demonstrated that IRP1, but not IRP2, selectively bound the APP IRE in human neural cells. This selective IRP1 interaction pattern was evident in human brain and blood tissue from normal and Alzheimer disease patients. We computer-predicted an optimal novel RNA stem loop structure for the human, rhesus monkey, and mouse APP IREs with reference to the canonical ferritin IREs but also the IREs encoded by erythroid heme biosynthetic aminolevulinate synthase and Hif-2α mRNAs, which preferentially bind IRP1. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension analysis was consistent with a 13-base single-stranded terminal loop and a conserved GC-rich stem. Biotinylated RNA probes deleted of the conserved CAGA motif in the terminal loop did not bind to IRP1 relative to wild type probes and could no longer base pair to form a predicted AGA triloop. An AGU pseudo-triloop is key for IRP1 binding to the canonical ferritin IREs. RNA probes encoding the APP IRE stem loop exhibited the same high affinity binding to rhIRP1 as occurs for the H-ferritin IRE (35 pm). Intracellular iron chelation increased binding of IRP1 to the APP IRE, decreasing intracellular APP expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Functionally, shRNA knockdown of IRP1 caused increased expression of neural APP consistent with IRP1-APP IRE-driven translation.

  2. Increased KPI containing amyloid precursor protein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Orit; Karussis, Dimitrios M; Korczyn, Amos D; Gurwitz, David; Aronovich, Ramona; Mizrachi-Kol, Rachel; Chapman, Joab

    2007-04-16

    Amyloid precursor protein can be translated from three alternatively spliced mRNAs. We measured levels of amyloid precursor protein isoforms containing the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (KPIAPP), and amyloid precursor protein without the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (KPIAPP) in brain homogenates of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. At the preclinical phase of the disease, both KPIAPP and KPIAPP levels were significantly higher in homogenates from brains of autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, whereas at the acute phase of the disease only KPIAPP remained significantly elevated compared with controls. At the recovery phase, no differences were observed between the groups. The early and isoform-specific elevation of KPIAPP in autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice suggests a possible role for amyloid precursor protein in the immune response mediating the disease.

  3. Altered β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Isoforms in Mexican Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Sánchez-González

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP isoforms ratio as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease and to assess its relationship with demographic and genetic variables of the disease.

  4. Phycocyanin protects INS-1E pancreatic beta cells against human islet amyloid polypeptide-induced apoptosis through attenuating oxidative stress and modulating JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ling; Xu, Gang; Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Fan, Rong-Rong; Gu, Xue-Mei; Tong, Peter C Y; Chan, Juliana C N

    2009-07-01

    It is widely accepted that human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation plays an important role in the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phycocyanin (PC) is a natural compound from blue-green algae that is widely used as food supplement. Currently, little is known about the effects of PC on beta cells with the presence of hIAPP. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro protective effects of PC on INS-1E rat insulinoma beta cells against hIAPP-induced cell death, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that hIAPP-induced cell death with apoptotic characteristics including growth inhibition, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. However, cytotoxicity of hIAPP was significantly attenuated by co-incubation of the cells with PC. The results of Western blotting showed that activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in hIAPP-treated cells was blocked by PC. Moreover, PC significantly prevented the hIAPP-induced overproduction of intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes. Furthermore, hIAPP triggered the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and these effects were effectively suppressed by PC. Taken together, our results suggest that PC protects INS-1E pancreatic beta cells against hIAPP-induced apoptotic cell death through attenuating oxidative stress and modulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways.

  5. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Fibril Binding to Catalase: A Transmission Electron Microscopy and Microplate Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel G. N. Milton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diabetes-associated human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP is a 37-amino-acid peptide that forms fibrils in vitro and in vivo. Human IAPP fibrils are toxic in a similar manner to Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ and prion protein (PrP fibrils. Previous studies have shown that catalase binds to Aβ fibrils and appears to recognize a region containing the Gly-Ala-Ile-Ile sequence that is similar to the Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu sequence found in human IAPP residues 24-27. This study presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM—based analysis of fibril formation and the binding of human erythrocyte catalase to IAPP fibrils. The results show that human IAPP 1-37, 8-37, and 20-29 peptides form fibrils with diverse and polymorphic structures. All three forms of IAPP bound catalase, and complexes of IAPP 1-37 or 8-37 with catalase were identified by immunoassay. The binding of biotinylated IAPP to catalase was high affinity with a KD of 0.77nM, and could be inhibited by either human or rat IAPP 1-37 and 8-37 forms. Fibrils formed by the PrP 118-135 peptide with a Gly-Ala-Val-Val sequence also bound catalase. These results suggest that catalase recognizes a Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu—like sequence in amyloid fibril-forming peptides. For IAPP 1-37 and 8-37, the catalase binding was primarily directed towards fibrillar rather than ribbon-like structures, suggesting differences in the accessibility of the human IAPP 24-27 Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu region. This suggests that catalase may be able to discriminate between different structural forms of IAPP fibrils. The ability of catalase to bind IAPP, Aβ, and PrP fibrils demonstrates the presence of similar accessible structural motifs that may be targets for antiamyloid therapeutic development.

  6. Inhibition of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and beta-amyloid precursor protein genes in SK-N-SH cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suqin Gao; Lin Sun; Enji Han; Hongshun Qi; Jinbo Feng; Shunliang Xu; Wen Xia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that Piper futokadsura stem selectively inhibits expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the mRNA level.In addition,the piperlonguminine (A) and dihydropiperlonguminine (B) components (1:0.8),which can be separated from Futokadsura stem,selectively inhibit expression of the APP at mRNA and protein levels.OBJECTIVE:Based on previous findings,the present study investigated the effects of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and APP genes on the production of β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) in human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH cells) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and A/B components separated from Futokadsura stem,respectively.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A gene interference-based randomized,controlled,in vitro experiment was performed at the Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research,Ministries of Education and Public Health,and Institute of Pharmacologic Research,School of Pharmaceutical Science & Department of Biochemistry,School of Medicine,Shandong University between July 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS:SK-N-SH cells were provided by Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Shanghai,China;mouse anti-human BACE1 monoclonal antibody was purchased from R&D Systems,USA;mouse anti-human APP monoclonal antibody was purchased from Cell Signaling Technology,USA;and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG was provided by Sigma,USA.METHODS:The human BACE1 cDNA sequence was obtained from NCBI website (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez).Three pairs of siRNAs,specific to human BACE1 gene,were synthesized through the use of Silencer? pre-designed siRNA specification,and were transfected into SK-N-SH cells with siPORT NeoFX transfection agent to compare the effects of different concentrations of siRNAs (10-50 nmol/L) on SK-N-SH cells.Futokadsura stem was separated and purified with chemical methods,and the crystal was composed of

  7. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Gaofeng; Fu, Zhiping

    2012-03-25

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25-35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25-35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change. These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25-35 in a dose-dependent manner. This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein.

  8. B-Amyloid Precursor Protein Staining of the Brain in Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Banner, Jytte; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm

    2013-01-01

    To develop and validate a scoring method for assessing β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) staining in cerebral white matter and to investigate the occurrence, amount and deposition pattern based on the cause of death in infants and young children.......To develop and validate a scoring method for assessing β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) staining in cerebral white matter and to investigate the occurrence, amount and deposition pattern based on the cause of death in infants and young children....

  9. Protein Interactions between Fe65, the LDL receptor-related protein and the amyloid precursor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Melinda; Guttman, Miklos; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The adapter protein, Fe65 has been proposed to be the link between the intracellular domains of the amyloid precursor protein, APP (AICD) and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP-CT). Functional linkage between these two proteins has been established and mutations within LRP-CT affect the amount of Aβ produced from APP. Previous work showed that the AICD binds to the protein interaction domain 2 (PID2) of Fe65. Although the structure of PID1 was solved recently all attempts to demonstrate LRP-CT binding to this domain failed. We used biophysical experiments and binding studies to investigate the binding between these three proteins. Full-length Fe65 bound more weakly to AICD than did N-terminally truncated forms, however the intramolecular domain-domain interactions that had been proposed to inhibit binding could not be observed using amide H/D exchange. Surprisingly, when the LRP-CT is phosphorylated at Tyr4507, it bound to Fe65-PID1 despite the fact that this domain belongs to the Dab-like subclass of PIDs that is not supposed to be phosphorylation dependent. Mutation of a critical arginine abolished binding providing further proof of the phosphorylation-dependence. The Fe65-PID1 domain thus provides a link between the Dab-like class and the IRS-like class of PID domains and is the first Dab-like family member to show phosphorylation-dependent binding. PMID:21650223

  10. Levels of alpha- and beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Fastbom, J; Blomberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Alternative cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in generation and secretion of both soluble APP (sAPP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta). Abeta is the main component of the amyloid depositions in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using Western blotting, we compared the l...

  11. Levels of alpha- and beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Fastbom, J; Blomberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Alternative cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in generation and secretion of both soluble APP (sAPP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta). Abeta is the main component of the amyloid depositions in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using Western blotting, we compared...

  12. Detection of AA-type amyloid protein in labial salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacsaquispe, Sonia-Julia; Antúnez-de Mayolo, Eleazar-Antonio; Vicetti, Rodolfo; Delgado, Wilson-Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Among the diverse forms of amyloidosis, secondary type is the most frequent one. Diagnosis of amyloid deposition is based on the identification of the fibrillary protein amyloid by means of Congo Red (CR) or crystal violet (CV) stains, but these techniques do not differentiate between the different types of amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to identify by immunofluorescence (IF) AA amyloid a pathological fibrillar low-molecular-weight protein formed by cleavage of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies from patients with secondary amyloidosis. 98 LSG were studied, 65 were from patients with secondary amyloidosis and 33 from subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases without evidence of this anomaly. All sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &E), CV, CR and IF using anti-AA antibodies. Positive and negative controls were used for all techniques. CV and CR demonstrated that the amyloid substance was found mainly distributed periductally (93.8%), followed by periacinar and perivascular locations (p <0.001); however, the IF demonstrated that amyloid AA substance predominates in the periacinar area (73.8%), followed by periductal and perivascular locations (p <0.001). IF has a sensitivity of 83%, 100% of specificity, 100% of predictive positive value and 75% of predictive negative value. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of the LSG biopsy as a highly reliable method for diagnosis of secondary amyloidosis.

  13. The Serum Amyloid p Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    containing the physiological Ca2+ concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins of which 24 were direct or indirect integration partners not previously reported. The SAP...... involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to binding to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect these against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma...

  14. Aspects of structural landscape of human islet amyloid polypeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianfeng; Dai, Jin; Li, Jing; Peng, Xubiao; Niemi, Antti J.

    2015-01-01

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) co-operates with insulin to maintain glycemic balance. It also constitutes the amyloid plaques that aggregate in the pancreas of type-II diabetic patients. We have performed extensive in silico investigations to analyse the structural landscape of monomeric hIAPP, which is presumed to be intrinsically disordered. For this, we construct from first principles a highly predictive energy function that describes a monomeric hIAPP observed in a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, as a local energy minimum. We subject our theoretical model of hIAPP to repeated heating and cooling simulations, back and forth between a high temperature regime where the conformation resembles a random walker and a low temperature limit where no thermal motions prevail. We find that the final low temperature conformations display a high level of degeneracy, in a manner which is fully in line with the presumed intrinsically disordered character of hIAPP. In particular, we identify an isolated family of α-helical conformations that might cause the transition to amyloidosis, by nucleation.

  15. Aspects of structural landscape of human islet amyloid polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianfeng, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn; Dai, Jin, E-mail: daijing491@gmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: jinglichina@139.com [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Research, Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group Beijing Haiyan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing 102206 (China); Peng, Xubiao, E-mail: xubiaopeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2015-01-28

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) co-operates with insulin to maintain glycemic balance. It also constitutes the amyloid plaques that aggregate in the pancreas of type-II diabetic patients. We have performed extensive in silico investigations to analyse the structural landscape of monomeric hIAPP, which is presumed to be intrinsically disordered. For this, we construct from first principles a highly predictive energy function that describes a monomeric hIAPP observed in a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, as a local energy minimum. We subject our theoretical model of hIAPP to repeated heating and cooling simulations, back and forth between a high temperature regime where the conformation resembles a random walker and a low temperature limit where no thermal motions prevail. We find that the final low temperature conformations display a high level of degeneracy, in a manner which is fully in line with the presumed intrinsically disordered character of hIAPP. In particular, we identify an isolated family of α-helical conformations that might cause the transition to amyloidosis, by nucleation.

  16. Amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) exhibits stronger zinc-dependent neuronal adhesion than amyloid precursor protein and APLP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Magnus C; Schauenburg, Linda; Thompson-Steckel, Greta; Dunsing, Valentin; Kaden, Daniela; Voigt, Philipp; Schaefer, Michael; Chiantia, Salvatore; Kennedy, Timothy E; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its paralogs, amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) and APLP2, are metalloproteins with a putative role both in synaptogenesis and in maintaining synapse structure. Here, we studied the effect of zinc on membrane localization, adhesion, and secretase cleavage of APP, APLP1, and APLP2 in cell culture and rat neurons. For this, we employed live-cell microscopy techniques, a microcontact printing adhesion assay and ELISA for protein detection in cell culture supernatants. We report that zinc induces the multimerization of proteins of the amyloid precursor protein family and enriches them at cellular adhesion sites. Thus, zinc facilitates the formation of de novo APP and APLP1 containing adhesion complexes, whereas it does not have such influence on APLP2. Furthermore, zinc-binding prevented cleavage of APP and APLPs by extracellular secretases. In conclusion, the complexation of zinc modulates neuronal functions of APP and APLPs by (i) regulating formation of adhesion complexes, most prominently for APLP1, and (ii) by reducing the concentrations of neurotrophic soluble APP/APLP ectodomains. Earlier studies suggest a function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family proteins in neuronal adhesion. We report here that adhesive function of these proteins is tightly regulated by zinc, most prominently for amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1). Zinc-mediated APLP1 multimerization, which induced formation of new neuronal contacts and decreased APLP1 shedding. This suggests that APLP1 could function as a zinc receptor processing zinc signals to stabilized or new neuronal contacts.

  17. The physical chemistry of the amyloid phenomenon: thermodynamics and kinetics of filamentous protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Alexander K; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we present an overview of the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils. The perspective we adopt is largely experimental, but we also discuss recent developments in data analysis and we show that only a combination of well-designed experiments with appropriate theoretical modelling is able to provide detailed mechanistic insight into the complex pathways of amyloid formation. In the first part of the chapter, we describe measurements of the thermodynamic stability of the amyloid state with respect to the soluble state of proteins, as well as the magnitude and origin of this stability. In the second part, we discuss in detail the kinetics of the individual molecular steps in the overall mechanism of the conversion of soluble protein into amyloid fibrils. Finally, we highlight the effects of external factors, such as salt type and concentration, chemical denaturants and molecular chaperones on the kinetics of aggregation.

  18. THE EOSINOPHILIC MATERIAL IN ADENOMATOID ODONTOGENIC TUMOR ASSOCIATED WITH AMYLOID PROTEIN COMPONENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Bao-ping; LI Yong-mei; Haruo Okabe

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between eosinophilic materials and amyloid P (AP) component in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). Methods: The expression of amyloid proteins and basement membrane proteins, including type Ⅳ collagen, laminin and heparin sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), in AOT were analyzed by immunohistochemical method. Results:Most eosinophilic droplets among tumor cells and some epithelial cells showed positive stain for AP component.The immunoreactions of type Ⅳ collagen and laminin were only found in blood vessels of this tumor. The tumor cells and eosinophilic materials in duct-like structures were constantly unstained for both amyloid and basement membrane proteins. Present results suggest that the nature and composition of eosinophilic droplets may differ from the eosinophilic layer in ductlike structures. This study first demonstrated that the amyloid-like deposition in AOT is associated with AP component by immunohistochemical method. It supported that AP component may be epithelial origin since the AP immunolocalization was found in tumor cells.

  19. Fatal transmissible amyloid encephalopathy: a new type of prion disease associated with lack of prion protein membrane anchoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Chesebro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals characterized by gray matter spongiosis and accumulation of aggregated, misfolded, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres. PrPres can be deposited in brain in an amyloid-form and/or non-amyloid form, and is derived from host-encoded protease-sensitive PrP (PrPsen, a protein normally anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI. Previously, using heterozygous transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP, we found that PrP anchoring to the cell membrane was required for typical clinical scrapie. However, in the present experiments, using homozygous transgenic mice expressing two-fold more anchorless PrP, scrapie infection induced a new fatal disease with unique clinical signs and altered neuropathology, compared to non-transgenic mice expressing only anchored PrP. Brain tissue of transgenic mice had high amounts of infectivity, and histopathology showed dense amyloid PrPres plaque deposits without gray matter spongiosis. In contrast, infected non-transgenic mice had diffuse non-amyloid PrPres deposits with significant gray matter spongiosis. Brain graft studies suggested that anchored PrPsen expression was required for gray matter spongiosis during prion infection. Furthermore, electron and light microscopic studies in infected transgenic mice demonstrated several pathogenic processes not seen in typical prion disease, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy and ultrastructural alterations in perivascular neuropil. These findings were similar to certain human familial prion diseases as well as to non-prion human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  20. PRM-151 (recombinant human serum amyloid P/pentraxin 2) for the treatment of fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S; Lupher, Mark L

    2010-06-01

    Serum amyloid P or pentraxin 2 (PTX2) is a highly phylogenetically conserved, naturally circulating plasma protein and a soluble pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. The unique binding activities of PTX2 suggest that it may localize specifically to sites of injury and function to aid in the removal of damaged tissue. The recent discovery of its ability to regulate certain monocyte differentiation states has identified PTX2 as a novel and potentially powerful antifibrotic agent. A fully recombinant form of the human PTX2 protein, designated PRM-151, has recently initiated human clinical trials. Here we review the molecular, cellular and structural biology of PRM-151/PTX2 in vitro and in several in vivo preclinical models of fibrotic disease that demonstrate its potential as a first-in-class natural modulator of fibrotic pathology with significant potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases.

  1. Amyloid Beta-Protein and Neural Network Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peña-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction induced by amyloid beta-protein (Aβ represents one of the major challenges for Alzheimer’s disease (AD research. The most evident symptom of AD is a severe decline in cognition. Cognitive processes, as any other brain function, arise from the activity of specific cell assemblies of interconnected neurons that generate neural network dynamics based on their intrinsic and synaptic properties. Thus, the origin of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction, and possibly AD-related cognitive decline, must be found in specific alterations in properties of these cells and their consequences in neural network dynamics. The well-known relationship between AD and alterations in the activity of several neural networks is reflected in the slowing of the electroencephalographic (EEG activity. Some features of the EEG slowing observed in AD, such as the diminished generation of different network oscillations, can be induced in vivo and in vitro upon Aβ application or by Aβ overproduction in transgenic models. This experimental approach offers the possibility to study the mechanisms involved in cognitive dysfunction produced by Aβ. This type of research may yield not only basic knowledge of neural network dysfunction associated with AD, but also novel options to treat this modern epidemic.

  2. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Okino, Alessandra M; Cristiani Bürger; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Edson L. Lavado; Lotufo, Paulo A; Ana Campa

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount f...

  3. Activation of human platelets by misfolded proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herczenik, E.; Bouma, B.; Korporaal, J.A.; Strangi, R.; Zeng, Q.; Gros, P.; van Eck, M.; van Berkel, T.J.C.; Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Akkerman, J.W.N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Protein misfolding diseases result from the deposition of insoluble protein aggregates that often contain fibrils called amyloid. Amyloids are found in Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and systemic amyloidosis,which are diseases where platelet activation might be

  4. Absence of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Increases Amyloid β-Protein Pathology in Tg-5xFAD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Kotarba, Ann Marie E.; Van Nostrand, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The abnormal accumulation, assembly and deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are prominent pathological features of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders. A number of factors in the brain can influence Aβ accumulation and associated pathologies. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of deleting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, the endothelial form of NOS, in Tg-5xFAD mice, a model of parenchymal AD-like amyloid pathology. Methods Tg-5xFAD mice were bred with NOS3−/− mice. Cohorts of Tg-5xFAD mice and bigenic Tg-5xFAD/NOS3−/− mice were aged to six months followed by collection of the blood and brain tissues from the mice for biochemical and pathological analyses. Results ELISA analyses show that the absence of NOS3 results in elevated levels of cerebral and plasma Aβ peptides in Tg-5xFAD mice. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the absence of NOS3 increased the amount of parenchymal Aβ deposition and fibrillar amyloid accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice. The elevated levels of Aβ were not due to changes in the expression levels of transgene encoded human amyloid precursor protein (APP), endogenous β-secretase, or increased proteolytic processing of APP. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the loss of NOS3 activity enhances Aβ pathology in Tg-5xFAD mice. These findings are similar to previous studies of NOS2 deletion suggesting that reduced NOS activity and NO levels enhance amyloid-associated pathologies in human APP transgenic mice. PMID:24159423

  5. Exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein gene in familial inclusion body myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, K; Cervenáková, L; Dalakas, M C; Leon-Monzon, M; Isaacson, S H; Nagle, J W; Vasconcelos, O; Goldfarb, L G

    1995-08-01

    Accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (A beta) occurs in some muscle fibers of patients with inclusion body myopathy and resembles the type of amyloid deposits seen in the affected tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular amyloidosis. Because mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) gene on chromosome 21 have been identified in patients with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease and Dutch-type cerebrovascular amyloidosis, we searched for mutations of the same region in patients with familial inclusion body myopathy. Sequencing of both alleles in 8 patients from four unrelated families did not reveal any mutations in these exons. The amyloid deposition in familial forms of inclusion body myopathy may be either due to errors in other gene loci, or it is secondary reflecting altered beta APP metabolism or myocyte degeneration and cell membrane degradation.

  6. Manipulations of Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleavage Disrupt the Circadian Clock in Aging Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Matthew R.; Holbrook, Scott D.; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Chow, Eileen; Kretzschmar, Doris; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe cognitive deterioration. While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. One of the detrimental behavioral symptoms commonly associated with AD is the fragmentation of sleep-activity cycles with increased nighttime activity and daytime n...

  7. Constant region of a kappa III immunoglobulin light chain as a major AL-amyloid protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvig, J P; Olsen, K E; Gislefoss, R E

    1998-01-01

    and the corresponding AL protein as a kappa III immunoglobulin light chain from material of a patient with systemic AL-amyloidosis presenting as a local inguinal tumour. The two proteins showed some unique features. The major part of the AL amyloid fibril protein consisted of C-terminal fragments of the Bence...

  8. Amyloid precursor protein modulates β-catenin degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yuzhi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amyloid precursor protein (APP is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Elucidating the function of APP should help understand AD pathogenesis and provide insights into therapeutic designs against this devastating neurodegenerative disease. Results We demonstrate that APP expression in primary neurons induces β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (S33/37/T41 residues, which is a prerequisite for β-catenin ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation. APP-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin resulted in the reduction of total β-catenin levels, suggesting that APP expression promotes β-catenin degradation. In contrast, treatment of neurons with APP siRNAs increased total β-catenin levels and decreased β-catenin phosphorylation at residues S33/37/T41. Further, β-catenin was dramatically increased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from APP knockout animals. Acute expression of wild type APP or of familial AD APP mutants in primary neurons downregulated β-catenin in membrane and cytosolic fractions, and did not appear to affect nuclear β-catenin or β-catenin-dependent transcription. Conversely, in APP knockout CA1 pyramidal cells, accumulation of β-catenin was associated with the upregulation of cyclin D1, a downstream target of β-catenin signaling. Together, these data establish that APP downregulates β-catenin and suggest a role for APP in sustaining neuronal function by preventing cell cycle reactivation and maintaining synaptic integrity. Conclusion We have provided strong evidence that APP modulates β-catenin degradation in vitro and in vivo. Future studies may investigate whether APP processing is necessary for β-catenin downregulation, and determine if excessive APP expression contributes to AD pathogenesis through abnormal β-catenin downregulation.

  9. Deposition of mouse amyloid beta in human APP/PS1 double and single AD model transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T. van; Kiliaan, A.J.; Kadish, I.

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles are the two characteristic pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the relation between amyloid precursor protein (APP) production, amyloid beta deposition and the type of Abeta in deposits, i.e., h

  10. Deposition of mouse amyloid beta in human APP/PS1 double and single AD model transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T. van; Kiliaan, A.J.; Kadish, I.

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles are the two characteristic pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the relation between amyloid precursor protein (APP) production, amyloid beta deposition and the type of Abeta in deposits, i.e.,

  11. Iron-export ferroxidase activity of β-amyloid precursor protein is inhibited by zinc in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duce, James A; Tsatsanis, Andrew; Cater, Michael A; James, Simon A; Robb, Elysia; Wikhe, Krutika; Leong, Su Ling; Perez, Keyla; Johanssen, Timothy; Greenough, Mark A; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Galatis, Denise; Moir, Robert D; Masters, Colin L; McLean, Catriona; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Cappai, Roberto; Barnham, Kevin J; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D; Rogers, Jack T; Bush, Ashley I

    2010-09-17

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is complicated by pro-oxidant intraneuronal Fe(2+) elevation as well as extracellular Zn(2+) accumulation within amyloid plaque. We found that the AD β-amyloid protein precursor (APP) possesses ferroxidase activity mediated by a conserved H-ferritin-like active site, which is inhibited specifically by Zn(2+). Like ceruloplasmin, APP catalytically oxidizes Fe(2+), loads Fe(3+) into transferrin, and has a major interaction with ferroportin in HEK293T cells (that lack ceruloplasmin) and in human cortical tissue. Ablation of APP in HEK293T cells and primary neurons induces marked iron retention, whereas increasing APP695 promotes iron export. Unlike normal mice, APP(-/-) mice are vulnerable to dietary iron exposure, which causes Fe(2+) accumulation and oxidative stress in cortical neurons. Paralleling iron accumulation, APP ferroxidase activity in AD postmortem neocortex is inhibited by endogenous Zn(2+), which we demonstrate can originate from Zn(2+)-laden amyloid aggregates and correlates with Aβ burden. Abnormal exchange of cortical zinc may link amyloid pathology with neuronal iron accumulation in AD.

  12. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  13. HIV Tat protein and amyloid-β peptide form multifibrillar structures that cause neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Alina; Bianchet, Mario A; Steiner, Joseph; Karnaukhova, Elena; Masliah, Eliezer; Fields, Adam; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Dickens, Alex M; Haughey, Norman; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Nath, Avindra

    2017-02-20

    Deposition of amyloid-β plaques is increased in the brains of HIV-infected individuals, and the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein affects amyloidogenesis through several indirect mechanisms. Here, we investigated direct interactions between Tat and amyloid-β peptide. Our in vitro studies showed that in the presence of Tat, uniform amyloid fibrils become double twisted fibrils and further form populations of thick unstructured filaments and aggregates. Specifically, Tat binding to the exterior surfaces of the Aβ fibrils increases β-sheet formation and lateral aggregation into thick multifibrillar structures, thus producing fibers with increased rigidity and mechanical resistance. Furthermore, Tat and Aβ aggregates in complex synergistically induced neurotoxicity both in vitro and in animal models. Increased rigidity and mechanical resistance of the amyloid-β-Tat complexes coupled with stronger adhesion due to the presence of Tat in the fibrils may account for increased damage, potentially through pore formation in membranes.

  14. Glutamate system, amyloid β peptides and tau protein: functional interrelationships and relevance to Alzheimer disease pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revett, Timothy J.; Baker, Glen B.; Jhamandas, Jack; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent form of dementia globally and is characterized premortem by a gradual memory loss and deterioration of higher cognitive functions and postmortem by neuritic plaques containing amyloid β peptide and neurofibrillary tangles containing phospho-tau protein. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and is essential to memory formation through processes such as long-term potentiation and so might be pivotal to Alzheimer disease progression. This review discusses how the glutamatergic system is impaired in Alzheimer disease and how interactions of amyloid β and glutamate influence synaptic function, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate not only influences amyloid β production, but also amyloid β can alter the levels of glutamate at the synapse, indicating that small changes in the concentrations of both molecules could influence Alzheimer disease progression. Finally, we describe how the glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine, has been used in the treatment of individuals with Alzheimer disease and discuss its effectiveness. PMID:22894822

  15. Functional amyloid formation within mammalian tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Fowler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a generally insoluble, fibrous cross-beta sheet protein aggregate. The process of amyloidogenesis is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington disease. We report the discovery of an unprecedented functional mammalian amyloid structure generated by the protein Pmel17. This discovery demonstrates that amyloid is a fundamental nonpathological protein fold utilized by organisms from bacteria to humans. We have found that Pmel17 amyloid templates and accelerates the covalent polymerization of reactive small molecules into melanin-a critically important biopolymer that protects against a broad range of cytotoxic insults including UV and oxidative damage. Pmel17 amyloid also appears to play a role in mitigating the toxicity associated with melanin formation by sequestering and minimizing diffusion of highly reactive, toxic melanin precursors out of the melanosome. Intracellular Pmel17 amyloidogenesis is carefully orchestrated by the secretory pathway, utilizing membrane sequestration and proteolytic steps to protect the cell from amyloid and amyloidogenic intermediates that can be toxic. While functional and pathological amyloid share similar structural features, critical differences in packaging and kinetics of assembly enable the usage of Pmel17 amyloid for normal function. The discovery of native Pmel17 amyloid in mammals provides key insight into the molecular basis of both melanin formation and amyloid pathology, and demonstrates that native amyloid (amyloidin may be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved protein quaternary structure underpinning diverse pathways contributing to normal cell and tissue physiology.

  16. Functional Amyloid Formation within Mammalian Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a generally insoluble, fibrous cross-beta sheet protein aggregate. The process of amyloidogenesis is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington disease. We report the discovery of an unprecedented functional mammalian amyloid structure generated by the protein Pmel17. This discovery demonstrates that amyloid is a fundamental nonpathological protein fold utilized by organisms from bacteria to humans. We have found that Pmel17 amyloid templates and accelerates the covalent polymerization of reactive small molecules into melanin-a critically important biopolymer that protects against a broad range of cytotoxic insults including UV and oxidative damage. Pmel17 amyloid also appears to play a role in mitigating the toxicity associated with melanin formation by sequestering and minimizing diffusion of highly reactive, toxic melanin precursors out of the melanosome. Intracellular Pmel17 amyloidogenesis is carefully orchestrated by the secretory pathway, utilizing membrane sequestration and proteolytic steps to protect the cell from amyloid and amyloidogenic intermediates that can be toxic. While functional and pathological amyloid share similar structural features, critical differences in packaging and kinetics of assembly enable the usage of Pmel17 amyloid for normal function. The discovery of native Pmel17 amyloid in mammals provides key insight into the molecular basis of both melanin formation and amyloid pathology, and demonstrates that native amyloid (amyloidin may be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved protein quaternary structure underpinning diverse pathways contributing to normal cell and tissue physiology.

  17. Cannabidiol promotes amyloid precursor protein ubiquitination and reduction of beta amyloid expression in SHSY5YAPP+ cells through PPARγ involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Caterina; Steardo, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The amyloidogenic cascade is regarded as a key factor at the basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) induces an increased production and a subsequent aggregation of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide in limbic and association cortices. As a result, altered neuronal homeostasis and oxidative injury provoke tangle formation with consequent neuronal loss. Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis derivative devoid of psychotropic effects, has attracted much attention because it may beneficially interfere with several Aβ-triggered neurodegenerative pathways, even though the mechanism responsible for such actions remains unknown. In the present research, the role of CBD was investigated as a possible modulating compound of APP processing in SHSY5Y(APP+) neurons. In addition, the putative involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) was explored as a candidate molecular site responsible for CBD actions. Results indicated the CBD capability to induce the ubiquitination of APP protein which led to a substantial decrease in APP full length protein levels in SHSY5Y(APP+) with the consequent decrease in Aβ production. Moreover, CBD promoted an increased survival of SHSY5Y(APP+) neurons, by reducing their long-term apoptotic rate. Obtained results also showed that all, here observed, CBD effects were dependent on the selective activation of PPARγ.

  18. The nicotinic alpha7 acetylcholine receptor agonist ssr180711 is unable to activate limbic neurons in mice overexpressing human amyloid-beta1-42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soderman, A.; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens; Hansen, H.

    2008-01-01

    7 nAChR have not been examined. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the efficacy of alpha7 nAChR modulators in transgene mice that overexpress human amyloid precursor protein and accumulate Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42. In accordance with observations in human Alzheimer tissues, we show here...

  19. Influence of Adsorption on Proteins and Amyloid Detection by Silicon Nitride Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Sébastien; Coulon, Pierre Eugène; Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Charlot, Benoît; Yandrapalli, Naresh; Favard, Cyril; Muriaux, Delphine; Bechelany, Mikhael; Janot, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    For the past 2 decades, emerging single-nanopore technologies have opened the route to multiple sensing applications. Besides DNA sensing, the identification of proteins and amyloids is a promising field for early diagnosis. However, the influence of the interactions between the nanopore surface and proteins should be taken into account. In this work, we have selected three proteins (avidin, lysozyme, and IgG) that exhibit different affinities with the SiNx surface, and we have also examined lysozyme amyloid. Our results show that the piranha treatment of SiNx significantly decreases protein adsorption. Moreover, we have successfully detected all proteins (pore diameter 17 nm) and shown the possibility of discriminating between denatured lysozyme and its amyloid. For all proteins, the capture rates are lower than expected, and we evidence that they are correlated with the affinity of proteins to the surface. Our result confirms that proteins interacting only with the nanopore surface wall stay long enough to be detected. For lysozyme amyloid, we show that the use of the nanopore is suitable for determining the number of monomer units even if only the proteins interacting with the nanopore are detected.

  20. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  1. AMPA receptor activation promotes non-amyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing and suppresses neuronal amyloid-β production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Hoey

    Full Text Available Soluble oligomeric amyloid β peptide (Aβ generated from processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD and through actions at glutamatergic synapses affects excitability and plasticity. The physiological control of APP processing is not fully understood but stimulation of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDAR can suppress Aβ levels through an ERK-dependent increase in α-secretase activity. AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR couple to ERK phosphorylation independently of NMDAR activation raising the possibility that stimulation of AMPAR might similarly promote non-amyloidogenic APP processing. We have tested this hypothesis by investigating whether AMPAR directly regulate APP processing in cultured mouse cortical neurons, by analyzing APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs, soluble APP (sAPP, Aβ levels, and cleavage of an APP-GAL4 reporter protein. We report that direct stimulation of AMPAR increases non-amyloidogenic α-secretase-mediated APP processing and inhibits Aβ production. Processing was blocked by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-1 but was only partially dependent on Ca(2+ influx and ERK activity. AMPAR can therefore, be added to the repertoire of receptors that couple to non-amyloidogenic APP processing at glutamatergic synapses and thus pharmacological targeting of AMPAR could potentially influence the development and progression of Aβ pathology in AD.

  2. Protein engineering as a strategy to avoid formation of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, V; Zurdo, J; Filimonov, V V; Avilés, F X; Dobson, C M; Serrano, L

    2000-09-01

    The activation domain of human procarboxypeptidase A2 (ADA2h) aggregates following thermal or chemical denaturation at acidic pH. The aggregated material contains well-defined ordered structures with all the characteristics of the fibrils associated with amyloidotic diseases. Variants of ADA2h containing a series of mutations designed to increase the local stability of each of the two helical regions of the protein have been found to have a substantially reduced propensity to form fibrils. This arises from a reduced tendency of the denatured species to aggregate rather than from a change in the overall stability of the native state. The reduction in aggregation propensity may result from an increase in the stability of local relative to longer range interactions within the polypeptide chain. These findings show that the intrinsic ability of a protein to form amyloid can be altered substantially by protein engineering methods without perturbing significantly its overall stability or activity. This suggests new strategies for combating diseases associated with the formation of aggregated proteins and for the design of novel protein or peptide therapeutics.

  3. Ligand-binding sites in human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Roepstorff, P.;

    1996-01-01

    Amyloid P component (AP) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein that is found in serum and basement membranes, AP is also a component of all types of amyloid, including that found in individuals who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Because AP has been found to bind strongly...... of 25 mu M, while the IC50 of AP-(27-38)-peptide and AP-(33-38)-peptide are 10 mu M and 2 mu M, respectively, The understanding of the structure and function of active AP peptides will be useful for development of amyloid-targeted diagnostics and therapeutics....

  4. Evidence that a synthetic amyloid-ß oligomer-binding peptide (ABP) targets amyloid-ß deposits in transgenic mouse brain and human Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Ito, Shingo; Atkinson, Trevor; Gaudet, Chantal; Ménard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Whitfield, James

    2014-03-14

    The synthetic ~5 kDa ABP (amyloid-ß binding peptide) consists of a region of the 228 kDa human pericentrioloar material-1 (PCM-1) protein that selectively and avidly binds in vitro Aβ1-42 oligomers, believed to be key co-drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not monomers (Chakravarthy et al., (2013) [3]). ABP also prevents Aß1-42 from triggering the apoptotic death of cultured human SHSY5Y neuroblasts, likely by sequestering Aß oligomers, suggesting that it might be a potential AD therapeutic. Here we support this possibility by showing that ABP also recognizes and binds Aβ1-42 aggregates in sections of cortices and hippocampi from brains of AD transgenic mice and human AD patients. More importantly, ABP targets Aβ1-42 aggregates when microinjected into the hippocampi of the brains of live AD transgenic mice.

  5. Specific Inhibition of β-Secretase Processing of the Alzheimer Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Saoussen; Mishra, Sabyashachi; Raja, K Muruga Poopathi; Willem, Michael; Baici, Antonio; Simons, Kai; Brüstle, Oliver; Koch, Philipp; Haass, Christian; Caflisch, Amedeo; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2016-03-08

    Development of disease-modifying therapeutics is urgently needed for treating Alzheimer disease (AD). AD is characterized by toxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides produced by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). β-secretase inhibitors reduce Aβ levels, but mechanism-based side effects arise because they also inhibit β-cleavage of non-amyloid substrates like Neuregulin. We report that β-secretase has a higher affinity for Neuregulin than it does for APP. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the affinities and catalytic efficiencies of β-secretase are higher toward non-amyloid substrates than toward APP. We show that non-amyloid substrates are processed by β-secretase in an endocytosis-independent manner. Exploiting this compartmentalization of substrates, we specifically target the endosomal β-secretase by an endosomally targeted β-secretase inhibitor, which blocked cleavage of APP but not non-amyloid substrates in many cell systems, including induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons. β-secretase inhibitors can be designed to specifically inhibit the Alzheimer process, enhancing their potential as AD therapeutics without undesired side effects. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Specific Inhibition of β-Secretase Processing of the Alzheimer Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Halima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of disease-modifying therapeutics is urgently needed for treating Alzheimer disease (AD. AD is characterized by toxic β-amyloid (Aβ peptides produced by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. β-secretase inhibitors reduce Aβ levels, but mechanism-based side effects arise because they also inhibit β-cleavage of non-amyloid substrates like Neuregulin. We report that β-secretase has a higher affinity for Neuregulin than it does for APP. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the affinities and catalytic efficiencies of β-secretase are higher toward non-amyloid substrates than toward APP. We show that non-amyloid substrates are processed by β-secretase in an endocytosis-independent manner. Exploiting this compartmentalization of substrates, we specifically target the endosomal β-secretase by an endosomally targeted β-secretase inhibitor, which blocked cleavage of APP but not non-amyloid substrates in many cell systems, including induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived neurons. β-secretase inhibitors can be designed to specifically inhibit the Alzheimer process, enhancing their potential as AD therapeutics without undesired side effects.

  7. The repeat domain of the melanosome fibril protein Pmel17 forms the amyloid core promoting melanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, Ryan P; Shewmaker, Frank; McPhie, Peter; Monterroso, Begoña; Thurber, Kent; Wickner, Reed B

    2009-08-18

    Pmel17 is a melanocyte protein necessary for eumelanin deposition 1 in mammals and found in melanosomes in a filamentous form. The luminal part of human Pmel17 includes a region (RPT) with 10 copies of a partial repeat sequence, pt.e.gttp.qv., known to be essential in vivo for filament formation. We show that this RPT region readily forms amyloid in vitro, but only under the mildly acidic conditions typical of the lysosome-like melanosome lumen, and the filaments quickly become soluble at neutral pH. Under the same mildly acidic conditions, the Pmel filaments promote eumelanin formation. Electron diffraction, circular dichroism, and solid-state NMR studies of Pmel17 filaments show that the structure is rich in beta sheet. We suggest that RPT is the amyloid core domain of the Pmel17 filaments so critical for melanin formation.

  8. Vaccination with a non-human random sequence amyloid oligomer mimic results in improved cognitive function and reduced plaque deposition and micro hemorrhage in Tg2576 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Suhail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that vaccination of humans and transgenic animals against fibrillar Aβ prevents amyloid accumulation in plaques and preserves cognitive function in transgenic mouse models. However, autoimmune side effects have halted the development of vaccines based on full length human Aβ. Further development of an effective vaccine depends on overcoming these side effects while maintaining an effective immune response. Results We have previously reported that the immune response to amyloid oligomers is largely directed against generic epitopes that are common to amyloid oligomers of many different proteins and independent of a specific amino acid sequence. Here we have examined whether we can exploit this generic immune response to develop a vaccine that targets amyloid oligomers using a non-human random sequence amyloid oligomer. In order to study the effect of vaccination against generic oligomer epitopes, a random sequence oligomer (3A was selected as it forms oligomers that react with the oligomer specific A11 antibody. Oligomer mimics from 3A peptide, Aβ, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, and Aβ fibrils were used to vaccinate Tg2576 mice, which develop a progressive accumulation of plaques and cognitive impairment. Vaccination with the 3A random sequence antigen was just as effective as vaccination with the other antigens in improving cognitive function and reducing total plaque load (Aβ burden in the Tg2576 mouse brains, but was associated with a much lower incidence of micro hemorrhage than Aβ antigens. Conclusion These results shows that the amyloid Aβ sequence is not necessary to produce a protective immune response that specifically targets generic amyloid oligomers. Using a non-human, random sequence antigen may facilitate the development of a vaccine that avoids autoimmune side effects.

  9. Volumetric properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovchenko, I; Andrews, M N; Oleinikova, A

    2010-04-28

    The volumetric properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in water were studied in a wide temperature range by computer simulations. The intrinsic density rho(p) and the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient alpha(p) of hIAPP were evaluated by taking into account the difference between the volumetric properties of hydration and bulk water. The density of hydration water rho(h) was found to decrease almost linearly with temperature upon heating and its thermal expansion coefficient was found to be notably higher than that of bulk water. The peptide surface exposed to water is more hydrophobic and its rho(h) is smaller in conformation with a larger number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The two hIAPP peptides studied (with and without disulfide bridge) show negative alpha(p), which is close to zero at 250 K and decreases to approximately -1.5 x 10(-3) K(-1) upon heating to 450 K. The analysis of various structural properties of peptides shows a correlation between the intrinsic peptide volumes and the number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The obtained negative values of alpha(p) can be attributed to the shrinkage of the inner voids of the peptides upon heating.

  10. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  11. Hitchhiking vesicular transport routes to the vacuole: amyloid recruitment to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Neuser, Nicole; Tyedmers, Jens

    2017-03-09

    Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least three different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD employs an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport (1) . Here we discuss how different proteins known to be involved in vesicular transport processes to the vacuole might act to guide amyloid aggregates to the IPOD. These factors include the Myosin V motor protein Myo2 involved in transporting vacuolar vesicles along actin cables, the transmembrane protein Atg9 involved in the recruitment of large precursor hydrolase complexes to the vacuole, the phosphatidylinositol/ phosphatidylcholine (PI/PC) transfer protein Sec 14 and the SNARE chaperone Sec 18. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that the yeast dynamin homolog Vps1 is also crucial for faithful delivery of the amyloid model protein PrD-GFP to the IPOD. This is in agreement with a previously identified role for Vps1 in recruitment of heat-denatured aggregates to a perivacuolar deposition site (2) .

  12. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Garnett, James A.; Matthews, Steve; Penades, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27327765

  13. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Garnett, James A; Matthews, Steve; Penades, José R; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-06-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Is amyloid-β harmful to the brain? Insights from human imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagust, William

    2016-01-01

    Although the amyloidprotein associated with the Alzheimer's disease plaque has been detectable in living people for over a decade, its importance in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is still debated. The frequent presence of amyloid-β in the brains of cognitively healthy older people has been interpreted as evidence against a causative role. If amyloid-β is crucial to the development of Alzheimer's disease, it should be associated with other Alzheimer's disease-like neurological changes. This review examines whether amyloid-β is associated with other biomarkers indicative of early Alzheimer's disease in normal older people. The preponderance of evidence links amyloid-β to functional change, progressive brain atrophy, and cognitive decline. Individuals at greatest risk of decline seem to be those with evidence of both amyloid-β and findings suggestive of neurodegeneration. The crucial question is thus how amyloid-β is related to brain degeneration and how these two processes interact to cause cognitive decline and dementia.

  16. Nonequilibrium and generalized-ensemble molecular dynamics simulations for amyloid fibril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Hisashi [Research Center for Computational Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); Department of Structural Molecular Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Amyloids are insoluble and misfolded fibrous protein aggregates and associated with more than 20 serious human diseases. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of amyloid fibril assembly and disassembly.

  17. Nerve Growth Factor Increases mRNA Levels for the Prion Protein and the β -amyloid Protein Precursor in Developing Hamster Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, William C.; Neve, Rachael L.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; McKinley, Michael P.

    1988-12-01

    Deposition of amyloid filaments serves as a pathologic hallmark for some neurodegenerative disorders. The prion protein (PrP) is found in amyloid of animals with scrapie and humans with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; the β protein is present in amyloid deposits in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome patients. These two proteins are derived from precursors that in the brain are expressed primarily in neurons and are membrane bound. We found that gene expression for PrP and the β -protein precursor (β -PP) is regulated in developing hamster brain. Specific brain regions showed distinct patterns of ontogenesis for PrP and β -PP mRNAs. The increases in PrP and β -PP mRNAs in developing basal forebrain coincided with an increase in choline acetyltransferase activity, raising the possibility that these markers might be coordinately controlled in cholinergic neurons and regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF). Injections of NGF into the brains of neonatal hamsters increased both PrP and β -PP mRNA levels. Increased PrP and β -PP mRNA levels induced by NGF were confined to regions that contain NGF-responsive cholinergic neurons and were accompanied by elevations in choline acetyltransferase. It remains to be established whether or not exogenous NGF acts to increase PrP and β -PP gene expression selectively in forebrain cholinergic neurons in the developing hamster and endogenous NGF regulates expression of these genes.

  18. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 levels become elevated in neurons around amyloid plaques: implications for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Fu, Yifan; Yasvoina, Marina; Shao, Peizhen; Hitt, Brian; O'Connor, Tracy; Logan, Sreemathi; Maus, Erika; Citron, Martin; Berry, Robert; Binder, Lester; Vassar, Robert

    2007-04-04

    Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) (beta-secretase) initiates generation of beta-amyloid (Abeta), which plays an early role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 levels are increased in postmortem AD brain, suggesting BACE1 elevation promotes Abeta production and AD. Alternatively, the BACE1 increase may be an epiphenomenon of late-stage AD. To distinguish between these possibilities, we analyzed BACE1 elevation using a highly specific BACE1 antibody, BACE-Cat1, made in BACE1-/- mice, which mount a robust anti-BACE1 immune response. Previous BACE1 immunohistochemical studies lack consistent results because typical BACE1 antibodies produce nonspecific background, but BACE-Cat1 immunolabels BACE1 only. BACE1 elevation was recapitulated in two amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse lines. 5XFAD mice form amyloid plaques at young ages and exhibit neuron loss. In contrast, Tg2576 form plaques at a more advanced age and do not show cell death. These two mouse lines allow differentiation between early Abeta-induced events and late phenomena related to neuron death. BACE1 levels became elevated in parallel with amyloid burden in each APP transgenic, starting early in 5XFAD and late in Tg2576. The increase in BACE1 protein occurred without any change in BACE1 mRNA level, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism. In APP transgenic and AD brains, high BACE1 levels were observed in an annulus around Abeta42-positive plaque cores and colocalized with neuronal proteins. These results demonstrate that amyloid plaques induce BACE1 in surrounding neurons at early stages of pathology before neuron death occurs. We conclude that BACE1 elevation is most likely triggered by the amyloid pathway and may drive a positive-feedback loop in AD.

  19. MicroRNA-339-5p down-regulates protein expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in human primary brain cultures and is reduced in brain tissue specimens of Alzheimer disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Justin M; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2014-02-21

    Alzheimer disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short Aβ peptide is derived from the large transmembrane Aβ precursor protein (APP). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ from APP is mediated by the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess Aβ deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the Aβ-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3'-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3'-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of the miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3'-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared with age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target.

  20. Short amino acid stretches can mediate amyloid formation in globular proteins: the Src homology 3 (SH3) case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Salvador; Zurdo, Jesús; Narayanan, Saravanakumar; Parreño, Matilde; Mangues, Ramón; Reif, Bernd; Chiti, Fabrizio; Giannoni, Elisa; Dobson, Christopher M; Aviles, Francesc X; Serrano, Luis

    2004-05-11

    Protein misfolding and deposition underlie an increasing number of debilitating human disorders. We have shown that model proteins unrelated to disease, such as the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of the p58alpha subunit of bovine phosphatidyl-inositol-3'-kinase (PI3-SH3), can be converted in vitro into assemblies with structural and cytotoxic properties similar to those of pathological aggregates. By contrast, homologous proteins, such as alpha-spectrin-SH3, lack the capability of forming amyloid fibrils at a measurable rate under any of the conditions we have so far examined. However, transplanting a small sequence stretch (6 aa) from PI3-SH3 to alpha-spectrin-SH3, comprising residues of the diverging turn and adjacent RT loop, creates an amyloidogenic protein closely similar in its behavior to the original PI3-SH3. Analysis of specific PI3-SH3 mutants further confirms the involvement of this region in conferring amyloidogenic properties to this domain. Moreover, the inclusion in this stretch of two consensus residues favored in SH3 sequences substantially inhibits aggregation. These findings show that short specific amino acid stretches can act as mediators or facilitators in the incorporation of globular proteins into amyloid structures, and they support the suggestion that natural protein sequences have evolved in part to code for structural characteristics other than those included in the native fold, such as avoidance of aggregation.

  1. The Drosophila homologue of the amyloid precursor protein is a conserved modulator of Wnt PCP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Soldano

    Full Text Available Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP signaling is a universal regulator of polarity in epithelial cells, but it regulates axon outgrowth in neurons, suggesting the existence of axonal modulators of Wnt-PCP activity. The Amyloid precursor proteins (APPs are intensely investigated because of their link to Alzheimer's disease (AD. APP's in vivo function in the brain and the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear and controversial. Drosophila possesses a single APP homologue called APP Like, or APPL. APPL is expressed in all neurons throughout development, but has no established function in neuronal development. We therefore investigated the role of Drosophila APPL during brain development. We find that APPL is involved in the development of the Mushroom Body αβ neurons and, in particular, is required cell-autonomously for the β-axons and non-cell autonomously for the α-axons growth. Moreover, we find that APPL is a modulator of the Wnt-PCP pathway required for axonal outgrowth, but not cell polarity. Molecularly, both human APP and fly APPL form complexes with PCP receptors, thus suggesting that APPs are part of the membrane protein complex upstream of PCP signaling. Moreover, we show that APPL regulates PCP pathway activation by modulating the phosphorylation of the Wnt adaptor protein Dishevelled (Dsh by Abelson kinase (Abl. Taken together our data suggest that APPL is the first example of a modulator of the Wnt-PCP pathway specifically required for axon outgrowth.

  2. The Drosophila homologue of the amyloid precursor protein is a conserved modulator of Wnt PCP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Alessia; Okray, Zeynep; Janovska, Pavlina; Tmejová, Kateřina; Reynaud, Elodie; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; De Strooper, Bart; Dura, Jean-Maurice; Bryja, Vítězslav; Hassan, Bassem A

    2013-01-01

    Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling is a universal regulator of polarity in epithelial cells, but it regulates axon outgrowth in neurons, suggesting the existence of axonal modulators of Wnt-PCP activity. The Amyloid precursor proteins (APPs) are intensely investigated because of their link to Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP's in vivo function in the brain and the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear and controversial. Drosophila possesses a single APP homologue called APP Like, or APPL. APPL is expressed in all neurons throughout development, but has no established function in neuronal development. We therefore investigated the role of Drosophila APPL during brain development. We find that APPL is involved in the development of the Mushroom Body αβ neurons and, in particular, is required cell-autonomously for the β-axons and non-cell autonomously for the α-axons growth. Moreover, we find that APPL is a modulator of the Wnt-PCP pathway required for axonal outgrowth, but not cell polarity. Molecularly, both human APP and fly APPL form complexes with PCP receptors, thus suggesting that APPs are part of the membrane protein complex upstream of PCP signaling. Moreover, we show that APPL regulates PCP pathway activation by modulating the phosphorylation of the Wnt adaptor protein Dishevelled (Dsh) by Abelson kinase (Abl). Taken together our data suggest that APPL is the first example of a modulator of the Wnt-PCP pathway specifically required for axon outgrowth.

  3. Amyloid fibril formation and seeding by wild-type human lysozyme and its disease-related mutational variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova-Roche, L A; Zurdo, J; Spencer, A; Noppe, W; Receveur, V; Archer, D B; Joniau, M; Dobson, C M

    2000-06-01

    Wild-type human lysozyme and its two stable amyloidogenic variants have been found to form partially folded states at low pH. These states are characterized by extensive disruption of tertiary interactions and partial loss of secondary structure. Incubation of the proteins at pH 2.0 and 37 degrees C (Ile56Thr and Asp67His variants) or 57 degrees C (wild-type) results in the formation of large numbers of fibrils over several days of incubation. Smaller numbers of fibrils could be observed under other conditions, including neutral pH. These fibrils were analyzed by electron microscopy, Congo red birefringence, thioflavine-T binding, and X-ray fiber diffraction, which unequivocally show their amyloid character. These data demonstrate that amyloidogenicity is an intrinsic property of human lysozyme and does not require the presence of specific mutations in its primary structure. The amyloid fibril formation is greatly facilitated, however, by the introduction of "seeds" of preformed fibrils to the solutions of the variant proteins, suggesting that seeding effects could be important in the development of systemic amyloidosis. Fibril formation by wild-type human lysozyme is greatly accelerated by fibrils of the variant proteins and vice versa, showing that seeding is not specific to a given protein. The fact that wild-type lysozyme has not been found in ex vivo deposits from patients suffering from this disease is likely to be related to the much lower population of incompletely folded states for the wild-type protein compared to its amyloidogenic variants under physiological conditions. These results support the concept that the ability to form amyloid is a generic property of proteins, but one that is mitigated against in a normally functioning organism. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  5. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing solub...

  6. Validation of soluble amyloid-beta precursor protein assays as diagnostic CSF biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk van Doorn, L.L.C. van; Koel-Simmelink, M.J.; Haussmann, U.; Klafki, H.; Struyfs, H.; Linning, P.; Knolker, H.J.; Twaalfhoven, H.; Kuiperij, H.B.; Engelborghs, S.; Scheltens, P.; Verbeek, M.M.; Vanmechelen, E.; Wiltfang, J.; Teunissen, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical validation of a biomarker assay is essential before implementation in clinical practice can occur. In this study, we analytically validated the performance of assays detecting soluble amyloid-beta precursor protein (sAPP) alpha and beta in CSF in two laboratories according to previously

  7. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  8. Elongation of mouse prion protein amyloid-like fibrils: effect of temperature and denaturant concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katazyna Milto

    Full Text Available Prion protein is known to have the ability to adopt a pathogenic conformation, which seems to be the basis for protein-only infectivity. The infectivity is based on self-replication of this pathogenic prion structure. One of possible mechanisms for such replication is the elongation of amyloid-like fibrils. We measured elongation kinetics and thermodynamics of mouse prion amyloid-like fibrils at different guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl concentrations. Our data show that both increases in temperature and GuHCl concentration help unfold monomeric protein and thus accelerate elongation. Once the monomers are unfolded, further increases in temperature raise the rate of elongation, whereas the addition of GuHCl decreases it. We demonstrated a possible way to determine different activation energies of amyloid-like fibril elongation by using folded and unfolded protein molecules. This approach separates thermodynamic data for fibril-assisted monomer unfolding and for refolding and formation of amyloid-like structure.

  9. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35★

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; PAN, GAOFENG; Fu, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25–35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25–35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical...

  10. Activation of extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, NMDA receptors modifies amyloid precursor protein expression pattern and increases amyloid-ß production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordji, Karim; Becerril-Ortega, Javier; Nicole, Olivier; Buisson, Alain

    2010-11-24

    Calcium is a key mediator controlling essential neuronal functions depending on electrical activity. Altered neuronal calcium homeostasis affects metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to increased production of β-amyloid (Aβ), and contributing to the initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A linkage between excessive glutamate receptor activation and neuronal Aβ release was established, and recent reports suggest that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation may have distinct consequences in plasticity, gene regulation, and neuronal death. Here, we report for the first time that prolonged activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR, but not synaptic NMDAR, dramatically increased the neuronal production of Aβ. This effect was preceded by a shift from APP695 to Kunitz protease inhibitory domain (KPI) containing APPs (KPI-APPs), isoforms exhibiting an important amyloidogenic potential. Conversely, after synaptic NMDAR activation, we failed to detect any KPI-APP expression and neuronal Aβ production was not modified. Calcium imaging data showed that intracellular calcium concentration after extrasynaptic NMDAR stimulation was lower than after synaptic activation. This suggests distinct signaling pathways for each pool of receptors. We found that modification of neuronal APP expression pattern triggered by extrasynaptic NMDAR activation was regulated at an alternative splicing level involving calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, but overall APP expression remained identical. Finally, memantine dose-dependently inhibited extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced KPI-APPs expression as well as neuronal Aβ release. Altogether, these data suggest that a chronic activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR promotes amyloidogenic KPI-APP expression leading to neuronal Aβ release, representing a causal risk factor for developing AD.

  11. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga

    2004-01-01

    beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP...... the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques...

  12. Review of the advances in treatment for Alzheimer disease: Strategies for combating β-amyloid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, J; Ettcheto, M; Petrov, D; Abad, S; Pedrós, I; Marin, M; Olloquequi, J; Camins, A

    2015-05-11

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder which eventually results in total intellectual disability. The high global prevalence and the socioeconomic burden associated with the disease pose major challenges for public health in the 21st century. In this review we focus on both existing treatments and the therapies being developed, which principally target the β-amyloid protein. The amyloidogenic hypothesis proposes that β-amyloid plays a key role in AD. Several pharmacological approaches aim to reduce the formation of β-amyloid peptides by inhibiting the β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. In addition, both passive and active immunotherapies have been developed for the purpose of inhibiting β-amyloid peptide aggregation. Progress in identifying the molecular basis of AD may provide better models for understanding the causes of this neurodegenerative disease. The lack of efficacy of solanezumab (a humanised monoclonal antibody that promotes β-amyloid clearance in the brain), demonstrated by 2 recent Phase III clinical trials in patients with mild AD, suggests that the amyloidogenic hypothesis needs to be revised. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Microglia, neuroinflammation, and beta-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiyou; Hussain, M Delwar; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Compelling evidence from basic molecular biology has demonstrated the dual roles of microglia in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On one hand, microglia are involved in AD pathogenesis by releasing inflammatory mediators such as inflammatory cytokines, complement components, chemokines, and free radicals that are all known to contribute to beta-amyloid (Aβ) production and accumulation. On the other hand, microglia are also known to play a beneficial role in generating anti-Aβ antibodies and stimulating clearance of amyloid plaques. Aβ itself, an inducer of microglia activation and neuroinflammation, has been considered as an underlying and unifying factor in the development of AD. A vicious cycle of inflammation has been formed between Aβ accumulation, activated microglia, and microglial inflammatory mediators, which enhance Aβ deposition and neuroinflammation. Thus, inhibiting the vicious cycle seems to be a promising treatment to restrain further development of AD. With increasing research efforts on microglia in AD, intervention of microglia activation and neuroinflammation in AD may provide a potential target for AD therapy in spite of the provisional failure of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in clinical trials.

  14. Presentation of amyloidosis in carriers of the codon 692 mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP692)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Forey; H.L.J. Tanghe (Hervé); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); J.C. van Swieten (John); F. van Harskamp (Frans); I. de Koning (Inge); M. Cruts (Marc); C. de Jonghe (Chris); S. Kumar-Singh (Samir); A. Tibben (Arend); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractSeveral mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene may lead to either Alzheimer's disease or cerebral haemorrhage due to congophilic amyloid angiopathy (CAA). A single family is known in which both types of pathology are expressed because of a missense mutati

  15. Membrane Incorporation, Channel Formation, and Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis by Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligomerization, conformational changes, and the consequent neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's β-amyloid protein (AβP play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Mounting evidence suggests that oligomeric AβPs cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis, eventually leading to neuronal death. We have demonstrated that oligomeric AβPs directly incorporate into neuronal membranes, form cation-sensitive ion channels (“amyloid channels”, and cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis via the amyloid channels. Other disease-related amyloidogenic proteins, such as prion protein in prion diseases or α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies, exhibit similarities in the incorporation into membranes and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. Here, based on our experimental results and those of numerous other studies, we review the current understanding of the direct binding of AβP into membrane surfaces and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. The implication of composition of membrane lipids and the possible development of new drugs by influencing membrane properties and attenuating amyloid channels for the treatment and prevention of AD is also discussed.

  16. Transmembrane amyloid-related proteins in CSF as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada eLopez-Font

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing search for new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, reasonable candidates are the secretase enzymes involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, as well as the large proteolytic cleavage fragments sAPPα and sAPPβ. The enzymatic activities of some of these secretases, such as BACE1 and TACE, have been investigated as potential AD biomarkers, and it has been assumed that these activities present in human CSF result from the soluble truncated forms of the membrane-bound enzymes. However, we and others recently identified soluble forms of BACE1 and APP in CSF containing the intracellular domains, as well as the multi-pass transmembrane presenilin-1 (PS1 and other subunits of γ-secretase. We also review recent findings that suggest that most of these soluble transmembrane proteins could display self-association properties based on hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions leading to the formation of heteromeric complexes. The oligomerization state of these potential new biomarkers needs to be taken into consideration for assessing their real potential as CSF biomarkers for AD by adequate molecular tools.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibits interleukin (IL)-1 and/or IL-6 stimulated synthesis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yap, S.H.; Moshage, H.J.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P.C.; Aarden, L.A.; Van Rijswijk, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are considered as important mediators for the modulation of liver synthesis of acute phase proteins. However, studies of the direct effect of individual or a combination of these cytokines on the synthesis of acute phase proteins in human hepa

  18. Copper binding to the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid precursor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Geoffrey K.-W.; Miles, Luke A.; Crespi, Gabriela A. N.; Morton, Craig J.; Ng, Hooi Ling; Barnham, Kevin J.; McKinstry, William J.; Cappai, Roberto; Michael W. Parker

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the fourth biggest killer in developed countries. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the development of the disease, through the generation of a peptide called Aβ by proteolysis of the precursor protein. APP can function as a metalloprotein and modulate copper transport via its extracellular copper binding domain (CuBD). Copper binding to this domain has been shown to reduce Aβ levels and hence a molecular understanding of the interaction between me...

  19. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping Yang; Dapeng Wu; Xiaojie Zhang; Xiang Wang; Yi Peng; Zhiping Hu

    2012-01-01

    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU.In this study,we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process.Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid,while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid.After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42,expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished,while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased.In addition,the high levels of telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002.These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  20. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein increases copper content in HEK293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suazo, Miriam; Hodar, Christian; Morgan, Carlos [INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformatica y Expresion Genica, Universidad de Chile, El Libano 5524, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cerpa, Waldo [Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneracion (CARE), Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia ' Joaquin V. Luco' (CRCP), MIFAB, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Cambiazo, Veronica [INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformatica y Expresion Genica, Universidad de Chile, El Libano 5524, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Millenium Nucleus CGC, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Inestrosa, Nibaldo C. [Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneracion (CARE), Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia ' Joaquin V. Luco' (CRCP), MIFAB, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Mauricio, E-mail: mgonzale@inta.cl [INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformatica y Expresion Genica, Universidad de Chile, El Libano 5524, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-05-15

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu{sup 2+} binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. Here, we assessed Cu{sup 2+} reduction and {sup 64}Cu uptake in two human HEK293 cell lines overexpressing APP. Our results indicate that Cu{sup 2+} reduction increased and cells accumulated larger levels of copper, maintaining cell viability at supra-physiological levels of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Moreover, wild-type cells exposed to both Cu{sup 2+} ions and APP135-155 synthetic peptides increased copper reduction and uptake. Complementation of function studies in human APP751 transformed Fre1 defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells rescued low Cu{sup 2+} reductase activity and increased {sup 64}Cu uptake. We conclude that Cu{sup 2+} reduction activity of APP facilitates copper uptake and may represent an early step in cellular copper homeostasis.

  1. Construction of human Fab library and screening of a single-domain antibody of amyloid-beta 42 oligomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuanning Yuan; Minge Du; Yiwen Chen; Fei Dou

    2013-01-01

    Screening humanized antibodies from a human Fab phage display library is an effective and quick method to obtain beta-amyloid oligomers. Thus, the present study prepared amyloid-beta 42 oli-gomers and constructed a naïve human Fab phage display library based on blood samples from six healthy people. After three rounds of biopanning in vitro, a human single-domain antibody that spe-cifical y recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers was identified. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated this antibody bound specifical y to human amyloid-beta 42 te-tramer and nonamer, but not the monomer or high molecular weight oligomers. This study suc-cessful y constructed a human phage display library and screened a single-domain antibody that specifical y recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers.

  2. Pore formation by human stefin B in its native and oligomeric states and the consequent amyloid induced toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eAnderluh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that amyloid forming peptides and proteins interact with membranes and that this correlates with cytotoxicity. To introduce the theme we give a brief description of some amyloidogenic proteins and note their similarities with pore forming toxins and cell penetrating peptides. Human stefin B, a member of the family of cystatins, is an amyloidogenic protein in vitro. This review describes our studies of the interaction of stefin B oligomers and prefibrillar aggregates with model membranes leading to pore formation. We have studied the interaction between human stefin B and artificial membranes of various compositions. We also have prepared distinct sizes and morphologies of stefin B prefibrillar states and assessed their toxicity. Furthermore, we have measured electrical currents through pores formed by stefin B prefibrillar oligomers in a planar lipid bilayer setup. We finally discuss the possible functional and pathological significance of such pores formed by human stefin B.

  3. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  4. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA, in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP and total protein (TP, can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic. CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10 % of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S was 0.10 ± 0.13 . For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15 , respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration ( r = 0.764 ; p < 0.0001 . The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5un g/mL. SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates

  5. The acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A and C reactive protein in transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Alessandra M; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Lavado, Edson L; Lotufo, Paulo A; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 +/- 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 +/- 0.37 and 0.68 +/- 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764; p transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8-360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates.

  6. Mink serum amyloid A protein. Expression and primary structure based on cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B

    1990-06-15

    The nucleotide sequences of two mink serum amyloid A (SAA) cDNA clones have been analyzed, one (SAA1) 776 base pairs long and the other (SAA2) 552 base pairs long. Significant differences were discovered when derived amino acid sequences were compared with data for apoSAA isolated from high density lipoprotein. Previous studies of mink protein SAA and amyloid protein A (AA) suggest that only one SAA isotype is amyloidogenic. The cDNA clone for SAA2 defines the "amyloid prone" isotype while SAA1 is found only in serum. Mink SAA1 has alanine in position 10, isoleucine in positions 24, 67, and 71, lysine in position 27, and proline in position 105. Residue 10 in mink SAA2 is valine while arginine and asparagine are at positions 24 and 27, respectively, all characteristics of protein AA isolated from mink amyloid fibrils. Mink SAA2 also has valine in position 67, phenylalanine in position 71, and amino acid 105 is serine. It remains unknown why these six amino acid substitutions render SAA2 more amyloidogenic than SAA1. Eighteen hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, mink SAA mRNA is abundant in liver with relatively minor accumulations in brain and lung. Genes encoding both SAA isotypes are expressed in all three organs while no SAA mRNA was detectable in amyloid prone organs, including spleen and intestine, indicating that deposition of AA from locally synthesized SAA is unlikely. A third mRNA species (2.2 kilobases) was identified and hybridizes with cDNA probes for mink SAA1 and SAA2. In addition to a major primary translation product (molecular mass 14,400 Da) an additional product with molecular mass 28,000 Da was immunoprecipitable.

  7. Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening for Proteins that Interact with the Extracellular Domain of Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Li, Yinan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which amyloid β plaques are a pathological characteristic. Little is known about the physiological functions of amyloid β precursor protein (APP). Based on its structure as a type I transmembrane protein, it has been proposed that APP might be a receptor, but so far, no ligand has been reported. In the present study, 9 proteins binding to the extracellular domain of APP were identified using a yeast two-hybrid system. After confirming the interactions in the mammalian system, mutated PLP1, members of the FLRT protein family, and KCTD16 were shown to interact with APP. These proteins have been reported to be involved in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) and axon guidance. Therefore, our results shed light on the mechanisms of physiological function of APP in AD, PMD, and axon guidance.

  8. Estrogen protects neuronal cells from amyloid beta-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial proteins and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto Sean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease is associated with increased apoptosis and parallels increased levels of amyloid beta, which can induce neuronal apoptosis. Estrogen exposure prior to neurotoxic insult of hippocampal neurons promotes neuronal defence and survival against neurodegenerative insults including amyloid beta. Although all underlying molecular mechanisms of amyloid beta neurotoxicity remain undetermined, mitochondrial dysfunction, including altered calcium homeostasis and Bcl-2 expression, are involved in neurodegenerative vulnerability. Results In this study, we investigated the mechanism of 17β-estradiol-induced prevention of amyloid beta-induced apoptosis of rat hippocampal neuronal cultures. Estradiol treatment prior to amyloid beta exposure significantly reduced the number of apoptotic neurons and the associated rise in resting intracellular calcium levels. Amyloid beta exposure provoked down regulation of a key antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and resulted in mitochondrial translocation of Bax, a protein known to promote cell death, and subsequent release of cytochrome c. E2 pretreatment inhibited the amyloid beta-induced decrease in Bcl-2 expression, translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and subsequent release of cytochrome c. Further implicating the mitochondria as a target of estradiol action, in vivo estradiol treatment enhanced the respiratory function of whole brain mitochondria. In addition, estradiol pretreatment protected isolated mitochondria against calcium-induced loss of respiratory function. Conclusion Therefore, we propose that estradiol pretreatment protects against amyloid beta neurotoxicity by limiting mitochondrial dysfunction via activation of antiapoptotic mechanisms.

  9. The purinergic receptor P2X7 triggers alpha-secretase-dependent processing of the amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarasse, Cécile; Auger, Rodolphe; Gonnord, Pauline; Fontaine, Bertrand; Kanellopoulos, Jean M

    2011-01-28

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by β- and γ-secretases to generate the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, which are present in large amounts in the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer disease (AD) patient brains. Non-amyloidogenic processing of APP by α-secretases leads to proteolytic cleavage within the Aβ peptide sequence and shedding of the soluble APP ectodomain (sAPPα), which has been reported to be endowed with neuroprotective properties. In this work, we have shown that activation of the purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) stimulates sAPPα release from mouse neuroblastoma cells expressing human APP, from human neuroblastoma cells and from mouse primary astrocytes or neural progenitor cells. sAPPα shedding is inhibited by P2X7R antagonists or knockdown of P2X7R with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and is not observed in neural cells from P2X7R-deficient mice. P2X7R-dependent APP-cleavage is independent of extracellular calcium and strongly inhibited by hydroxamate-based metalloprotease inhibitors, TAPI-2 and GM6001. However, knockdown of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-9 (ADAM9), ADAM10 and ADAM17 by specific siRNA, known to have α-secretase activity, does not block the P2X7R-dependent non-amyloidogenic pathway. Using several specific pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrate that the mitogen-activated protein kinase modules Erk1/2 and JNK are involved in P2X7R-dependent α-secretase activity. Our study suggests that P2X7R, which is expressed in hippocampal neurons and glial cells, is a potential therapeutic target in AD.

  10. Amyloid Deposition in Transplanted Human Pancreatic Islets: A Conceivable Cause of Their Long-Term Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Andersson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the encouraging report of the Edmonton group, there was a rejuvenation of the islet transplantation field. After that, more pessimistic views spread when long-term results of the clinical outcome were published. A progressive loss of the β-cell function meant that almost all patients were back on insulin therapy after 5 years. More than 10 years ago, we demonstrated that amyloid deposits rapidly formed in human islets and in mouse islets transgenic for human IAPP when grafted into nude mice. It is, therefore, conceivable to consider amyloid formation as one potential candidate for the long-term failure. The present paper reviews attempts in our laboratories to elucidate the dynamics of and mechanisms behind the formation of amyloid in transplanted islets with special emphasis on the impact of long-term hyperglycemia.

  11. Molecular simulations of beta-amyloid protein near hydrated lipids (PECASE).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Han, Kunwoo (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David M. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2005-12-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of beta-amyloid (A{beta}) protein and A{beta} fragment(31-42) in bulk water and near hydrated lipids to study the mechanism of neurotoxicity associated with the aggregation of the protein. We constructed full atomistic models using Cerius2 and ran simulations using LAMMPS. MD simulations with different conformations and positions of the protein fragment were performed. Thermodynamic properties were compared with previous literature and the results were analyzed. Longer simulations and data analyses based on the free energy profiles along the distance between the protein and the interface are ongoing.

  12. Fertility defects in mice expressing the L68Q variant of human cystatin C: a role for amyloid in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelly, Sandra; Serobian, Gaiane; Borchardt, Clinton; Powell, Jonathan; Johnson, Seethal; Hakansson, Katarina; Lindstrom, Veronica; Abrahamson, Magnus; Grubb, Anders; Cornwall, Gail A

    2014-03-14

    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C promoter were unable to generate offspring, suggesting the presence of L68Q cystatin C amyloid affected sperm function. In vitro studies showed that epididymal spermatozoa from L68Q mice were unable to fertilize oocytes and exhibited poor sperm motility. Furthermore, spermatozoa from L68Q mice exhibited reduced cell viability compared with wild type (WT) spermatozoa and often were detected in large agglutinated clumps. Examination of the epididymal fluid and spermatozoa from L68Q mice showed increased levels and distinct forms of cystatin C amyloid that were not present in WT mice. The addition of epididymal fluid from L68Q mice to WT spermatozoa resulted in a recapitulation of the L68Q phenotype in that WT spermatozoa showed reduced cell viability and motility compared with WT spermatozoa incubated in epididymal fluid from WT mice. L68Q epididymal fluid that was depleted of cystatin C amyloids, however, did not impair the motility of WT spermatozoa. Taken together these studies suggest that amyloids in the epididymal fluid can be cytotoxic to the maturing spermatozoa resulting in male infertility.

  13. Comparison of the amyloid pore forming properties of rat and human Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid peptide 1-42: Calcium imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Di Scala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data here consists of calcium imaging of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4AM and then incubated with nanomolar concentrations of either human or rat Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. These data are both of a qualitative (fluorescence micrographs and semi-quantitative nature (estimation of intracellular calcium concentrations of cells probed by Aβ1-42 peptides vs. control untreated cells. Since rat Aβ1-42 differs from its human counterpart at only three amino acid positions, this comparative study is a good assessment of the specificity of the amyloid pore forming assay. The interpretation of this dataset is presented in the accompanying study “Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides” [1].

  14. Colocalization of Serum Amyloid A with Microtubules in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Lakota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A (SAA acts as a major acute phase protein and represents a sensitive and accurate marker of inflammation. Besides its hepatic origin, as the main source of serum SAA, this protein is also produced extrahepatically. The mRNA levels of SAA become significantly elevated following proinflammatory stimuli, as well as, are induced through their own positive feedback in human primary coronary artery endothelial cells. However, the intracellular functions of SAA are so far unknown. Colocalization of SAA with cytoskeletal filaments has previously been proposed, so we analyzed the colocalization of SAA with all three cytoskeletal elements: actin filaments, vimentin filaments, and microtubules. Immunofluorescent double-labeling analyses confirmed by PLA method revealed a strict colocalization of SAA with microtubules and a very infrequent attachment to vimentin while the distribution of actin filaments appeared clearly separated from SAA staining. Also, no significant colocalization was found between SAA and endomembranes labeled with the fluorescent lipid stain DiO6. However, SAA appears to be located also unbound in the cytosol, as well as inside the nucleus and within nanotubes extending from the cells or bridging neighboring cells. These different locations of SAA in endothelial cells strongly indicate multiple potential functions of this protein.

  15. Rabbit serum amyloid protein A: expression and primary structure deduced from cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, M; Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B

    1991-12-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), the precursor of amyloid protein A (AA) in deposits of secondary amyloidosis, is an acute phase plasma apolipoprotein produced by hepatocytes. The primary structure of SAA demonstrates high interspecies homology. Several isoforms exist in individual species, probably with different amyloidogenic potential. The nucleotide sequences of two different rabbit serum amyloid A cDNA clones have been analysed, one (corresponding to SAA1) 569 base pairs (bp) long and the other (corresponding to SAA2) 513 bp long. Their deduced amino acid sequences differ at five amino acid positions, four of which are located in the NH2-terminal region of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of SAA2 corresponds to rabbit protein AA previously described except for one amino acid in position 22. Eighteen hours after turpentine stimulation, rabbit SAA mRNA is abundant in liver, while lower levels are present in spleen. None of the other extrahepatic organs studied showed any SAA mRNA expression. A third mRNA species (1.9 kb) hybridizing with a single-stranded RNA probe transcribed from the rabbit SAA cDNA, was identified. SAA1 and SAA2 mRNA were found in approximately equal amounts in turpentine-stimulated rabbit liver, but seem to be coordinately decreased after repeated inflammatory stimulation.

  16. Inhibition of amyloid-beta-induced cell death in human brain pericytes in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, A.A.M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Otte-Holler, I.; Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Waal, R.M.W. de; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein (A beta) deposition in the cerebral vascular walls is one of the key features of Alzheimer's disease and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D). A beta(1-40) carrying the 'Dutch' mutation (HCHWA-D A beta(1-40)) induces pronounced degeneration of cul

  17. Protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles/nanorods affects amyloid beta fibrillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadeghi, Somayeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Zohreh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ghavami, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit Aβ fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of Aβ in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of Aβ to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of Aβ fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)).Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades

  18. Contribution of Kunitz protease inhibitor and transmembrane domains to amyloid precursor protein homodimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khalifa, N; Tyteca, D; Courtoy, P J; Renauld, J C; Constantinescu, S N; Octave, J N; Kienlen-Campard, P

    2012-01-01

    The two major isoforms of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) are APP695 and APP751. They differ by the insertion of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) sequence in the extracellular domain of APP751. APP-KPI isoforms are increased in Alzheimer's disease brains, and they could be associated with disease progression. Recent studies have shown that APP processing to Aβ is regulated by homodimerization, which involves both extracellular and juxtamembrane/transmembrane (JM/TM) regions. Our aim is to understand the mechanisms controlling APP dimerization and the contribution of the ectodomain and JM/TM regions to this process. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches coupled to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis to measure the dimerization level of different APP isoforms and APP C-terminal fragments (C99) mutated in their JM/TM region. APP751 was found to form significantly more homodimers than APP695. Mutation of dimerization motifs in the TM domain of APP or C99 did not significantly affect fluorescence complementation. These findings indicate that the KPI domain plays a major role in APP dimerization. They set the basis for further investigation of the relation between dimerization, metabolism and function of APP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta-protein is an antimicrobial peptide.

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    Stephanie J Soscia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta is believed to be the key mediator of Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Abeta is most often characterized as an incidental catabolic byproduct that lacks a normal physiological role. However, Abeta has been shown to be a specific ligand for a number of different receptors and other molecules, transported by complex trafficking pathways, modulated in response to a variety of environmental stressors, and able to induce pro-inflammatory activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we provide data supporting an in vivo function for Abeta as an antimicrobial peptide (AMP. Experiments used established in vitro assays to compare antimicrobial activities of Abeta and LL-37, an archetypical human AMP. Findings reveal that Abeta exerts antimicrobial activity against eight common and clinically relevant microorganisms with a potency equivalent to, and in some cases greater than, LL-37. Furthermore, we show that AD whole brain homogenates have significantly higher antimicrobial activity than aged matched non-AD samples and that AMP action correlates with tissue Abeta levels. Consistent with Abeta-mediated activity, the increased antimicrobial action was ablated by immunodepletion of AD brain homogenates with anti-Abeta antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest Abeta is a hitherto unrecognized AMP that may normally function in the innate immune system. This finding stands in stark contrast to current models of Abeta-mediated pathology and has important implications for ongoing and future AD treatment strategies.

  20. The role of the E2 copper binding domain in the cell biology of the amyloid precursor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Blanthorn-Hazell, Sophee

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the accumulation, in the brain, of neurotoxic amyloid beta-(Aβ) peptides. These peptides are generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via the amyloidogenic proteolytic pathway which also leads to the formation of soluble APP beta (sAPPβ). Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by the non-amyloidogenic pathway in which an α-secretase activity cleaves the protein within the Aβ region generating soluble APP alpha (sAPPα). ...

  1. Structure and Synaptic Function of Metal Binding to the Amyloid Precursor Protein and its Proteolytic Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Klemens; August, Alexander; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is ultimately linked to the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, current research reveals an important synaptic function of APP and APP-like proteins (APLP1 and 2). In this context various neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions have been reported for the APP proteolytic fragments sAPPα, sAPPβ and the monomeric amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). APP is a metalloprotein and binds copper and zinc ions. Synaptic activity correlates with a release of these ions into the synaptic cleft and dysregulation of their homeostasis is linked to different neurodegenerative diseases. Metal binding to APP or its fragments affects its structure and its proteolytic cleavage and therefore its physiological function at the synapse. Here, we summarize the current data supporting this hypothesis and provide a model of how these different mechanisms might be intertwined with each other. PMID:28197076

  2. Amyloid beta-protein and lipid rafts: focused on biogenesis and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Wataru; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is thought to play a key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three secretases (β-, γ-, and α-secretase) are proteases that control the production of Aβ from amyloid precursor protein. Increasing evidence suggests that cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains termed 'lipid rafts' are involved in the biogenesis and accumulation of Aβ as well as Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity. γ-Secretase is enriched in lipid rafts, which are considered an important site for Aβ generation. Additionally, Aβ-degrading peptidases located in lipid rafts, such as neprilysin, appear to play a role in Aβ catabolism. This mini-review focuses on the roles of lipid rafts in the biogenesis and catabolism of Aβ, covering recent research on the relationship between lipid rafts and the three secretases or Aβ-degrading peptidases. Furthermore, the significance of lipid rafts in Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity is briefly summarized.

  3. Automated solid-state NMR resonance assignment of protein microcrystals and amyloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Elena [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Gath, Julia [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Habenstein, Birgit [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France); Ravotti, Francesco; Szekely, Kathrin; Huber, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Buchner, Lena [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Boeckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Guentert, Peter, E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Solid-state NMR is an emerging structure determination technique for crystalline and non-crystalline protein assemblies, e.g., amyloids. Resonance assignment constitutes the first and often very time-consuming step to a structure. We present ssFLYA, a generally applicable algorithm for automatic assignment of protein solid-state NMR spectra. Application to microcrystals of ubiquitin and the Ure2 prion C-terminal domain, as well as amyloids of HET-s(218-289) and {alpha}-synuclein yielded 88-97 % correctness for the backbone and side-chain assignments that are classified as self-consistent by the algorithm, and 77-90 % correctness if also assignments classified as tentative by the algorithm are included.

  4. Truncated prion protein PrP226* - A structural view on its role in amyloid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Valerija; Zupančič, Blaž; Ilc, Gregor; Plavec, Janez; Čurin Šerbec, Vladka

    2017-02-26

    In the brain of patients with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, besides PrP(Sc) aggregates, deposition of truncated PrP molecules was described. Jansen et al. reported two clinical cases with deposition of C-terminally truncated PrP, one of them ending with Tyr226. We have previously described the discovery of monoclonal antibody V5B2 that selectively recognizes this version of the prion protein, which we called PrP226*. Using monoclonal antibody V5B2 we showed that accumulation of PrP226* is characteristic for most types of human and animal TSEs. Its distribution correlates to the distribution of PrP(Sc) aggregates. To gain insight into the structural basis of its presence and distribution in PrP aggregates, we have determined the NMR structure of recombinant PrP226*. The structure of the protein consists of a disordered N-terminal part (residues 90-125) and a structured C-terminal part (residues 126-226). The C-terminal segment consists of four α-helices and a short antiparallel β-sheet. Our model predicts a break in the C-terminal helix and reorganized hydrophobic interactions between helix α3 and β2-α2 loop due to the shorter C-terminus. The structural model gives information on the possible role of the protein in the development of amyloid disease and can serve as a foundation to develop tools for prevention and treatment of prion diseases.

  5. IFN-gamma promotes complement expression and attenuates amyloid plaque deposition in amyloid beta precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Paramita; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Beccard, Amanda; Janus, Christopher; Dickson, Dennis; Golde, Todd E; Das, Pritam

    2010-05-01

    Reactive gliosis surrounding amyloid beta (Abeta) plaques is an early feature of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and has been postulated to represent activation of the innate immune system in an apparently ineffective attempt to clear or neutralize Abeta aggregates. To evaluate the role of IFN-gamma-mediated neuroinflammation on the evolution of Abeta pathology in transgenic (Tg) mice, we have expressed murine IFN-gamma (mIFN-gamma) in the brains of Abeta precursor protein (APP) Tg mice using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1. Expression of mIFN-gamma in brains of APP TgCRND8 mice results in robust noncell autonomous activation of microglia and astrocytes, and a concomitant significant suppression of Abeta deposition. In these mice, mIFN-gamma expression upregulated multiple glial activation markers, early components of the complement cascade as well as led to infiltration of Ly-6c positive peripheral monocytes but no significant effects on APP levels, APP processing or steady-state Abeta levels were noticed in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that mIFN-gamma expression in the brain suppresses Abeta accumulation through synergistic effects of activated glia and components of the innate immune system that enhance Abeta aggregate phagocytosis.

  6. Brain burdens of aluminum, iron, and copper and their relationships with amyloid-β pathology in 60 human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Esiri, Margaret M

    2012-01-01

    The deposition in the brain of amyloid-β as beta sheet conformers associated with senile plaques and vasculature is frequently observed in Alzheimer’s disease. While metals, primarily aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper, have been implicated in amyloid-β deposition in vivo, there are few data specifically relating brain metal burden with extent of amyloid pathologies in human brains. Herein brain tissue content of aluminum, iron, and copper are compared with burdens of amyloid-β, as senile plaques and as congophilic amyloid angiopathy, in 60 aged human brains. Significant observations were strong negative correlations between brain copper burden and the degree of severity of both senile plaque and congophilic amyloid angiopathy pathologies with the relationship with the former reaching statistical significance. While we did not have access to the dementia status of the majority of the 60 brain donors, this knowledge for just 4 donors allowed us to speculate that diagnosis of dementia might be predicted by a combination of amyloid pathology and a ratio of the brain burden of copper to the brain burden of aluminum. Taking into account only those donor brains with either senile plaque scores ≥4 and/or congophilic amyloid angiopathy scores ≥12, a Cu:Al ratio of <20 would predict that at least 39 of the 60 donors would have been diagnosed as suffering from dementia. Future research should test the hypothesis that, in individuals with moderate to severe amyloid pathology, low brain copper is a predisposition to developing dementia.

  7. Insights into the physiological function of the β-amyloid precursor protein: beyond Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Edgar; Small, David H

    2014-06-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) of Alzheimer's disease. However, the normal function of APP remains largely unknown. This article reviews studies on the structure, expression and post-translational processing of APP, as well as studies on the effects of APP in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that the published data provide strong evidence that APP has a trophic function. APP is likely to be involved in neural stem cell development, neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and neurorepair. However, the mechanisms by which APP exerts its actions remain to be elucidated. The available evidence suggests that APP interacts both intracellularly and extracellularly to regulate various signal transduction mechanisms. This article reviews studies on the structure, expression and post-translational processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as studies on the effects of APP in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that the published data provide strong evidence that APP has a trophic function. APP is likely to be involved in neural stem cell development, neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and neurorepair. However, the mechanisms by which APP exerts its actions remain to be elucidated. The available evidence suggests that APP interacts both intracellularly and extracellularly to regulate various signal transduction mechanisms.

  8. Repeated administration of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4 modulates neuroinflammation and amyloid plaque load in mice bearing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutant transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Jill C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data indicates anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-cognitive properties of noradrenaline and analyses of post-mortem brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients reveal major neuronal loss in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC, the main source of CNS noradrenaline (NA. The LC has projections to brain regions vulnerable to amyloid deposition and lack of LC derived NA could play a role in the progression of neuroinflammation in AD. Previous studies reveal that intraperitoneal (IP injection of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4 can modulate neuroinflammation in amyloid over-expressing mice and in one study, DSP-4 exacerbated existing neurodegeneration. Methods TASTPM mice over-express human APP and beta amyloid protein and show age related cognitive decline and neuroinflammation. In the present studies, 5 month old C57/BL6 and TASTPM mice were injected once monthly for 6 months with a low dose of DSP-4 (5 mg kg-1 or vehicle. At 8 and 11 months of age, mice were tested for cognitive ability and brains were examined for amyloid load and neuroinflammation. Results At 8 months of age there was no difference in LC tyrosine hydroxylase (TH across all groups and cortical NA levels of TASTPM/DSP-4, WT/Vehicle and WT/DSP-4 were similar. NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/Vehicle. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA for various inflammatory markers were significantly increased in TASTPM/Vehicle compared with WT/Vehicle and by 8 months of age DSP-4 treatment modified this by reducing the levels of some of these markers in TASTPM. TASTPM/Vehicle showed increased astrocytosis and a significantly larger area of cortical amyloid plaque compared with TASTPM/DSP-4. However, by 11 months, NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/DSP-4 and there was a significant reduction in LC TH of TASTPM/DSP-4 only. Both TASTPM groups had comparable levels of amyloid, microglial activation and astrocytosis and mRNA for

  9. Sorting by the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein binding receptor SorLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten S; Gustafsen, Camilla; Madsen, Peder

    2007-01-01

    -formation with the amyloid precursor protein it downregulates generation of Alzheimer's disease-associated Abeta-peptide. The receptor is mainly located in vesicles, suggesting a function in protein sorting and transport. Here we examined SorLA's trafficking using full-length and chimeric receptors and find that its...... established that the AP-1 adaptor complex is essential to SorLA's transport between Golgi membranes and endosomes. Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged...

  10. A comparison of immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry for determining the amyloid fibril protein from formalin-fixed biopsy tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Janet A; Theis, Jason D; Vrana, Julie A; Lachmann, Helen; Wechalekar, Ashutosh; Whelan, Carol; Hawkins, Philip N; Dogan, Ahmet; Gillmore, Julian D

    2015-04-01

    Amyloidosis is caused by deposition in tissues of abnormal protein in a characteristic fibrillar form. There are many types of amyloidosis, classified according to the soluble protein precursor from which the amyloid fibrils are derived. Accurate identification of amyloid type is critical in every case since therapy for systemic amyloidosis is type specific. In ∼20-25% cases, however, immunohistochemistry (IHC) fails to prove the amyloid type and further tests are required. Laser microdissection and mass spectrometry (LDMS) is a powerful tool for identifying proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. We undertook a blinded comparison of IHC, performed at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre, and LDMS, performed at the Mayo Clinic, in 142 consecutive biopsy specimens from 38 different tissue types. There was 100% concordance between positive IHC and LDMS, and the latter increased diagnostic accuracy from 76% to 94%. LDMS in expert hands is a valuable tool for amyloid diagnosis.

  11. Amyloid-beta leads to impaired cellular respiration, energy production and mitochondrial electron chain complex activities in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, V; Baysang, G; Rao, S; Meier, F; Bonert, A; Müller-Spahn, F; Eckert, A

    2009-09-01

    Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Here we investigated the specific effects of Abeta on mitochondrial function under physiological conditions. Mitochondrial respiratory functions and energy metabolism were analyzed in control and in human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) stably transfected human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Mitochondrial respiratory capacity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in vital cells was measured with a high-resolution respirometry system (Oxygraph-2k). In addition, we determined the individual activities of mitochondrial complexes I-IV that compose ETC and ATP cellular levels. While the activities of complexes I and II did not change between cell types, complex IV activity was significantly reduced in APP cells. In contrast, activity of complex III was significantly enhanced in APP cells, as compensatory response in order to balance the defect of complex IV. However, this compensatory mechanism could not prevent the strong impairment of total respiration in vital APP cells. As a result, the respiratory control ratio (state3/state4) together with ATP production decreased in the APP cells in comparison with the control cells. Chronic exposure to soluble Abeta protein may result in an impairment of energy homeostasis due to a decreased respiratory capacity of mitochondrial electron transport chain which, in turn, may accelerate neurons demise.

  12. Coffee components inhibit amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide in vitro: possible link between coffee consumption and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Biao; Liu, Xinran; Gong, Hao; Huang, Lianqi; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Li, Chuanzhou; Yang, Muyang; Ma, Bingjun; Jiao, Lihua; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2011-12-28

    Global epidemic studies have suggested that coffee consumption is reversely correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a metabolic disease. The misfolding of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is regarded as one of the causative factors of T2DM. Coffee extracts have three major active components: caffeine, caffeic acid (CA), and chlorogenic acid (CGA). In this study, the effects of these major coffee components, as well as dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) (a major metabolite of CGA and CA), on the amyloidogenicity of hIAPP were investigated by thioflavin-T based fluorescence emission, transmission electronic microscopy, circular dichroism, light-induced cross-linking, dynamic light scattering, and MTT-based cell viability assays. The results suggest that all components show varied inhibitory effects on the formation of toxic hIAPP amyloids, in which CA shows the highest potency in delaying the conformational transition of the hIAPP molecule with the most prolonged lag time, whereas caffeine shows the lowest potency. At a 5-fold excess molar ratio of compound to hIAPP, all coffee-derived compounds affect the secondary structures of incubated hIAPP as suggested by the circular dichroism spectra and CDPro deconvolution analysis. Further photoinduced cross-linking based oligomerization and dynamic light scattering studies suggested CA and CGA significantly suppressed the formation of hIAPP oligomers, whereas caffeine showed no significant effect on oligomerization. Cell protection effects were also observed for all three compounds, with the protection efficiency being greatest for CA and least for CGA. These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of coffee consumption on T2DM may be partly due to the ability of the major coffee components and metabolites to inhibit the toxic aggregation of hIAPP.

  13. Hydrolysis of the amyloid prion protein and nonpathogenic meat and bone meal by anaerobic thermophilic prokaryotes and streptomyces subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiroulnikov, Kirill; Rezai, Human; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elisaveta; Nedkov, Peter; Gousterova, Adriana; Cueff, Valérie; Godfroy, Anne; Barbier, Georges; Métro, François; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Dormont, Dominique; Grosclaude, Jeanne; Haertlé, Thomas

    2004-10-06

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are caused by accumulation of highly resistant misfolded amyloid prion protein PrPres and can be initiated by penetration of such pathogen molecules from infected tissue to intact organism. Decontamination of animal meal containing amyloid prion protein is proposed thanks to the use of proteolytic enzymes secreted by thermophilic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter, Thermosipho, and Thermococcus subsp. and mesophilic soil bacteria Streptomyces subsp. Keratins alpha and beta, which resemble amyloid structures, were used as the substrates for the screening for microorganisms able to grow on keratins and producing efficient proteases specific for hydrolysis of beta-sheeted proteic structures, hence amyloids. Secretion of keratin-degrading proteases was evidenced by a zymogram method. Enzymes from thermophilic strains VC13, VC15, and S290 and Streptomyces subsp. S6 were strongly active against amyloid recombinant ovine prion protein and animal meal proteins. The studied proteases displayed broad primary specificities hydrolyzing low molecular mass peptide model substrates. Strong amyloidolytic activity of detected proteases was confirmed by experiments of hydrolysis of PrPres in SAFs produced from brain homogenates of mice infected with the 6PB1 BSE strain. The proteases from Thermoanaerobacter subsp. S290 and Streptomyces subsp. S6 are the best candidates for neutralization/elimination of amyloids in meat and bone meal and other protein-containing substances and materials.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of Alzheimer disease protection by the A673T allele of amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Janice A; Bainbridge, Travis; Gustafson, Amy; Zhang, Shuo; Kyauk, Roxanne; Steiner, Pascal; van der Brug, Marcel; Liu, Yichin; Ernst, James A; Watts, Ryan J; Atwal, Jasvinder K

    2014-11-07

    Pathogenic mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene have been described as causing early onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD). We recently identified a rare APP variant encoding an alanine-to-threonine substitution at residue 673 (A673T) that confers protection against development of AD (Jonsson, T., Atwal, J. K., Steinberg, S., Snaedal, J., Jonsson, P. V., Bjornsson, S., Stefansson, H., Sulem, P., Gudbjartsson, D., Maloney, J., Hoyte, K., Gustafson, A., Liu, Y., Lu, Y., Bhangale, T., Graham, R. R., Huttenlocher, J., Bjornsdottir, G., Andreassen, O. A., Jönsson, E. G., Palotie, A., Behrens, T. W., Magnusson, O. T., Kong, A., Thorsteinsdottir, U., Watts, R. J., and Stefansson, K. (2012) Nature 488, 96-99). The Ala-673 residue lies within the β-secretase recognition sequence and is part of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide cleavage product (position 2 of Aβ). We previously demonstrated that the A673T substitution makes APP a less favorable substrate for cleavage by BACE1. In follow-up studies, we confirm that A673T APP shows reduced cleavage by BACE1 in transfected mouse primary neurons and in isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. Using a biochemical approach, we show that the A673T substitution modulates the catalytic turnover rate (V(max)) of APP by the BACE1 enzyme, without affecting the affinity (K(m)) of the APP substrate for BACE1. We also show a reduced level of Aβ(1-42) aggregation with A2T Aβ peptides, an observation not conserved in Aβ(1-40) peptides. When combined in a ratio of 1:9 Aβ(1-42)/Aβ(1-40) to mimic physiologically relevant mixtures, A2T retains a trend toward slowed aggregation kinetics. Microglial uptake of the mutant Aβ(1-42) peptides correlated with their aggregation level. Cytotoxicity of the mutant Aβ peptides was not dramatically altered. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that A673T, a protective allele of APP, reproducibly reduces amyloidogenic processing of APP and also mildly decreases A

  15. Modulation of β-amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing by the low density lipoprotein receptor family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cam Judy A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ accumulation in the brain is an early, toxic event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aβ is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP, by β- and γ-secretases. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that alterations in APP cellular trafficking and localization directly impact its processing to Aβ. Recent studies have shown that members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, including LRP, LRP1B, SorLA/LR11, and apolipoprotein E (apoE receptor 2, interact with APP and regulate its endocytic trafficking. Another common feature of these receptors is their ability to bind apoE, which exists in three isoforms in humans and the presence of the ε4 allele represents a genetic risk factor for AD. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the function of these apoE receptors with a focus on their role in APP trafficking and processing. Knowledge of the interactions between these distinct low-density lipoprotein receptor family members and APP may ultimately influence future therapies for AD.

  16. Effects of glucose and insulin on secretion of amyloid-β by human adipose tissue cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, William G; Gupta, Dhananjay; Smith, Joshua; Jones, Karen P; Jones, Amanda M; Pratley, Richard E

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease. Overlapping patterns of metabolic dysfunction may be common molecular links between these complex diseases. Amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein and associated β- and γ-secretases are expressed in adipose tissue. Aβ precursor protein is up-regulated with obesity and correlated to insulin resistance. Aβ may be secreted by adipose tissue, its production may be regulated through metabolic pathways, and Aβ may exert effects on adipose tissue insulin receptor signaling. Human stromal-vascular cells and differentiated adipocytes were cultured with different combinations of glucose and insulin and then assayed for Aβ in conditioned media. Aβ was measured in vivo using adipose tissue microdialysis. Aβ secretion was increased by glucose and insulin in vitro. Adipose tissue microdialysates contained Aβ. Adipocytes treated with Aβ had decreased expression of insulin receptor substrate-2 and reduced Akt-1 phosphorylation. Aβ was made by adipose tissue cells in vitro at concentrations similar to in vivo measurements. Regulation of Aβ production by glucose and insulin and effects of Aβ on the insulin receptor pathway suggest similar cellular mechanisms may exist between neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer disease and adipose dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  17. C-terminal cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor at Asp664: a switch associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwait, Surita; Galvan, Veronica; Zhang, Junli; Gorostiza, Olivia F; Ataie, Marina; Huang, Wei; Crippen, Danielle; Koo, Edward H; Bredesen, Dale E

    2008-02-01

    In addition to the proteolytic cleavages that give rise to amyloid-beta (Abeta), the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) is cleaved at Asp664 intracytoplasmically. This cleavage releases a cytotoxic peptide, APP-C31, removes AbetaPP-interaction motifs required for signaling and internalization, and is required for the generation of AD-like deficits in a mouse model of the disease. Although we and others had previously shown that Asp664 cleavage of AbetaPP is increased in AD brains, the distribution of the Asp664-cleaved forms of AbetaPP in non-diseased and AD brains at different ages had not been determined. Confirming previous reports, we found that Asp664-cleaved forms of AbetaPP were increased in neuronal cytoplasm and nuclei in early-stage AD brains but were absent in age-matched, non-diseased control brains and in late-stage AD brains. Remarkably, however, Asp664-cleaved AbetaPP was prominent in neuronal somata and in processes in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of non-diseased human brains at ages <45 years. Our observations suggest that Asp664 cleavage of AbetaPP may be part of the normal proteolytic processing of AbetaPP in young (<45 years) human brain and that this cleavage is down-regulated with normal aging, but is aberrantly increased and altered in location in early AD.

  18. C-Terminal Cleavage of the AmyloidProtein Precursor at Asp664: A Switch Associated with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwait, Surita; Galvan, Veronica; Zhang, Junli; Gorostiza, Olivia F.; Ataie, Marina; Huang, Wei; Crippen, Danielle; Koo, Edward H.; Bredesen, Dale E.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the proteolytic cleavages that give rise to amyloid-β (Aβ), the amyloidprotein precursor (AβPP) is cleaved at Asp664 intracytoplasmically. This cleavage releases a cytotoxic peptide, APP-C31, removes AβPP-interaction motifs required for signaling and internalization, and is required for the generation of AD-like deficits in a mouse model of the disease. Although we and others had previously shown that Asp664 cleavage of AβPP is increased in AD brains, the distribution of the Asp664-cleaved forms of AβPP in non-diseased and AD brains at different ages had not been determined. Confirming previous reports, we found that Asp664-cleaved forms of AβPP were increased in neuronal cytoplasm and nuclei in early-stage AD brains but were absent in age-matched, non-diseased control brains and in late-stage AD brains. Remarkably, however, Asp664-cleaved AβPP was prominent in neuronal somata and in processes in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of non-diseased human brains at ages <45 years. Our observations suggest that Asp664 cleavage of AβPP may be part of the normal proteolytic processing of AβPP in young (<45 years) human brain and that this cleavage is down-regulated with normal aging, but is aberrantly increased and altered in location in early AD. PMID:18334752

  19. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Transgenic Mice: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Models for the Role of hIAPP in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. M. Höppener

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, a pancreatic islet protein of 37 amino acids, is the main component of islet amyloid, seen at autopsy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. To investigate the roles of hIAPP and islet amyloid in DM2, we generated transgenic mice expressing hIAPP in their islet beta cells. In this study, we found that after a long-term, high-fat diet challenge islet amyloid was observed in only 4 of 19 hIAPP transgenic mice. hIAPP transgenic females exhibited severe glucose intolerance, which was associated with a downregulation of GLUT-2 mRNA expression. In isolated islets from hIAPP males cultured for 3 weeks on high-glucose medium, the percentage of amyloid containing islets increased from 5.5% to 70%. This ex vivo system will allow a more rapid, convenient, and specific study of factors influencing islet amyloidosis as well as of therapeutic strategies to interfere with this pathological process.

  20. P-glycoprotein expression and amyloid accumulation in human aging and Alzheimer's disease: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Catherine; Miller, Miles C; Monahan, Renée; Osgood, Doreen P; Stopa, Edward G; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), part of the blood-brain barrier, limits drug access to the brain and is the target for therapies designed to improve drug penetration. P-gp also extrudes brain amyloid-beta (Aβ). Accumulation of Aβ is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ accumulates in normal aging and in AD primarily due to decreased Aβ clearance. This is a preliminary report on the relative protein and messenger RNA expression of P-gp in human brains, ages 20-100 years, including AD subjects. In these preliminary studies, cortical endothelial P-gp expression decreased in AD compared with controls (p P-gp expression in human aging are similar to aging rats. Microvessel P-gp messenger RNA remained unchanged with aging and AD. Aβ plaques were found in 42.8% of normal subjects (54.5% of those older than 50 years). A qualitative analysis showed that P-gp expression is lower than the group mean in subjects older than 75 years but increased if younger. Decreased P-gp expression may be related to Aβ plaques in aging and AD. Downregulating P-gp to allow pharmaceuticals into the central nervous system may increase Aβ accumulation.

  1. Serum amyloid A is found on ApoB-containing lipoproteins in obese humans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Anisa; Wilson, Patricia G; Hou, Tianfei; Brown, Aparna; King, Victoria L; Tannock, Lisa R

    2013-05-01

    In murine models of obesity/diabetes, there is an increase in plasma serum amyloid A (SAA) levels along with redistribution of SAA from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoprotein particles, namely, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. The goal of this study was to determine if obesity is associated with similar SAA lipoprotein redistribution in humans. Three groups of obese individuals were recruited from a weight loss clinic: healthy obese (n = 14), metabolic syndrome (MetS) obese (n = 8), and obese with type 2 diabetes (n = 6). Plasma was separated into lipoprotein fractions by fast protein liquid chromatography, and SAA was measured in lipid fractions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Only the obese diabetic group had SAA detectable in apoB-containing lipoproteins, and SAA reverted back to HDL with active weight loss. In human subjects, SAA is found in apoB-containing lipoprotein particles only in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes, but not in healthy obese or obese subjects with MetS. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Estrogen stimulates release of secreted amyloid precursor protein from primary rat cortical neurons via protein kinase C pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun ZHANG; Ying HUANG; Yi-chun ZHU; Tai YAO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanism of the action of estrogen, which stimulates the release of secreted amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) and decreases the gen eration of amyloidprotein (Aβ), a dominant component in senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: Experiments were carried out inprimary rat cortical neurons, and Western blot was used to detect sAPPα in aculture medium and the total amount of cellular amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurons. Results: 17β-Estradiol (but not 17α-estradiol) and β-estradiol 6-(Ocarboxymethyl) oxime: BSA increased the secretion of sAPPα and this effect was blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C, but not by the classical estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Meanwhile, 17β-estradiol did not alter the synthesis of cellular APP. Conclusion: The effect of 17β-estradiol on sAPPα secretion is likely mediated through the membrane binding sites, and needs molecular configuration specificity of the ligand. Furthermore, the action of the PKC dependent pathway might be involved in estrogen-induced sAPPα secretion.

  3. The intact Kunitz domain protects the amyloid precursor protein from being processed by matriptase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Anna-Madeleine; Glebov, Konstantin; Walter, Jochen; Merkel, Olaf; Mangold, Martin; Schmidt, Frederike; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Gütschow, Michael; Stirnberg, Marit

    2016-08-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. So far, the mechanism of APP processing is insufficiently characterized at the molecular level. Whereas the knowledge of Aβ generation by several proteases has been expanded, the contribution of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) present in two major APP isoforms to the complex proteolytic processing of APP is poorly understood. In this study, we have identified KPI-containing APP as a very potent, slow-binding inhibitor for the membrane-bound proteolytic regulator of iron homeostasis matriptase-2 by forming stable complexes with its target protease in HEK cells. Inhibition and complex formation depend on the intact KPI domain. By inhibiting matriptase-2, KPI-containing APP is protected from matriptase-2-mediated proteolysis within the Aβ region, thus preventing the generation of N-terminally truncated Aβ.

  4. β-Amyloid precursor protein: function in stem cell development and Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David H; Hu, Yanling; Bolós, Marta; Dawkins, Edgar; Foa, Lisa; Young, Kaylene M

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy may be a suitable approach for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases. However, one major impediment to the development of successful cell-based therapies is our limited understanding of the mechanisms that instruct neural stem cell behaviour, such as proliferation and cell fate specification. The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may play an important role in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Our recent work shows that in vitro, APP stimulates neural stem or progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. The effect on proliferation is mediated by an autocrine factor that we have identified as cystatin C. As cystatin C expression is also reported to inhibit the development of amyloid pathology in APP transgenic mice, our finding has implications for the possible use of cystatin C for the therapy of AD.

  5. Protein-induced photophysical changes to the amyloid indicator dye thioflavin T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Leslie S.; Calabrese, Matthew F.; Nath, Abhinav; Blaho, Dorottya V.; Miranker, Andrew D.; Xiong, Yong (Yale)

    2010-10-04

    The small molecule thioflavin T (ThT) is a defining probe for the identification and mechanistic study of amyloid fiber formation. As such, ThT is fundamental to investigations of serious diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and type II diabetes. For each disease, a different protein undergoes conformational conversion to a {beta}-sheet rich fiber. The fluorescence of ThT exhibits an increase in quantum yield upon binding these fibers. Despite its widespread use, the structural basis for binding specificity and for the changes to the photophysical properties of ThT remain poorly understood. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of ThT with two alternative states of {beta}-2 microglobulin ({beta}2m); one monomeric, the other an amyloid-like oligomer. In the latter, the dye intercalates between {beta}-sheets orthogonal to the {beta}-strands. Importantly, the fluorophore is bound in such a manner that a photophysically relevant torsion is limited to a range of angles generally associated with low, not high, quantum yield. Quantum mechanical assessment of the fluorophore shows the electronic distribution to be strongly stabilized by aromatic interactions with the protein. Monomeric {beta}2m gives little increase in ThT fluorescence despite showing three fluorophores, at two binding sites, in configurations generally associated with high quantum yield. Our efforts fundamentally extend existing understanding about the origins of amyloid-induced photophysical changes. Specifically, the {beta}-sheet interface that characterizes amyloid acts both sterically and electronically to stabilize the fluorophore's ground state electronic distribution. By preventing the fluorophore from adopting its preferred excited state configuration, nonradiative relaxation pathways are minimized and quantum yield is increased.

  6. Protein-induced Photophysical Changes to the Amyloid Indicator Dye Thioflavin T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Wolfe; M Calabrese; A Nath; D Blaho; A Miranker; Y Xiong

    2011-12-31

    The small molecule thioflavin T (ThT) is a defining probe for the identification and mechanistic study of amyloid fiber formation. As such, ThT is fundamental to investigations of serious diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and type II diabetes. For each disease, a different protein undergoes conformational conversion to a {beta}-sheet rich fiber. The fluorescence of ThT exhibits an increase in quantum yield upon binding these fibers. Despite its widespread use, the structural basis for binding specificity and for the changes to the photophysical properties of ThT remain poorly understood. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of ThT with two alternative states of {beta}-2 microglobulin ({beta}2m); one monomeric, the other an amyloid-like oligomer. In the latter, the dye intercalates between {beta}-sheets orthogonal to the {beta}-strands. Importantly, the fluorophore is bound in such a manner that a photophysically relevant torsion is limited to a range of angles generally associated with low, not high, quantum yield. Quantum mechanical assessment of the fluorophore shows the electronic distribution to be strongly stabilized by aromatic interactions with the protein. Monomeric {beta}2m gives little increase in ThT fluorescence despite showing three fluorophores, at two binding sites, in configurations generally associated with high quantum yield. Our efforts fundamentally extend existing understanding about the origins of amyloid-induced photophysical changes. Specifically, the {beta}-sheet interface that characterizes amyloid acts both sterically and electronically to stabilize the fluorophore's ground state electronic distribution. By preventing the fluorophore from adopting its preferred excited state configuration, nonradiative relaxation pathways are minimized and quantum yield is increased.

  7. Fragments of the constant region of immunoglobulin light chains are constituents of AL-amyloid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin...... light chain are a constituent of the AL-amyloid proteins of kappa type. A specific antiserum has identified these fragments in gel filtration fractions where the absorbance approached the base line after the main retarded peak. The fragments are small and have been overlooked previously...

  8. Progress in the development of therapeutic antibodies targeting prion proteins and β-amyloid peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by protein misfolding, and can lead to dementia. However, prion diseases are infectious and transmissible, while AD is not. The similarities and differences between these diseases have led researchers to perform comparative studies. In the last 2 decades, progress has been made in immunotherapy using anti-prion protein and anti-β-amyloid antibodies. In this study, we review new ideas and strategies for therapeutic antibodies targeting prion diseases and AD through conformation dependence.

  9. Protein interactions among Fe65, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, and the amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Melinda M; Guttman, Miklos; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-19

    The adapter protein Fe65 has been proposed to be the link between the intracellular domains of the amyloid precursor protein, APP (AICD), and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-CT). Functional linkage between these two proteins has been established, and mutations within LRP-CT affect the amount of Aβ produced from APP. Previous work showed that AICD binds to protein interaction domain 2 (PID2) of Fe65. Although the structure of PID1 was determined recently, all attempts to demonstrate LRP-CT binding to this domain failed. We used biophysical experiments and binding studies to investigate the binding among these three proteins. Full-length Fe65 bound more weakly to AICD than did N-terminally truncated forms; however, the intramolecular domain-domain interactions that had been proposed to inhibit binding could not be observed using amide H-D exchange. Surprisingly, when LRP-CT is phosphorylated at Tyr4507, it bound to Fe65 PID1 despite the fact that this domain belongs to the Dab-like subclass of PIDs that are not supposed to be phosphorylation-dependent. Mutation of a critical arginine abolished binding, providing further proof of the phosphorylation dependence. Fe65 PID1 thus provides a link between the Dab-like class and the IRS-like class of PIDs and is the first Dab-like family member to show phosphorylation-dependent binding.

  10. Polymerizing the fibre between bacteria and host cells: the biogenesis of functional amyloid fibres

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid fibres are proteinaceous aggregates associated with several human diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Creutzfeldt Jakob’s. Disease-associated amyloid formation is the result of proteins that misfold and aggregate into β sheet-rich fibre polymers. Cellular toxicity is readily associated with amyloidogenesis, although the molecular mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. Recently, a new class of ‘functional’ amyloid fibres was discovered that demonstrates that amyloids can ...

  11. Consequences of Inhibiting Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing Enzymes on Synaptic Function and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disease, one of whose major pathological hallmarks is the accumulation of amyloid plaques comprised of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ peptides. It is now recognized that soluble Aβ oligomers may lead to synaptic dysfunctions early in AD pathology preceding plaque deposition. Aβ is produced by a sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP by the activity of β- and γ-secretases, which have been identified as major candidate therapeutic targets of AD. This paper focuses on how Aβ alters synaptic function and the functional consequences of inhibiting the activity of the two secretases responsible for Aβ generation. Abnormalities in synaptic function resulting from the absence or inhibition of the Aβ-producing enzymes suggest that Aβ itself may have normal physiological functions which are disrupted by abnormal accumulation of Aβ during AD pathology. This interpretation suggests that AD therapeutics targeting the β- and γ-secretases should be developed to restore normal levels of Aβ or combined with measures to circumvent the associated synaptic dysfunction(s in order to have minimal impact on normal synaptic function.

  12. Y682 mutation of amyloid precursor protein promotes endo-lysosomal dysfunction by disrupting APP-SorLA interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rosario La Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular transport and localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP are critical determinants of APP processing and β-amyloid peptide production, thus crucially important for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Notably, the C-terminal Y682ENPTY687 domain of APP binds to specific adaptors controlling APP trafficking and sorting in neurons. Mutation on the Y682 residue to glycine (Y682G leads to altered APP sorting in hippocampal neurons that favors its accumulation in intracellular compartments and the release of soluble APPα. Such alterations induce premature aging and learning and cognitive deficits in APP Y682G mutant mice (APPYG/YG. Here, we report that Y682G mutation affects formation of the APP complex with sortilin-related receptor (SorLA, resulting in endo-lysosomal dysfunctions and neuronal degeneration. Moreover, disruption of the APP/SorLA complex changes the trafficking pathway of SorLA, with its consequent increase in secretion outside neurons. Mutations in the SorLA gene are a prognostic factor in AD, and increases in SorLA levels in cerebrospinal fluid are predictive of AD in humans. These results might open new possibilities in comprehending the role played by SorLA in its interaction with APP and in the progression of neuronal degeneration. In addition, they further underline the crucial role played by Y682 residue in controlling APP trafficking in neurons.

  13. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Improves Amyloid β Protein-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Kwon, Hyuck-Se; Shin, Se-Gye; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bilberry) on the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloidprotein (AβP) 1-42. ICR Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: the control (Aβ40-1A), control with 5% bilberry group (Aβ40-1B), amyloid β protein 1-42 treated group (Aβ1-42A), and Aβ1-42 with 5% bilberry group (Aβ1-42B). The control was treated with amyloid β-protein 40-1 for placebo effect, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) group was treated with amyloid β-protein 1-42. Amyloid β-protein 1-42 was intracerebroventricular (ICV) micro injected into the hippocampus in 35% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. Although bilberry added groups tended to decrease the finding time of hidden platform, no statistical significance was found. On the other hand, escape latencies of AβP injected mice were extended compared to that of Aβ40-1. In the Probe test, bilberry added Aβ1-42B group showed a significant (Pmemory compared to Aβ40-1 control group. In passive avoidance test, bilberry significantly (Pimprove memory and learning capability in chemically induced Alzheimer's disease in experimental animal models.

  14. Computational Modelling of the Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skeby, Katrine Kirkeby

    2014-01-01

    . Using MD simulations we have investigated the binding of 13 different imaging agents to a fibril segment. Using clustering analysis and binding energy calculations we have identified a common binding mode for the 13 agents in the surface grooves of the fibril, which are present on all amyloid fibrils...... between the N-terminal part of hIAPP and the lipid head-groups. This is due to positive charges present in the N-terminal part of hIAPP interacting with the anionic lipids. The C-terminal part of hIAPP is unfolded in the solution phase, making this part of hIAPP ready for interaction with other peptides...... in flat ribbons which are due to the compatible peptide terminals. Capping only the N-terminal abolishes the fibrillation, which is caused by incompatibility of the hydrophobic N-terminal with the anionic C terminal as well as a lower number of interpeptide hydrogen bonds to overcome the repulsion...

  15. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fustiñana Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Results Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl, showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels Conclusions cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  16. Oxidative stress induces macroautophagy of amyloid beta-protein and ensuing apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Lin; Kågedal, Katarina; Dehvari, Nodi;

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the toxicity of intracellular amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) to neurons and the involvement of lysosomes in this process in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently shown that oxidative stress, a recognized determinant of AD, enhances macroautophagy and leads...... to intralysosomal accumulation of Abeta in cultured neuroblastoma cells. We hypothesized that oxidative stress promotes AD by stimulating macroautophagy of Abeta that further may induce cell death by destabilizing lysosomal membranes. To investigate such possibility, we compared the effects of hyperoxia (40...

  17. A Physiological Role for Amyloid Beta Protein: Enhancement of Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    John Morley; Susan Farr; William Banks; Johnson, Steven N.; Yamada, Kelvin A.; Lin Xu

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid beta protein (A[beta]) is well recognized as having a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The reason for the presence of A[beta] and its physiological role in non-disease states is not clear. In these studies, low doses of A[beta] enhanced memory retention in two memory tasks and enhanced acetylcholine production in the hippocampus _in vivo_. We then tested whether endogenous A[beta] has a role in learning and memory in young, cognitively intact mice...

  18. FMRP mediates mGluR5-dependent translation of amyloid precursor protein.

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    Cara J Westmark

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid precursor protein (APP facilitates synapse formation in the developing brain, while beta-amyloid (Abeta accumulation, which is associated with Alzheimer disease, results in synaptic loss and impaired neurotransmission. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP is a cytoplasmic mRNA binding protein whose expression is lost in fragile X syndrome. Here we show that FMRP binds to the coding region of APP mRNA at a guanine-rich, G-quartet-like sequence. Stimulation of cortical synaptoneurosomes or primary neuronal cells with the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist DHPG increased APP translation in wild-type but not fmr-1 knockout samples. APP mRNA coimmunoprecipitated with FMRP in resting synaptoneurosomes, but the interaction was lost shortly after DHPG treatment. Soluble Abeta40 or Abeta42 levels were significantly higher in multiple strains of fmr-1 knockout mice compared to wild-type controls. Our data indicate that postsynaptic FMRP binds to and regulates the translation of APP mRNA through metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and suggests a possible link between Alzheimer disease and fragile X syndrome.

  19. An Aberrant Phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein Tyrosine Regulates Its Trafficking and the Binding to the Clathrin Endocytic Complex in Neural Stem Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe T.; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Rasmussen, Helle F.; Maier, Thorsten J.; Enghild, Jan J.; Jørgensen, Arne L.; Matrone, Carmela

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is likely caused by defective amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking and processing in neurons leading to amyloid plaques containing the amyloid-β (Aβ) APP peptide byproducts. Understanding how APP is targeted to selected destinations inside neurons and identifying the mechanisms responsible for the generation of Aβ are thus the keys for the advancement of new therapies. We previously developed a mouse model with a mutation at tyrosine (Tyr) 682 in the C-terminus of APP. This residue is needed for APP to bind to the coating protein Clathrin and to the Clathrin adaptor protein AP2 as well as for the correct APP trafficking and sorting in neurons. By extending these findings to humans, we found that APP binding to Clathrin is decreased in neural stem cells from AD sufferers. Increased APP Tyr phosphorylation alters APP trafficking in AD neurons and it is associated to Fyn Tyr kinase activation. We show that compounds affecting Tyr kinase activity and counteracting defects in AD neurons can control APP location and compartmentalization. APP Tyr phosphorylation is thus a potential therapeutic target for AD.

  20. Genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 alzheimer's disease candidate proteins: significant associations with proteins involved in amyloid processing and inflammation.

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    John S K Kauwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF 42 amino acid species of amyloid beta (Aβ42 and tau levels are strongly correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathology including amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration and have been successfully used as endophenotypes for genetic studies of AD. Additional CSF analytes may also serve as useful endophenotypes that capture other aspects of AD pathophysiology. Here we have conducted a genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 AD-related analytes. All analytes were measured using the Rules Based Medicine Human DiscoveryMAP Panel, which includes analytes relevant to several disease-related processes. Data from two independently collected and measured datasets, the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, were analyzed separately, and combined results were obtained using meta-analysis. We identified genetic associations with CSF levels of 5 proteins (Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4, Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R and Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3 with study-wide significant p-values (p<1.46×10-10 and significant, consistent evidence for association in both the Knight ADRC and the ADNI samples. These proteins are involved in amyloid processing and pro-inflammatory signaling. SNPs associated with ACE, IL6R and MMP3 protein levels are located within the coding regions of the corresponding structural gene. The SNPs associated with CSF levels of CCL4 and CCL2 are located in known chemokine binding proteins. The genetic associations reported here are novel and suggest mechanisms for genetic control of CSF and plasma levels of these disease-related proteins. Significant SNPs in ACE and MMP3 also showed association with AD risk. Our findings suggest that these proteins/pathways may be valuable therapeutic targets for AD. Robust associations in cognitively normal

  1. Role of X11 and ubiquilin as in vivo regulators of the amyloid precursor protein in Drosophila.

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    Garrett G Gross

    Full Text Available The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP undergoes sequential proteolytic cleavages through the action of beta- and gamma-secretase, which result in the generation of toxic beta-amyloid (Abeta peptides and a C-terminal fragment consisting of the intracellular domain of APP (AICD. Mutations leading to increased APP levels or alterations in APP cleavage cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD. Thus, identification of factors that regulate APP steady state levels and/or APP cleavage by gamma-secretase is likely to provide insight into AD pathogenesis. Here, using transgenic flies that act as reporters for endogenous gamma-secretase activity and/or APP levels (GAMAREP, and for the APP intracellular domain (AICDREP, we identified mutations in X11L and ubiquilin (ubqn as genetic modifiers of APP. Human homologs of both X11L (X11/Mint and Ubqn (UBQLN1 have been implicated in AD pathogenesis. In contrast to previous reports, we show that overexpression of X11L or human X11 does not alter gamma-secretase cleavage of APP or Notch, another gamma-secretase substrate. Instead, expression of either X11L or human X11 regulates APP at the level of the AICD, and this activity requires the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain of X11. In contrast, Ubqn regulates the levels of APP: loss of ubqn function leads to a decrease in the steady state levels of APP, while increased ubqn expression results in an increase in APP levels. Ubqn physically binds to APP, an interaction that depends on its ubiquitin-associated (UBA domain, suggesting that direct physical interactions may underlie Ubqn-dependent regulation of APP. Together, our studies identify X11L and Ubqn as in vivo regulators of APP. Since increased expression of X11 attenuates Abeta production and/or secretion in APP transgenic mice, but does not act on gamma-secretase directly, X11 may represent an attractive therapeutic target for AD.

  2. Disturbed α-Cell Function in Mice with β-Cell Specific Overexpression of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ahrén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous administration of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP has been shown to inhibit both insulin and glucagon secretion. This study examined α-cell function in mice with β-cell specific overexpression of human IAPP (hIAPP after an oral protein gavage (75 mg whey protein/mouse. Baseline glucagon levels were higher in transgenic mice (41±4.0 pg/mL, n=6 than in wildtype animals (19±5.1 pg/mL, n=5, P=.015. In contrast, the glucagon response to protein was impaired in transgenic animals (21±2.7 pg/mL in transgenic mice versus 38±5.7 pg/mL in wildtype mice at 15 minutes; P=.027. Baseline insulin levels did not differ between the groups, while the insulin response, as the glucagon response, was impaired after protein challenge (P=.018. Glucose levels were not different between the groups and did not change significantly after protein gavage. Acetaminophen was given through gavage to the animals (2 mg/mouse to estimate gastric emptying. The plasma acetaminophen profile was similar in the two groups of mice. We conclude that disturbances in glucagon secretion exist in mice with β-cell specific overexpression of human IAPP, which are not secondary to changes in gastric emptying. The reduced glucagon response to protein challenge may reflect a direct inhibitory influence of hIAPP on glucagon secretion.

  3. Exercise is more effective than diet control in preventing high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Hayashida, Naoko; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2012-06-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some dietary patterns, specifically high fat diet (HFD), increase the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, interventions targeting HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions may be effective in preventing the development of AD. We previously demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic mice fed HFD showed worsening of cognitive function when compared with control APP mice on normal diet. Moreover, we reported that voluntary exercise ameliorates HFD-induced memory impairment and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In the present study, we conducted diet control to ameliorate the metabolic abnormality caused by HFD on APP transgenic mice and compared the effect of diet control on cognitive function with that of voluntary exercise as well as that of combined (diet control plus exercise) treatment. Surprisingly, we found that exercise was more effective than diet control, although both exercise and diet control ameliorated HFD-induced memory deficit and Aβ deposition. The production of Aβ was not different between the exercise- and the diet control-treated mice. On the other hand, exercise specifically strengthened the activity of neprilysin, the Aβ-degrading enzyme, the level of which was significantly correlated with that of deposited Aβ in our mice. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment (exercise and diet control) on memory and amyloid pathology was not significantly different from that of exercise alone. These studies provide solid evidence that exercise is a useful intervention to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in transgenic model mice of AD.

  4. A quantitative method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazenberg, B.; Limburg, P; Bijzet, J.; VAN RIJSWIJK, M. H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe a new, quantitative, and reproducible method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue and to compare it with smears stained with Congo red.
METHODS—After extraction of at least 30 mg of abdominal fat tissue in guanidine, the amyloid A protein concentration was measured by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.
RESULTS—The concentrations in 24 patients with arthritis and AA amyloidosis (median 236, range 1.1-8530 ng/mg tissue) were higher (...

  5. Stabilization of native amyloid β-protein oligomers by Copper and Hydrogen peroxide Induced Cross-linking of Unmodified Proteins (CHICUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas L; Serpell, Louise C; Urbanc, Brigita

    2016-03-01

    Oligomeric assemblies are postulated to be proximate neurotoxic species in human diseases associated with aberrant protein aggregation. Their heterogeneous and transient nature makes their structural characterization difficult. Size distributions of oligomers of several amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid β-protein (Aβ) relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been previously characterized in vitro by photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Due to non-physiological conditions associated with the PICUP chemistry, Aβ oligomers cross-linked by PICUP may not be representative of in vivo conditions. Here, we examine an alternative Copper and Hydrogen peroxide Induced Cross-linking of Unmodified Proteins (CHICUP), which utilizes naturally occurring divalent copper ions and hydrogen peroxide and does not require photo activation. Our results demonstrate that CHICUP and PICUP applied to the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, result in similar oligomer size distributions. Thioflavin T fluorescence data and atomic force microscopy images demonstrate that both CHICUP and PICUP stabilize Aβ oligomers and attenuate fibril formation. Relative to noncross-linked peptides, CHICUP-treated Aβ40 and Aβ42 cause prolonged disruption to biomimetic lipid vesicles. CHICUP-stabilized Aβ oligomers link the amyloid cascade, metal, and oxidative stress hypotheses of AD into a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of AD pathology. Because copper and hydrogen peroxide are elevated in the AD brain, CHICUP-stabilized Aβ oligomers are biologically relevant and should be further explored as a new therapeutic target.

  6. LINGO-1 promotes lysosomal degradation of amyloidprotein precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Rian; Meabon, James S; Wiley, Jesse C; Hudson, Mark P; Montine, Thomas J; Bothwell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sequential proteolytic cleavages of amyloidprotein precursor (AβPP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase generate amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much of this processing occurs in endosomes following endocytosis of AβPP from the plasma membrane. However, this pathogenic mode of processing AβPP may occur in competition with lysosomal degradation of AβPP, a common fate of membrane proteins trafficking through the endosomal system. Following up on published reports that LINGO-1 binds and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of AβPP we have examined the consequences of LINGO-1/AβPP interactions. We report that LINGO-1 and its paralogs, LINGO-2 and LINGO-3, decrease processing of AβPP in the amyloidogenic pathway by promoting lysosomal degradation of AβPP. We also report that LINGO-1 levels are reduced in AD brain, representing a possible pathogenic mechanism stimulating the generation of Aβ peptides in AD.

  7. LINGO-1 promotes lysosomal degradation of amyloidprotein precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian de Laat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential proteolytic cleavages of amyloidprotein precursor (AβPP by β-secretase and γ-secretase generate amyloid β (Aβ peptides, which are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD. Much of this processing occurs in endosomes following endocytosis of AβPP from the plasma membrane. However, this pathogenic mode of processing AβPP may occur in competition with lysosomal degradation of AβPP, a common fate of membrane proteins trafficking through the endosomal system. Following up on published reports that LINGO-1 binds and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of AβPP we have examined the consequences of LINGO-1/AβPP interactions. We report that LINGO-1 and its paralogs, LINGO-2 and LINGO-3, decrease processing of AβPP in the amyloidogenic pathway by promoting lysosomal degradation of AβPP. We also report that LINGO-1 levels are reduced in AD brain, representing a possible pathogenic mechanism stimulating the generation of Aβ peptides in AD.

  8. Amyloid precursor proteins, neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and its relevance to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Neeta; Lie, Khun Hong; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sidhu, Kuldip S

    2012-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of age-related dementia that is characterized by an extensive loss of neurons and synaptic transmission. The pathological hallmarks of AD are neurofibrillary tangles and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. Previous research has investigated how Aβ fragments disrupt synaptic mechanisms in the vulnerable regions of the brain. There is a tremendous potential for stem cell technology to extend upon this research, not only in terms of developing therapeutic applications, but also in modeling AD. Indeed, the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology has opened up exciting new avenues for generating patient and disease-specific cell lines from somatic cells that may be used to model AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key protein in neuronal development and this article reviews the role of APP in AD. Stem cell technology offers the opportunity to make use of APP in the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into functional neurons, a process that may help generate a model of AD and thereby facilitate an understanding of the mechanisms underlying this disease.

  9. Acute ER stress regulates amyloid precursor protein processing through ubiquitin-dependent degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Sun; Hong, HyunSeok; Kim, Chaeyoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-03-05

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. APP is an integral membrane protein, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD; however, the biological function of APP is still unclear. The present study shows that APP is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the CHO cell line in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, such as calcium ionophore, A23187, induced calcium influx. Increased levels of intracellular calcium by A23187 induces polyubiquitination of APP, causing its degradation. A23187-induced reduction of APP is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, an increase in levels of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) marker, E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, proteasome activity, and decreased levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP25 were observed during ER stress. In addition, we found that APP interacts with USP25. These findings suggest that acute ER stress induces degradation of full-length APP via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  10. Complement C3 deficiency leads to accelerated amyloid beta plaque deposition and neurodegeneration and modulation of the microglia/macrophage phenotype in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Marcel; Peng, Ying; Jiang, Liying; Seabrook, Timothy J; Carroll, Michael C; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2008-06-18

    Complement factor C3 is the central component of the complement system and a key inflammatory protein activated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of C3 by overexpression of soluble complement receptor-related protein y in an AD mouse model led to reduced microgliosis, increased amyloid beta (Abeta) plaque burden, and neurodegeneration. To further address the role of C3 in AD pathology, we generated a complement C3-deficient amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic AD mouse model (APP;C3(-/-)). Brains were analyzed at 8, 12, and 17 months of age by immunohistochemical and biochemical methods and compared with age-matched APP transgenic mice. At younger ages (8-12 months), no significant neuropathological differences were observed between the two transgenic lines. In contrast, at 17 months of age, APP;C3(-/-) mice showed significant changes of up to twofold increased total Abeta and fibrillar amyloid plaque burden in midfrontal cortex and hippocampus, which correlated with (1) significantly increased Tris-buffered saline (TBS)-insoluble Abeta(42) levels and reduced TBS-soluble Abeta(42) and Abeta(40) levels in brain homogenates, (2) a trend for increased Abeta levels in the plasma, (3) a significant loss of neuronal-specific nuclear protein-positive neurons in the hippocampus, and (4) differential activation of microglia toward a more alternative phenotype (e.g., significantly increased CD45-positive microglia, increased brain levels of interleukins 4 and 10, and reduced levels of CD68, F4/80, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor). Our results suggest a beneficial role for complement C3 in plaque clearance and neuronal health as well as in modulation of the microglia phenotype.

  11. Amyloid-clearing proteins and their epigenetic regulation as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N Nalivaeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal elevation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ levels in the brain is the primary trigger for neuronal cell death specific to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. It is now evident that Aβ levels in the brain are manipulable due to a dynamic equilibrium between its production from the amyloid precursor protein (APP and removal by amyloid clearance proteins. Clearance can be either enzymic or non-enzymic (binding/transport proteins. Intriguingly several of the main amyloid-degrading enzymes (ADEs are members of the M13 peptidase family (neprilysin (NEP, NEP2 and the endothelin converting enzymes (ECE-1 and -2. A distinct metallopeptidase, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, also contributes to Aβ degradation in the brain. The ADE family currently embraces more than 20 members, both membrane-bound and soluble, and of differing cellular locations. NEP plays an important role in brain function terminating neuropeptide signals. Its decrease in specific brain areas with age or after hypoxia, ischaemia or stroke contribute significantly to the development of AD pathology. The recently discovered mechanism of epigenetic regulation of NEP (and other genes by the APP intracellular domain (AICD and its dependence on the cell type and APP isoform expression suggest possibilities for selective manipulation of NEP gene expression in neuronal cells. We have also observed that another amyloid-clearing protein, namely transthyretin (TTR, is also regulated in the neuronal cell by a mechanism similar to NEP. Dependence of amyloid clearance proteins on histone deacetylases and the ability of HDAC inhibitors to up-regulate their expression in the brain opens new avenues for developing preventive strategies in AD.

  12. Apigenin modulates the expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators to reduce the human insulin amyloid-induced oxidant damages in SK-N-MC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, R; Yazdanparast, R; Ghaffari, S H

    2015-06-01

    Amyloid depositions of proteins play crucial roles in a wide variety of degenerative disorders called amyloidosis. Although the exact mechanisms involved in amyloid-mediated cytotoxicity remain unknown, increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines are believed to play key roles in the process. In that regard, we investigated the effect of apigenin, a common dietary flavonoid with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on potential factors involved in cytotoxicity of human insulin amyloids. Pretreatment of SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells with apigenin increased cell viability and reduced the apoptosis induced by insulin fibrils. In addition, apigenin attenuated insulin fibril-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Our result also demonstrated that pretreatment of the fibril-affected cells with apigenin caused an increase in catalase activity and the intracellular glutathione content along with reduction in nitric oxide production and nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 gene expression based on real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluation. In accordance with these results, apigenin could be a promising candidate in the design of natural-based drugs for treatment or prevention of amyloid-related disorders.

  13. Human stefin B normal and patho-physiological role: molecular and cellular aspects of amyloid-type aggregation of certain EPM1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira ePolajnar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies are characterised by abnormal electrophysiological activity of the brain. Among various types of inherited epilepsies different epilepsy syndromes, among them progressive myoclonus epilepsies with features of ataxia and neurodegeneration, are counted. The progressive myoclonus epilepsy of type 1 (EPM1, also known as Unverricht-Lundborg disease presents with features of cerebellar atrophy and increased oxidative stress. It has been found that EPM1 is caused by mutations in human cystatin B gene (human stefin B. We first describe the role of protein aggregation in other neurodegenerative conditions. Protein aggregates appear intraneurally but are also excreted, such as is the case with senile plaques of amyloid- β (Aβ that accumulate in the brain parenchyma and vessel walls. A common characteristic of such diseases is the change of the protein conformation towards β secondary structure that accounts for the strong tendency of such proteins to aggregate and form amyloid fibrils. Second, we describe the patho-physiology of EPM1 and the normal and aberrant roles of stefin B in a mouse model of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how the increased protein aggregation observed with some of the mutants of human stefin B may relate to the neurodegeneration that occurs in rare EPM1 patients. Our hypothesis (Ceru et al., 2005 states that some of the EPM1 mutants of human stefin B may undergo aggregation in neural cells, thus gaining additional toxic function (apart from loss of normal function. Our in vitro experiments thus far have confirmed that 4 mutants undergo increased aggregation relative to the wild-type protein. It has been shown that the R68X mutant forms amyloid-fibrils very rapidly, even at neutral pH and forms perinuclear inclusions, whereas the G4R mutant exhibits a prolonged lag phase, during which the toxic prefibrillar aggregates accumulate and are scattered more diffusely over the cytoplasm. Initial experiments on the G50E

  14. Emerging roles for the amyloid precursor protein and derived peptides in the regulation of cellular and systemic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeczor, Juliane K; McGee, Sean L

    2017-03-28

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that can be cleaved by proteases through two different pathways to yield a number of small peptides, each with distinct physiological properties and functions. It has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, with the APP-derived amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide being a major constituent of the amyloid plaques observed in this disease. It has been known for some time that APP can regulate neuronal metabolism, however this review will examine evidence that APP and its peptides can also regulate key metabolic processes such as insulin action, lipid synthesis and storage and mitochondrial function in peripheral tissues. This review will present a hypothesis that amyloidogenic processing of APP in peripheral tissues plays a key role in the response to nutrient excess and that this could contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein aggregation and amyloid fibril formation by an SH3 domain probed by limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Taddei, Niccolò; Frare, Erica; Capanni, Cristina; Costantini, Silvia; Zurdo, Jesús; Chiti, Fabrizio; Dobson, Christopher M; Fontana, Angelo

    2003-11-14

    The SH3 domains are small protein modules of 60-85 amino acid residues that are found in many proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction. The SH3 domain of the p85alpha subunit of bovine phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-SH3) under acidic solution adopts a compact denatured state from which amyloid fibrils are readily formed. This aggregation process has been found to be modulated substantially by solution conditions. Here, we have analyzed the conformational features of the native and acid denatured states of PI3-SH3 by limited proteolysis experiments using proteinase K and pepsin, respectively. Moreover, we have analyzed the propensity of PI3-SH3 to be hydrolyzed by pepsin at different stages in the process of aggregation and amyloid formation at pH 1.2 and 2.0 and compared the sites of proteolysis under these conditions with the conformational features of both native and aggregated PI3-SH3. The results demonstrate that the denatured state of PI3-SH3 formed at low pH is relatively resistant to proteolysis, indicating that it is partially folded. The long loop connecting beta-strands b and c in the native protein is the region in this structure most susceptible to proteolysis. Remarkably, aggregates of PI3-SH3 that are formed initially from this denatured state in acid solution display enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis of the long loop, suggesting that the protein becomes more unfolded in the early stages of aggregation. By contrast, the more defined amyloid fibrils that are formed over longer periods of time are completely resistant to proteolysis. We suggest that the protein aggregates formed initially are relatively dynamic species that are able readily to reorganize their interactions to enable formation of very well ordered fibrillar structures. In addition, the disordered and non-native character of the polypeptide chains in the early aggregates could be important in determining the high cytotoxicity that has been revealed in previous

  16. Study of amyloids using yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  17. Direct Identification of Functional Amyloid Proteins by Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Heidi N; Hansen, Susan H; Herbst, Florian-Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Functional amyloids are important structural and functional components of many biofilms, yet our knowledge of these fascinating polymers is limited to a few examples for which the native amyloids have been isolated in pure form. Isolation of the functional amyloids from other cell components repr...

  18. Residue specific effects of human islet polypeptide amyloid on self-assembly and on cell toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemtemourian, Lucie; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Foufelle, Fabienne; Killian, J Antoinette

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized histopathologically by the presence of fibrillary amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the 37-residue pancreatic hormone, is the major constituent of these amyloid deposits. The propensity of IAPP to form amyloid fibrils is strongly dependent on its primary sequence. An intriguing example is His at residue 18. Although H18 is located outside the amyloidogenic region, it has been suggested that this residue and its charge state play an important role in the kinetics of conformational changes and fibril formation as well as in mediating cell toxicity. To gain more insight into the importance of this residue, we have synthesized four analogues (H18R-IAPP, H18K-IAPP, H18A-IAPP and H18E-IAPP) and we performed a full biophysical study on the properties of these peptides. Kinetic experiments as monitored by thioflavin-T fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism and cell toxicity assays revealed that all variants are less fibrillogenic and less toxic than native hIAPP both at neutral pH and at low pH. This demonstrates that the effect of H18 in native IAPP is not simply determined by its charge state, but rather that residue 18 is important for specific intra- and intermolecular interactions that occur during fibril formation and that may involve charge, size and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, our results indicate that H18R-IAPP has a strong inhibiting effect on native hIAPP fibril formation. Together these results highlight the large impact of modifying a single residue outside the amyloidogenic domain on fibril formation and cell toxicity induced by IAPP, opening up new avenues for design of inhibitors or modulators of IAPP aggregation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function.

  20. Oxidative stress affects processing of amyloid precursor protein in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche, Abebe; Arendt, Thomas; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be a key player in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been assumed that oxidative stress contributes to the ß-amyloid deposition in cerebral blood vessels. In order to prove this hypothesis, we examined the effect of oxidative stress on the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary endothelial cells (EC) derived from cerebral cortical tissue of transgenic Tg2576 mice. Following exposure of EC by 1 μM hydrogen peroxide for up to 48 hours, formation and secretion of APP cleavage products sAPPα and sAPPß into the culture medium as well as the expression of endothelial APP were assessed. Oxidative stress resulted in enhanced secretion of sAPPß into the culture medium as compared to controls (absence of hydrogen peroxide), which was accompanied by an increased APP expression, induction of VEGF synthesis, nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals productions, and differential changes of endothelial phospo-p42/44 MAPK expression. The data suggest that oxidative stress may represent a major risk factor in causing Aß deposition in the brain vascular system by initiating the amyloidogenic route of endothelial APP processing. The enhanced β-secretase activity following oxidative stress exposure, possibly promoted by phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK.

  1. Lead exposure in pheochromocytoma cells induces persistent changes in amyloid precursor protein gene methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Tian; Wan, Yanjian; Xu, Shun-qing

    2012-08-01

    It has been suggested that lead (Pb) exposure in early life may increase amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and promote the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease in old age. The current study examined whether the DNA methylation patterns of APP gene in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells changed after Pb acetate exposure. Undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to three doses of Pb acetate (50, 250, and 500 nM) and one control for 2 days or 1 week. The methylation patterns of APP promoter and global DNA methylation were analyzed. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression and the level of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) were also investigated. The results showed that the exposure of the three concentrations of Pb acetate could make the APP promoter hypomethylated. The global DNA methylation level and the expression of DNMT1 were changed in the 500 nM group after 2 days exposure and in the 250 and 500 nM group after 7 days exposure. Thus, Pb may exert neurotoxic effects through mechanisms that alter the global and promoter methylation patterns of APP gene. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dual roles of the transmembrane protein p23/TMP21 in the modulation of amyloid precursor protein metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieland Felix T

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by cerebral deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides. Aβ is released from ectodomain cleaved amyloid precursor protein (APP via intramembranous proteolysis by γ-secretase, a complex consisting of presenilin and a few other proteins. p23/TMP21, a member of the p24 family type I transmembrane proteins, was recently identified as a presenilin complex component capable of modulating γ-secretase cleavage. The p24 family proteins form oligomeric complexes and regulate vesicular trafficking in the early secretory pathway, but their role in APP trafficking has not been investigated. Results Here, we report that siRNA-mediated depletion of p23 in N2a neuroblastoma and HeLa cells produces concomitant knockdown of additional p24 family proteins and increases secretion of sAPP. Furthermore, intact cell and cell-free Aβ production increases following p23 knockdown, similar to data reported earlier using HEK293 cells. However, we find that p23 is not present in mature γ-secretase complexes isolated using an active-site γ-secretase inhibitor. Depletion of p23 and expression of a familial AD-linked PS1 mutant have additive effects on Aβ42 production. Knockdown of p23 expression confers biosynthetic stability to nascent APP, allowing its efficient maturation and surface accumulation. Moreover, immunoisolation analyses show decrease in co-residence of APP and the APP adaptor Mint3. Thus, multiple lines of evidence indicate that p23 function influences APP trafficking and sAPP release independent of its reported role in γ-secretase modulation. Conclusion These data assign significance to p24 family proteins in regulating APP trafficking in the continuum of bidirectional transport between the ER and Golgi, and ascribe new relevance to the regulation of early trafficking in AD pathogenesis.

  3. The coding sequence of amyloid-beta precursor protein APP contains a neural-specific promoter element.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, R.W.J.; Martens, G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The amyloid-beta precursor protein APP is generally accepted to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Since its physiological role is still unclear, we decided to study the function of APP via stable transgenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. However, the application of constructs

  4. A Synthetic Peptide with the Putative Iron Binding Motif of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Does Not Catalytically Oxidize Iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honarmand Ebrahimi, K.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is a key player in Alzheimer's disease, was recently reported to possess an Fe(II) binding site within its E2 domain which exhibits ferroxidase activity [Duce et al. 2010, Cell 142: 857]. The putative ligands of this site were compared to those in the fer

  5. The coding sequence of amyloid-beta precursor protein APP contains a neural-specific promoter element.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, R.W.J.; Martens, G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The amyloid-beta precursor protein APP is generally accepted to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Since its physiological role is still unclear, we decided to study the function of APP via stable transgenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. However, the application of constructs

  6. Tissue transglutaminase colocalizes with extracellular matrix proteins in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Mieke; van der Wildt, Berend; Schul, Emma; Bol, John G J M; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Drukarch, Benjamin; Wilhelmus, Micha M M

    2013-04-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of the Dutch type (HCHWA-D). CAA is characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) depositions and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in brain vessels and plays an important role in the development and progression of both AD and HCHWA-D. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) modulates the ECM by molecular cross-linking of ECM proteins. Here, we investigated the distribution pattern, cellular source, and activity of tTG in CAA in control, AD, and HCHWA-D cases. We observed increased tTG immunoreactivity and colocalization with Aβ in the vessel wall in early stage CAA, whereas in later CAA stages, tTG and its cross-links were present in halos enclosing the Aβ deposition. In CAA, tTG and its cross-links at the abluminal side of the vessel were demonstrated to be either of astrocytic origin in parenchymal vessels, of fibroblastic origin in leptomeningeal vessels, and of endothelial origin at the luminal side of the deposited Aβ. Furthermore, the ECM proteins fibronectin and laminin colocalized with the tTG-positive halos surrounding the deposited Aβ in CAA. However, we observed that in situ tTG activity was present throughout the vessel wall in late stage CAA. Together, our data suggest that tTG and its activity might play a differential role in the development and progression of CAA, possibly evolving from direct modulation of Aβ aggregation to cross-linking of ECM proteins resulting in ECM restructuring.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of human telomerase reverse transcriptase on beta-amyloid fragment 25-35-treated human embryonic cortical neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingping Kong; Lingzhi Wu; Jie Zhang; Yaping Liao; Huaqiao Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Numerous current studies have suggested that human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene has neuroprotective effects and can inhibit apoptosis induced by various cytotoxic stresses;however,the mechanism of action remains unknown.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanism of action of hTERT gene transfection in human embryonic cortical neurons treated with beta-amyloid fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35).DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The randomized,controlled and molecular biological studies were performed at the Department of Anatomy and Brain Research,Zhongshan School of Medicine,Sun Yat-sen University,China,from September 2005 to June 2008.MATERIALS:AdEasy-1 Expression System was gifted by Professor Guoquan Gao from Sun Yat-Sen University,China.Human cortical neurons were derived from 12-20 week old aborted fetuses,obtained from the Guangzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital,China.Mouse anti-Cdk5 and mouse anti-p16 monoclonal antibodies (Lab Vision,USA),and mouse anti-hTERT monoclonal antibody (Epitomics,USA),were used in this study.METHODS:(1) Recombinant adenovirus vectors,encoding hTERT (Ad-hTERT) and green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP),were constructed using the AdEasy-1 Expression System.Human embryonic cortical neurons in the Ad-hTERT group were transfected with Ad-hTERT for 1-21 days.Likewise,human embryonic cortical neurons in the Ad-GFP group were transfected with Ad-GFP for 1-21 days.Human embryonic cortical neurons in the control group were cultured as normal.(2) Human embryonic cortical neurons in the Ad-hTERT group were treated with 10 μmol/L Aβ25-35 for 24 hours.Normal human embryonic cortical neurons treated with 10 μmol/L Aβ25-35 for 24 hours served as a model group.Human embryonic cortical neurons in the Ad-GFP and control groups were not treated with Aβ25-35.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Expression of hTERT in human embryonic cortical neurons was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining and Western blot assay

  8. The β-amyloid protein induces S100β expression in rat hippocampus through a mechanism that involves IL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) on S100β expression in rat hippocampus and its mechanisms. Methods At 7 days after bilateral stereotaxis injection of different dose of fibrillar Aβ 25-35 and interluekin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) into the rat CA1 region, the learning and memory abilities of rats were tested with passive avoidance task. Amyloid deposition was detected by using Congo red staining technique. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze th...

  9. AL amyloid imaging and therapy with a monoclonal antibody to a cryptic epitope on amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Wall

    Full Text Available The monoclonal antibody 2A4 binds an epitope derived from a cleavage site of serum amyloid protein A (sAA containing a -Glu-Asp- amino acid pairing. In addition to its reactivity with sAA amyloid deposits, the antibody was also found to bind amyloid fibrils composed of immunoglobulin light chains. The antibody binds to synthetic fibrils and human light chain (AL amyloid extracts with high affinity even in the presence of soluble light chain proteins. Immunohistochemistry with biotinylated 2A4 demonstrated positive reaction with ALκ and ALλ human amyloid deposits in various organs. Surface plasmon resonance analyses using synthetic AL fibrils as a substrate revealed that 2A4 bound with a K(D of ∼10 nM. Binding was inhibited in the presence of the -Glu-Asp- containing immunogen peptide. Radiolabeled 2A4 specifically localized with human AL amyloid extracts implanted in mice (amyloidomas as evidenced by single photon emission (SPECT imaging. Furthermore, co-localization of the radiolabeled mAb with amyloid was shown in biodistribution and micro-autoradiography studies. Treatment with 2A4 expedited regression of ALκ amyloidomas in mice, likely mediated by the action of macrophages and neutrophils, relative to animals that received a control antibody. These data indicate that the 2A4 mAb might be of interest for potential imaging and immunotherapy in patients with AL amyloidosis.

  10. Soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPPα) inhibits tau phosphorylation through modulation of GSK3β signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Juan; Habib, Ahsan; Obregon, Demian F.; Barger, Steven W.; Giunta, Brian; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Hou, Huayan; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We recently found that sAPPα decreases Aβ generation by directly associating with β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) converting enzyme 1 (BACE1), thereby modulating APP processing. Because inhibition of BACE1 decreases GSK3β-mediated Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like tau phosphorylation in AD patient-derived neurons, we determined whether sAPPα also reduces GSK3β-mediated tau phosphorylation. We initially found increased levels of inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β in primary neurons from sAPPα over-expressing mice. Further, recombinant human sAPPα evoked the same phenomenon in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing BACE1, and HeLa cells overexpressing human tau, sAPPα reduced GSK3β activity and tau phosphorylation. Importantly, the reductions in GSK3β activity and tau phosphorylation elicited by sAPPα were prevented by BACE1 but not γ-secretase inhibition. In accord, AD mice overexpressing human sAPPα had less GSK3β activity and tau phosphorylation compared with controls. These results implicate a direct relationship between APP β-processing and GSK3β-mediated tau phosphorylation and further define the central role of sAPPα in APP autoregulation and AD pathogenesis. PMID:26342176

  11. Protective effects of ferulic acid in amyloid precursor protein plus presenilin-1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji-Jing; Jung, Jun-Sub; Kim, Taek-Keun; Hasan, Ashraful; Hong, Chang-Won; Nam, Ju-Suk; Song, Dong-Keun

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the protective effects of long-term administration of ferulic acid against the in vivo toxicity of β-amyloid peptide administered intracerebroventricularly in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid in transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP)swe/presenilin 1 (PS1)dE9 (APP/PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD). Chronic (for 6 months from the age of 6 to 12 months) oral administration of ferulic acid at a dose of 5.3 mg/kg/day significantly enhanced the performance in novel-object recognition task, and reduced amyloid deposition and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that ferulic acid at a certain dosage could be useful for prevention and treatment of AD.

  12. APL-1, the Alzheimer's Amyloid precursor protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, modulates multiple metabolic pathways throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Collin Y; Raps, Daniel A; Li, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene or in genes that process APP are correlated with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological function of APP remains unclear. APP is a transmembrane protein that can be sequentially cleaved by different secretases to yield multiple fragments, which can potentially act as signaling molecules. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes one APP-related protein, APL-1, which is essential for viability. Here, we show that APL-1 signaling is dependent on the activity of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 and influences metabolic pathways such as developmental progression, body size, and egg-laying rate. Furthermore, apl-1(yn5) mutants, which produce high levels of the extracellular APL-1 fragment, show an incompletely penetrant temperature-sensitive embryonic lethality. In a genetic screen to isolate mutants in which the apl-1(yn5) lethality rate is modified, we identified a suppressor mutation in MOA-1/R155.2, a receptor-protein tyrosine phosphatase, and an enhancer mutation in MOA-2/B0495.6, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockdown of apl-1 in an apl-1(yn5) background caused lethality and molting defects at all larval stages, suggesting that apl-1 is required for each transitional molt. We suggest that signaling of the released APL-1 fragment modulates multiple metabolic states and that APL-1 is required throughout development.

  13. Calcium ionophore A23187 specifically decreases the secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein during apoptosis in primary rat cortical cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Benedikz, Eirikur; Fastbom, J;

    2001-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the degeneration and loss of neurons, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and the accumulation of extracellular senile plaques consisting mainly of beta-amyloid (A beta). A beta is generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by sequential beta...

  14. Roles of amyloid precursor protein family members in neuroprotection, stress signaling and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögel, Donat; Deller, Thomas; Behl, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP) family members in normal brain function are poorly understood. Under physiological conditions the majority of APP appears to be processed along the non-amyloidogenic pathway leading to the formation of the secreted N-terminal APP fragment sAPPα. This cleavage product of APP has been implicated in several physiological processes such as neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis. In this review we focus on the role of APP family members in neuroprotection and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanisms which are believed to mediate this effect. We propose that a reduction of APP processing along the non-amyloidogenic pathway during brain aging could result in an enhanced susceptibility of neurons to cellular stress and could contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Increased plasma amyloid beta protein 1-42 levels in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, P D; Dalton, A J; Mehta, S P; Kim, K S; Sersen, E A; Wisniewski, H M

    1998-01-23

    Amyloid beta protein 1-40 (A beta40) and A beta42 levels were quantitated in plasma from 43 persons with Down syndrome (DS; 26-68 years of age), 43 age-matched normal controls, and 19 non-DS mentally retarded (MR) persons (26-91 years of age) by using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. A beta40 levels were higher in DS and MR than controls, but were similar between DS and MR groups. A beta42 levels were higher in DS than controls or MR persons. The ratios of A beta42/A beta40 were higher in DS than controls or MR persons. The findings are consistent with those seen in DS brains.

  16. Transgenic expression of the amyloid-beta precursor protein-intracellular domain does not induce Alzheimer's Disease-like traits in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giliberto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulated intramembranous proteolysis of the amyloid-beta precursor protein by the gamma-secretase yields amyloid-beta, which is the major component of the amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and the APP intracellular domain (AID. In vitro studies have involved AID in apoptosis and gene transcription. In vivo studies, which utilize transgenic mice expressing AID in the forebrain, only support a role for AID in apoptosis but not gene transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have further characterized several lines of AID transgenic mice by crossing them with human Tau-bearing mice, to determine whether over-expression of AID in the forebrain provokes AD-like pathologic features in this background. We have found no evidence that AID overexpression induces AD-like characteristics, such as activation of GSK-3beta, hyperphosphorylation of Tau and formation of neurofibrillary pathology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these data suggest that AID transgenic mice do not represent a model that reproduces the overt biochemical and anatomo-pathologic lesions observed in AD patients. They can still be a valuable tool to understand the role of AID in enhancing the cell sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli, whose pathways still need to be characterized.

  17. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reduces amyloidprotein misfolding in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskuner, Orkid; Murray, Ian V J

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating disease of aging that initiates decades prior to clinical manifestation and represents an impending epidemic. Two early features of AD are metabolic dysfunction and changes in amyloidprotein (Aβ) levels. Since levels of ATP decrease over the course of the disease and Aβ is an early biomarker of AD, we sought to uncover novel linkages between the two. First and remarkably, a GxxxG motif is common between both Aβ (oligomerization motif) and nucleotide binding proteins (Rossmann fold). Second, ATP was demonstrated to protect against Aβ mediated cytotoxicity. Last, there is structural similarity between ATP and amyloid binding/inhibitory compounds such as ThioT, melatonin, and indoles. Thus, we investigated whether ATP alters misfolding of the pathologically relevant Aβ42. To test this hypothesis, we performed computational and biochemical studies. Our computational studies demonstrate that ATP interacts strongly with Tyr10 and Ser26 of Aβ fibrils in solution. Experimentally, both ATP and ADP reduced Aβ misfolding at physiological intracellular concentrations, with thresholds at ~500 μM and 1 mM respectively. This inhibition of Aβ misfolding is specific; requiring Tyr10 of Aβ and is enhanced by magnesium. Last, cerebrospinal fluid ATP levels are in the nanomolar range and decreased with AD pathology. This initial and novel finding regarding the ATP interaction with Aβ and reduction of Aβ misfolding has potential significance to the AD field. It provides an underlying mechanism for published links between metabolic dysfunction and AD. It also suggests a potential role of ATP in AD pathology, as the occurrence of misfolded extracellular Aβ mirrors lowered extracellular ATP levels. Last, the findings suggest that Aβ conformation change may be a sensor of metabolic dysfunction.

  18. Inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase attenuates cerebral ischemic injury in Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyu Zou; Haiyan Qin; Yitao He; Heming Huang; Yi Lu; Xiaofan Chu

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia was induced using photothrombosis 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB239063 into Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP/SWE) transgenic and non-transgenic mice. The number of surviving neurons in the penumbra was quantified using Nissl staining, and the activity of p38 MAPKs was measured by western blotting. The number of surviving neurons in the penumbra was significantly reduced in APP/SWE transgenic mice compared with non-transgenic controls 7 days after cerebral ischemia, but the activity of p38 MAPKs was significantly elevated compared with the non-ischemic hemisphere in the APP/SWE transgenic mice. SB239063 prevented these changes. The APP/SWE mutation exacerbated ischemic brain injury, and this could be alleviated by inhibiting p38 MAPK activity.

  19. P-glycoprotein efflux and other factors limit brain amyloid beta reduction by beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Jere E; Thompson, Lorin A; Toyn, Jeremy H; Marcin, Lawrence; Barten, Donna M; Marcinkeviciene, Jovita; Kopcho, Lisa; Kim, Young; Lin, Alan; Guss, Valerie; Burton, Catherine; Iben, Lawrence; Polson, Craig; Cantone, Joe; Ford, Michael; Drexler, Dieter; Fiedler, Tracey; Lentz, Kimberley A; Grace, James E; Kolb, Janet; Corsa, Jason; Pierdomenico, Maria; Jones, Kelli; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Albright, Charles F

    2008-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides are hypothesized to cause the initiation and progression of AD based on pathologic data from AD patients, genetic analysis of mutations that cause early onset forms of AD, and preclinical studies. Based on this hypothesis, beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors are an attractive therapeutic approach for AD because cleavage of the APP by BACE1 is required to form Abeta. In this study, three potent BACE1 inhibitors are characterized. All three inhibitors decrease Abeta formation in cultured cells with IC(50) values less than 10 nM. Analysis of APP C-terminal fragments by immunoblotting and Abeta peptides by mass spectrometry showed that these inhibitors decreased Abeta by inhibiting BACE1. An assay for Abeta1-40 in mice was developed and used to show that these BACE1 inhibitors decreased plasma Abeta1-40, but not brain Abeta1-40, in wild-type mice. Because these BACE1 inhibitors were substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters, these inhibitors were administered to P-gp knockout (KO) mice. These studies showed that all three BACE1 inhibitors decreased brain Abeta1-40 in P-gp KO mice, demonstrating that P-gp is a major limitation for development of BACE1 inhibitors to test the amyloid hypothesis. A comparison of plasma Abeta1-40 and brain Abeta1-40 dose responses for these three compounds revealed differences in relative ED(50) values, indicating that factors other than P-gp can also contribute to poor brain activity by BACE1 inhibitors.

  20. Amyloid Precursor Proteins Are Dynamically Trafficked and Processed During Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Ramaker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP produces beta-amyloid (Aβ peptide fragments that accumulate in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, but APP may also regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development, albeit via mechanisms that are not well understood. APP is a member of a family of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by all higher organisms, including two mammalian orthologs (APLP1 and APLP2 that have complicated investigations into the specific activities of APP. By comparison, insects express only a single APP-related protein (APP-Like, or APPL that contains the same protein interaction domains identified in APP. However, unlike its mammalian orthologs, APPL is only expressed by neurons, greatly simplifying an analysis of its functions in vivo. Like APP, APPL is processed by secretases to generate a similar array of extracellular and intracellular cleavage fragments, as well as an Aβ-like fragment that can induce neurotoxic responses in the brain. Exploiting the complementary advantages of two insect models (Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta, we have investigated the regulation of APPL trafficking and processing with respect to different aspects of neuronal development. By comparing the behavior of endogenously expressed APPL with fluorescently tagged versions of APPL and APP, we have shown that some full-length protein is consistently trafficked into the most motile regions of developing neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Concurrently, much of the holoprotein is rapidly processed into N- and C-terminal fragments that undergo bi-directional transport within distinct vesicle populations. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that APPL can be transiently sequestered into an amphisome-like compartment in developing neurons, while manipulations targeting APPL cleavage altered their motile behavior in cultured embryos. These data suggest that multiple mechanisms restrict the bioavailability of the holoprotein to regulate

  1. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  2. Mechanism of neuronal versus endothelial cell uptake of Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunya K Kandimalla

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by significant neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus; intraneuronal tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein; and accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta proteins 40 and 42 in the brain parenchyma as well as in the cerebral vasculature. The current understanding that AD is initiated by the neuronal accumulation of Abeta proteins due to their inefficient clearance at the blood-brain-barrier (BBB, places the neurovascular unit at the epicenter of AD pathophysiology. The objective of this study is to investigate cellular mechanisms mediating the internalization of Abeta proteins in the principle constituents of the neurovascular unit, neurons and BBB endothelial cells. Laser confocal micrographs of wild type (WT mouse brain slices treated with fluorescein labeled Abeta40 (F-Abeta40 demonstrated selective accumulation of the protein in a subpopulation of cortical and hippocampal neurons via nonsaturable, energy independent, and nonendocytotic pathways. This groundbreaking finding, which challenges the conventional belief that Abeta proteins are internalized by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis, was verified in differentiated PC12 cells and rat primary hippocampal (RPH neurons through laser confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies. Microscopy studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of F-Abeta40 or F-Abeta42 internalized by differentiated PC12 cells or RPH neurons is located outside of the endosomal or lysosomal compartments, which may accumulate without degradation. In contrast, BBME cells exhibit energy dependent uptake of F-Abeta40, and accumulate the protein in acidic cell organelle, indicative of endocytotic uptake. Such a phenomenal difference in the internalization of Abeta40 between neurons and BBB endothelial cells may provide essential clues to understanding how various cells can differentially regulate Abeta proteins and help explain the vulnerability of cortical

  3. Binding of an oxindole alkaloid from Uncaria tomentosa to amyloid protein (Abeta1-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, Teresa; Baczek, Tomasz; Roman, Kaliszana; Zbikowska, Beata; Gleńsk, Michał; Fecka, Izabela; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to determine the interactions of an oxindole alkaloid (mitraphylline) isolated from Uncaria tomentosa with beta-amyloid 1-40 (Abeta1-40 protein) applying the capillary electrophoresis (CE) method. Specifically the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis were performed to study the binding of oxindole alkaloids with Abeta1-40 protein. Prior to these studies extraction of the alkaloid of interest was carried out. Identification of the isolated alkaloid was performed by the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The proposed approach was proved to be an efficient and accurate method for specific compound isolation and identification purposes. Moreover, analytical information from the CE approach can be considered as the valuable tool for binding constant determination. The binding constant of mitraphylline with Abeta1-40 protein determined by the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis equals K = 9.95 x 10(5) M(-1). The results obtained showed the significant binding of the tested compound with Abeta1-40 protein. These results are discussed and interpreted in the view of developing a strategy for identification of novel compounds of great importance in Alzheimer disease therapy.

  4. MD-simulations of Beta-Amyloid Protein Insertion Efficiency and Kinetics into Neuronal Membrane Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2011-03-01

    Early interaction events of beta-amyloid (A β) peptides with the neuronal membranes play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We have used all-atom MD simulations to study the protein insertion efficiency and kinetics of monomeric A β40 and A β42 into phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers (PC) with and without 40 mole% cholesterol (CHOL) that mimic the cholesterol-enriched and depleted lipid nanodomains of the neuronal plasma membranes. Independent replicates of 200-ns simulations of each protein pre-inserted in the upper lipid layer were generated. In PC bilayers, only 25% of A β40 and 50% of A β42 in the replicates showed complete insertion into the lower lipid layer, whereas the percentages increased to 50% and 100%, respectively, in PC/CHOL bilayers, providing evidence that cholesterol improves the protein insertion efficiency into the bilayers. The rate of protein insertion was proportional to the hydrophobic, transmembrane helix length of the inserted peptide and depended on the cholesterol content. We propose that the lysine snorkeling and C-terminus anchoring of A β to the PC headgroups at the upper and lower lipid/water interfaces represent the dual-transmembrane stabilization mechanisms of A β in the neuronal membrane domains.

  5. Control the aggregation of model amyloid insulin protein under ac-electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhongli; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Y. Elaine

    2013-03-01

    In vitro experiments have been widely used to characterize the misfolding/unfolding pathway characteristic of amylodogenic proteins. Conversion from natively folded amyloidogenic proteins to oligomers via nucleation is the accepted path to fibril formation upon heating over a certain lag time period. In an alternative engineering approach to manipulate and control protein aggregation, we have investigated the aggregation kinetics of insulin, a well-established amyloid model protein, under applied ac-electric fields of varied ac-frequency and voltage at room temperature. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging, we have observed that the insulin aggregation can occur at much shortened lag time under applied ac-electric fields, when a critical ac-voltage is exceeded. The strong dependence of lag time on ac-frequency over a narrow range of 500 Hz-5 kHz indicates the effect of ac-electroosmosis on the diffusion controlled process of insulin nucleation. Yet, no difference of conformational structure is detected with insulin under applied ac-fields, suggesting the equivalence of ac-polarization to the conventional thermal activation process for insulin aggregation.

  6. Prolyl oligopeptidase colocalizes with α-synuclein, β-amyloid, tau protein and astroglia in the post-mortem brain samples with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, M J; Myöhänen, T T; Tenorio-Laranga, J; Männistö, P T; Garcia-Horsman, J A

    2013-07-09

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26, PREP) is a serine protease that hydrolyzes proline-containing peptides shorter than 30-mer but it has also nonhydrolytic functions. PREP has been shown to accelerate aggregation of wild-type α-synuclein (α-syn) under cell-free conditions, and PREP inhibitors can block this aggregation both in vitro and in vivo. α-syn is the main component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. To clarify the possible interaction of PREP with other markers of neurodegenerative diseases, we studied colocalizations of PREP and (1) α-syn, (2) β-amyloid, (3) tau protein and (4) astroglial and microglial cells in human post-mortem brain samples from PD, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in healthy control brain samples. In the substantia nigra of PD brains, an intense colocalization with PREP and α-syn was evident. PREP colocalized also with β-amyloid plaques in AD brains and with tau protein in AD and in healthy brains. PREP was also found in astroglial cells in PD, AD and control brains, but not in the microglia. Our findings are the first ones to demonstrate colocalization of PREP and pathological proteins in the human brain and support the view that, at least in spatial terms, PREP could be associated with pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. From differentiation to proliferation: The secretory amyloid precursor protein as a local mediator of growth in thyroid epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrzik, Claus Ulrich; Hoffmann, Jens; Stöber, Kai; Chen, Chun-yan; Bauer, Christoph; Otero, Deborah A.C.; Roch, Jean-Marc; Herzog, Volker

    1998-01-01

    In various species, thyrotropin (TSH) is known to stimulate both differentiation and proliferation of thyroid follicle cells. This cell type has also been shown to express members of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor (APP) protein family and to release the secretory N-terminal domain of APP (sAPP) in a TSH-dependent fashion. In this study on binding to the cell surfaces, exogenously added recombinant sAPP stimulated phosphorylation mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase and effectively ev...

  8. Peripheral biomarkers in Autism: secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha as a probable key player in early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Antoinette R; Giunta, Brian N; Obregon, Demian; Nikolic, William V; Tian, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sutton, Danielle T; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impairments in socialization and communication. There is currently no single molecular marker or laboratory tool capable of diagnosing autism at an early age. The purpose of this study is to explore the plausible use of peripheral biomarkers in the early diagnosis of autism via a sensitive ELISA. Here, we measured plasma secreted amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPP-alpha) levels in autistic and aged-matched control blood samples and found a significantly increased level of sAPP-alpha in 60% of the known autistic children. We then tested 150 human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) samples and found significantly elevated levels of plasma sAPP-alpha in 10 of 150 samples. As an additional confirmatory measure, we performed Western blot analysis on these samples which consistently showed increased sAPP-alpha levels in autistic children and 10 of 150 HUCB samples; suggesting a group of autistic patients which could be identified in early childhood by levels of sAPP-alpha. While there is need for further studies of this concept, the measurement of sAPP-alpha levels in serum and human umbilical cord blood by ELISA is a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism.

  9. Critical analysis of the use of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genevieve Evin,1,2 Adel Barakat21Oxidation Biology Laboratory, Mental Health Research Institute, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 2Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is the major cause of dementia in the elderly and an unmet clinical challenge. A variety of therapies that are currently under development are directed to the amyloid cascade. Indeed, the accumulation and toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ is believed to play a central role in the etiology of the disease, and thus rational interventions are aimed at reducing the levels of Aβ in the brain. Targeting β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE-1 represents an attractive strategy, as this enzyme catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in Aβ production. Observation of increased levels of BACE1 and enzymatic activity in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and platelets of patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment supports the potential benefits of BACE1 inhibition. Numerous potent inhibitors have been generated, and many of these have been proved to lower Aβ levels in the brain of animal models. Over 10 years of intensive research on BACE1 inhibitors has now culminated in advancing half a dozen of these drugs into human trials, yet translating the in vitro and cellular efficacy of BACE1 inhibitors into preclinical and clinical trials represents a challenge. This review addresses the promises and also the potential problems associated with BACE1 inhibitors for AD therapy, as the complex biological function of BACE1 in the brain is becoming unraveled.Keywords: amyloid, dementia, secretase, aspartyl protease, neuregulin

  10. Baicalein reduces β-amyloid and promotes nonamyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing in an Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, She-Qing; Obregon, Demian; Ehrhart, Jared; Deng, Juan; Tian, Jun; Hou, Huayan; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, is known to modulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors. Given prior reports demonstrating benefits of GABAA modulation for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment, we wished to determine whether this agent might be beneficial for AD. CHO cells engineered to overexpress wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP), primary culture neuronal cells from AD mice (Tg2576) and AD mice were treated with baicalein. In the cell cultures, baicalein significantly reduced the production of β-amyloid (Aβ) by increasing APP α-processing. These effects were blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Likewise, AD mice treated daily with i.p. baicalein for 8 weeks showed enhanced APP α-secretase processing, reduced Aβ production, and reduced AD-like pathology together with improved cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that baicalein promotes nonamyloidogenic processing of APP, thereby reducing Aβ production and improving cognitive performance, by activating GABAA receptors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23686791

  11. Drosophila amyloid precursor protein-like is required for long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguel, Valérie; Belair, Anne-Laure; Ayaz, Derya; Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Aurélie; Scaplehorn, Niki; Hassan, Bassem A; Preat, Thomas

    2011-01-19

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative pathology that first manifests as a decline of memory. While the main hypothesis for AD pathology centers on the proteolytic processing of APP, very little is known about the physiological function of the APP protein in the adult brain. Likewise, whether APP loss of function contributes to AD remains unclear. Drosophila has been used extensively as a model organism to study neuronal function and pathology. In addition, many of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory are thought to be conserved from flies to mammals, prompting us to study the function of APPL, the fly APP ortholog, during associative memory. It was previously shown that APPL expression is highly enriched in the mushroom bodies (MBs), a specialized brain structure involved in olfactory memory. We analyzed memory in flies in which APPL expression has been silenced specifically and transiently in the adult MBs. Our results show that in adult flies, APPL is not required for learning but is specifically involved in long-term memory, a long lasting memory whose formation requires de novo protein synthesis and is thought to require synaptic structural plasticity. These data support the hypothesis that disruption of normal APP function may contribute to early AD cognitive impairment.

  12. Inflammatory Eicosanoids Increase Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression via Activation of Multiple Neuronal Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst-Robinson, Katie J; Liu, Li; James, Michael; Yao, Yuemang; Xie, Sharon X; Brunden, Kurt R

    2015-12-17

    Senile plaques comprised of Aβ peptides are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, as are activated glia that release inflammatory molecules, including eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ levels can be increased through activation of thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptors on neurons. We demonstrate that TP receptor regulation of APP expression depends on Gαq-signaling and conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Importantly, we discovered that Gαq-linked prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene D4 receptors also regulate APP expression. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2, as well as total APP levels, were found to be elevated in the brains of aged 5XFAD transgenic mice harboring Aβ plaques and activated glia, suggesting that increased APP expression resulted from eicosanoid binding to Gαq-linked neuronal receptors. Notably, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis significantly lowered brain APP protein levels in aged 5XFAD mice. These results provide new insights into potential AD therapeutic strategies.

  13. Amyloid-β precursor protein: Multiple fragments, numerous transport routes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Virgil; Ladescu Muresan, Zoia

    2015-05-15

    This review provides insight into the intraneuronal transport of the Amyloid-β Precursor Protein (APP), the prototype of an extensively posttranslationally modified and proteolytically cleaved transmembrane protein. Uncovering the intricacies of APP transport proves to be a challenging endeavor of cell biology research, deserving increased priority, since APP is at the core of the pathogenic process in Alzheimer's disease. After being synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum in the neuronal soma, APP enters the intracellular transport along the secretory, endocytic, and recycling routes. Along these routes, APP undergoes cleavage into defined sets of fragments, which themselves are transported - mostly independently - to distinct sites in neurons, where they exert their functions. We review the currently known routes and mechanisms of transport of full-length APP, and of APP fragments, commenting largely on the experimental challenges posed by studying transport of extensively cleaved proteins. The review emphasizes the interrelationships between the proteolytic and posttranslational modifications, the intracellular transport, and the functions of the APP species. A goal remaining to be addressed in the future is the incorporation of the various views on APP transport into a coherent picture. In this review, the disease context is only marginally addressed; the focus is on the basic biology of APP transport under normal conditions. As shown, the studies of APP transport uncovered numerous mechanisms of transport, some of them conventional, and others, novel, awaiting exploration.

  14. Minocycline alleviates beta-amyloid protein and tau pathology via restraining neuroinflammation induced by diabetic metabolic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Z

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhiyou Cai,1 Yong Yan,2 Yonglong Wang2 1Department of Neurology, the Lu’an Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Lu’an People’s Hospital, Lu’an, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Compelling evidence has shown that diabetic metabolic disorder plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, including increased expression of β-amyloid protein (Aβ and tau protein. Evidence has supported that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, protects against neuroinflammation induced by neurodegenerative disorders or cerebral ischemia. This study has evaluated minocycline influence on expression of Aβ protein, tau phosphorylation, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the brain of diabetic rats to clarify neuroprotection by minocycline under diabetic metabolic disorder. Method: An animal model of diabetes was established by high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline on expression of Aβ protein, tau phosphorylation, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus of diabetic rats via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: These results showed that minocycline decreased expression of Aβ protein and lowered the phosphorylation of tau protein, and retarded the proinflammatory cytokines, but not amyloid precursor protein. Conclusion: On the basis of the finding that minocycline had no influence on amyloid precursor protein and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 which determines the speed of Aβ generation, the decreases in Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation by minocycline are through inhibiting

  15. Caffeine, Through Adenosine A3 Receptor-Mediated Actions, Suppresses AmyloidProtein Precursor Internalization and Amyloid-β Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Geiger, Nicholas H; Soliman, Mahmoud L; Hui, Liang; Geiger, Jonathan D; Chen, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation and extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), be it familial in origin or sporadic in nature. Aβ is generated intracellularly following endocytosis of amyloidprotein precursor (AβPP), and, consequently, factors that suppress AβPP internalization may decrease amyloidogenic processing of AβPP. Here we tested the hypothesis that caffeine decreases Aβ generation by suppressing AβPP internalization in primary cultured neurons. Caffeine concentration-dependently blocked low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol internalization and a specific adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) antagonist as well as siRNA knockdown of A3Rs mimicked the effects of caffeine on neuronal internalization of LDL cholesterol. Further implicating A3Rs were findings that a specific A3R agonist increased neuronal internalization of LDL cholesterol. In addition, caffeine as well as siRNA knockdown of A3Rs blocked the ability of LDL cholesterol to increase Aβ levels. Furthermore, caffeine blocked LDL cholesterol-induced decreases in AβPP protein levels in neuronal plasma membranes, increased surface expression of AβPP on neurons, and the A3R antagonist as well as siRNA knockdown of A3Rs mimicked the effects of caffeine on AβPP surface expression. Moreover, the A3R agonist decreased neuronal surface expression of AβPP. Our findings suggest that caffeine exerts protective effects against amyloidogenic processing of AβPP at least in part by suppressing A3R-mediated internalization of AβPP.

  16. How ionic strength affects the conformational behavior of human and rat beta amyloids--a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Kříž

    Full Text Available Progressive cerebral deposition of amyloid beta occurs in Alzheimers disease and during the aging of certain mammals (human, monkey, dog, bear, cow, cat but not others (rat, mouse. It is possibly due to different amino acid sequences at positions 5, 10 and 13. To address this issue, we performed series of 100 ns long trajectories (each trajectory was run twice with different initial velocity distribution on amyloid beta (1-42 with the human and rat amino acid sequence in three different environments: water with only counter ions, water with NaCl at a concentration of 0.15 M as a model of intracellular Na(+ concentration at steady state, and water with NaCl at a concentration of 0.30 M as a model of intracellular Na(+ concentration under stimulated conditions. We analyzed secondary structure stability, internal hydrogen bonds, and residual fluctuation. It was observed that the change in ionic strength affects the stability of internal hydrogen bonds. Increasing the ionic strength increases atomic fluctuation in the hydrophobic core of the human amyloid, and decreases the atomic fluctuation in the case of rat amyloid. The secondary structure analyses show a stable α-helix part between residues 10 and 20. However, C-terminus of investigated amyloids is much more flexible showing no stable secondary structure elements. Increasing ionic strength of the solvent leads to decreasing stability of the secondary structural elements. The difference in conformational behavior of the three amino acids at position 5, 10 and 13 for human and rat amyloids significantly changes the conformational behavior of the whole peptide.

  17. Preparation of Amyloid Fibrils Seeded from Brain and Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpelz, Kathryn P; Lu, Jun-Xia; Tycko, Robert; Meredith, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Seeding of amyloid fibrils into fresh solutions of the same peptide or protein in disaggregated form leads to the formation of replicate fibrils, with close structural similarity or identity to the original fibrillar seeds. Here we describe procedures for isolating fibrils composed mainly of β-amyloid (Aβ) from human brain and from leptomeninges, a source of cerebral blood vessels, for investigating Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We also describe methods for seeding isotopically labeled, disaggregated Aβ peptide solutions for study using solid-state NMR and other techniques. These methods should be applicable to other types of amyloid fibrils, to Aβ fibrils from mice or other species, tissues other than brain, and to some non-fibrillar aggregates. These procedures allow for the examination of authentic amyloid fibrils and other protein aggregates from biological tissues without the need for labeling the tissue.

  18. Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme-1 expression in adult rat retinal neurons in the early period after lead exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jufang Huang; Kai Huang; Lei Shang; Hui Wang; Xiaoxin Yan; Kun Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that non-human primates and rodents exposed to lead during brain development may become dependent on the deposition of pre-determined β-amyloid protein (Aβ), and exhibit upregulation of β-site amyloid precursor protein expression in old age. However, further evidence is required to elucidate the precise relationship and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of early lead exposure on excessive Aβ production in adult mammals. The present study investigated the effects of lead exposure on expression of β-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme-1 (BACE-1) in the rat retina and the production of Aβ in early development, using the retina as a window for studying Alzheimer's disease. Adult rats were intraocularly injected with different doses of lead acetate (10 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L, 1 mmol/L, 10 mmol/L and 100 mmol/L). The results revealed that retinal lead concentration, BACE-1 and its cleavage products β-C-terminal fragment and retina Aβ1-40 were all significantly increased in almost all of the lead exposure groups 48 hours later in a dose-dependent manner. The only exception was the 10 μmol/L group. The distribution of BACE-1 in the retina did not exhibit obvious changes, and no distinctive increase in the activation of retinal microglia was apparent. Similarly, retinal synaptophysin expression did not exhibit any clear changes. These data suggest that lead exposure can result in the upregulation of retinal neuron BACE-1 expression in the early period of development and further increase the overproduction of Aβ1-40 in the retina. Our results provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying environmentally-induced Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Crystal structure of human prion protein fragment reveals a motif for oligomer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Perry, Kay; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    The structural transition of the prion protein from α-helical to β-sheet rich underlies its conversion into infectious and disease-associated isoforms. Here we describe the crystal structure of a fragment from human prion protein consisting of the disulfide bond linked portions of helices 2 and 3. Instead of forming a pair-of-sheets steric zipper structure characteristic of amyloid fibers, this fragment crystallized into an β-sheet rich assembly of hexameric oligomers. This study reveals a never before observed structural motif for ordered protein aggregates, and suggests a possible mechanism for self-propagation of misfolded conformations by such non-amyloid oligomers. PMID:23808589

  20. AChE and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) - Cross-talk in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalivaeva, Natalia N; Turner, Anthony J

    2016-11-25

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are multi-faceted proteins with a wide range of vital functions, both crucially linked with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP is the precursor of the Aβ peptide, the pathological agent in AD, while AChE is linked to its pathogenesis either by increasing cholinergic deficit or exacerbating Aβ fibril formation and toxicity. As such, both proteins are the main targets in AD therapeutics with AChE inhibitors being currently the only clinically available AD drugs. In our studies we have demonstrated an important inter-relation in functioning of these proteins. Both can be released from the cell membrane and we have shown that AChE shedding involves a metalloproteinase-mediated mechanism which, like the α-secretase dependent cleavage of APP, is stimulated by cholinergic agonists. Overexpression of the neuronal specific isoform APP695 in neuronal cells substantially decreased levels of the AChE mRNA, protein and catalytic activity accompanied by a similar decrease in mRNA levels of the AChE membrane anchor, PRiMA (proline rich membrane anchor). We further established that this regulation does not involve APP processing and its intracellular domain (AICD) but requires the E1 region of APP, specifically its copper-binding domain. On the contrary, siRNA knock-down of APP in cholinergic SN56 cells resulted in a significant upregulation of AChE mRNA levels. Hence APP may influence AChE physiology while released AChE may regulate amyloidogenesis through multiple mechanisms suggesting novel therapeutic targets.

  1. Effect of catalpol on senile plaques and spatial learning and memory ability in amyloidprotein precursor/presenilin 1 double transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether catalpol affects senile plaque formation and spatial learning and memory ability in the amyloid-βprotein precursor/presenilin 1(APP/PS1)double transgenic mice.Methods

  2. Mutation analysis of presenilin-1 gene in Alzheimer’s disease patients and the effects of its mutation on expression of presenilin-1 and amyloid precursor protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓雄

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the presenilin-1(PS-1) gene mutations in Alzheimer’s disease(AD) patients and investigate the influence of the initiation codon mutation on the mRNA expression of PS-1 and amyloid precursor protein

  3. Discovery and identification of Serum Amyloid A protein elevated in lung cancer serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen serum samples from 175 lung cancer patients and 43 healthy individuals were analyzed by using Surface Enhaced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrome- try (SELDI-TOF-MS). The data analyzed by both Biomarker Wizard? and Biomarker Patterns? software showed that a protein peak with the molecular weight of 11.6 kDa significantly increased in lung cancer. Meanwhile,the level of this biomarker was progressively increased with the clinical stages of lung cancer. The candidate biomarker was then obtained from tricine one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sul- fate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by matching the molecular weight with peaks on WCX2 chips and was identified as Serum Amyloid A protein (SAA) by MALDI/MS-MS and database searching. It was further validated in the same serum samples by immunoprecipitation with commercial SAA antibody. To confirm the SAA differential expression in lung cancer patients, the same set of serum samples was measured by ELISA assay. The result showed that at the cutoff point 0.446(OD value)on the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, SAA could better discriminate lung cancer from healthy indi- viduals with sensitivity of 84.1% and specificity of 80%. These findings demonstrated that SAA could be characterized as a biomarker related to pathological stages of lung cancer.

  4. Developmental regulation of expression of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Waggoner, D J; Mandl, K D

    1991-11-01

    The fetal and maternal concentration of various plasma proteins alters during pregnancy. Cells in the livers of fetal hamsters accumulate serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) mRNA, major acute phase reactants, when lipopolysaccharide is administered to the fetal circulation. No fetal SAA or CRP mRNA response is seen when the mother is stimulated at a remote site by endotoxin or a nonspecific inflammatory agent. In addition, cells of the fetal hamster liver do not respond by accumulating SAA mRNA when exposed to the specific cytokines, tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, and IL-6. CRP mRNA levels increased in fetal livers after administration of tumor necrosis factor and IL-1. These data suggest that cells contained in the fetal liver can respond during an acute phase reaction but that the capacity of some acute phase reactant genes to respond to cytokines may be developmentally regulated. Studies of immature hamsters after birth show that the responses of CRP and SAA genes to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, and IL-6 are reduced when compared with induction of mRNA accumulation for these acute phase reactants in adult animals.

  5. Peptides of presenilin-1 bind the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain and offer a novel and specific therapeutic approach to reduce ß-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazneen N Dewji

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid (Aβ accumulation in the brain is widely accepted to be critical to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Current efforts at reducing toxic Aβ40 or 42 have largely focused on modulating γ-secretase activity to produce shorter, less toxic Aβ, while attempting to spare other secretase functions. In this paper we provide data that offer the potential for a new approach for the treatment of AD. The method is based on our previous findings that the production of Aβ from the interaction between the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP and Presenilin (PS, as part of the γ-secretase complex, in cell culture is largely inhibited if the entire water-soluble NH2-terminal domain of PS is first added to the culture. Here we demonstrate that two small, non-overlapping water-soluble peptides from the PS-1 NH2-terminal domain can substantially and specifically inhibit the production of total Aβ as well as Aβ40 and 42 in vitro and in vivo in the brains of APP transgenic mice. These results suggest that the inhibitory activity of the entire amino terminal domain of PS-1 on Aβ production is largely focused in a few smaller sequences within that domain. Using biolayer interferometry and confocal microscopy we provide evidence that peptides effective in reducing Aβ give a strong, specific and biologically relevant binding with the purified ectodomain of APP 695. Finally, we demonstrate that the reduction of Aβ by the peptides does not affect the catalytic activities of β- or γ-secretase, or the level of APP. P4 and P8 are the first reported protein site-specific small peptides to reduce Aβ production in model systems of AD. These peptides and their derivatives offer new potential drug candidates for the treatment of AD.

  6. Statins reduce amyloid β-peptide production by modulating amyloid precursor protein maturation and phosphorylation through a cholesterol-independent mechanism in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Ai; Araki, Wataru; Oda, Akiko; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Tamaoka, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been reported to attenuate amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) production in various cellular models. However, the mechanisms by which statins affect neuronal Aβ production have not yet been clarified. Here, we investigated this issue in rat primary cortical neurons using two statins, pitavastatin (PV) and atorvastatin (AV). Treatment of neurons with 0.2-2.5 μM PV or AV for 4 days induced a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in the secretion of both Aβ40 and Aβ42. Moreover, Western blot analyses of cell lysates showed that treatment with PV or AV significantly reduced expression levels of the mature form of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Thr668-phosphorylated APP (P-APP), but not immature form of APP; the decreases in P-APP levels were more notable than those of mature APP levels. The statin treatment did not alter expression of BACE1 (β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1) or γ-secretase complex proteins (presenilin 1, nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2). In neurons overexpressing APP via recombinant adenoviruses, PV or AV similarly reduced Aβ secretion and the levels of mature APP and P-APP. Statins also markedly reduced cellular cholesterol content in neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Co-treatment with mevalonate reversed the statin-induced decreases in Aβ secretion and mature APP and P-APP levels, whereas co-treatment with cholesterol did not, despite recovery of cellular cholesterol levels. Finally, cell-surface biotinylation experiments revealed that both statins significantly reduced the levels of cell-surface P-APP without changing those of cell surface mature APP. These results suggest that statins reduce Aβ production by selectively modulating APP maturation and phosphorylation through a mechanism independent of cholesterol reduction in cultured neurons.

  7. NOVEL AMYLOID-BETA SPECIFIC scFv and VH ANTIBODY FRAGMENTS FROM HUMAN AND MOUSE PHAGE DISPLAY ANTIBODY LIBRARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medecigo, M.; Manoutcharian, K.; Vasilevko, V.; Govezensky, T.; Munguia, M. E.; Becerril, B.; Luz-Madrigal, A.; Vaca, L.; Cribbs, D. H.; Gevorkian, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-amyloid immunotherapy has been proposed as an appropriate therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Significant efforts have been made towards the generation and assessment of antibody-based reagents capable of preventing and clearing amyloid aggregates as well as preventing their synaptotoxic effects. In this study, we selected a novel set of human anti-amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42) recombinant monoclonal antibodies in a single chain fragment variable (scFv) and a single domain (VH) formats. We demonstrated that these antibody fragments recognize in a specific manner amyloid beta deposits in APP/Tg mouse brains, inhibit toxicity of oligomeric Aβ1-42 in neuroblastoma cell cultures in a concentration-dependently manner and reduced amyloid deposits in APP/Tg2576 mice after intracranial administration. These antibody fragments recognize epitopes in the middle/C-terminus region of Aβ, which makes them strong therapeutic candidates due to the fact that most of the Aβ species found in the brains of AD patients display extensive N-terminus truncations/modifications. PMID:20451261

  8. Turnover of amyloid precursor protein family members determines their nuclear signaling capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbacher, Manuel T; Goodger, Zoë V; Trutzel, Annette; Bundschuh, Diana; Nitsch, Roger M; Konietzko, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as its homologues, APP-like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2), are cleaved by α-, β-, and γ-secretases, resulting in the release of their intracellular domains (ICDs). We have shown that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is transported to the nucleus by Fe65 where they jointly bind the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 and localize to spherical nuclear complexes (AFT complexes), which are thought to be sites of transcription. We have now analyzed the subcellular localization and turnover of the APP family members. Similarly to AICD, the ICD of APLP2 localizes to spherical nuclear complexes together with Fe65 and Tip60. In contrast, the ICD of APLP1, despite binding to Fe65, does not translocate to the nucleus. In addition, APLP1 predominantly localizes to the plasma membrane, whereas APP and APLP2 are detected in vesicular structures. APLP1 also demonstrates a much slower turnover of the full-length protein compared to APP and APLP2. We further show that the ICDs of all APP family members are degraded by the proteasome and that the N-terminal amino acids of ICDs determine ICD degradation rate. Together, our results suggest that different nuclear signaling capabilities of APP family members are due to different rates of full-length protein processing and ICD proteasomal degradation. Our results provide evidence in support of a common nuclear signaling function for APP and APLP2 that is absent in APLP1, but suggest that APLP1 has a regulatory role in the nuclear translocation of APP family ICDs due to the sequestration of Fe65.

  9. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by the Beclin 1 complex.

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    Philipp A Jaeger

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that functions in protein and organelle turnover in response to starvation and cellular stress. Autophagy is initiated by the formation of a complex containing Beclin 1 (BECN1 and its binding partner Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 (PIK3C3. Recently, BECN1 deficiency was shown to enhance the pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer Disease (AD. However, the mechanism by which BECN1 or autophagy mediate these effects are unknown. Here, we report that the levels of Amyloid precursor protein (APP and its metabolites can be reduced through autophagy activation, indicating that they are a substrate for autophagy. Furthermore, we find that knockdown of Becn1 in cell culture increases the levels of APP and its metabolites. Accumulation of APP and APP C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF are accompanied by impaired autophagosomal clearance. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation causes a comparable accumulation of APP and APP-metabolites in autophagosomes. Becn1 reduction in cell culture leads to lower levels of its binding partner Pik3c3 and increased presence of Microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3. Overexpression of Becn1, on the other hand, reduces cellular APP levels. In line with these observations, we detected less BECN1 and PIK3C3 but more LC3 protein in brains of AD patients. We conclude that BECN1 regulates APP processing and turnover. BECN1 is involved in autophagy initiation and autophagosome clearance. Accordingly, BECN1 deficiency disrupts cellular autophagy and autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation and alters APP metabolism. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy and the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex regulate APP processing and play an important role in AD pathology.

  10. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by the Beclin 1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Philipp A; Pickford, Fiona; Sun, Chung-Huan; Lucin, Kurt M; Masliah, Eliezer; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2010-06-15

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that functions in protein and organelle turnover in response to starvation and cellular stress. Autophagy is initiated by the formation of a complex containing Beclin 1 (BECN1) and its binding partner Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 (PIK3C3). Recently, BECN1 deficiency was shown to enhance the pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which BECN1 or autophagy mediate these effects are unknown. Here, we report that the levels of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its metabolites can be reduced through autophagy activation, indicating that they are a substrate for autophagy. Furthermore, we find that knockdown of Becn1 in cell culture increases the levels of APP and its metabolites. Accumulation of APP and APP C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF) are accompanied by impaired autophagosomal clearance. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation causes a comparable accumulation of APP and APP-metabolites in autophagosomes. Becn1 reduction in cell culture leads to lower levels of its binding partner Pik3c3 and increased presence of Microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3). Overexpression of Becn1, on the other hand, reduces cellular APP levels. In line with these observations, we detected less BECN1 and PIK3C3 but more LC3 protein in brains of AD patients. We conclude that BECN1 regulates APP processing and turnover. BECN1 is involved in autophagy initiation and autophagosome clearance. Accordingly, BECN1 deficiency disrupts cellular autophagy and autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation and alters APP metabolism. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy and the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex regulate APP processing and play an important role in AD pathology.

  11. Aβ42 Is Essential for Parenchymal and Vascular Amyloid Deposition in Mice

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    McGowan, Eileen; Onstead, Luisa; Eriksen, Jason; Yu, Cindy; Skipper, Lisa; Murphy, M. Paul; Beard, Jenny; Das, Pritam; Jansen, Karen; DeLucia, Michael; Lin, Wen-Lang; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong; Eckman, Christopher B.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Hutton, Mike; Hardy, John; Golde, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Summary Considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that Aβ42 is the initiating molecule in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, the absolute requirement for Aβ42 for amyloid deposition has never been demonstrated in vivo. We have addressed this by developing transgenic models that express Aβ1-40 or Aβ1-42 in the absence of human amyloid β protein precursor (APP) overexpression. Mice expressing high levels of Aβ1-40 do not develop overt amyloid pathology. In contrast, mice expressing lower levels of Aβ1-42 accumulate insoluble Aβ1-42 and develop compact amyloid plaques, congophilic amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and diffuse Aβ deposits. When mice expressing Aβ1-42 are crossed with mutant APP (Tg2576) mice, there is also a massive increase in amyloid deposition. These data establish that Aβ1-42 is essential for amyloid deposition in the parenchyma and also in vessels. PMID:16039562

  12. Chronic pre-treatment with memantine prevents amyloid-beta protein-mediated long-term potentiation disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fushun Li; Xiaowei Chen; Feiming Wang; Shujun Xu; Lan Chang; Roger Anwyl; Qinwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that memantine, a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, exerted acute protective effects against amyloidprotein-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, the chronic effects and mechanisms of memantine were investigated further using electrophysiological methods. The results showed that 7-day intraperitoneal application of memantine, at doses of 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, did not alter hippocampal long-term potentiation induction in rats, while 40 mg/kg memantine presented potent long-term potentiation inhibition. Then further in vitro studys were carried out in 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg memantine treated rats. We found that 20 mg/kg memantine attenuated the potent long-term potentiation inhibition caused by exposure to amyloidprotein in the dentate gyrus in vitro. These findings are the first to demonstrate the antagonizing effect of long-term systematic treatment of memantine against amyloidprotein triggered long-term potentiation inhibition to improve synaptic plasticity.

  13. The OPEP protein model: from single molecules, amyloid formation, crowding and hydrodynamics to DNA/RNA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, Fabio; Melchionna, Simone; Tuffery, Pierre; Pasquali, Samuela; Mousseau, Normand; Cragnolini, Tristan; Chebaro, Yassmine; St-Pierre, Jean-Francois; Kalimeri, Maria; Barducci, Alessandro; Laurin, Yoann; Tek, Alex; Baaden, Marc; Nguyen, Phuong Hoang; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-07-07

    The OPEP coarse-grained protein model has been applied to a wide range of applications since its first release 15 years ago. The model, which combines energetic and structural accuracy and chemical specificity, allows the study of single protein properties, DNA-RNA complexes, amyloid fibril formation and protein suspensions in a crowded environment. Here we first review the current state of the model and the most exciting applications using advanced conformational sampling methods. We then present the current limitations and a perspective on the ongoing developments.

  14. Aβ42 Is Essential for Parenchymal and Vascular Amyloid Deposition in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Eileen; Pickford, Fiona; Kim, Jungsu; Onstead, Luisa; Eriksen, Jason; Yu, Cindy; Skipper, Lisa; Murphy, M. Paul; Beard, Jenny; Das, Pritam; Jansen,Karen; DeLucia, Michael; Lin, Wen-Lang; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong

    2005-01-01

    Considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that Aβ42 is the initiating molecule in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, the absolute requirement for Aβ42 for amyloid deposition has never been demonstrated in vivo. We have addressed this by developing transgenic models that express Aβ1-40 or Aβ1-42 in the absence of human amyloid β protein precursor (APP) overexpression. Mice expressing high levels of Aβ1-40 do not develop overt amyloid pathology. In contrast, mice expressing low...

  15. Iron and the translation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ferritin mRNAs: riboregulation against neural oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jack T; Bush, Ashley I; Cho, Hyan-Hee; Smith, Deborah H; Thomson, Andrew M; Friedlich, Avi L; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Leedman, Peter J; Huang, Xudong; Cahill, Catherine M

    2008-12-01

    The essential metals iron, zinc and copper deposit near the Abeta (amyloid beta-peptide) plaques in the brain cortex of AD (Alzheimer's disease) patients. Plaque-associated iron and zinc are in neurotoxic excess at 1 mM concentrations. APP (amyloid precursor protein) is a single transmembrane metalloprotein cleaved to generate the 40-42-amino-acid Abetas, which exhibit metal-catalysed neurotoxicity. In health, ubiquitous APP is cleaved in a non-amyloidogenic pathway within its Abeta domain to release the neuroprotective APP ectodomain, APP(s). To adapt and counteract metal-catalysed oxidative stress, as during reperfusion from stroke, iron and cytokines induce the translation of both APP and ferritin (an iron storage protein) by similar mechanisms. We reported that APP was regulated at the translational level by active IL (interleukin)-1 (IL-1-responsive acute box) and IRE (iron-responsive element) RNA stem-loops in the 5' untranslated region of APP mRNA. The APP IRE is homologous with the canonical IRE RNA stem-loop that binds the iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) to control intracellular iron homoeostasis by modulating ferritin mRNA translation and transferrin receptor mRNA stability. The APP IRE interacts with IRP1 (cytoplasmic cis-aconitase), whereas the canonical H-ferritin IRE RNA stem-loop binds to IRP2 in neural cell lines, and in human brain cortex tissue and in human blood lysates. The same constellation of RNA-binding proteins [IRP1/IRP2/poly(C) binding protein] control ferritin and APP translation with implications for the biology of metals in AD.

  16. Amyloid beta modulated the selectivity of heme-catalyzed protein tyrosine nitration: an alternative mechanism for selective protein nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Can; Li, Hailing; Gao, Zhonghong

    2012-10-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification associated with numerous pathological conditions. The biological consequences of this modification strongly depend on the site selectivity. Unfortunately, to date there is still no reliable model for predicting the selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration. Previously, we found that amyloid beta (Aβ) changed the selectivity of enolase tyrosine nitration upon binding to heme. It seemed that there was a link between the hydrophilicity of Aβ and the site-specific tyrosine nitration. We further investigated the role of the hydrophilicity of the molecules that bind to heme in the selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration. We found that Aβ(1-16), Aβ(1-20), and Aβ(1-40), upon binding to heme and interacting with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in a site-specific manner, differently modulated the site selectivity of heme-catalyzed GAPDH tyrosine nitration. The modulation is associated with the hydrophilicity of the Aβ peptides, which changed the surrounding environment of the heme. At the same time, the Aβ-heme complexes were found to be more effective at inactivating GAPDH than heme alone, and the selective tyrosine nitration that was catalyzed by Aβ-heme played an important role. These findings suggest an alternative mechanism for the selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration, which may lead to a better understanding of the factors that influence protein tyrosine nitration selectivity and the important roles of Aβ and heme in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, where Aβ accumulation and Aβ-dependent protein nitration play central roles.

  17. Amyloid-β Activates Microglia and Regulates Protein Expression in a Manner Similar to Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jian; Chen, Baian; Yang, Lifeng; Qi, Kezong; Lu, Jing; Zhao, Deming

    2015-06-01

    Prions are the only convincingly demonstrated proteinaceous infectious particle, yet recent studies find that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates are capable of self-propagation, which induces amyloidosis pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice that is similar to the self-propagation phenomenon of prions in neurons. Gliosis is a common hallmark of AD and prion diseases, in which activated microglia accumulate around abnormal protein deposits. Analyses of the characteristics of activated microglia induced by Aβ in comparison with those induced by prions will provide new insight into the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, we compared the characteristics of BV-2 cells (model microglia) activated by Aβ fibrillar peptides (Aβ1-42) and prions (PrP106-126). Aβ1-42 and PrP106-126, as well as the supernatants of the media collected from BV-2 cells cocultured with Aβ1-42 and PrP106-126, were potent activators of BV-2 microglial activity, but the chemotaxis index (CI) induced by Aβ1-42 was significantly higher than that induced by PrP106-126 at each concentration. Aβ1-42 and PrP106-126 increased the proliferation index (PI) and upregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) expression after 12 h of exposure. Our results show that Aβ activates microglia and regulates microglial protein expression in a manner similar to prions and, thus, provide new insight into the pathogenesis of AD.

  18. Glial expression of the {beta}-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in global ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banati, R.B.; Gehrmann, J.; Kreutzberg, G.W. [Max Planck Institute of Psychiarty, Martinsried (Germany)]|[Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Koeln (Germany)]|[Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-07-01

    The {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) bears characteristics of an acute-phase protein and therefore is likely to be involved in the glial response to brain injury. In the brain, APP is rapidly synthesized by activated glial cells in response to comparatively mild neuronal lesions, e.g., a remote peripheral nerve injury. Perfusion deficits in the brain result largely in neuronal necrosis and are a common condition in elderly patients. This neuronal necrosis is accompanied by a pronounced reaction of astrocytes and microglia, which can also be observed in animal models. We have therefore studied in the rat, immunocytochemically, the induction of APP after 30 min of global ischemia caused by four-vessel occlusion. The postischemic brain injuries were examined at survival times from 12 h to 7 days. From day 3 onward, APP immunoreactivity was strongly induced in the CA{sub 1} and CA{sub 4} regions of the rat dorsal hippocampus as well as in the dorsolateral striatum. In these areas, the majority of APP-immunoreactive cells were reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, as shown by double-immunofluorescence labeling for GFAP and APP. Additionally, small ramified cells, most likely activated microglia, expressed APP immunoreactivity. In contrast, in the parietal cortex, APP immunoreactivity occurred focally in clusters of activated microglia rather than in astrocytes, as demonstrated by double-immunofluorescence labeling for APP and the microglia-binding lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B{sub 4}. In conclusion, following global ischemia, APP is induced in reactive glial cells with spatial differences in the distribution pattern of APP induction in actrocytes and microglia. 51 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Purification and Refolding to Amyloid Fibrils of (His)6-tagged Recombinant Shadoo Protein Expressed as Inclusion Bodies in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaojing; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Moudjou, Mohammed; Vidic, Jasmina

    2015-12-19

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a powerful tool for the production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. We use it to produce Shadoo, a protein belonging to the prion family. A chromatographic method for the purification of (His)6-tagged recombinant Shadoo expressed as inclusion bodies is described. The inclusion bodies are solubilized in 8 M urea and bound to a Ni(2+)-charged column to perform ion affinity chromatography. Bound proteins are eluted by a gradient of imidazole. Fractions containing Shadoo protein are subjected to size exclusion chromatography to obtain a highly purified protein. In the final step purified Shadoo is desalted to remove salts, urea and imidazole. Recombinant Shadoo protein is an important reagent for biophysical and biochemical studies of protein conformation disorders occurring in prion diseases. Many reports demonstrated that prion neurodegenerative diseases originate from the deposition of stable, ordered amyloid fibrils. Sample protocols describing how to fibrillate Shadoo into amyloid fibrils at acidic and neutral/basic pHs are presented. The methods on how to produce and fibrillate Shadoo can facilitate research in laboratories working on prion diseases, since it allows for production of large amounts of protein in a rapid and low cost manner.

  20. The Role of Neutrophil Proteins on the Amyloid Beta-RAGE Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Amanda J; Kasus-Jacobi, Anne; Wren, Jonathan D; Sjoelund, Virginie H; Prestwich, Glenn D; Pereira, H Anne

    We previously showed an elevated expression of the neutrophil protein, cationic antimicrobial protein of 37kDa (CAP37), in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that CAP37 could be involved in AD pathogenesis. The first step in determining how CAP37 might contribute to AD pathogenesis was to identify the receptor through which it induces cell responses. To identify a putative receptor, we performed GAMMA analysis to determine genes that positively correlated with CAP37 in terms of expression. Positive correlations with ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were observed. Additionally, CAP37 expression positively correlated with two other neutrophil proteins, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) demonstrated an interaction between CAP37, neutrophil elastase, and cathepsin G with RAGE. Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42), a known RAGE ligand, accumulates in AD brains and interacts with RAGE, contributing to Aβ1-42 neurotoxicity. We questioned whether the binding of CAP37, neutrophil elastase and/or cathepsin G to RAGE could interfere with Aβ1-42 binding to RAGE. Using ELISAs, we determined that CAP37 and neutrophil elastase inhibited binding of Aβ1-42 to RAGE, and this effect was reversed by protease inhibitors in the case of neutrophil elastase. Since neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G have enzymatic activity, mass spectrometry was performed to determine the proteolytic activity of all three neutrophil proteins on Aβ1-42. All three neutrophil proteins bound to Aβ1-42 with different affinities and cleaved Aβ1-42 with different kinetics and substrate specificities. We posit that these neutrophil proteins could modulate neurotoxicity in AD by cleaving Aβ1-42 and influencing the Aβ1-42 -RAGE interaction. Further studies will be required to determine the biological significance of these effects and their relevance in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. Our findings

  1. Continuation of exercise is necessary to inhibit high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Iwata, Ayana; Kubota, Masakazu; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Noda, Yasuha; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is prevalent in many modern societies and HFD-induced metabolic condition is a growing concern worldwide. It has been previously reported that HFD clearly worsens cognitive function in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that voluntary exercise in an enriched environment is an effective intervention to rescue HFD-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and memory deficit. However, it had been unclear whether consumption of HFD after exercising abolished the beneficial effect of exercise on the inhibition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. To examine this question, we exposed wild type (WT) and APP mice fed with HFD to exercise conditions at different time periods. In our previous experiment, we gave HFD to mice for 20 weeks and subjected them to exercise during weeks 10-20. In the present study, mice were subjected to exercise conditions during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 while being on HFD. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function was not abolished in WT mice even if they kept having HFD after finishing exercise. However, in APP transgenic mice, HFD clearly disrupted the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function. Importantly, we observed that the level of Aβ oligomer was significantly elevated in the APP mice that exercised during weeks 0-10: this might have been caused by the up-regulation of Aβ production. These results provide solid evidence that continuation of exercise is necessary to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in the pathological setting of AD.

  2. Continuation of exercise is necessary to inhibit high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Maesako

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD is prevalent in many modern societies and HFD-induced metabolic condition is a growing concern worldwide. It has been previously reported that HFD clearly worsens cognitive function in amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that voluntary exercise in an enriched environment is an effective intervention to rescue HFD-induced β-amyloid (Aβ deposition and memory deficit. However, it had been unclear whether consumption of HFD after exercising abolished the beneficial effect of exercise on the inhibition of Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. To examine this question, we exposed wild type (WT and APP mice fed with HFD to exercise conditions at different time periods. In our previous experiment, we gave HFD to mice for 20 weeks and subjected them to exercise during weeks 10-20. In the present study, mice were subjected to exercise conditions during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 while being on HFD. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function was not abolished in WT mice even if they kept having HFD after finishing exercise. However, in APP transgenic mice, HFD clearly disrupted the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function. Importantly, we observed that the level of Aβ oligomer was significantly elevated in the APP mice that exercised during weeks 0-10: this might have been caused by the up-regulation of Aβ production. These results provide solid evidence that continuation of exercise is necessary to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in the pathological setting of AD.

  3. Region-specific differences in amyloid precursor protein expression in the mouse hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Del Turco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physiological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP has been extensively investigated in the rodent hippocampus. Evidence suggests that APP plays a role in synaptic plasticity, dendritic and spine morphogenesis, neuroprotection and - at the behavioral level - hippocampus-dependent forms of learning and memory. Intriguingly, however, studies focusing on the role of APP in synaptic plasticity have reported diverging results and considerable differences in effect size between the dentate gyrus and area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus. We speculated that regional differences in APP expression could underlie these discrepancies and studied the expression of APP in both regions using immunostaining, in situ hybridization, and laser microdissection in combination with quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blotting. In sum, our results show that APP is approximately 1.7-fold higher expressed in pyramidal cells of Ammon´s horn than in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. This regional difference in APP expression may explain why loss-of-function approaches using APP-deficient mice revealed a role for APP in Hebbian plasticity in area CA1, whereas this could not be shown in the dentate gyrus of the same APP mutants.

  4. Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein inhibits influenza A virus and modulates viral interactions with phagocytes.

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    Mitchell R White

    Full Text Available Accumulation of β-Amyloid (βA is a key pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer's disease; however, the normal function of βA is unknown. Recent studies have shown that βA can inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. In this paper we show that βA also inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV in vitro. The 42 amino acid fragment of βA (βA42 had greater activity than the 40 amino acid fragment. Direct incubation of the virus with βA42 was needed to achieve optimal inhibition. Using quantitative PCR assays βA42 was shown to reduce viral uptake by epithelial cells after 45 minutes and to reduce supernatant virus at 24 hours post infection. βA42 caused aggregation of IAV particles as detected by light transmission assays and electron and confocal microscopy. βA42 did not stimulate neutrophil H2O2 production or extracellular trap formation on its own, but it increased both responses stimulated by IAV. In addition, βA42 increased uptake of IAV by neutrophils. βA42 reduced viral protein synthesis in monocytes and reduced IAV-induced interleukin-6 production by these cells. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that βA has antiviral activity and modulates viral interactions with phagocytes.

  5. Dimerization of the transmembrane domain of amyloid precursor proteins and familial Alzheimer's disease mutants

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    Fraser Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid precursor protein (APP is enzymatically cleaved by γ-secretase to form two peptide products, either Aβ40 or the more neurotoxic Aβ42. The Aβ42/40 ratio is increased in many cases of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD. The transmembrane domain (TM of APP contains the known dimerization motif GXXXA. We have investigated the dimerization of both wild type and FAD mutant APP transmembrane domains. Results Using synthetic peptides derived from the APP-TM domain, we show that this segment is capable of forming stable transmembrane dimers. A model of a dimeric APP-TM domain reveals a putative dimerization interface, and interestingly, majority of FAD mutations in APP are localized to this interface region. We find that FAD-APP mutations destabilize the APP-TM dimer and increase the population of APP peptide monomers. Conclusion The dissociation constants are correlated to both the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio and the mean age of disease onset in AD patients. We also show that these TM-peptides reduce Aβ production and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios when added to HEK293 cells overexpressing the Swedish FAD mutation and γ-secretase components, potentially revealing a new class of γ-secretase inhibitors.

  6. Epicatechin and catechin in cocoa inhibit amyloid beta protein induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Chang Yong

    2005-03-09

    To elucidate additional health benefits of cocoa phytochemicals on the neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta protein (Abeta), PC12 cells were treated with toxic peptide (Abeta(25)(-)(35)) and the effects of epicatechin, catechin, and cocoa were studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and trypan blue exclusion methods. Significant increase in neuronal cell death was observed on PC12 cells treated with Abeta(25)(-)(35) (25 microM), while epicatechin and catechin and their mixture prevented the Abeta-induced neuronal cell death. Abeta treatment also led to the increased membrane instability of PC12 cells. The membrane protective effects of the phenolics determined by LDH release and trypan blue exclusion assays demonstrated that epicatechin, catechin, and their mixture protect cellular membrane from Abeta-induced cytotoxicity. In these three different cell viability assays, the mixture of epicatechin and catechin showed the highest protective effect and synergistic activity. The present results showed that the major flavonoids of cocoa, epicatechin and catechin, protect PC12 cells from Abeta-induced neurotoxicity, and suggest that cocoa may have anti-neurodegenerative effect in addition to other known chemopreventive effects.

  7. The effect of zinc on amyloid β-protein assembly and toxicity: A mechanistic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonov, Inna; Sagi, Irit

    2014-10-01

    Neurotoxic assemblies of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are widely believed to be the cause for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, understanding the factors and mechanisms that control, modulate, and inhibit formation of these assemblies is crucial for the development of therapeutic intervention of AD. This information also can contribute significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms of other amyloidosis diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, type 2 diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) and prion diseases (e.g. Mad Cow disease). We have developed a multidisciplinary experimental strategy to study structural and dynamic mechanistic aspects that underlie the Aβ assembly process. Utilizing this strategy, we explored the molecular basis leading to the perturbation of the Aβ assembly process by divalent metal ions, mainly Zn2+ ions. Using Zn2+ as reaction physiological relevant probes, it was demonstrated that Zn2+ rapidly (milliseconds) induce self-assembly of Aβ aggregates and stabilize them in a manner that prevents formation of Aβ fibrils. Importantly, the early-formed intermediates are substantially more neurotoxic than fibrils. Our results suggest that relevant Aβ modulators should be targeted against the rapidly evolved intermediate states of Aβ assembly. The design of such modulators is challenging, as they have to compete with different natural mediators (such as Zn2+) of Aβ aggregation, which diverse Aβ assemblies in both specific and nonspecific manners.

  8. Amyloid precursor protein-mediated endocytic pathway disruption induces axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Weissmiller, April M; White, Joseph A; Fang, Fang; Wang, Xinyi; Wu, Yiwen; Pearn, Matthew L; Zhao, Xiaobei; Sawa, Mariko; Chen, Shengdi; Gunawardena, Shermali; Ding, Jianqing; Mobley, William C; Wu, Chengbiao

    2016-05-02

    The endosome/lysosome pathway is disrupted early in the course of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS); however, it is not clear how dysfunction in this pathway influences the development of these diseases. Herein, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which endosomal dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of AD and DS. We determined that full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) act though increased activation of Rab5 to cause enlargement of early endosomes and to disrupt retrograde axonal trafficking of nerve growth factor (NGF) signals. The functional impacts of APP and its various products were investigated in PC12 cells, cultured rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs), and BFCNs from a mouse model of DS. We found that the full-length wild-type APP (APPWT) and β-CTF both induced endosomal enlargement and disrupted NGF signaling and axonal trafficking. β-CTF alone induced atrophy of BFCNs that was rescued by the dominant-negative Rab5 mutant, Rab5S34N. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative Rab5 construct markedly reduced APP-induced axonal blockage in Drosophila. Therefore, increased APP and/or β-CTF impact the endocytic pathway to disrupt NGF trafficking and signaling, resulting in trophic deficits in BFCNs. Our data strongly support the emerging concept that dysregulation of Rab5 activity contributes importantly to early pathogenesis of AD and DS.

  9. Gene expression profile of amyloid beta protein-injected mouse model for Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-na KONG; Ping-ping ZUO; Liang MU; Yan-yong LIU; Nan YANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the gene expression profile changes in the cerebral cortex of mice injected icv with amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) fragment 25-35 using cDNA microarray. Methods: Balb/c mice were randomly divided into a control group and Aβ-treated group. The Morris water maze test was performed to detect the effect of Aβ-injection on the learning and memory of mice. Atlas Mouse 1.2 Expression Arrays containing 1176 genes were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of each group. Results: The gene expression profiles showed that 19 genes including TBX1, NF-κB, AP-1/c-Jun, cadherin, integrin, erb-B2, and FGFR1 were up-regulated after 2 weeks oficv administration of Aβ; while 12 genes were downregulated, including NGF, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, AT motif binding factor 1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and Akt. Conclusions: The results provide important leads for pursuing a more complete understanding of the molecular events of Aβ-injection into mice with Alzheimer disease.

  10. Familial Alzheimer's disease mutations differentially alter amyloid β-protein oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessel, Megan Murray; Bernstein, Summer; Kemper, Martin; Teplow, David B; Bowers, Michael T

    2012-11-21

    Although most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sporadic, ∼5% of cases are genetic in origin. These cases, known as familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), are caused by mutations that alter the rate of production or the primary structure of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Changes in the primary structure of Aβ alter the peptide's assembly and toxic activity. Recently, a primary working hypothesis for AD has evolved where causation has been attributed to early, soluble peptide oligomer states. Here we posit that both experimental and pathological differences between FAD-related mutants and wild-type Aβ could be reflected in the early oligomer distributions of these peptides. We use ion mobility-based mass spectrometry to probe the structure and early aggregation states of three mutant forms of Aβ40 and Aβ42: Tottori (D7N), Flemish (A21G), and Arctic (E22G). Our results indicate that the FAD-related amino acid substitutions have no noticeable effect on Aβ monomer cross section, indicating there are no major structural changes in the monomers. However, we observe significant changes to the aggregation states populated by the various Aβ mutants, indicating that structural changes present in the monomers are reflected in the oligomers. Moreover, the early oligomer distributions differ for each mutant, suggesting a possible structural basis for the varied pathogenesis of different forms of FAD.

  11. Parallel in-register intermolecular β-sheet architectures for prion-seeded prion protein (PrP) amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groveman, Bradley R; Dolan, Michael A; Taubner, Lara M; Kraus, Allison; Wickner, Reed B; Caughey, Byron

    2014-08-29

    Structures of the infectious form of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc) or PrP-Scrapie) remain poorly defined. The prevalent structural models of PrP(Sc) retain most of the native α-helices of the normal, noninfectious prion protein, cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), but evidence is accumulating that these helices are absent in PrP(Sc) amyloid. Moreover, recombinant PrP(C) can form amyloid fibrils in vitro that have parallel in-register intermolecular β-sheet architectures in the domains originally occupied by helices 2 and 3. Here, we provide solid-state NMR evidence that the latter is also true of initially prion-seeded recombinant PrP amyloids formed in the absence of denaturants. These results, in the context of a primarily β-sheet structure, led us to build detailed models of PrP amyloid based on parallel in-register architectures, fibrillar shapes and dimensions, and other available experimentally derived conformational constraints. Molecular dynamics simulations of PrP(90-231) octameric segments suggested that such linear fibrils, which are consistent with many features of PrP(Sc) fibrils, can have stable parallel in-register β-sheet cores. These simulations revealed that the C-terminal residues ∼124-227 more readily adopt stable tightly packed structures than the N-terminal residues ∼90-123 in the absence of cofactors. Variations in the placement of turns and loops that link the β-sheets could give rise to distinct prion strains capable of faithful template-driven propagation. Moreover, our modeling suggests that single PrP monomers can comprise the entire cross-section of fibrils that have previously been assumed to be pairs of laterally associated protofilaments. Together, these insights provide a new basis for deciphering mammalian prion structures.

  12. Effects of cerebrovascular disease on amyloid precursor protein metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren Lars

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD including chronic small vessel disease of the brain (SVD are the most frequent causes of dementia. AD is associated with metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP and low levels of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ X-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CVD and SVD are established risk factors for AD, brain white matter lesions (WML are established surrogate markers for SVD and are also associated with reduced CSF AβX-42. A cohort survey was performed to examine whether SVD or acute CVD affects APP metabolism and to explore a potential association between WML and APP metabolism in two groups; cognitively impaired patients, subjective and mild (SCI and MCI and stroke patients. Through measurements of CSF APP metabolite levels in patients with a wide range of WML volumes, this study aimed to determine how SVD influences APP metabolism. Methods Sixty-three patients were included: 37 with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI or mild cognitive impairment (MCI without stroke, and 26 after acute stroke. Chronic and acute WML volume and infarct volume were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI post-scan processing, and CSF levels of α- and β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPP-α and sAPP-β, AβX-38, AβX-40 and AβX-42 were determined. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the patient groups. Chronic and acute WML volumes, infarct volume, age, and sex were used as predictors for CSF biomarker levels in linear regression analysis. Results CSF levels of sAPP-α and sAPP-β were strongly correlated (r = 0.95, p p p p ≤ 0.005; p ≤ 0.01; p ≤ 0.01; p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.05 respectively, but not with acute WML or infarct volumes. Conclusions Lower CSF levels of sAPP-α and sAPP-β in the stroke group than in the SCI/MCI group and an inverse correlation with chronic WML indicate that ischemia lowers the levels of CSF sAPP metabolites and suggests that APP axonal transport or

  13. Proteomic study of amyloid beta (25-35) peptide exposure to neuronal cells: Impact on APE1/Ref-1's protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Anil K; Dhiman, Monisha; Taglialatela, Giulio; Perez-Polo, Regino J; Mitra, Sankar

    2012-06-01

    The genotoxic, extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) protein and subsequent neuronal cell death are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). APE1/Ref-1, the predominant apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and essential in eukaryotic cells, plays a central role in the base excision repair (BER) pathway for repairing oxidized and alkylated bases and single-strand breaks (SSBs) in DNA. APE1/Ref-1 is also involved in the redox activation of several trans-acting factors (TFs) in various cell types, but little is known about its role in neuronal functions. There is emerging evidence for APE1/Ref-1's role in neuronal cells vulnerable in AD and other neurodegenerative disorders, as reflected in its nuclear accumulation in AD brains. An increase in APE1/Ref-1 has been shown to enhance neuronal survival after oxidative stress. To address whether APE1/Ref-1 level or its association with other proteins is responsible for this protective effect, we used 2-D proteomic analyses and identified cytoskeleton elements (i.e., tropomodulin 3, tropomyosin alpha-3 chain), enzymes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., pyruvate kinase M2, N-acetyl transferase, sulfotransferase 1c), proteins involved in stress response (i.e., leucine-rich and death domain, anti-NGF30), and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotien-H (hnRNP-H) as being associated with APE1/Ref-1 in Aβ(25-35)-treated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines, two common neuronal precursor lines used in Aβ neurotoxicity studies. Because the levels of some of these proteins are affected in the brains of AD patients, our study suggests a neuroprotective role for APE1/Ref-1 via its association with those proteins and modulating their cellular functions during Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity.

  14. Highly potent soluble amyloid-β seeds in human Alzheimer brain but not cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Stephan A.; Maia, Luis F.; Portelius, Erik; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Winkler, David T.; Maetzler, Walter; Keyvani, Kathy; Spitzer, Philipp; Wiltfang, Jens; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Jucker, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The soluble fraction of brain samples from patients with Alzheimer’s disease contains highly biologically active amyloid-β seeds. In this study, we sought to assess the potency of soluble amyloid-β seeds derived from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble Alzheimer’s disease brain extracts were serially diluted and then injected into the hippocampus of young, APP transgenic mice. Eight months later, seeded amyloid-β deposition was evident even when the hippocampus received subattomole amounts of brain-derived amyloid-β. In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which contained more than 10-fold higher levels of amyloid-β peptide than the most concentrated soluble brain extracts, did not induce detectable seeding activity in vivo. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid from aged APP-transgenic donor mice failed to induce cerebral amyloid-β deposition. In comparison to the soluble brain fraction, cerebrospinal fluid largely lacked N-terminally truncated amyloid-β species and exhibited smaller amyloid-β-positive particles, features that may contribute to the lack of in vivo seeding by cerebrospinal fluid. Interestingly, the same cerebrospinal fluid showed at least some seeding activity in an in vitro assay. The present results indicate that the biological seeding activity of soluble amyloid-β species is orders of magnitude greater in brain extracts than in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25212850

  15. The mechanism of amyloid-fibril formation by stefin B: temperature and protein concentration dependence of the rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerget, Katja; Vilfan, Andrej; Pompe-Novak, Marusa; Turk, Vito; Waltho, Jonathan P; Turk, Dusan; Zerovnik, Eva

    2009-02-01

    Cystatins, a family of structurally related cysteine proteinase inhibitors, have proved to be useful model system to study amyloidogenesis. We have extended previous studies of the kinetics of amyloid-fibril formation by human stefin B (cystatin B) and some of its mutants, and proposed an improved model for the reaction. Overall, the observed kinetics follow the nucleation and growth behavior observed for many other amyloidogenic proteins. The minimal kinetic scheme that best fits measurements of changes in CD and thioflavin T fluorescence as a function of protein concentration and temperature includes nucleation (modeled as N(I) irreversible transitions with equivalent rates (k(I)), which fitted with N(I) = 64), fibril growth and nonproductive oligomerization, best explained by an off-pathway state with a rate-limiting escape rate. Three energies of activation were derived from global fitting to the minimal kinetic scheme, and independently through the fitting of the individual component rates. Nucleation was found to be a first-order process within an oligomeric species with an enthalpy of activation of 55 +/- 4 kcal mol(-1). Fibril growth was a second-order process with an enthalpy of activation (27 +/- 5 kcal mol(-1)), which is indistinguishable from that of tetramer formation by cystatins, which involves limited conformational changes including proline trans to cis isomerization. The highest enthalpy of activation (95 +/- 5 kcal mol(-1) at 35 degrees C), characteristic of a substantial degree of unfolding as observed prior to domain-swapping reactions, equated with the escape rate of the off-pathway oligomeric state.

  16. A setup for simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and light scattering signals: Watching amyloid fibrils grow from intact proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Maurer, Jürgen; Roth, Andreas; Vogel, Vitali; Winter, Ernst; Mäntele, Werner, E-mail: maentele@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    A setup for the simultaneous measurement of mid-infrared spectra and static light scattering is described that can be used for the analysis of the formation of nanoscale and microscopic aggregates from smaller molecules to biopolymers. It can be easily integrated into sample chambers of infrared spectrometers or combined with laser beams from tunable infrared lasers. Here, its use for the analysis of the formation of amyloid fibrils from intact proteins is demonstrated. The formation of amyloid fibrils or plaques from proteins is a widespread and pathogenetic relevant process, and a number of diseases are caused and correlated with the deposition of amyloid fibrils in cells and tissues. The molecular mechanisms of these transformations, however, are still unclear. We report here the simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and static light scattering for the analysis of fibril formation from egg-white lysozyme. The transformation of the native form into non-native forms rich in β-sheet structure is measured by analysis of the amide I spectral region in the infrared spectra, which is sensitive for local structures. At the same time, light scattering signals at forward direction as well as the forward/backward ratio, which are sensitive for the number of scattering centers and their approximate sizes, respectively, are collected for the analysis of fibril growth. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters as well as mechanistic information are deduced from the combination of the two complementary techniques.

  17. Metabolic Characterization of Intact Cells Reveals Intracellular Amyloid Beta but Not Its Precursor Protein to Reduce Mitochondrial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Patrick M.; von Einem, Bjoern; Walther, Paul; Calzia, Enrico; von Arnim, Christine A. F.

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease are senile plaques consisting of amyloid beta (Aβ), which derives from the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease and both Aβ and APP have been reported to affect mitochondrial function in isolated systems. However, in intact cells, considering a physiological localization of APP and Aβ, it is pending what triggers the mitochondrial defect. Thus, the aim of this study was to dissect the impact of APP versus Aβ in inducing mitochondrial alterations with respect to their subcellular localization. We performed an overexpression of APP or beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), increasing APP and Aβ levels or Aβ alone, respectively. Conducting a comprehensive metabolic characterization we demonstrate that only APP overexpression reduced mitochondrial respiration, despite lower extracellular Aβ levels compared to BACE overexpression. Surprisingly, this could be rescued by a gamma secretase inhibitor, oppositionally indicating an Aβ-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. Analyzing Aβ localization revealed that intracellular levels of Aβ and an increased spatial association of APP/Aβ with mitochondria are associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration. Thus, our data provide marked evidence for a prominent role of intracellular Aβ accumulation in Alzheimer´s disease associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby it highlights the importance of the localization of APP processing and intracellular transport as a decisive factor for mitochondrial function, linking two prominent hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28005987

  18. Influence of apolipoprotein E and its receptors on cerebral amyloid precursor protein metabolism following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shuai; SUN Xiao-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability among young individuals in our society,and globally the incidence of TBI is rising sharply.Mounting evidence has indicated that apolipoprotein E (apoE:protein; APOE:gene) genotype influences the outcome after TBI.The proposed mechanism by which APOE affects the clinicopathological consequences of TBI is multifactorial and includes amyloid deposition,disruption of lipid distribution,dysfunction of mitochondrial energy production,oxidative stress and increases intracellular calcium in response to injury.This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the influence of apoE and its receptors on cerebral amyloid betaprotein precursor metabolism following TBI.

  19. Preventive immunization of aged and juvenile non-human primates to beta-amyloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofler Julia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization against beta-amyloid (Aβ is a promising approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, but the optimal timing for the vaccination remains to be determined. Preventive immunization approaches may be more efficacious and associated with fewer side-effects; however, there is only limited information available from primate models about the effects of preclinical vaccination on brain amyloid composition and the neuroinflammatory milieu. Methods Ten non-human primates (NHP of advanced age (18–26 years and eight 2-year-old juvenile NHPs were immunized at 0, 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks with aggregated Aβ42 admixed with monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvant, and monitored for up to 6 months. Anti-Aβ antibody levels and immune activation markers were assessed in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples before and at several time-points after immunization. Microglial activity was determined by [11C]PK11195 PET scans acquired before and after immunization, and by post-mortem immunohistochemical and real-time PCR evaluation. Aβ oligomer composition was assessed by immunoblot analysis in the frontal cortex of aged immunized and non-immunized control animals. Results All juvenile animals developed a strong and sustained serum anti-Aβ IgG antibody response, whereas only 80 % of aged animals developed detectable antibodies. The immune response in aged monkeys was more delayed and significantly weaker, and was also more variable between animals. Pre- and post-immunization [11C]PK11195 PET scans showed no evidence of vaccine-related microglial activation. Post-mortem brain tissue analysis indicated a low overall amyloid burden, but revealed a significant shift in oligomer size with an increase in the dimer:pentamer ratio in aged immunized animals compared with non-immunized controls (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that preventive Aβ immunization is a safe therapeutic approach lacking adverse CNS immune system

  20. Novel Roles of Amyloid-Beta Protein Precursor Metabolites in Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmark, Cara J.; Sokol, Deborah K.; Maloney, Bryan; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is associated with up to 5% of autism cases. Several promising drugs are in preclinical testing for FXS; however, bench-to-bedside plans for the clinic are severely limited due to lack of validated biomarkers and outcome measures. Published work from our laboratories has demonstrated altered levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein precursor (APP) and its metabolites in FXS and idiopathic autism. Westmark and colleagues have focused on β-secretase (amyloidogenic) processing and the accumulation of Aβ peptides in adult FXS models while Lahiri and Sokol have studied α-secretase (nonamyloidogenic or anabolic) processing and altered levels of sAPPα and Aβ in pediatric autism and FXS. Thus, our groups have hypothesized a pivotal role for these Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related proteins in the neurodevelopmental disorders of FXS and autism. In this review, we discuss the contribution of APP metabolites to FXS and autism pathogenesis as well as the potential use of these metabolites as blood-based biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our future focus is to identify key underlying mechanisms through which APP metabolites contribute to FXS and autism condition-to-disease pathology. Positive outcomes will support utilizing APP metabolites as blood-based biomarkers in clinical trials as well as testing drugs that modulate APP processing as potential disease therapeutics. Our studies to understand the role of APP metabolites in developmental conditions such as FXS and autism are a quantum leap for the neuroscience field, which has traditionally restricted any role of APP to AD and aging. PMID:27573877

  1. Epigenetic regulation in amyloid precursor protein and the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khue Vu

    2014-04-18

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a neurogenetic disorder of purine metabolism in which the enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is defective. A major unsolved question is how the loss of HPRT enzyme function affects the brain to cause the neurobehavioural syndrome in LNS and its attenuated variants (LNVs). To address this issue, a search for a link between LNS and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is developed. Here, I identified, for the first time in fibroblasts from normal subjects as well as from LNS and LNV patients: (a) several APP-mRNA isoforms encoding divers APP protein isoforms ranging from 120 to 770 amino acids (with or without mutations and/or deletions) accounted for epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of alternative APP pre-mRNA splicing and (b) five novel independent polymorphisms in the APP promoter: -956A>G, -1023T>C, -1161A>G, -2224G>A, -2335C>T relative to the transcription start site. A role for epistasis between mutated HPRT and APP genes affecting the regulation of alternative APP pre-mRNA splicing in LNS is suggested. An accurate quantification of various APP isoforms in brain tissues for detection of initial pathological changes or pathology development is needed. My findings may provide new directions not only for investigating the role of APP in neuropathology associated with HPRT-deficiency in LNS but also for the research in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders by which various APP isoforms involved in the pathogenesis of the diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum amyloid P (female protein) of the Syrian hamster. Gene structure and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B

    1993-10-15

    The structure and expression of the gene encoding serum amyloid P (SAP) component of the Syrian hamster have been studied by isolation of cosmid clones, nucleotide sequence analyses, and quantitation of nuclear run-on transcripts, nuclear RNA, mRNA, and protein levels. Hamster SAP, originally identified as female protein (FP), is a unique pentraxin because pretranslational expression of this gene is modulated by mediators of inflammation and sex steroids. SAP(FP) levels are high in sera from female hamsters and low in males. The response to inflammation is divergent; SAP(FP) levels decrease in females and increase in males during an acute phase response. The SAP(FP) gene encodes a 211 amino acid residue mature polypeptide as well as a 22-residue signal peptide. The intron/exon organization is similar to that of other pentraxins, but additional transcripts are generated from alternate polyadenylation sites in the 3' region. Circulating levels of SAP(FP) and the corresponding hepatic transcript levels are augmented by estrogen, while testosterone, dexamethasone, and progesterone cause a decrease in these levels. In addition the cytokines interleukin-1, -6, and tumor necrosis factor mediate a decrease in hepatic SAP(FP) transcript levels in female hamsters but did not cause a significant elevation of SAP(FP) mRNA in livers of male hamsters. The differences in expression of the SAP(FP) gene between male and female hamsters and between unstimulated male hamsters and male hamsters stimulated with an injection of lipopolysaccharide are due, at least in part, to alterations in transcription.

  3. Exploring amyloid formation by a de novo design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Richard A; Kostrewa, Dirk; Zurdo, Jesús; Detken, Andreas; García-Echeverría, Carlos; Green, Janelle D; Müller, Shirley A; Meier, Beat H; Winkler, Fritz K; Dobson, Christopher M; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2004-03-30

    Protein deposition as amyloid fibrils underlies many debilitating human disorders. The complexity and size of disease-related polypeptides, however, often hinders a detailed rational approach to study effects that contribute to the process of amyloid formation. We report here a simplified peptide sequence successfully designed de novo to fold into a coiled-coil conformation under ambient conditions but to transform into amyloid fibrils at elevated temperatures. We have determined the crystal structure of the coiled-coil form and propose a detailed molecular model for the peptide in its fibrillar state. The relative stabilities of the two structural forms and the kinetics of their interconversion were found to be highly sensitive to small sequence changes. The results reveal the importance of specific packing interactions on the kinetics of amyloid formation and show the potential of this exceptionally favorable system for probing details of the molecular origins of amyloid disease.

  4. Alzheimer's disease therapeutics targeted to the control of amyloid precursor protein translation: maintenance of brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Rogers, Jack T

    2014-04-15

    The neurotoxicity of amyloid beta (Aβ), a major cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is enhanced by iron, as found in the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. By contrast, the long-known neuroprotective activity of APP is evident after α-secretase cleavage of the precursor to release sAPPα, and depends on the iron export actions of APP itself. The latter underlie its neurotrophic and protective effects in facilitating the homeostatic actions of ferroportin mediated-iron export. Thus APP-dependent iron export may alleviate oxidative stress by minimizing labile iron thus protecting neurons from iron overload during stroke and hemorrhage. Consistent with this, altered phosphorylation of iron-regulatory protein-1 (IRP1) and its signaling processes play a critical role in modulating APP translation via the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of its transcript. The APP 5'UTR region encodes a functional iron-responsive element (IRE) RNA stem loop that represents a potential target for modulating APP production. Targeted regulation of APP gene expression via the modulation of 5'UTR sequence function represents a novel approach for the potential treatment of AD since altering APP translation can be used to improve both the protective brain iron balance and provide anti-amyloid efficacy. Approved drugs including paroxetine and desferrioxamine and several novel compounds have been identified that suppress abnormal metal-promoted Aβ accumulation with a subset of these acting via APP 5'UTR-dependent mechanisms to modulate APP translation and cleavage to generate the non-toxic sAPPα.

  5. Coenzyme Q10 protects human endothelial cells from β-amyloid uptake and oxidative stress-induced injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Durán-Prado

    Full Text Available Neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease appear in advances stages, once neuronal damage arises. Nevertheless, recent studies demonstrate that in early asymptomatic stages, ß-amyloid peptide damages the cerebral microvasculature through mechanisms that involve an increase in reactive oxygen species and calcium, which induces necrosis and apoptosis of endothelial cells, leading to cerebrovascular dysfunction. The goal of our work is to study the potential preventive effect of the lipophilic antioxidant coenzyme Q (CoQ against ß-amyloid-induced damage on human endothelial cells. We analyzed the protective effect of CoQ against Aβ-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs using fluorescence and confocal microscopy, biochemical techniques and RMN-based metabolomics. Our results show that CoQ pretreatment of HUVECs delayed Aβ incorporation into the plasma membrane and mitochondria. Moreover, CoQ reduced the influx of extracellular Ca(2+, and Ca(2+ release from mitochondria due to opening the mitochondrial transition pore after β-amyloid administration, in addition to decreasing O2(.- and H2O2 levels. Pretreatment with CoQ also prevented ß-amyloid-induced HUVECs necrosis and apoptosis, restored their ability to proliferate, migrate and form tube-like structures in vitro, which is mirrored by a restoration of the cell metabolic profile to control levels. CoQ protected endothelial cells from Aβ-induced injury at physiological concentrations in human plasma after oral CoQ supplementation and thus could be a promising molecule to protect endothelial cells against amyloid angiopathy.

  6. Influence of hydrophobic Teflon particles on the structure of amyloid beta-peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.

    2003-01-01

    The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaque deposits of Alzheimer's disease in humans. The Abeta changes from a nonpathogenic to a pathogenic conformation resulting in self-aggregation and deposition of the peptide. It has been established that dena

  7. Influence of hydrophobic Teflon particles on the structure of amyloid beta-peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.

    2003-01-01

    The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaque deposits of Alzheimer's disease in humans. The Abeta changes from a nonpathogenic to a pathogenic conformation resulting in self-aggregation and deposition of the peptide. It has been established that

  8. Influence of hydrophobic Teflon particles on the structure of amyloid beta-peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Norde, W

    2003-01-01

    The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaque deposits of Alzheimer's disease in humans. The Abeta changes from a nonpathogenic to a pathogenic conformation resulting in self-aggregation and deposition of the peptide. It has been established that dena

  9. Neurohormetic responses of quercetin and rutin in a cell line over-expressing the amyloid precursor protein (APPswe cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Jiménez-Aliaga, Karim Lizeth; Benedí, Juana; Bermejo-Bescós, Paloma

    2016-11-15

    Plant secondary metabolites may induce adaptive cellular stress-responses in a variety of cells including neurons at the sub-toxic doses ingested by humans. Such 'neurohormesis' phenomenon, activated by flavonoids such as quercetin or rutin, may involve cell responses driven by modulation of signaling pathways which are responsible for its neuroprotective effects. We attempt to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the neurohormetic responses to quercetin and rutin exposure, in a SH-SY5Y cell line which stably overexpresses the amyloid precursor protein (APP) Swedish mutation, based on a biphasic concentration-response relationship for cell viability. We examined the impact of both natural compounds, at concentrations in its hormetic range on the following cell parameters: chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome system; PARP-1 protein levels and expression and caspase activation; APP processing; and the main endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Proteasome activities following quercetin or rutin treatment were significantly augmented in comparison with non-treated cells. Activity of caspase-3 was significantly attenuated by treatment with quercetin or rutin. Modest increased levels of PARP-1 protein and mRNA transcripts were observed in relation to the mild increase of proteasome activity. Significant reductions of the full-length APP and sAPP protein and APP mRNA levels were related to significant enhancements of α-secretase ADAM-10 protein and mRNA transcripts and significant increases of BACE processing in cells exposed to rutin. Furthermore, quercetin or rutin treatment displayed an overall increase of the four antioxidant enzymes. The upregulation of the proteasome activity observed upon quercetin or rutin treatment could be afforded by a mild increased of PARP-1. Consequently, targeting the proteasome by quercetin or rutin to enhance its activity in a mild manner could avoid caspase activation. Moreover, it is likely that APP processing of cells upon

  10. Gel formation in protein amyloid aggregation: a physical mechanism for cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Daniel; Bell, Dylan; Tipton, David; Durrance, Samuel; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Cole, Lisa; Li, Bin; Xu, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid fibers are associated with disease but have little chemical reactivity. We investigated the formation and structure of amyloids to identify potential mechanisms for their pathogenic effects. We incubated lysozyme 20 mg/ml at 55C and pH 2.5 in a glycine-HCl buffer and prepared slides on mica substrates for examination by atomic force microscopy. Structures observed early in the aggregation process included monomers, small colloidal aggregates, and amyloid fibers. Amyloid fibers were observed to further self-assemble by two mechanisms. Two or more fibers may merge together laterally to form a single fiber bundle, usually in the form of a helix. Alternatively, fibers may become bound at points where they cross, ultimately forming an apparently irreversible macromolecular network. As the fibers assemble into a continuous network, the colloidal suspension undergoes a transition from a Newtonian fluid into a viscoelastic gel. Addition of salt did not affect fiber formation but inhibits transition of fibers from linear to helical conformation, and accelerates gel formation. Based on our observations, we considered the effects of gel formation on biological transport. Analysis of network geometry indicates that amyloid gels will have negligible effects on diffusion of small molecules, but they prevent movement of colloidal-sized structures. Consequently gel formation within neurons could completely block movement of transport vesicles in neuronal processes. Forced convection of extracellular fluid is essential for the transport of nutrients and metabolic wastes in the brain. Amyloid gel in the extracellular space can essentially halt this convection because of its low permeability. These effects may provide a physical mechanism for the cytotoxicity of chemically inactive amyloid fibers in neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Green tea aroma fraction reduces β-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human β-amyloid minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit Aβ-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD.

  12. Self-assembly of a nine-residue amyloid-forming peptide fragment of SARS corona virus E-protein: mechanism of self aggregation and amyloid-inhibition of hIAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Pithadia, Amit S; Bhat, Jyotsna; Bera, Supriyo; Midya, Anupam; Fierke, Carol A; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    Molecular self-assembly, a phenomenon widely observed in nature, has been exploited through organic molecules, proteins, DNA, and peptides to study complex biological systems. These self-assembly systems may also be used in understanding the molecular and structural biology which can inspire the design and synthesis of increasingly complex biomaterials. Specifically, use of these building blocks to investigate protein folding and misfolding has been of particular value since it can provide tremendous insights into peptide aggregation related to a variety of protein misfolding diseases, or amyloid diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type-II diabetes). Herein, the self-assembly of TK9, a nine-residue peptide of the extra membrane C-terminal tail of the SARS corona virus envelope, and its variants were characterized through biophysical, spectroscopic, and simulated studies, and it was confirmed that the structure of these peptides influences their aggregation propensity, hence, mimicking amyloid proteins. TK9, which forms a beta-sheet rich fibril, contains a key sequence motif that may be critical for beta-sheet formation, thus making it an interesting system to study amyloid fibrillation. TK9 aggregates were further examined through simulations to evaluate the possible intra- and interpeptide interactions at the molecular level. These self-assembly peptides can also serve as amyloid inhibitors through hydrophobic and electrophilic recognition interactions. Our results show that TK9 inhibits the fibrillation of hIAPP, a 37 amino acid peptide implicated in the pathology of type-II diabetes. Thus, biophysical and NMR experimental results have revealed a molecular level understanding of peptide folding events, as well as the inhibition of amyloid-protein aggregation are reported.

  13. Serum Amyloid A Promotes E-Selectin Expression via Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

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    Eisaku Nishida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the periodontium. Recent studies suggest an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanism is unknown. A previous study has demonstrated that experimental periodontitis induces serum amyloid A (SAA in the liver and peripheral blood of ApoE-deficient mice as an atherosclerosis model. SAA is an acute-phase protein that affects systemic inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the atherosclerosis-onset mechanism using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs stimulated by SAA in vitro. Atherosclerosis PCR array and qPCR analyses showed upregulation of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in HAECs upon SAA stimulation. In addition, the results demonstrated that Toll-like receptor, TLR2, could serve as an important receptor of SAA in HAECs. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA against TLR2 inhibited the upregulation of adhesion molecules in HAECs stimulated by SAA. Our results suggest that SAA stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules via TLR2. SAA could be an important molecule for atherosclerosis induced by periodontal disease.

  14. Serum Amyloid A Promotes E-Selectin Expression via Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the periodontium. Recent studies suggest an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanism is unknown. A previous study has demonstrated that experimental periodontitis induces serum amyloid A (SAA) in the liver and peripheral blood of ApoE-deficient mice as an atherosclerosis model. SAA is an acute-phase protein that affects systemic inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the atherosclerosis-onset mechanism using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) stimulated by SAA in vitro. Atherosclerosis PCR array and qPCR analyses showed upregulation of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in HAECs upon SAA stimulation. In addition, the results demonstrated that Toll-like receptor, TLR2, could serve as an important receptor of SAA in HAECs. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TLR2 inhibited the upregulation of adhesion molecules in HAECs stimulated by SAA. Our results suggest that SAA stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules via TLR2. SAA could be an important molecule for atherosclerosis induced by periodontal disease. PMID:27799725

  15. Amyloid misfolding, aggregation, and the early onset of protein deposition diseases: insights from AFM experiments and computational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Lyubchenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Alzheimer's disease is believed to be caused by the assembly of amyloid β proteins into aggregates and the formation of extracellular senile plaques. Similar models suggest that structural misfolding and aggregation of proteins are associated with the early onset of diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, and other protein deposition diseases. Initially, the aggregates were structurally characterized by traditional techniques such as x-ray crystallography, NMR, electron microscopy, and AFM. However, data regarding the structures formed during the early stages of the aggregation process were unknown. Experimental models of protein deposition diseases have demonstrated that the small oligomeric species have significant neurotoxicity. This highlights the urgent need to discover the properties of these species, to enable the development of efficient diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The oligomers exist transiently, making it impossible to use traditional structural techniques to study their characteristics. The recent implementation of single-molecule imaging and probing techniques that are capable of probing transient states have enabled the properties of these oligomers to be characterized. Additionally, powerful computational techniques capable of structurally analyzing oligomers at the atomic level advanced our understanding of the amyloid aggregation problem. This review outlines the progress in AFM experimental studies and computational analyses with a primary focus on understanding the very first stage of the aggregation process. Experimental approaches can aid in the development of novel sensitive diagnostic and preventive strategies for protein deposition diseases, and several examples of these approaches will be discussed.

  16. The β-amyloid protein induces S100β expression in rat hippocampus through a mechanism that involves IL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) on S100β expression in rat hippocampus and its mechanisms. Methods At 7 days after bilateral stereotaxis injection of different dose of fibrillar Aβ 25-35 and interluekin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) into the rat CA1 region, the learning and memory abilities of rats were tested with passive avoidance task. Amyloid deposition was detected by using Congo red staining technique. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze the number of neurons, and GFAP and the S100β expression in hippocampal CA1 region , respectively. Results After fibrillar Aβ injection, the step-through latency of rats was significantly shortened compared to that of the control group. The GFAP positive astrocytes were found surrounding amyloid deposition. Neuronal loss occurred in the pyramidal cell layer of CA1 region. The number of S100β positive cells in Aβ-treated group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group. After IL-1ra injection, the number of S100β positive cells was significantly decreased. Conclusion Intrahippocampal injection of Aβ 25-35 could cause similar pathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ 25-35 was capable of up-regulating S100β expression in a dose-dependent manner. The injection of IL-1ra could attenuate the effect of Aβ on S100β expression.

  17. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide N-Terminus Fragment Self-Assembly: Effect of Conserved Disulfide Bond on Aggregation Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilitchev, Alexandre I.; Giammona, Maxwell J.; Do, Thanh D.; Wong, Amy G.; Buratto, Steven K.; Shea, Joan-Emma; Raleigh, Daniel P.; Bowers, Michael T.

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid formation by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) has long been implicated in the pathogeny of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and failure of islet transplants, but the mechanism of IAPP self-assembly is still unclear. Numerous fragments of hIAPP are capable of self-association into oligomeric aggregates, both amyloid and non-amyloid in structure. The N-terminal region of IAPP contains a conserved disulfide bond between cysteines at position 2 and 7, which is important to hIAPP's in vivo function and may play a role in in vitro aggregation. The importance of the disulfide bond in this region was probed using a combination of ion mobility-based mass spectrometry experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, and high-resolution atomic force microscopy imaging on the wildtype 1-8 hIAPP fragment, a reduced fragment with no disulfide bond, and a fragment with both cysteines at positions 2 and 7 mutated to serine. The results indicate the wildtype fragment aggregates by a different pathway than either comparison peptide and that the intact disulfide bond may be protective against aggregation due to a reduction of inter-peptide hydrogen bonding.

  18. Soluble beta-amyloid precursor protein is related to disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Steinacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS could support the identification of beneficial drugs in clinical trials. We aimed to test whether soluble fragments of beta-amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and sAPPß correlated with clinical subtypes of ALS and were of prognostic value. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study including patients with ALS (N = 68 with clinical follow-up data over 6 months, Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 20, and age-matched controls (N = 40, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of sAPPα a, sAPPß and neurofilaments (NfH(SMI35 were measured by multiplex assay, Progranulin by ELISA. CSF sAPPα and sAPPß levels were lower in ALS with a rapidly-progressive disease course (p = 0.03, and p = 0.02 and with longer disease duration (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively. CSF NfH(SMI35 was elevated in ALS compared to PD and controls, with highest concentrations found in patients with rapid disease progression (p<0.01. High CSF NfH(SMI3 was linked to low CSF sAPPα and sAPPß (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007, respectively. The ratios CSF NfH(SMI35/CSF sAPPα,-ß were elevated in patients with fast progression of disease (p = 0.002 each. CSF Progranulin decreased with ongoing disease (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new CSF candidate markers associated with progression of disease in ALS. The data suggest that a deficiency of cellular neuroprotective mechanisms (decrease of sAPP is linked to progressive neuro-axonal damage (increase of NfH(SMI35 and to progression of disease.

  19. Platelet amyloid precursor protein isoform expression in Alzheimer's disease: evidence for peripheral marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignini, A; Sartini, D; Morganti, S; Nanetti, L; Luzzi, S; Provinciali, L; Mazzanti, L; Emanuelli, M

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive cognitive and memory decline. Among peripheral markers of AD, great interest has been focused on the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In this regard, platelets represent an important peripheral source of APP since it has been demonstrated that the three major isoforms, that are constituted of 770, 751 and 695 aa residues, are inserted in the membrane of resting platelets. APP 751 and APP 770 contain a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor domain (APP KPI) and APP 695 lacks this domain. To address this issue, we first examined the platelet APP isoform mRNAs prospectively as biomarker for the diagnosis of AD by means of real-time quantitative PCR, and then evaluated the correlation between APP mRNA expression levels and cognitive impairment of enrolled subjects. Differential gene expression measurements in the AD patient group (n=18) revealed a significant up-regulation of APP TOT (1.52-fold), APP KPI (1.32-fold), APP 770 (1.33-fold) and APP 751 (1.26-fold) compared to controls (n=22). Moreover, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between APP mRNA levels (TOT, KPI, 770 and 751) and cognitive impairment. Since AD definitive diagnosis still relies on pathological evaluation at autopsy, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that platelet APP could be considered a potential reliable peripheral marker for studying AD and could contribute to define a signature for the presence of AD pathology.

  20. Influence of chlorpyrifos oxon on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurological disorder and the most common form of dementia. Until date, the cause of AD eludes us, but a number of hypotheses have been put forward to try and understand the mechanisms involved. A series of studies have indicated that environmental factors, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and others can contribute to the development and progression of AD. Based on these data, we determined the impact of pesticides (chlorpyrifos oxon [CPO] on AD-like pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice. Methods: APP mice were treated at various times with low-dose CPO (1 mg/kg/day, in utero (3-week of gestation, during lactation (3-week, or as young adults (continuous dosing. Results: Exposure to CPO at all times enhanced neuro-inflammation and exacerbated oxidative stress in the brain prior to amyloid deposition. CPO-treated APP mice showed a decrease in memory and learning compared with untreated APP mice; furthermore, analyses of brain tissue sections and extracts showed an increase in Ab levels and C-terminal fragment-b levels, a decrease in soluble APPa (sAPPa levels, and an increase in plaque load. In addition, CPO-treated APP transgenic mice showed a significant decrease in neurotrophic factor levels (nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin-3 compared to vehicle-treated APP transgenic animals. Treatment with galantamine attenuated the effects of CPO by reducing amyloid b levels and amyloid load. Conclusion: CPO accelerated and exacerbated the disease development and progression in the APP mice suggesting that pesticides may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  1. Amyloid Fibrils from Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadishka Jayawardena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils are a class of insoluble protein nanofibers that are formed via the self-assembly of a wide range of peptides and proteins. They are increasingly exploited for a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, such as biosensing and drug delivery, as nanowires, hydrogels, and thin films. Amyloid fibrils have been prepared from many proteins, but there has been no definitive characterization of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin to date. Here, nanofiber formation was carried out under denaturing conditions using solutions of apo-hemoglobin extracted from bovine waste blood. A characteristic amyloid fibril morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM, with mean fibril dimensions of approximately 5 nm diameter and up to several microns in length. The thioflavin T assay confirmed the presence of β-sheet structures in apo-hemoglobin fibrils, and X-ray fiber diffraction showed the characteristic amyloid cross-β quaternary structure. Apo-hemoglobin nanofibers demonstrated high stability over a range of temperatures (−20 to 80 °C and pHs (2–10, and were stable in the presence of organic solvents and trypsin, confirming their potential as nanomaterials with versatile applications. This study conclusively demonstrates the formation of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin for the first time, and also introduces a cost-effective method for amyloid fibril manufacture using meat industry by-products.

  2. A synthetic peptide with the putative iron binding motif of amyloid precursor protein (APP) does not catalytically oxidize iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2012-01-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is a key player in Alzheimer's disease, was recently reported to possess an Fe(II) binding site within its E2 domain which exhibits ferroxidase activity [Duce et al. 2010, Cell 142: 857]. The putative ligands of this site were compared to those in the ferroxidase site of ferritin. The activity was indirectly measured using transferrin, which scavenges the Fe(III) product of the reaction. A 22-residue synthetic peptide, named FD1, with the putative ferroxidase site of APP, and the E2 domain of APP were each reported to exhibit 40% of the ferroxidase activity of APP and of ceruloplasmin. It was also claimed that the ferroxidase activity of APP is inhibited by Zn(II) just as in ferritin. We measured the ferroxidase activity indirectly (i) by the incorporation of the Fe(III) product of the ferroxidase reaction into transferrin and directly (ii) by monitoring consumption of the substrate molecular oxygen. The results with the FD1 peptide were compared to the established ferroxidase activities of human H-chain ferritin and of ceruloplasmin. For FD1 we observed no activity above the background of non-enzymatic Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen. Zn(II) binds to transferrin and diminishes its Fe(III) incorporation capacity and rate but it does not specifically bind to a putative ferroxidase site of FD1. Based on these results, and on comparison of the putative ligands of the ferroxidase site of APP with those of ferritin, we conclude that the previously reported results for ferroxidase activity of FD1 and - by implication - of APP should be re-evaluated.

  3. A synthetic peptide with the putative iron binding motif of amyloid precursor protein (APP does not catalytically oxidize iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP, which is a key player in Alzheimer's disease, was recently reported to possess an Fe(II binding site within its E2 domain which exhibits ferroxidase activity [Duce et al. 2010, Cell 142: 857]. The putative ligands of this site were compared to those in the ferroxidase site of ferritin. The activity was indirectly measured using transferrin, which scavenges the Fe(III product of the reaction. A 22-residue synthetic peptide, named FD1, with the putative ferroxidase site of APP, and the E2 domain of APP were each reported to exhibit 40% of the ferroxidase activity of APP and of ceruloplasmin. It was also claimed that the ferroxidase activity of APP is inhibited by Zn(II just as in ferritin. We measured the ferroxidase activity indirectly (i by the incorporation of the Fe(III product of the ferroxidase reaction into transferrin and directly (ii by monitoring consumption of the substrate molecular oxygen. The results with the FD1 peptide were compared to the established ferroxidase activities of human H-chain ferritin and of ceruloplasmin. For FD1 we observed no activity above the background of non-enzymatic Fe(II oxidation by molecular oxygen. Zn(II binds to transferrin and diminishes its Fe(III incorporation capacity and rate but it does not specifically bind to a putative ferroxidase site of FD1. Based on these results, and on comparison of the putative ligands of the ferroxidase site of APP with those of ferritin, we conclude that the previously reported results for ferroxidase activity of FD1 and - by implication - of APP should be re-evaluated.

  4. Evidence of a Novel Mechanism for Partial γ-Secretase Inhibition Induced Paradoxical Increase in Secreted Amyloid β Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranello, Robert; Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Crosson, Craig; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Eckman, Elizabeth; Eckman, Christopher B.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Greig, Nigel H.; Pappolla, Miguel A.; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACE1 (β-secretase) and α-secretase cleave the Alzheimer's amyloid β protein (Aβ) precursor (APP) to C-terminal fragments of 99 aa (CTFβ) and 83 aa (CTFα), respectively, which are further cleaved by γ-secretase to eventually secrete Aβ and Aα (a.k.a. P3) that terminate predominantly at residues 40 and 42. A number of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), such as N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), have been developed with the goal of reducing Aβ to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although most studies show that DAPT inhibits Aβ in a dose-dependent manner several studies have also detected a biphasic effect with an unexpected increase at low doses of DAPT in cell cultures, animal models and clinical trials. In this article, we confirm the increase in Aβ40 and Aβ42 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells treated with low doses of DAPT and identify one of the mechanisms for this paradox. We studied the pathway by first demonstrating that stimulation of Aβ, a product of γ-secretase, was accompanied by a parallel increase of its substrate CTFβ, thereby demonstrating that the inhibitor was not anomalously stimulating enzyme activity at low levels. Secondly, we have demonstrated that inhibition of an Aβ degrading activity, endothelin converting enzyme (ECE), yielded more Aβ, but abolished the DAPT-induced stimulation. Finally, we have demonstrated that Aα, which is generated in the secretory pathway before endocytosis, is not subject to the DAPT-mediated stimulation. We therefore conclude that impairment of γ-secretase can paradoxically increase Aβ by transiently skirting Aβ degradation in the endosome. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that preserving γ-secretase activity, rather than inhibiting it, is important for prevention of neurodegeneration. PMID:24658363

  5. Evidence of a novel mechanism for partial γ-secretase inhibition induced paradoxical increase in secreted amyloid β protein.

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    Eliza Barnwell

    Full Text Available BACE1 (β-secretase and α-secretase cleave the Alzheimer's amyloid β protein (Aβ precursor (APP to C-terminal fragments of 99 aa (CTFβ and 83 aa (CTFα, respectively, which are further cleaved by γ-secretase to eventually secrete Aβ and Aα (a.k.a. P3 that terminate predominantly at residues 40 and 42. A number of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs, such as N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT, have been developed with the goal of reducing Aβ to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although most studies show that DAPT inhibits Aβ in a dose-dependent manner several studies have also detected a biphasic effect with an unexpected increase at low doses of DAPT in cell cultures, animal models and clinical trials. In this article, we confirm the increase in Aβ40 and Aβ42 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells treated with low doses of DAPT and identify one of the mechanisms for this paradox. We studied the pathway by first demonstrating that stimulation of Aβ, a product of γ-secretase, was accompanied by a parallel increase of its substrate CTFβ, thereby demonstrating that the inhibitor was not anomalously stimulating enzyme activity at low levels. Secondly, we have demonstrated that inhibition of an Aβ degrading activity, endothelin converting enzyme (ECE, yielded more Aβ, but abolished the DAPT-induced stimulation. Finally, we have demonstrated that Aα, which is generated in the secretory pathway before endocytosis, is not subject to the DAPT-mediated stimulation. We therefore conclude that impairment of γ-secretase can paradoxically increase Aβ by transiently skirting Aβ degradation in the endosome. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that preserving γ-secretase activity, rather than inhibiting it, is important for prevention of neurodegeneration.

  6. Complexes of Amyloid-β and Cystatin C in the Human Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weiqian; Jung, Sonia S.; Yu, Haung; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Mathews, Paul M.; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Levy, Efrat

    2009-01-01

    A role for cystatin C (CysC) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been suggested by the genetic linkage of a CysC gene (CST3) polymorphism with late-onset AD, the co-localization of CysC with amyloid-β (Aβ) in AD brains, and binding of CysC to soluble Aβ in vitro and in mouse models of AD. This study investigates the binding between Aβ and CysC in the human central nervous system. While CysC binding to soluble Aβ was observed in AD patients and controls, a SDS-resistant CysC/Aβ complex was detected exclusively in brains of neuropathologically normal controls, but not in AD cases. The association of CysC with Aβ in brain from control individuals and in cerebrospinal fluid reveals an interaction of these two polypeptides in their soluble form. The association between Aβ and CysC prevented Aβ accumulation and fibrillogenesis in experimental systems, arguing that CysC plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of AD in humans and explains why decreases in CysC concentration caused by the CST3 polymorphism or by specific presenilin 2 mutations can lead to the development of the disease. Thus, enhancing CysC expression or modulating CysC binding to Aβ have important disease-modifying effects, suggesting a novel therapeutic intervention for AD. PMID:19584436

  7. Tat-biliverdin reductase A protects INS-1 cells from human islet amyloid polypeptide-induced cytotoxicity by alleviating oxidative stress and ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung; Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Hyeok Yil

    2017-02-15

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a major constituent of islet amyloid deposits, induces pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and eventually contributes to β-cell deficit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, Tat-mediated transduction of biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) was investigated in INS-1 cells to examine whether exogenous supplementation of BLVRA prevented hIAPP-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in insulin secretion in β-cells. Tat-BLVRA fusion protein was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Exposure of cells to hIAPP induced apoptotic cell death, which was dose-dependently inhibited by pre-treatment with Tat-BLVRA for 1 h. Transduced Tat-BLVRA reduced hIAPP-evoked generation of reactive oxygen species, a crucial mediator of β-cell destruction. Immunoblot analysis showed that Tat-BLVRA suppressed hIAPP-induced increase in the levels of proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis signaling. Transduced Tat-BLVRA also recovered hIAPP-induced dysfunction in basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretions. These results suggested that transduced Tat-BLVRA enhanced the tolerance of β-cells against IAPP-induced cytotoxicity by alleviating oxidative stress and ER stress. Therefore, Tat-mediated transduction of BLVRA may provide a potential tool to ameliorate β-cell deficit in pancreas with T2DM.

  8. Amyloid precursor protein and endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: inseparable partners in a multifactorial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ralph A

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities of the endosomal-lysosomal network (ELN) are a signature feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These include the earliest known cytopathology that is specific to AD and that affects endosomes and induces the progressive failure of lysosomes, each of which are directly linked by distinct mechanisms to neurodegeneration. The origins of ELN dysfunction and β-amyloidogenesis closely overlap, which reflects their common genetic basis, the established early involvement of endosomes and lysosomes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and clearance, and the pathologic effect of certain APP metabolites on ELN functions. Genes that promote β-amyloidogenesis in AD (APP, PSEN1/2, and APOE4) have primary effects on ELN function. The importance of primary ELN dysfunction to pathogenesis is underscored by the mutations in more than 35 ELN-related genes that, thus far, are known to cause familial neurodegenerative diseases even though different pathogenic proteins may be involved. In this article, I discuss growing evidence that implicates AD gene-driven ELN disruptions as not only the antecedent pathobiology that underlies β-amyloidogenesis but also as the essential partner with APP and its metabolites that drive the development of AD, including tauopathy, synaptic dysfunction, and neurodegeneration. The striking amelioration of diverse deficits in animal AD models by remediating ELN dysfunction further supports a need to integrate APP and ELN relationships, including the role of amyloid-β, into a broader conceptual framework of how AD arises, progresses, and may be effectively therapeutically targeted.-Nixon, R. A. Amyloid precursor protein and endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: inseparable partners in a multifactorial disease. © FASEB.

  9. Comparison of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein as diagnostic markers of systemic inflammation in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michelle Brønniche; Langhorn, Rebecca; Goddard, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of canine serum amyloid A (SAA) was compared with that of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the detection of systemic inflammation in dogs. Sera from 500 dogs were retrospectively included in the study. C-reactive protein and SAA were measured using validated automated assays....... The overlap performance, clinical decision limits, overall diagnostic performance, correlations, and agreement in the clinical classification between these 2 diagnostic markers were compared. Significantly higher concentrations of both proteins were detected in dogs with systemic inflammation (SAA range: 48.......75 to > 2700 mg/L; CRP range: 0.4 to 907.4 mg/L) compared to dogs without systemic inflammation (SAA range: 1.06 to 56.4 mg/L; CRP range: 0.07 to 24.7 mg/L). Both proteins were shown to be sensitive and specific markers of systemic inflammation in dogs. Significant correlations and excellent diagnostic...

  10. The secreted form of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein stimulates a membrane-associated guanylate cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Barger, S. W.; Mattson, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that secreted forms of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) elevate cyclic GMP (cGMP) in primary neuronal cultures and that this effect is responsible for the modulation of neuronal calcium homoeostasis by sAPP. We have investigated further the mechanism by which sAPP elevates cGMP. Inhibition of the formation of nitric oxide or carbon monoxide did not affect the ability of sAPP to lower rapidly intraneuronal calcium levels or elevate cGMP, suggesti...

  11. Mapping the Broad Structural and Mechanical Properties of Amyloid Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Guillaume; Nassar, Roy; Chan, Patrick H W; Bozkurt, Gunes; Li, Jixi; Bui, Jennifer M; Yip, Calvin K; Mayor, Thibault; Li, Hongbin; Wu, Hao; Gsponer, Jörg A

    2017-02-28

    Amyloids are fibrillar nanostructures of proteins that are assembled in several physiological processes in human cells (e.g., hormone storage) but also during the course of infectious (prion) and noninfectious (nonprion) diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Alzheimer's diseases, respectively. How the amyloid state, a state accessible to all proteins and peptides, can be exploited for functional purposes but also have detrimental effects remains to be determined. Here, we measure the nanomechanical properties of different amyloids and link them to features found in their structure models. Specifically, we use shape fluctuation analysis and sonication-induced scission in combination with full-atom molecular dynamics simulations to reveal that the amyloid fibrils of the mammalian prion protein PrP are mechanically unstable, most likely due to a very low hydrogen bond density in the fibril structure. Interestingly, amyloid fibrils formed by HET-s, a fungal protein that can confer functional prion behavior, have a much higher Young's modulus and tensile strength than those of PrP, i.e., they are much stiffer and stronger due to a tighter packing in the fibril structure. By contrast, amyloids of the proteins RIP1/RIP3 that have been shown to be of functional use in human cells are significantly stiffer than PrP fibrils but have comparable tensile strength. Our study demonstrates that amyloids are biomaterials with a broad range of nanomechanical properties, and we provide further support for the strong link between nanomechanics and β-sheet characteristics in the amyloid core. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparable autoantibody serum levels against amyloid- and inflammation-associated proteins in Parkinson's disease patients and controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Maetzler

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs against a number of potentially disease-associated cellular proteins, including Amyloid-beta1-42 (Abeta1-42, Alpha-synuclein (Asyn, myelin basic protein (MBP, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B have been suggested to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD. Whereas the (reduced occurrence of specific NAbs in AD is widely accepted, previous literature examining the relation of these NAb titres between PD patients and controls, as well as comparing these levels with demographic and clinical parameters in PD patients have produced inconsistent findings. We therefore aimed, in a cross-sectional approach, to determine serum titres of the above NAbs in a cohort of 93 PD patients (31 of them demented and 194 controls. Levels were correlated with demographic and clinical variables, cerebrospinal fluid Abeta1-42, total tau and phospho-tau levels, as well as with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of genes which either have been reported to influence the immune system, the amyloid cascade or the occurrence of PD (ApoE, GSK3B, HLA-DRA, HSPA5, SNCA, and STK39. The investigated NAb titres were neither significantly associated with the occurrence of PD, nor with demographic and clinical parameters, neurodegenerative markers or genetic variables. These results argue against a major potential of blood-borne parameters of the adaptive immune system to serve as trait or state markers in PD.

  13. Amyloid proteins are highly abundant in water-repellent but not wettable soils: microbial differentiation matters to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kat; Dudley, Ed; Swain, Martin; Doerr, Stefan; Matthews, Peter; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency is a common phenomenon affecting the hydrological responses of many soil and land use types in different climates. This in turn leads to decreased water infiltration, reduced vegetation cover, fertiliser run off and soil erosion. The fundamental (biological) causes of (bulk) soil repellency and its dynamic behaviour remain poorly understood. We have applied soil metaproteomics, the systemic extraction and identification of proteins from a soil, to understand the biological (adaptive) processes and potential for bio-modification of mineral surfaces, which occur at the molecular level in soils switching between wettable and repellent states. Extreme, moderate and sub-critical water-repellent UK silt-loam soils under permanent grass vegetation, including Park Grass at Rothamsted Research, were sampled below the root zone depth under wettable and repellent conditions. Soils were subjected to our new extraction methods for determining the specific ultrahydrophobic and total metaproteomes. Using our ultrahydrophobic extraction protocol, we have identified more than 200, mostly novel amyloid, proteins, which could be extracted from water-repellent soils, but were absent in the comparable wettable soils. One of the novel amyloid proteins was highly abundant in all soils, which has the potential as a soil biomarker for precision land management, especially in irrigation. Comparative profiling of the total metaproteomes of wettable and repellent soils has revealed similarities and dissimilarities in microbial diversity and their activities, which have created a deeper understanding of soil system processes common and adaptive to soil moisture and to the severity of repellence.

  14. Modeling amyloids in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Piqué Anna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increasing number of proteins are being shown to assemble into amyloid structures, self-seeding fibrillar aggregates that may lead to pathological states or play essential biological functions in organisms. Bacterial cell factories have raised as privileged model systems to understand the mechanisms behind amyloid assembly and the cellular fitness cost associated to the formation of these aggregates. In the near future, these bacterial systems will allow implementing high-throughput screening approaches to identify effective modulators of amyloid aggregation.

  15. Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Thilsing, Trine; Bælum, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined...

  16. In vivo amyloid aggregation kinetics tracked by time-lapse confocal microscopy in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Espargaró, Alba; Ventura, Salvador; Sabate, Raimon

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid polymerization underlies an increasing number of human diseases. Despite this process having been studied extensively in vitro, aggregation is a difficult process to track in vivo due to methodological limitations and the slow kinetics of aggregation reactions in cells and tissues. Herein we exploit the amyloid properties of the inclusions bodies (IBs) formed by amyloidogenic proteins in bacteria to address the kinetics of in vivo amyloid aggregation. To this aim we used time-lapse confocal microscopy and a fusion of the amyloid-beta peptide (A β42) with a fluorescent reporter. This strategy allowed us to follow the intracellular kinetics of amyloid-like aggregation in real-time and to discriminate between variants exhibiting different in vivo aggregation propensity. Overall, the approach opens the possibility to assess the impact of point mutations as well as potential anti-aggregation drugs in the process of amyloid formation in living cells.

  17. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  18. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove;

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  19. The epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 protein is a component of the prion protein amyloid deposits of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Giaccone, Giorgio; Limido, Lucia; Mangieri, Michela; Suardi, Silvia; Puoti, Gianfranco; Morbin, Michela; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2007-02-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved, ubiquitous molecules involved in a variety of biologic events, such as transduction pathway modulation, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Seven isoforms have been identified that are abundant in the brain, preferentially localized in neurons. Remarkable increases in 14-3-3 are seen in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and it has been found in pathologic inclusions of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, the zeta isoform has been detected in prion protein (PrP) amyloid deposits of CJD patients. To further investigate the cerebral distribution of 14-3-3 in prion-related encephalopathies, we carried out an immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis of brain tissue from patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and sporadic, familial and acquired forms of CJD, using specific antibodies against the seven 14-3-3 isoforms. The study showed a strong immunoreactivity of PrP amyloid plaques of GSS patients for the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform, but not for the other isoforms. The epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 was not found in PrP deposits of CJD. These results indicate that the epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 is a component of PrP amyloid deposits of GSS and suggest that this is the sole 14-3-3 isoform specifically involved in the neuropathologic changes associated with this disorder.

  20. Mapping the human protein interactome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Figeys

    2008-01-01

    Interactions are the essence of all biomolecules because they cannot fulfill their roles without interacting with other molecules. Hence, mapping the interactions of biomolecules can be useful for understanding their roles and functions. Furthermore, the development of molecular based systems biology requires an understanding of the biomolecular interactions. In recent years, the mapping of protein-protein interactions in different species has been reported, but few reports have focused on the large-scale mapping of protein-protein interactions in human. Here, we review the developments in protein interaction mapping and we discuss issues and strategies for the mapping of the human protein interactome.

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Ferland, Paulette; Webster, Paul; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for anterograde transport machinery that when proteolyzed produces A-beta, the major component of senile plaques. Here we focus on transport inside epithelial cells of newly synthesized virus during its transit to the cell surface. We hypothesize that HSV1 recruits cellular APP during transport. We explore this with quantitative immuno-fluorescence, immuno-gold electron-microscopy and live cell confocal imaging. After synchronous infection most nascent VP26-GFP-labeled viral particles in the cytoplasm co-localize with APP (72.8+/−6.7%) and travel together with APP inside living cells (81.1+/−28.9%). This interaction has functional consequences: HSV1 infection decreases the average velocity of APP particles (from 1.1+/−0.2 to 0.3+/−0.1 µm/s) and results in APP mal-distribution in infected cells, while interplay with APP-particles increases the frequency (from 10% to 81% motile) and velocity (from 0.3+/−0.1 to 0.4+/−0.1 µm/s) of VP26-GFP transport. In cells infected with HSV1 lacking the viral Fc receptor, gE, an envelope glycoprotein also involved in viral axonal transport, APP-capsid interactions are preserved while the distribution and dynamics of dual-label particles differ from wild-type by both immuno-fluorescence and live imaging. Knock-down of APP with siRNA eliminates APP staining, confirming specificity. Our results indicate that most intracellular HSV1 particles undergo frequent dynamic interplay with APP in a manner that facilitates viral transport and interferes with normal APP transport and distribution. Such dynamic

  2. Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basi, Guriqbal S; Hemphill, Susanna; Brigham, Elizabeth F; Liao, Anna; Aubele, Danielle L; Baker, Jeanne; Barbour, Robin; Bova, Michael; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Dappen, Michael S; Eichenbaum, Tovah; Goldbach, Erich; Hawkinson, Jon; Lawler-Herbold, Rose; Hu, Kang; Hui, Terence; Jagodzinski, Jacek J; Keim, Pamela S; Kholodenko, Dora; Latimer, Lee H; Lee, Mike; Marugg, Jennifer; Mattson, Matthew N; McCauley, Scott; Miller, James L; Motter, Ruth; Mutter, Linda; Neitzel, Martin L; Ni, Huifang; Nguyen, Lan; Quinn, Kevin; Ruslim, Lany; Semko, Christopher M; Shapiro, Paul; Smith, Jenifer; Soriano, Ferdie; Szoke, Balazs; Tanaka, Kevin; Tang, Pearl; Tucker, John A; Ye, Xiacong Michael; Yu, Mei; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ying-Zi; Garofalo, Albert W; Sauer, John Michael; Konradi, Andrei W; Ness, Daniel; Shopp, George; Pleiss, Michael A; Freedman, Stephen B; Schenk, Dale

    2010-12-29

    Inhibition of gamma-secretase presents a direct target for lowering Aβ production in the brain as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, gamma-secretase is known to process multiple substrates in addition to amyloid precursor protein (APP), most notably Notch, which has limited clinical development of inhibitors targeting this enzyme. It has been postulated that APP substrate selective inhibitors of gamma-secretase would be preferable to non-selective inhibitors from a safety perspective for AD therapy. In vitro assays monitoring inhibitor potencies at APP γ-site cleavage (equivalent to Aβ40), and Notch ε-site cleavage, in conjunction with a single cell assay to simultaneously monitor selectivity for inhibition of Aβ production vs. Notch signaling were developed to discover APP selective gamma-secretase inhibitors. In vivo efficacy for acute reduction of brain Aβ was determined in the PDAPP transgene model of AD, as well as in wild-type FVB strain mice. In vivo selectivity was determined following seven days x twice per day (b.i.d.) treatment with 15 mg/kg/dose to 1,000 mg/kg/dose ELN475516, and monitoring brain Aβ reduction vs. Notch signaling endpoints in periphery. The APP selective gamma-secretase inhibitors ELN318463 and ELN475516 reported here behave as classic gamma-secretase inhibitors, demonstrate 75- to 120-fold selectivity for inhibiting Aβ production compared with Notch signaling in cells, and displace an active site directed inhibitor at very high concentrations only in the presence of substrate. ELN318463 demonstrated discordant efficacy for reduction of brain Aβ in the PDAPP compared with wild-type FVB, not observed with ELN475516. Improved in vivo safety of ELN475516 was demonstrated in the 7d repeat dose study in wild-type mice, where a 33% reduction of brain Aβ was observed in mice terminated three hours post last dose at the lowest dose of inhibitor tested. No overt in-life or post-mortem indications of systemic toxicity, nor

  3. Investigation on apoptosis of neuronal cells induced by Amyloid beta-Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗本燕; 徐增斌; 陈智; 陈峰; 唐敏

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To construct a PC12 cell strain with neuronal differentiation, and observe the apoptosis and pro-liferation activity effects induced these cells by Amyloid beta-Protein (Aβ3-43). Methods: 1) PC12 cells in logarithmic growth phase were subcultured for 24 h. After the culture fluid was changed, the cells were treated with Rat-β-NGF and cultured for 9 days. 2) Neuronal differentiation of PC 12 cells in logarithmic growth phase were divided into four groups:control group (0), experimental group (1), experimental group (2) and experimental group (3). The concentrations of Aβ in the four groups were 0 μmol/L, 1.25 μmol/L, 2.5 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L, respectively. The cells were harvested at 24, 48 and 72 h later and stained with AnnexinV-FITC/PI after centrifugation and washing. Then flow cytometry was conducted to examine the apoptosis percentage. 3) NGF-induced PC12 cells were selected and Aβ with different concentrations was added. The final concentrations of Aβ were 0 μmol/L, 1.25 μmol/L, 2.5 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L, respectively. After the cells were incubated in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37 ℃ in an incubator for 72 h, the OD values were examined. Results: 1)Neuronal differentiated PC12 cell lines were successfully established. 2) Flow cytometric examination indicated that Aβ(1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 μmol/L) could effectively induce apoptosis of neuronal-differented cells at the 24 h, 48 h and 72 h time points. 3) Aβ (0-5.00 μmol/L) had no obvious effect on proliferation or restraining of the neuronal differentiation of the PC 12 cells after a 72 h interacting process. Conclusion: This investigation revealed successful neuronal differentiation of the PC12 cell strain. The induction of apoptosis of the neurocytes by various concentrations of Aβ was observed and the in-fluence of Aβ on induced proliferation of PC 12 cells by Rat-β-NGF was revealed. This study may provide basis for future research on the molecular cure of AD and interdiction of AD

  4. Pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, A.A.M.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the result of the deposition of an amyloidogenic protein in cortical and leptomeningeal vessels. The most common type of CAA is caused by amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which is particularly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Excessive Abeta-CAA formation c

  5. Differential mode of interaction of ThioflavinT with native β structural motif in human α 1-acid glycoprotein and cross beta sheet of its amyloid: Biophysical and molecular docking approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Nusrat, Saima; Alam, Parvez; Zaidi, Nida; Badr, Gamal; Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-08-01

    The present study details the interaction mechanism of Thioflavin T (ThT) to Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) applying various spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. Fluorescence quenching data revealed the binding constant in the order of 104 M-1 and the standard Gibbs free energy change value, ΔG = -6.78 kcal mol-1 for the interaction between ThT and AAG indicating process is spontaneous. There is increase in absorbance of AAG upon the interaction of ThT that may be due to ground state complex formation between ThT and AAG. ThT impelled rise in β-sheet structure in AAG as observed from far-UV CD spectra while there are minimal changes in tertiary structure of the protein. DLS results suggested the reduction in AAG molecular size, ligand entry into the central binding pocket of AAG may have persuaded the molecular compaction in AAG. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) results showed the interaction process to be endothermic with the values of standard enthalpy change ΔH0 = 4.11 kcal mol-1 and entropy change TΔS0 = 10.82 kcal.mol- 1. Moreover, docking results suggested hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding played the important role in the binding process of ThT with F1S and A forms of AAG. ThT fluorescence emission at 485 nm was measured for properly folded native form and for thermally induced amyloid state of AAG. ThT fluorescence with native AAG was very low, while on the other hand with amyloid induced state of the protein AAG showed a positive emission peak at 485 nm upon the excitation at 440 nm, although it binds to native state as well. These results confirmed that ThT binding alone is not responsible for enhancement of ThT fluorescence but it also required beta stacked sheet structure found in protein amyloid to give proper signature signal for amyloid. This study gives the mechanistic insight into the differential interaction of ThT with beta structures found in native state of the proteins and amyloid forms, this study reinforce

  6. Disruption of arterial perivascular drainage of amyloid-β from the brains of mice expressing the human APOE ε4 allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Hawkes

    Full Text Available Failure of elimination of amyloid-β (Aβ from the brain and vasculature appears to be a key factor in the etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA. In addition to age, possession of an apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 allele is a strong risk factor for the development of sporadic AD. The present study tested the hypothesis that possession of the APOE ε4 allele is associated with disruption of perivascular drainage of Aβ from the brain and with changes in cerebrovascular basement membrane protein levels. Targeted replacement (TR mice expressing the human APOE3 (TRE3 or APOE4 (TRE4 genes and wildtype mice received intracerebral injections of human Aβ(40. Aβ(40 aggregated in peri-arterial drainage pathways in TRE4 mice, but not in TRE3 or wildtype mice. The number of Aβ deposits was significantly higher in the hippocampi of TRE4 mice than in the TRE3 mice, at both 3- and 16-months of age, suggesting that clearance of Aβ was disrupted in the brains of TRE4 mice. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of vascular basement membrane proteins demonstrated significantly raised levels of collagen IV in 3-month-old TRE4 mice compared with TRE3 and wild type mice. In 16-month-old mice, collagen IV and laminin levels were unchanged between wild type and TRE3 mice, but were lower in TRE4 mice. The results of this study suggest that APOE4 may increase the risk for AD through disruption and impedance of perivascular drainage of soluble Aβ from the brain. This effect may be mediated, in part, by changes in age-related expression of basement membrane proteins in the cerebral vasculature.

  7. Human apolipoprotein E4 worsens acute axonal pathology but not amyloid-β immunoreactivity after traumatic brain injury in 3xTG-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E; Esparza, Thomas J; Lewis, Hal A; Kim, Eddie; Mac Donald, Christine L; Sullivan, Patrick M; Brody, David L

    2013-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype is a risk factor for poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly in young patients, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. By analogy to effects of APOE4 on the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), the APOE genotype may influence β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau deposition after TBI. To test this hypothesis, we crossed 3xTG-AD transgenic mice carrying 3 human familial AD mutations (PS1(M146V), tauP(301)L, and APP(SWE)) to human ApoE2-, ApoE3-, and ApoE4-targeted replacement mice. Six- to 8-month-old 3xTG-ApoE mice were assayed by quantitative immunohistochemistry for amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ(1-40) (Aβ40), Aβ(1-42) (Aβ42), total human tau, and phospho-serine 199 (pS199) tau at 24 hours after moderate controlled cortical impact. There were increased numbers of APP-immunoreactive axonal varicosities in 3xTG-ApoE4 mice versus the other genotypes. This finding was repeated in a separate cohort of ApoE4-targeted replacement mice without human transgenes compared with ApoE3 and ApoE2 mice. There were no differences between genotypes in the extent of intra-axonal Aβ40 and Aβ42; none of the mice had extracellular Aβ deposition. Regardless of injury status, 3xTG-ApoE4 mice had more total human tau accumulation in both somatodendritic and intra-axonal compartments than other genotypes. These results suggest that the APOE4 genotype may have a primary effect on the severity of axonal injury in acute TBI.

  8. Curcumin inhibits beta-amyloid protein 40/42 expression in the brain in a concentration-and time-dependent manner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Xiaodong Shi; Wenke Yin; Yu Li

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the amount of beta-amyloid(Aβ)protein in the brain can be lowered by down-regulating Aβ production,promoting Aβ degradation,reducing Aβ oligomerization or deposition,thereby alleviating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.Curcumin has been known to be a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma(PPARy)agonist and can obviously inhibit Aβ production and oligomerization.This study investigated the effects of curcumin on the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1)activity and PPARy expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells,and validated the inhibitory effects of curcumin on Aβ40/42 expression in the brain.Results revealed that PPARy mRNA and protein expression in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells significantly increased with increasing curcumin concentration and time course(P < 0.05);BACE1 mRNA and protein expression and Aβ40/42 production significantly decreased with increasing curcumin concentration and time course(P < 0.05).The changes in PPARY and BACE1expression during Aβ production could be reversed by the PPARy antagonist GW9662.These findings indicate that curcumin reduced Aβ production by activating PPARy expression and inhibiting BACE1 expression in a concentration-and time-dependent manner.

  9. Induction of serine racemase expression and D-serine release from microglia by secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengzhou; Basile, Anthony S; Barger, Steven W

    2007-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves neuronal loss and reduction of synaptic density in specific brain region. Some of the neuronal deaths are associated with excitotoxicity. We previously reported that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induced release of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) co-agonists, including glutamate and D-serine. The induction of D-serine production by Abeta involves transcriptional and/or translational regulation of serine racemase gene. Similarly, we report here that conditioned medium from microglia treated with secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) contained elevated levels of D-serine. In microglia, sAPP increased the steady-state dimeric protein level of serine racemase. Promoter-reporter and mRNA analyses suggested that serine racemase is transcriptionally induced by sAPP. These data extend the link between excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. D-serine may cooperate with glutamate to link neuroinflammation with excitotoxicity, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism applicable to neuronal death in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. β-Amyloid peptide increases levels of iron content and oxidative stress in human cell and Caenorhabditis elegans models of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Nie, Guangjun; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Yunfeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Baolu

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. The abnormal interactions of Aβ with metal ions such as iron are implicated in the process of Aβ deposition and oxidative stress in AD brains. In this study, we observed that Aβ increased the levels of iron content and oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant form of human β-amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and in Caenorhabditis elegans Aβ-expressing strain CL2006. Intracellular iron and calcium levels and reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation significantly increased in APPsw cells compared to control cells. The activity of superoxide dismutase and the antioxidant levels of APPsw cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. Moreover, iron treatment decreased cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and aggravated oxidative stress damage as well as the release of Aβ1-40 from the APPsw cells. The iron homeostasis disruption in APPsw cells is very probably associated with elevated expression of the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1, but not transferrin receptor. Furthermore, the C. elegans with Aβ-expression had increased iron accumulation. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that Aβ accumulation in neuronal cells correlated with neuronal iron homeostasis disruption and probably contributed to the pathogenesis of AD.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of protein amyloid formation reveal origin of sigmoidal aggregation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Björn; Linse, Sara

    2011-07-01

    Severe conditions and lack of cure for many amyloid diseases make it highly desired to understand the underlying principles of formation of fibrillar aggregates (amyloid). Here, amyloid formation from peptides was studied using Monte Carlo simulations. Systems of 20, 50, 100, 200 or 500 hexapeptides were simulated. Association kinetics were modeled equal for fibrillar and other (inter- and intra-peptide) contacts and assumed to be faster the lower the effective contact order, which represents the distance in space. Attempts to form contacts were thus accepted with higher probability the lower the effective contact order, whereby formation of new contacts next to preexisting ones is favored by shorter physical separation. Kinetic discrimination was invoked by using two different life-times for formed contacts. Contacts within amyloid fibrils were assumed to have on average longer life-time than other contacts. We find that the model produces fibrillation kinetics with a distinct lag phase, and that the fibrillar contacts need to dissociate on average 5-20 times slower than all other contacts for the fibrillar structure to dominate at equilibrium. Analysis of the species distribution along the aggregation process shows that no other intermediate is ever more populated than the dimer. Instead of a single nucleation event there is a concomitant increase in average aggregate size over the whole system, and the occurrence of multiple parallel processes makes the process more reproducible the larger the simulated system. The sigmoidal shape of the aggregation curves arises from cooperativity among multiple interactions within each pair of peptides in a fibril. A governing factor is the increasing probability as the aggregation process proceeds of neighboring reinforcing contacts. The results explain the very strong bias towards cross β-sheet fibrils in which the possibilities for cooperativity among interactions involving neighboring residues and the repetitive use of

  12. Postmortem Adult Human Microglia Proliferate in Culture to High Passage and Maintain Their Response to Amyloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Rezvanian, Aras; Kukreja, Lokesh; Hoveydai, Ramez; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; El Khoury, Joseph; Geula, Changiz

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells of the brain that display a range of functions. Most of our knowledge about microglia biology and function is based on cells from the rodent brain. Species variation in the complexity of the brain and differences in microglia response in the primate when compared with the rodent, require use of adult human microglia in studies of microglia biology. While methods exist for isolation of microglia from postmortem human brains, none allow culturing cells to high passage. Thus cells from the same case could not be used in parallel studies and multiple conditions. Here we report a method, which includes use of growth factors such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, for successful culturing of adult human microglia from postmortem human brains up to 28 passages without significant loss of proliferation. Such cultures maintained their phenotype, including uptake of the scavenger receptor ligand acetylated low density lipoprotein and response to the amyloid-β peptide, and were used to extend in vivo studies in the primate brain demonstrating that inhibition of microglia activation protects neurons from amyloid-β toxicity. Significantly, microglia cultured from brains with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease displayed the same characteristics as microglia cultured from normal aged brains. The method described here provides the scientific community with a new and reliable tool for mechanistic studies of human microglia function in health from childhood to old age, and in disease, enhancing the relevance of the findings to the human brain and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27567845

  13. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers: an Amyloid Pore? Insights into Mechanisms of alpha-Synuclein Oligomer-Lipid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stockl, Martin T.; Zijlstra, Niels; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    In many human diseases, oligomeric species of amyloid proteins may play a pivotal role in cytotoxicity. Many lines of evidence indicate that permeabilization of cellular membranes by amyloid oligomers may be the key factor in disrupting cellular homeostasis. However, the exact mechanisms by which th

  14. alpha-Synuclein Oligomers: an Amyloid Pore? : Insights into Mechanisms of alpha-Synuclein Oligomer-Lipid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stockl, M.T.; Zijlstra, N.; Subramaniam, V.

    2013-01-01

    In many human diseases, oligomeric species of amyloid proteins may play a pivotal role in cytotoxicity. Many lines of evidence indicate that permeabilization of cellular membranes by amyloid oligomers may be the key factor in disrupting cellular homeostasis. However, the exact mechanisms by which th

  15. New insights into side effect of solvents on the aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide 11-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yexuan; Yu, Lanlan; Yang, Ran; Ma, Chuanguo; Qu, Ling-bo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2016-02-01

    The formation of highly ordered fibrils for the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is considered as one of the precipitating factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, an emerging new approach microscale thermophoresis and conventional ThT fluorescence assay were utilized to investigate the aggregation behavior of hIAPP(11-20), giving a new insight of the solvent effect on the aggregation of hIAPP(11-20). hIAPP(11-20) displayed different aggregation behaviors in various buffers, revealing that hIAPP(11-20) not only self-aggregates but also binds to solvent components. hIAPP(11-20) had a higher binding affinity for Tris than other selected buffers because multiple hydrogen bonds form, resulting in weaker self-aggregation of hIAPP(11-20) at the early stage of aggregation and prolonging the fibril formation process. hIAPP(11-20) displayed similar self-aggregation in both HEPES and pure water. Negatively charged phosphate ions in the PBS solution 'neutralize' the charges carried by hIAPP(11-20) itself to some extent, causing rapid aggregation of hIAPP(11-20), and leading to a shorter fibrillation process of hIAPP(11-20). These results revealed that solvents contribute to the aggregation of hIAPP(11-20) and demonstrated the affect of solvents on the activity of biomolecules. Additionally, as a new technique, microscale thermophoresis offers a powerful and promising approach to study the early stages of aggregation of peptides or proteins.

  16. α-Synuclein Amyloids Hijack Prion Protein to Gain Cell Entry, Facilitate Cell-to-Cell Spreading and Block Prion Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulić, Suzana; Masperone, Lara; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Isopi, Elisa; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Ambrosetti, Elena; Pastore, Beatrice; De Cecco, Elena; Scaini, Denis; Zago, Paola; Moda, Fabio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Legname, Giuseppe

    2017-08-30

    The precise molecular mechanism of how misfolded α-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulates and spreads in synucleinopathies is still unknown. Here, we show the role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in mediating the uptake and the spread of recombinant α-Syn amyloids. The in vitro data revealed that the presence of PrP(C) fosters the higher uptake of α-Syn amyloid fibrils, which was also confirmed in vivo in wild type (Prnp (+/+)) compared to PrP knock-out (Prnp (-/-)) mice. Additionally, the presence of α-Syn amyloids blocked the replication of scrapie prions (PrP(Sc)) in vitro and ex vivo, indicating a link between the two proteins. Indeed, whilst PrP(C) is mediating the internalization of α-Syn amyloids, PrP(Sc) is not able to replicate in their presence. This observation has pathological relevance, since several reported case studies show that the accumulation of α-Syn amyloid deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients is accompanied by a longer disease course.

  17. Bisphenol A accelerates toxic amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide: a possible link between bisphenol A exposure and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Biao; Sun, Yue; Li, Chuanzhou; Li, Ting; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound widely used in manufacturing plastic products. Recent epidemiological studies suggest BPA exposure is positively associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pancreatic β-cells. Misfolding of hIAPP into toxic oligomers and mature fibrils can disrupt cell membrane and lead to β-cell death, which is regarded as one of the causative factors of T2DM. To test whether there are any connections between BPA exposure and hIAPP misfolding, we investigated the effects of BPA on hIAPP aggregation using thioflavin-T based fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography, fluorescence-dye leakage assay in an artificial micelle system and the generation of reactive oxygen species in INS-1 cells. We demonstrated that BPA not only dose-dependently promotes the aggregation of hIAPP and enhances the membrane disruption effects of hIAPP, but also promotes the extent of hIAPP aggregation related oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that BPA exposure increased T2DM risk may involve the exacerbated toxic aggregation of hIAPP.

  18. Polymorphism of amyloid fibrils formed by a peptide from the yeast prion protein Sup35: AFM and Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V., E-mail: akrasnos@unomaha.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja [IPHT-Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Zhang, Yuliang [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Deckert, Volker [IPHT-Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, University of Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lyubchenko, Yuri L., E-mail: ylyubchenko@unmc.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Aggregation of prion proteins is the cause of various prion related diseases. The infectious form of prions, amyloid aggregates, exist as multiple strains. The strains are thought to represent structurally different prion protein molecules packed into amyloid aggregates, but the knowledge on the structure of different types of aggregates is limited. Here we report on the use of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and TERS (Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering) to study morphological heterogeneity and access underlying conformational features of individual amyloid aggregates. Using AFM we identified the morphology of amyloid fibrils formed by the peptide (CGNNQQNY) from the yeast prion protein Sup35 that is critically involved in the aggregation of the full protein. TERS results demonstrate that morphologically different amyloid fibrils are composed of a distinct set of conformations. Fibrils formed at pH 5.6 are composed of a mixture of peptide conformations (β-sheets, random coil and α-helix) while fibrils formed in pH~2 solution primarily have β-sheets. Additionally, peak positions in the amide III region of the TERS spectra suggested that peptides have parallel arrangement of β-sheets for pH~2 fibrils and antiparallel arrangement for fibrils formed at pH 5.6. We also developed a methodology for detailed analysis of the peptide secondary structure by correlating intensity changes of Raman bands in different regions of TERS spectra. Such correlation established that structural composition of peptides is highly localized with large contribution of unordered secondary structures on a fibrillar surface. - Highlights: • Amyloid polymorphs were characterized by AFM and TERS. • A mixture of peptide secondary structures in fibrils were identified using TERS. • TERS recognizes packing arrangement (parallel versus antiparallel) of peptides. • TERS is a powerful tool for high resolution structural analysis of fibrils.

  19. Amyloid Beta and Tau Proteins as Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment: Rethinking the Current Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mondragón-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is defined by the concurrence of accumulation of abnormal aggregates composed of two proteins: Amyloid beta (Aβ and tau, and of cellular changes including neurite degeneration and loss of neurons and cognitive functions. Based on their strong association with disease, genetically and pathologically, it is not surprising that there has been a focus towards developing therapies against the aggregated structures. Unfortunately, current therapies have but mild benefit. With this in mind we will focus on the relationship of synaptic plasticity with Aβ and tau protein and their role as potential targets for the development of therapeutic drugs. Finally, we will provide perspectives in developing a multifactorial strategy for AD treatment.

  20. β-Amyloid peptides display protective activity against the human Alzheimer's disease-associated herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgade, Karine; Garneau, Hugo; Giroux, Geneviève; Le Page, Aurélie Y; Bocti, Christian; Dupuis, Gilles; Frost, Eric H; Fülöp, Tamàs

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid plaques, the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), contain fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and found to co-localize within amyloid plaques. Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 display anti-bacterial, anti-yeast and anti-viral activities. Here, fibroblast, epithelial and neuronal cell lines were exposed to Aβ 1-40 or Aβ 1-42 and challenged with HSV-1. Quantitative analysis revealed that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 inhibited HSV-1 replication when added 2 h prior to or concomitantly with virus challenge, but not when added 2 or 6 h after virus addition. In contrast, Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 did not prevent replication of the non-enveloped human adenovirus. In comparison, antimicrobial peptide LL-37 prevented HSV-1 infection independently of its sequence of addition. Our findings showed also that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 acted directly on HSV-1 in a cell-free system and prevented viral entry into cells. The sequence homology between Aβ and a proximal transmembrane region of HSV-1 glycoprotein B suggested that Aβ interference with HSV-1 replication could involve its insertion into the HSV-1 envelope. Our data suggest that Aβ peptides represent a novel class of antimicrobial peptides that protect against neurotropic enveloped virus infections such as HSV-1. Overproduction of Aβ peptide to protect against latent herpes viruses and eventually against other infections, may contribute to amyloid plaque formation, and partially explain why brain infections play a pathogenic role in the progression of the sporadic form of AD.

  1. Two memory associated genes regulated by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain ovel insights into the pathogenesis of learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuandong Zheng; Xi Gu; Zhimei Zhong; Rui Zhu; Tianming Gao; Fang Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation, a useful method for studying the locations of transcription factors bound to specific DNA regions in specific cells, to investigate amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain binding sites in chromatin DNA from hippocampal neurons of rats, and to screen out five putative genes associated with the learning and memory functions. The promoter regions of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha and glutamate receptor-2 genes were amplified by PCR from DNA products immunoprecipitated by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis suggested that the promoter regions of these two genes associated with learning and memory were bound by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (in complex form). Our experimental findings indicate that the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain is involved in the transcriptional regulation of learning- and memory-associated genes in hippocampal neurons. These data may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the symptoms of progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley D; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2016-03-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A (-97delG) allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. BECN1/Beclin 1 sorts cell-surface APP/amyloid β precursor protein for lysosomal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gayathri; Zhu, Wan; Plowey, Edward D

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of plasma membrane (PM)-localized transmembrane protein/receptor trafficking has critical implications for cell signaling, metabolism and survival. In this study, we investigated the role of BECN1 (Beclin 1) in the degradative trafficking of PM-associated APP (amyloid β precursor protein), whose metabolism to amyloid-β, an essential event in Alzheimer disease, is dependent on divergent PM trafficking pathways. We report a novel interaction between PM-associated APP and BECN1 that recruits macroautophagy/endosomal regulatory proteins PIK3C3 and UVRAG. We found that BECN1 promotes surface APP internalization and sorting predominantly to endosomes and endolysosomes. BECN1 also promotes the targeting of a smaller fraction of internalized APP to LC3-positive phagophores, suggesting a role for BECN1-dependent PM macroautophagy in APP degradation. Furthermore, BECN1 facilitates lysosomal degradation of surface APP and reduces the secretion of APP metabolites (soluble ectodomains, sAPP). The association between APP and BECN1 is dependent on the evolutionarily conserved domain (ECD) of BECN1 (amino acids 267-337). Deletion of a BECN1 ECD subregion (amino acids 285-299) did not impair BECN1- PIK3C3 interaction, PtdIns3K function or macroautophagy, but was sufficient to impair the APP-BECN1 interaction and BECN1's effects on surface APP internalization and degradation, resulting in increased secretion of sAPPs. Interestingly, both the BECN1-APP association and BECN1-dependent APP endocytosis and degradative trafficking were negatively regulated by active AKT. Our results further implicate phosphorylation of the BECN1 Ser295 residue in the inhibition of APP degradation by AKT. Our studies reveal a novel function for BECN1 in the sorting of a plasma membrane protein for endolysosomal and macroautophagic degradation.

  4. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

  5. Evidence supporting the role of calpain in the α-processing of amyloid-β precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huey T; Sawmiller, Darrell R; Wu, Qi; Maleski, Jerome J; Chen, Ming

    2012-04-13

    Amyloid plaques are a hallmark of the aging and senile dementia brains, yet their mechanism of origins has remained elusive. A central issue is the regulatory mechanism and identity of α-secretase, a protease responsible for α-processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). A remarkable feature of this enzyme is its high sensitivity to a wide range of cellular stimulators, many of which are agonists for Ca(2+) signaling. This feature, together with previous work in our laboratory, has suggested that calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent protease, plays a key role in APP α-processing. In this study we report that overexpression of the μ-calpain gene in HEK293 cells resulted in a 2.7-fold increase of the protein levels. Measurements of intracellular calpain enzymatic activity revealed that the calpain overexpressing cells displayed a prominent elevation of the activity compared to wild-type cells. When the cells were stimulated by nicotine, glutamate or phorbol 12,13-dibutylester, the activity increase was even more remarkable and sensitive to calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor. Meanwhile, APP secretion from the calpain overexpressing cells was robustly increased under both resting and stimulated conditions over wild-type cells. Furthermore, cell surface biotinylation experiments showed that μ-calpain was clearly detected among the cell surface proteins. These data together support our view that calpain should be a reasonable candidate for α-secretase for further study. This model is discussed with an interesting fact that three other deposited proteins (tau, spectrin and crystalline) are also the known substrates of calpain. Finally we discuss some current misconceptions in senile dementia research.

  6. Amyloid-β(25-35), an amyloid-β(1-42) surrogate, and proinflammatory cytokines stimulate VEGF-A secretion by cultured, early passage, normoxic adult human cerebral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Anna; Whitfield, James; Bonafini, Clara; Chakravarthy, Balu; Armato, Ubaldo; Dal Prà, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular angiopathy affects late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) brains by possibly increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A expression, thereby stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Indeed, VEGF-A gene upregulation, with increased VEGF-A protein content of reactive astrocytes and microglia, occurs in LOAD brains, and neovascularization was observed one week after injecting amyloid-β (Aβ)(1-42) into rat hippocampus. We have now found, with cultured 'normoxic' normal adult human astrocytes (NAHAs), that fibrillar Aβ(25-35) (an active Aβ(1-42) fragment) or a cytokine mixture (the (CM)-trio (interleukin [IL]-1β+interferon [IFN]-γ+tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), or pair (IFN-γ+TNF-α) like those produced in LOAD brains) stimulates the nuclear translocation of stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein and its binding to VEGF-A hypoxia-response elements; the mRNA synthesis for three VEGF-A splice variants (121, 165, 189); and the secretion of VEGF-A165. The CM-trio was the most powerful stimulus, IFN-γ+TNF-α was less potent, and other cytokine pairs or single cytokines or Aβ(35-25) were ineffective. While Aβ(25-35) did not change HIF-1β protein levels, the CM-trio increased both HIF-1α and HIF-1β protein levels, thereby giving an earlier and stronger stimulus to VEGF-A secretion by NAHAs. Thus, increased VEGF-A secretion from astrocytes stimulated by Aβ(1-42) and by microglia-released cytokines might restore angiogenesis and Aβ(1-42) vascular clearance.

  7. Antioxidant role of amyloid β protein in cell-free and biological systems: implication for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Maitrayee; Bhowmick, Pritha; Banerjee, Anindita; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2013-03-01

    In contrast to many studies showing the pro-oxidative nature of amyloid peptide, this work shows that aggregated Aβ42 peptide in varying concentrations (2-20 μM) in cell-free systems inhibits the formation of hydroxyl radicals and H(2)O(2) from a mixture of iron (20 μM FeSO(4)) and ascorbate (2mM) as measured by benzoate hydroxylation assay and coumarin carboxylic acid assay. Aggregated Aβ42 in similar concentrations further prevents protein and lipid oxidation in isolated rat brain mitochondria incubated alone or with FeSO(4) and ascorbate. Moreover, mitochondria exposed to FeSO(4) and ascorbate show enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and this phenomenon is also abolished by aggregated Aβ42. It is suggested that the antioxidant property of Aβ42 in various systems is mediated by metal chelation and it is nearly as potent as a typical metal chelator, such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, in preventing oxidative damage. However, aggregated Aβ42 causes mitochondrial functional impairment in the form of membrane depolarization and a loss of phosphorylation capacity without involving reactive oxygen species in the process. Thus, the present results suggest that the amyloid peptide exhibits a protective antioxidant role in biological systems, but also has toxic actions independent of oxidative stress.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition promotes lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic degradation of the amyloid-β precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Callum; Carzaniga, Raffaela; Gentleman, Steve M; Van Leuven, Fred; Walter, Jochen; Sastre, Magdalena

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with altered activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) isozymes, which are proposed to contribute to both neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaque formation. However, the molecular basis by which GSK3 affects the formation of Aβ remains unknown. Our aim was to identify the underlying mechanisms of GSK3-dependent effects on the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). For this purpose, N2a cells stably expressing APP carrying the Swedish mutation were treated with specific GSK3 inhibitors or transfected with GSK3α/β short interfering RNA. We show that inhibition of GSK3 leads to decreased expression of APP by enhancing its degradation via an increase in the number of lysosomes. This induction of the lysosomal/autophagy pathway was associated with nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis. Our data indicate that GSK3 inhibition reduces Aβ through an increase of the degradation of APP and its carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF) by activation of the lysosomal/autophagy pathway. These results suggest that an increased propensity toward autophagic/lysosomal alterations in AD patients could have consequences for neuronal function.

  9. Tetrahydrohyperforin Inhibits the Proteolytic Processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein and Enhances Its Degradation by Atg5-Dependent Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana A Cavieres

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide. We have previously shown that the compound tetrahydrohyperforin (IDN5706 prevents accumulation of Aβ species in an in vivo model of AD, however the mechanism that explains this reduction is not well understood. We show herein that IDN5706 decreases the levels of ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase alpha-like 1 (EDEM1, a key chaperone related to endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD. Moreover, we observed that low levels of EDEM1 correlated with a strong activation of autophagy, suggesting a crosstalk between these two pathways. We observed that IDN5706 perturbs the glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, resulting in the accumulation of immature APP (iAPP in the endoplasmic reticulum. To investigate the contribution of autophagy, we tested the effect of IDN5706 in Atg5-depleted cells. We found that depletion of Atg5 enhanced the accumulation of iAPP in response to IDN5706 by slowing down its degradation. Our findings reveal that IDN5706 promotes degradation of iAPP via the activation of Atg5-dependent autophagy, shedding light on the mechanism that may contribute to the reduction of Aβ production in vivo.

  10. Tetrahydrohyperforin Inhibits the Proteolytic Processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein and Enhances Its Degradation by Atg5-Dependent Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Yefi, Claudia P.; Bustamante, Hianara A.; Barraza, Rafael R.; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Otth, Carola; Barrera, María José; González, Carlos; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Burgos, Patricia V.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. We have previously shown that the compound tetrahydrohyperforin (IDN5706) prevents accumulation of Aβ species in an in vivo model of AD, however the mechanism that explains this reduction is not well understood. We show herein that IDN5706 decreases the levels of ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase alpha-like 1 (EDEM1), a key chaperone related to endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Moreover, we observed that low levels of EDEM1 correlated with a strong activation of autophagy, suggesting a crosstalk between these two pathways. We observed that IDN5706 perturbs the glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), resulting in the accumulation of immature APP (iAPP) in the endoplasmic reticulum. To investigate the contribution of autophagy, we tested the effect of IDN5706 in Atg5-depleted cells. We found that depletion of Atg5 enhanced the accumulation of iAPP in response to IDN5706 by slowing down its degradation. Our findings reveal that IDN5706 promotes degradation of iAPP via the activation of Atg5-dependent autophagy, shedding light on the mechanism that may contribute to the reduction of Aβ production in vivo. PMID:26308941

  11. THE OPEP COARSE-GRAINED PROTEIN MODEL: FROM SINGLE MOLECULES, AMYLOID FORMATION, ROLE OF MACROMOLECULAR CROWDING AND HYDRODYNAMICS TO RNA/DNA COMPLEXES

    OpenAIRE

    Sterpone, Fabio; Melchionna, Simone; Tuffery, Pierre; Pasquali, Samuela; Mousseau, Normand; Cragnolini, Tristan; Chebaro, Yassmine; Saint-Pierre, Jean-Francois; Kalimeri, Maria; Barducci, Alessandro; Laurin, Yohan; Tek, Alex; Baaden, Marc; Nguyen, Phuong Hoang; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The OPEP coarse-grained protein model has been applied to a wide range of applications since its first release 15 years ago. The model, which combines energetic and structural accuracy and chemical specificity, allows studying single protein properties, DNA/RNA complexes, amyloid fibril formation and protein suspensions in a crowded environment. Here we first review the current state of the model and the most exciting applications using advanced conformational sampling methods. We then presen...

  12. Multiplex assay for live-cell monitoring of cellular fates of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Merezhko

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β precursor protein (APP plays a central role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. APP has a short half-life and undergoes complex proteolytic processing that is highly responsive to various stimuli such as changes in cellular lipid or energy homeostasis. Cellular trafficking of APP is controlled by its large protein interactome, including dozens of cytosolic adaptor proteins, and also by interactions with lipids. Currently, cellular regulation of APP is mostly studied based on appearance of APP-derived proteolytic fragments to conditioned media and cellular extracts. Here, we have developed a novel live-cell assay system based on several indirect measures that reflect altered APP trafficking and processing in cells. Protein-fragment complementation assay technology for detection of APP-BACE1 protein-protein interaction forms the core of the new assay. In a multiplex form, the assay can measure four endpoints: total cellular APP level, total secreted sAPP level in media, APP-BACE1 interaction in cells and in exosomes released by the cells. Functional validation of the assay with pharmacological and genetic tools revealed distinct patterns of cellular fates of APP, with immediate mechanistic implications. This new technology will facilitate functional genomics studies of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, drug discovery efforts targeting APP and characterization of the physiological functions of APP and its proteolytic fragments.

  13. Model Hirano bodies protect against tau-independent and tau-dependent cell death initiated by the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Furgerson

    Full Text Available The main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are primarily composed of amyloid precursor protein (APP and tau, respectively. These proteins and their role in the mechanism of neurodegeneration have been extensively studied. Hirano bodies are a frequently occurring pathology in Alzheimer's disease as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. However, the physiological role of Hirano bodies in neurodegenerative diseases has yet to be determined. We have established cell culture models to study the role of Hirano bodies in amyloid precursor protein and tau-induced cell death mechanisms. Exogenous expression of APP and either of its c-terminal fragments c31 or Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain c58 (AICDc58 enhance cell death. The presence of tau is not required for this enhanced cell death. However, the addition of a hyperphosphorylated tau mimic 352PHPtau significantly increases cell death in the presence of both APP and c31 or AICDc58 alone. The mechanism of cell death induced by APP and its c-terminal fragments and tau was investigated. Fe65, Tip60, p53, and caspases play a role in tau-independent and tau-dependent cell death. In addition, apoptosis was determined to contribute to cell death. The presence of model Hirano bodies protected against cell death, indicating Hirano bodies may play a protective role in neurodegeneration.

  14. The histidine composition of the amyloid-β domain, but not the E1 copper binding domain, modulates β-secretase processing of amyloidprotein precursor in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Mallory; Blanthorn-Hazell, Sophee; Parkin, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidprotein precursor (AβPP) proteolysis by β- and γ-secretases generates neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ)-peptides in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have investigated the role of histidine residues within the extracellular E1 copper binding and Aβ domains of AβPP in its proteolysis. By stably expressing histidine to alanine AβPP mutant constructs in SH-SY5Y cells, we show that mutations in the E1 copper binding domain had no impact on α- or β-secretase processing. Mutation of histidine 14 within the Aβ-domain specifically down-regulated β-secretase processing without impacting on non-amyloidogenic proteolysis. Understanding how histidine 14 participates in AβPP proteolysis may reveal new intervention points for AD treatments.

  15. Amyloid Precursor Protein Protects Neuronal Network Function after Hypoxia via Control of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Dimitri; Kaiser, Martin; Weyer, Sascha W; Papageorgiou, Ismini E; Both, Martin; Kann, Oliver; Müller, Ulrike C; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    Acute cerebral ischemia and chronic neurovascular diseases share various common mechanisms with neurodegenerative diseases, such as disturbed cellular calcium and energy homeostasis and accumulation of toxic metabolites. A link between these conditions may be constituted by amyloid precursor protein (APP), which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, but has also been associated with the response to acute hypoxia and regulation of calcium homeostasis. We therefore studied hypoxia-induced loss of function and recovery upon reoxygenation in hippocampal slices of mice lacking APP (APP(-/-)) or selectively expressing its soluble extracellular domain (APPsα-KI). Transient hypoxia disrupted electrical activity at the network and cellular level. In mice lacking APP, these impairments were significantly more severe, showing increased rise of intracellular calcium, faster loss of function, and higher incidence of spreading depression. Likewise, functional recovery upon reoxygenation was much slower and less complete than in controls. Most of these deficits were rescued by selective expression of the soluble extracellular fragment APPsα, or by pharmacological block of L-type calcium channels. We conclude that APP supports neuronal resistance toward acute hypoxia. This effect is mediated by the secreted APPsα-domain and involves L-type calcium channels. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, but its normal function in the brain remains elusive. Here, we describe a neuroprotective role of the protein in acute hypoxia. Functional recovery of mouse hippocampal networks after transient reduction of oxygen supply was strongly impaired in animals lacking APP. Most protective effects are mediated by the soluble extracellular fragment APPsα and involve L-type calcium channels. Thus, APP contributes to calcium homeostasis in situations of metabolic stress. This finding may shed light on the physiological

  16. Aggregation properties of a short peptide that mediates amyloid fibril formation in model proteins unrelated to disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Chaudhary; Shashi Singh; Ramakrishnan Nagaraj

    2011-09-01

    Short peptides have been identified from amyloidogenic proteins that form amyloid fibrils in isolation. The hexapeptide stretch 21DIDLHL26 has been shown to be important in the self-assembly of the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of p85 subunit of bovine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-SH3). The SH3 domain of chicken brain -spectrin, which is otherwise non-amyloidogenic, is rendered amyloidogenic if 22EVTMKK27 is replaced by DIDLHL. In this article, we describe the aggregation behaviour of DIDLHL-COOH and DIDLHL-CONH2. Our results indicate that DIDLHL-COOH and DIDLHL-CONH2 aggregate to form spherical structures at pH 5 and 6. At pH 5, in the presence of mica, DIDLHL-CONH2 forms short fibrous structures. The presence of NaCl along with mica results in fibrillar structures. At pH 6, DIDLHL-CONH2 forms largely spherical aggregates. Both the peptides are unstructured in solution but adopt -conformation on drying. The aggregates formed by DIDLHL-COOH and DIDLHL-CONH2 are formed during drying process and their structures are modulated by the presence of mica and salt. Our study suggests that a peptide need not have intrinsic amyloidogenic propensity to facilitate the selfassembly of the full-length protein. The propensity of peptides to form self-assembled structures that are non-amyloidogenic could be important in potentiating the self-assembly of full-length proteins into amyloid fibrils.

  17. Hacking the code of amyloid formation: the amyloid stretch hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Teresa; Esteras-Chopo, Alexandra; Serrano, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Many research efforts in the last years have been directed towards understanding the factors determining protein misfolding and amyloid formation. Protein stability and amino acid composition have been identified as the two major factors in vitro. The research of our group has been focused on understanding the relationship between amino acid sequence and amyloid formation. Our approach has been the design of simple model systems that reproduce the biophysical properties of natural amyloids. An amyloid sequence pattern was extracted that can be used to detect amyloidogenic hexapeptide stretches in proteins. We have added evidence supporting that these amyloidogenic stretches can trigger amyloid formation by nonamyloidogenic proteins. Some experimental results in other amyloid proteins will be analyzed under the conclusions obtained in these studies. Our conclusions together with evidences from other groups suggest that amyloid formation is the result of the interplay between a decrease of protein stability, and the presence of highly amyloidogenic regions in proteins. As many of these results have been obtained in vitro, the challenge for the next years will be to demonstrate their validity in in vivo systems.

  18. Amyloid-β and proinflammatory cytokines utilize a prion protein-dependent pathway to activate NADPH oxidase and induce cofilin-actin rods in hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keifer P Walsh

    Full Text Available Neurites of neurons under acute or chronic stress form bundles of filaments (rods containing 1∶1 cofilin∶actin, which impair transport and synaptic function. Rods contain disulfide cross-linked cofilin and are induced by treatments resulting in oxidative stress. Rods form rapidly (5-30 min in >80% of cultured hippocampal or cortical neurons treated with excitotoxic levels of glutamate or energy depleted (hypoxia/ischemia or mitochondrial inhibitors. In contrast, slow rod formation (50% of maximum response in ∼6 h occurs in a subpopulation (∼20% of hippocampal neurons upon exposure to soluble human amyloid-β dimer/trimer (Aβd/t at subnanomolar concentrations. Here we show that proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 also induce rods at the same rate and within the same neuronal population as Aβd/t. Neurons from prion (PrP(C-null mice form rods in response to glutamate or antimycin A, but not in response to proinflammatory cytokines or Aβd/t. Two pathways inducing rod formation were confirmed by demonstrating that NADPH-oxidase (NOX activity is required for prion-dependent rod formation, but not for rods induced by glutamate or energy depletion. Surprisingly, overexpression of PrP(C is by itself sufficient to induce rods in over 40% of hippocampal neurons through the NOX-dependent pathway. Persistence of PrP(C-dependent rods requires the continuous activity of NOX. Removing inducers or inhibiting NOX activity in cells containing PrP(C-dependent rods causes rod disappearance with a half-life of about 36 min. Cofilin-actin rods provide a mechanism for synapse loss bridging the amyloid and cytokine hypotheses for Alzheimer disease, and may explain how functionally diverse Aβ-binding membrane proteins induce synaptic dysfunction.

  19. Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and its modified formula on the modulation of amyloid-β precursor protein processing in Alzheimer's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan

    Full Text Available Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC, Radix scutellariae (RS, Cortex phellodendri (CP and Fructus gardenia (FG and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS on the regulatory processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP-α and sAPPβ-Swedish and reduced the generation of Aβ peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and Aβ- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and Aβ production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated Aβ plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including Aβ. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is

  20. Insulin inhibits amyloid beta-induced cell death in cultured human brain pericytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, A.A.M.; Otte-Holler, I.; Boer, R.; Bosch, R.R.; Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Waal, R.M.W. de; Verbeek, M.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition in the cerebral arterial and capillary walls is one of the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type. In vitro, Abeta1-40, carrying the "Dutch" mutation (DAbeta1-40), induced reproducible degeneration of cult

  1. Traffic jam at the blood-brain barrier promotes greater accumulation of Alzheimer's disease amyloidproteins in the cerebral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Edward K; Leonard, Sarah R; Curran, Geoffry L; Yu, Caroline C; Lowe, Val J; Paravastu, Anant K; Poduslo, Joseph F; Kandimalla, Karunya K

    2013-05-06

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain vasculature results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which occurs in about 80% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. While Aβ42 predominates parenchymal amyloid plaques in AD brain, Aβ40 is prevalent in the cerebrovascular amyloid. Dutch mutation of Aβ40 (E22Q) promotes aggressive cerebrovascular accumulation and leads to severe CAA in the mutation carriers; knowledge of how DutchAβ40 drives this process more efficiently than Aβ40 could reveal various pathophysiological events that promote CAA. In this study we have demonstrated that DutchAβ40 shows preferential accumulation in the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) endothelial cells due to its inefficient blood-to-brain transcytosis. Consequently, DutchAβ40 establishes a permeation barrier in the BBB endothelium, prevents its own clearance from the brain, and promotes the formation of amyloid deposits in the cerebral microvessels. The BBB endothelial accumulation of native Aβ40 is not robust enough to exercise such a significant impact on its brain clearance. Hence, the cerebrovascular accumulation of Aβ40 is slow and may require other copathologies to precipitate into CAA. In conclusion, the magnitude of Aβ accumulation in the BBB endothelial cells is a critical factor that promotes CAA; hence, clearing vascular endothelium of Aβ proteins may halt or even reverse CAA.

  2. Amyloid Fibril Solubility

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzi, L G

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  3. The Amyloid Precursor Protein of Alzheimer's Disease in the Reduction of Copper(II) to Copper(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaup, Gerd; Schlicksupp, Andrea; Hesse, Lars; Beher, Dirk; Ruppert, Thomas; Masters, Colin L.; Beyreuther, Konrad

    1996-03-01

    The transition metal ion copper(II) has a critical role in chronic neurologic diseases. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease or a synthetic peptide representing its copper-binding site reduced bound copper(II) to copper(I). This copper ion-mediated redox reaction led to disulfide bond formation in APP, which indicated that free sulfhydryl groups of APP were involved. Neither superoxide nor hydrogen peroxide had an effect on the kinetics of copper(II) reduction. The reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by APP involves an electron-transfer reaction and could enhance the production of hydroxyl radicals, which could then attack nearby sites. Thus, copper-mediated toxicity may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

  4. In vivo neuronal synthesis and axonal transport of Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI)-containing forms of the amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, K L; Confaloni, A M; Allinquant, B

    1994-11-01

    We have shown previously that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is synthesized in retinal ganglion cells and is rapidly transported down the axons, and that different molecular weight forms of the precursor have different developmental time courses. Some APP isoforms contain a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain, and APP that lacks the KPI domain is considered the predominant isoform in neurons. We now show that, among the various rapidly transported APPs, a 140-kDa isoform contains the KPI domain. This APP isoform is highly expressed in rapidly growing retinal axons, and it is also prominent in adult axon endings. This 140-kDa KPI-containing APP is highly sulfated compared with other axonally transported isoforms. These results show that APP with the KPI domain is a prominent isoform synthesized in neurons in vivo, and they suggest that the regulation of protease activity may be an important factor during the establishment of neuronal connections.

  5. Macroautophagy-generated increase of lysosomal amyloid β-protein mediates oxidant-induced apoptosis of cultured neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Lin; Terman, Alexei; Hallbeck, Martin

    2011-01-01

    and accumulation of Aβ within lysosomes, induced apoptosis in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Cells under hyperoxia showed: (1) increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles that contained amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ monomers and oligomers, (2) increased reactive oxygen species production......, and (3) enhanced apoptosis. Oxidant-induced apoptosis positively correlated with cellular Aβ production, being the highest in cells that were stably transfected with APP Swedish KM670/671NL double mutation. Inhibition of γ-secretase, prior and/or in parallel to hyperoxia, suggested that the increase...... and resulting lysosomal Aβ accumulation are essential for oxidant-induced apoptosis in cultured neuroblastoma cells and provide additional support for the interactive role of oxidative stress and the lysosomal system in AD-related neurodegeneration....

  6. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Emily B.; Williams, Angela [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Heidel, Eric [Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Macy, Sallie [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Kennel, Stephen J. [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Wall, Jonathan S., E-mail: jwall@utmck.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Polybasic peptide p5 binds human light chain amyloid extracts. •The binding of p5 with amyloid involves both glycosaminoglycans and fibrils. •Heparinase treatment led to a correlation between p5 binding and fibril content. •p5 binding to AL amyloid requires electrostatic interactions. -- Abstract: In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as

  7. Effect of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles on lysozyme amyloid aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellova, Andrea; Koneracka, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Bagelova, Jaroslava; Gazova, Zuzana [Department of Biophysics, Department of Magnetism, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Bystrenova, Eva; Valle, Francesco; Biscarini, Fabio, E-mail: gazova@saske.sk [CNR-Instituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-02-10

    Peptide amyloid aggregation is a hallmark of several human pathologies termed amyloid diseases. We have investigated the effect of electrostatically stabilized magnetic nanoparticles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on the amyloid aggregation of lysozyme, as a prototypical amyloidogenic protein. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay and atomic force microscopy were used for monitoring the inhibiting and disassembly activity of magnetic nanoparticles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We have found that magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are able to interact with lysozyme amyloids in vitro leading to a reduction of the amyloid aggregates, thus promoting depolymerization; the studied nanoparticles also inhibit lysozyme amyloid aggregation. The ability to inhibit lysozyme amyloid formation and promote lysozyme amyloid disassembly exhibit concentration-dependent characteristics with IC50 = 0.65 mg ml{sup -1} and DC50 = 0.16 mg ml{sup -1} indicating that nanoparticles interfere with lysozyme aggregation already at stoichiometric concentrations. These features make Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of potential interest as therapeutic agents against amyloid diseases and their non-risk exploitation in nanomedicine and nanodiagnostics.

  8. Alterations in amyloid beta-protein and apolipoprotein E in cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinzhong Wen; Yonghong Zhang; Leiming Huo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The findings about the alterations in cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) after subarachnoid hemorrhage indicate that they have significant correlation with prognosis of patients.OBJECTIVE: To observe the alterations in cerebrospinal fluid Aβ and ApoE after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, the First Hospital of Lanzhou University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 SAH patients including 16 males and 9 females aged from 13 to 72 years were selected form Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Lanzhou University from October 2003 to February 2004. The Hunt-Hess grade ranged from Ⅰ to Ⅳ, and patients admitted hospital in 24 hours after invasion, affirmed by the brain CT scan and lumbar vertebra puncture, no other severe complications and important organs' functional defect and severe infection, no hematological system disease.METHODS: All admitted patients were collected CSF by lumbar vertebra puncture in 24 hours. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of control group came from the admitted 15 patients of our hospital that have no nervous system disease. Aβ content was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the kit was provided by the Central Laboratory of the First Hospital of Lanzhou University; ApoE concentration was detected by monoclone enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the kit was provided by the Immunotechnique Research Institute of the Fourth Military Medical University. S100B concentration was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay double antibody sandwich method, the kit was provided by the Physiological Research Room of the Fourth Military Medical University. The data were indicated on Mean±SD and were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 statistical package. All data were handled through test of significance variance analysis, and groups were compared through independent sampler t test. The concentration was

  9. Do proteomics analyses provide insights into reduced oxidative stress in the brain of an Alzheimer disease transgenic mouse model with an M631L amyloid precursor protein substitution and thereby the importance of amyloid-beta-resident methionine 35 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rukhsana; Robinson, Renã A S; Lange, Miranda Bader; Fiorini, Ada; Galvan, Veronica; Fombonne, Joanna; Baker, Austin; Gorostiza, Olivia; Zhang, Junli; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M; Bredesen, Dale E; Butterfield, D Allan

    2012-12-01

    The single methionine (Met/M) residue of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, at position 35 of the 42-mer, has important relevance for Aβ-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Recent in vivo brain studies in a transgenic (Tg) Alzheimer disease (AD) mouse model with Swedish and Indiana familial AD mutations in human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (referred to as the J20 Tg mouse) demonstrated increased levels of oxidative stress. However, the substitution of the Met631 residue of APP to leucine (Leu/L) (M631L in human APP numbering, referred to as M631L Tg and corresponding to residue 35 of Aβ1-42) resulted in no significant in vivo oxidative stress levels, thereby supporting the hypothesis that Met-35 of Aβ contributes to oxidative insult in the AD brain. It is conceivable that oxidative stress mediated by Met-35 of Aβ is important in regulating numerous downstream effects, leading to differential levels of relevant biochemical pathways in AD. Therefore, in the current study using proteomics, we tested the hypothesis that several brain proteins involved in pathways such as energy and metabolism, antioxidant activity, proteasome degradation, and pH regulation are altered in J20Tg versus M631L Tg AD mice.

  10. Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta-protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kenjiro; Condron, Margaret M; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Teplow, David B

    2008-11-21

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the protective effects of red wine, experiments recently were executed in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. These studies showed that a commercially available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition (Wang, J., Ho, L., Zhao, W., Ono, K., Rosensweig, C., Chen, L., Humala, N., Teplow, D. B., and Pasinetti, G. M. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28, 6388-6392). To elucidate the mechanistic bases for these observations, here we used CD spectroscopy, photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, thioflavin T fluorescence, size exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy to examine the effects of MN on the assembly of the two predominant disease-related amyloid beta-protein alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42. We also examined the effects of MN on Abeta-induced cytotoxicity by assaying 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase activity in Abeta-treated, differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Initial studies revealed that MN blocked Abeta fibril formation. Subsequent evaluation of the assembly stage specificity of the effect showed that MN was able to inhibit protofibril formation, pre-protofibrillar oligomerization, and initial coil --> alpha-helix/beta-sheet secondary structure transitions. Importantly, MN had protective effects in assays of cytotoxicity in which MN was mixed with Abeta prior to peptide assembly or following assembly and just prior to peptide addition to cells. These data suggest that MN is worthy of consideration as a therapeutic agent for AD.

  11. The spinal muscular atrophy with pontocerebellar hypoplasia gene VRK1 regulates neuronal migration through an amyloid-β precursor protein-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinograd-Byk, Hadar; Sapir, Tamar; Cantarero, Lara; Lazo, Pedro A; Zeligson, Sharon; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Renbaum, Paul; Reiner, Orly; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat

    2015-01-21

    Spinal muscular atrophy with pontocerebellar hypoplasia (SMA-PCH) is an infantile SMA variant with additional manifestations, particularly severe microcephaly. We previously identified a nonsense mutation in Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1), R358X, as a cause of SMA-PCH. VRK1-R358X is a rare founder mutation in Ashkenazi Jews, and additional mutations in patients of different origins have recently been identified. VRK1 is a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase known to play multiple roles in cellular proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and carcinogenesis. However, VRK1 was not known to have neuronal functions before its identification as a gene mutated in SMA-PCH. Here we show that VRK1-R358X homozygosity results in lack of VRK1 protein, and demonstrate a role for VRK1 in neuronal migration and neuronal stem cell proliferation. Using shRNA in utero electroporation in mice, we show that Vrk1 knockdown significantly impairs cortical neuronal migration, and affects the cell cycle of neuronal progenitors. Expression of wild-type human VRK1 rescues both proliferation and migration phenotypes. However, kinase-dead human VRK1 rescues only the migration impairment, suggesting the role of VRK1 in neuronal migration is partly noncatalytic. Furthermore, we found that VRK1 deficiency in human and mouse leads to downregulation of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), a known neuronal migration gene. APP overexpression rescues the phenotype caused by Vrk1 knockdown, suggesting that VRK1 affects neuronal migration through an APP-dependent mechanism.

  12. Oxidation Enhances Human Serum Albumin Thermal Stability and Changes the Routes of Amyloid Fibril Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancataldo, Giuseppe; Vetri, Valeria; Foderà, Vito; Di Cara, Gianluca; Militello, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damages are linked to several aging-related diseases and are among the chemical pathways determining protein degradation. Specifically, interplay of oxidative stress and protein aggregation is recognized to have a link to the loss of cellular function in pathologies like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Interaction between protein and reactive oxygen species may indeed induce small changes in protein structure and lead to the inhibition/modification of protein aggregation process, potentially determining the formation of species with different inherent toxicity. Understanding the temperate relationship between these events can be of utmost importance in unraveling the molecular basis of neurodegeneration. In this work, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide oxidation on Human Serum Albumin (HSA) structure, thermal stability and aggregation properties. In the selected conditions, HSA forms fibrillar aggregates, while the oxidized protein undergoes aggregation via new routes involving, in different extents, specific domains of the molecule. Minute variations due to oxidation of single residues affect HSA tertiary structure leading to protein compaction, increased thermal stability, and reduced association propensity. PMID:24416244

  13. Human conglutinin-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensenius, J C; Thiel, S; Baatrup, G

    1985-01-01

    The presence in human plasma of a molecule homologous to bovine conglutinin is indicated by the results of biological and immunochemical analysis. The human conglutinin-like protein shows calcium-dependent binding to complement-treated solid phase IgG and immunological cross-reaction with chicken...... anti-bovine conglutinin. The binding of the human protein to complement-treated IgG was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine but not by other sugars. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed reaction of anti-conglutinin with molecules of similar mobility to the monomer and hexamer of bovine...

  14. The contrasting effect of macromolecular crowding on amyloid fibril formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyloid fibrils associated with neurodegenerative diseases can be considered biologically relevant failures of cellular quality control mechanisms. It is known that in vivo human Tau protein, human prion protein, and human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 have the tendency to form fibril deposits in a variety of tissues and they are associated with different neurodegenerative diseases, while rabbit prion protein and hen egg white lysozyme do not readily form fibrils and are unlikely to cause neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we have investigated the contrasting effect of macromolecular crowding on fibril formation of different proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As revealed by assays based on thioflavin T binding and turbidity, human Tau fragments, when phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β, do not form filaments in the absence of a crowding agent but do form fibrils in the presence of a crowding agent, and the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes amyloid fibril formation of human prion protein and its two pathogenic mutants E196K and D178N. Such an enhancing effect of macromolecular crowding on fibril formation is also observed for a pathological human SOD1 mutant A4V. On the other hand, rabbit prion protein and hen lysozyme do not form amyloid fibrils when a crowding agent at 300 g/l is used but do form fibrils in the absence of a crowding agent. Furthermore, aggregation of these two proteins is remarkably inhibited by Ficoll 70 and dextran 70 at 200 g/l. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases are more likely to form amyloid fibrils under crowded conditions than in dilute solutions. By contrast, some of the proteins that are not neurodegenerative disease-associated are unlikely to misfold in crowded physiological environments. A possible explanation for the contrasting effect of macromolecular crowding on these two sets of

  15. Acetylcholinesterase accelerates assembly of amyloid-beta-peptides into Alzheimer's fibrils: possible role of the peripheral site of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Alvarez, A; Pérez, C A; Moreno, R D; Vicente, M; Linker, C; Casanueva, O I; Soto, C; Garrido, J

    1996-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an important component of cholinergic synapses, colocalizes with amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) deposits of Alzheimer's brain. We report here that bovine brain AChE, as well as the human and mouse recombinant enzyme, accelerates amyloid formation from wild-type A beta and a mutant A beta peptide, which alone produces few amyloid-like fibrils. The action of AChE was independent of the subunit array of the enzyme, was not affected by edrophonium, an active site inhibitor, but it was affected by propidium, a peripheral anionic binding site ligand. Butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme that lacks the peripheral site, did not affect amyloid formation. Furthermore, AChE is a potent amyloid-promoting factor when compared with other A beta-associated proteins. Thus, in addition to its role in cholinergic synapses, AChE may function by accelerating A beta formation and could play a role during amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's brain.

  16. Structure-based design of non-natural amino-acid inhibitors of amyloid fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Stuart A.; Karanicolas, John; Chang, Howard W.; Zhao, Anni; Jiang, Lin; Zirafi, Onofrio; Stevens, Jason T.; Münch, Jan; Baker, David; Eisenberg, David (UCLA); (UWASH); (UL); (Kansas); (Ulm)

    2011-09-20

    Many globular and natively disordered proteins can convert into amyloid fibrils. These fibrils are associated with numerous pathologies as well as with normal cellular functions, and frequently form during protein denaturation. Inhibitors of pathological amyloid fibril formation could be useful in the development of therapeutics, provided that the inhibitors were specific enough to avoid interfering with normal processes. Here we show that computer-aided, structure-based design can yield highly specific peptide inhibitors of amyloid formation. Using known atomic structures of segments of amyloid fibrils as templates, we have designed and characterized an all-D-amino-acid inhibitor of the fibril formation of the tau protein associated with Alzheimer's disease, and a non-natural L-amino-acid inhibitor of an amyloid fibril that enhances sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Our results indicate that peptides from structure-based designs can disrupt the fibril formation of full-length proteins, including those, such as tau protein, that lack fully ordered native structures. Because the inhibiting peptides have been designed on structures of dual-{beta}-sheet 'steric zippers', the successful inhibition of amyloid fibril formation strengthens the hypothesis that amyloid spines contain steric zippers.

  17. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng

    2016-07-01

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  18. Regular Article: Interaction of ASK1 and the β-Amyloid Precursor Protein in a Stress-Signaling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Banwait, Surita; Spilman, Patricia; Gorostiza, Olivia F.; Peel, Alyson; Crippen, Danielle; Sidhu, Gurleen; Ichijo, Hidenori; Bredesen, Dale E.

    2007-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein translocated to neuronal terminals, whose function is still unknown. The C-terminus of APP mediates its interaction with cellular adaptor and signaling proteins, some of which signal to the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway. Here we show that ASK1, a MAPKKK that activates two SAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal-kinase (JNK) and p38, is present in a complex containing APP, phospho-MKK6, JIP1 and JNK1. In primary neurons deprived of growth factors, as well as in brains of (FAD)APP-transgenic mice, ASK1 was upregulated in neuronal projections, where it interacted with APP. In non-transgenic brains, ASK1 and APP associated mainly in the ER. Our results indicate that recruitment of ASK1 to stress-signaling complexes assembled with APP may be triggered and enhanced by cellular stress. Thus, ASK1 may be the apical MAPKKK in a signaling complex assembled with APP as a response to stress. PMID:17719230

  19. Interaction of ASK1 and the beta-amyloid precursor protein in a stress-signaling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Banwait, Surita; Spilman, Patricia; Gorostiza, Olivia F; Peel, Alyson; Ataie, Marina; Crippen, Danielle; Huang, Wei; Sidhu, Gurleen; Ichijo, Hidenori; Bredesen, Dale E

    2007-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein translocated to neuronal terminals, whose function is still unknown. The C-terminus of APP mediates its interaction with cellular adaptor and signaling proteins, some of which signal to the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway. Here we show that ASK1, a MAPKKK that activates two SAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal-kinase (JNK) and p38, is present in a complex containing APP, phospho-MKK6, JIP1 and JNK1. In primary neurons deprived of growth factors, as well as in brains of (FAD)APP-transgenic mice, ASK1 was upregulated in neuronal projections, where it interacted with APP. In non-transgenic brains, ASK1 and APP associated mainly in the ER. Our results indicate that recruitment of ASK1 to stress-signaling complexes assembled with APP may be triggered and enhanced by cellular stress. Thus, ASK1 may be the apical MAPKKK in a signaling complex assembled with APP as a response to stress.

  20. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J; He, Jianfeng

    2016-07-28

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  1. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1) C4408R Mutant Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) α-Cleavage in Vitro.

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    Hou, Huayan; Habib, Ahsan; Zi, Dan; Tian, Kathy; Tian, Jun; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays conflicting roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, clearing β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain while also enhancing APP endocytosis and resultant amyloidogenic processing. We have recently discovered that co-expression of mutant LRP1 C-terminal domain (LRP1-CT C4408R) with Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decreases Aβ production, while also increasing sAPPα and APP α-C-terminal fragment (α-CTF), compared with CHO cells expressing APPswe alone. Surprisingly, the location of this mutation on LRP1 corresponded with the α-secretase cleavage site of APP. Further experimentation confirmed that in CHO cells expressing APPswe or wild-type APP (APPwt), co-expression of LRP1-CT C4408R decreases Aβ and increases sAPPα and α-CTF compared with co-expression of wild-type LRP1-CT. In addition, LRP1-CT C4408R enhanced the unglycosylated form of LRP1-CT and reduced APP endocytosis as determined by flow cytometry. This finding identifies a point mutation in LRP1 which slows LRP1-CT-mediated APP endocytosis and amyloidogenic processing, while enhancing APP α-secretase cleavage, thus demonstrating a potential novel target for slowing AD pathogenesis.

  2. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE6 modulates endosomal pH to control processing of amyloid precursor protein in a cell culture model of Alzheimer disease.

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    Prasad, Hari; Rao, Rajini

    2015-02-27

    Early intervention may be key to safe and effective therapies in patients with Alzheimer disease. Endosomal dysfunction is an early step in neurodegeneration. Endosomes are a major site of production of Aβ peptide from the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by clipping enzymes (β- and γ-secretases). The β-secretase enzyme BACE1 requires acidic lumen pH for optimum function, and acid pH promotes Aβ aggregation. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE6 provides a leak pathway for protons, limiting luminal acidification by proton pumps. Like APP, NHE6 expression was induced upon differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and localized to an endosomal compartment. Therefore, we investigated whether NHE6 expression altered APP localization and processing in a stably transfected cell culture model of human APP expression. We show that co-expression with NHE6 or treatment with the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin shifted APP away from the trans-Golgi network into early and recycling endosomes in HEK293 cells. NHE6 alkalinized the endosomal lumen, similar to monensin, and significantly attenuated APP processing and Aβ secretion. In contrast, Aβ production was elevated upon NHE6 knockdown. We show that NHE6 transcript and protein levels are lowered in Alzheimer brains relative to control. These findings, taken together with emerging genetic evidence linking endosomal Na(+)/H(+) exchangers with Alzheimer disease, suggest that proton leak pathways may regulate Aβ generation and contribute to disease etiology.

  3. Mannose-Binding Lectin Binds to Amyloid Protein and Modulates Inflammation

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    Mykol Larvie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a soluble factor of the innate immune system, is a pattern recognition molecule with a number of known ligands, including viruses, bacteria, and molecules from abnormal self tissues. In addition to its role in immunity, MBL also functions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. We present evidence here that MBL binds to amyloid β peptides. MBL binding to other known carbohydrate ligands is calcium-dependent and has been attributed to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, a common feature of other C-type lectins. In contrast, we find that the features of MBL binding to Aβ are more similar to the reported binding characteristics of the cysteine-rich domain of the unrelated mannose receptor and therefore may involve the MBL cysteine-rich domain. Differences in MBL ligand binding may contribute to modulation of inflammatory response and may correlate with the function of MBL in processes such as coagulation and tissue homeostasis.

  4. LRP-1 polymorphism is associated with global and regional amyloid load in Alzheimer's disease in humans in-vivo

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    Timo Grimmer

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: In conclusion, C667T polymorphism of LRP-1 is moderately but significantly associated with global and regional amyloid deposition in AD. The relationship appears to be independent of the ApoE genotype. This finding is compatible with the hypothesis that impaired amyloid clearance contributes to amyloid deposition in late-onset sporadic AD.

  5. Nanoparticles and amyloid systems: A fatal encounter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Bernd [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany and Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many products of our daily life, however, there has been concern that they may also be harmful to human health. Recently NPs have been found to accelerate the fibrillation kinetics of amyloid systems. In the past this has been preliminarily attributed to a nucleation effect. Nanoparticle surfaces and interfaces appear to limit the degrees of freedom of amyloid systems (i.e., peptides and proteins) due to a phase space constraint such that rapid cross-beta structures are formed faster than without interface interactions and in turn fibril formation is enhanced significantly. Here we explore if lipid bilayers in the form of liposomes (140nm) also accelerate fibril formation for amyloid systems. We have investigated a fragment NNFGAIL of the Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in contact with 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) liposomes in aqueous solution. We found that the lipid bilayer vesicles do accelerate fibril formation in time-resolved off-line detected atomic force microscopy experiments. Characteristic Thioflavine-T fluorescence on the same structures verify that the structures consist of aggregated peptides in a typical cross-β-structure arrangement.

  6. Acidic pH retards the fibrillization of human islet amyloid polypeptide due to electrostatic repulsion of histidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type-II diabetes. IAPP is secreted together with insulin from the acidic secretory granules at a low pH of approximately 5.5 to the extracellular environment at a neutral pH. The increased accumulation of extracellular hIAPP in diabetes indicates that changes in pH may promote amyloid formation. To gain insights and underlying mechanisms of the pH effect on hIAPP fibrillogenesis, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent model were performed to study the structural properties of five hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers, under acidic and neutral pH, respectively. In consistent with experimental findings, simulation results show that acidic pH is not conducive to the structural stability of these oligomers. This provides a direct evidence for a recent experiment [L. Khemtemourian, E. Domenech, J. P. F. Doux, M. C. Koorengevel, and J. A. Killian, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 15598 (2011)], 10.1021/ja205007j, which suggests that acidic pH inhibits the fibril formation of hIAPP. In addition, a complementary coarse-grained simulation shows the repulsive electrostatic interactions among charged His18 residues slow down the dimerization process of hIAPP by twofold. Besides, our all-atom simulations reveal acidic pH mainly affects the local structure around residue His18 by destroying the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, due to the repulsive interactions between protonated interchain His18 residues at acidic pH. It is also disclosed that the local interactions nearby His18 operating between adjacent β-strands trigger the structural transition, which gives hints to the experimental findings that the rate of hIAPP fibril formation and the morphologies of the fibrillar structures are strongly pH-dependent.

  7. Key points concerning amyloid infectivity and prion-like neuronal invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba eEspargaró

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid agg