WorldWideScience

Sample records for human adventure culturally

  1. Cultural Bridging through Shared Adventure: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Adventure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Christine L.; Hsieh, Chi-Mou

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of the therapeutic relationship and the need for cultural competence in adventure therapy. Cultural differences between therapist and client can sometimes result in possible misinterpretation and conflict, which can lead to problems in the therapeutic relationship and negatively affect treatment outcomes. This…

  2. ALICE's adventures in cultural computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Bartneck, C.; Salem, B.I.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the paradigm of cultural computing, different cultures need different approaches to address the cultural determinants that strongly influences our way of thinking, feeling and worldview in general. For the western culture, our answer to this need is an artistic and interactive installation

  3. Adventures in human population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  4. Green and Gold: Promoting Eco-Adventure and Cultural Tourism for Inclusive and Sustainable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Picazo, Oscar F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the literature on the emerging concept of eco-adventure and cultural tourism, dubbed "green and gold tourism," respectively. It provides the rationale for conducting such a study in the Philippines (why the concern for inclusivity and environmental sustainability in tourism). It then establishes the feasible scope of such study and lists illustrative activities of inclusive and sustainable green and gold tourism. It also identifies concerns and issues about green an...

  5. Humans to Mars: The Greatest Adventure in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Schild,Rudy

    2011-01-01

    The reasons for a human mission to Mars are many and include (1) World technological leadership, (2) Enhanced national security, (3) Enhanced economic vitality, (4) The human urge to explore new and distant frontiers, (5) Scientific discovery (how did Mars evolve from an early Earth-like, hospitable planet to its present inhospitable state? Is there life on Mars?) (6) Inspiring the American public and the next generation of scientists and engineers (following the launch of Sputnik I by the USSR on October 4, 1957, the U. S. and the rest of the world witnessed a significant increase in the number of students going into science and engineering), (7) Develop new technologies for potential non-space spin-off applications, and, (8) Enhanced national prestige, etc. Other reasons for colonizing the Red Planet are more catastrophic in nature, including Mars as a safe haven for the survival of the human species in the event of an impact with a large asteroid (remember the demise of the dinosaurs 65-million years as a result of an asteroid impact!). Some have also suggested that the colonization of Mars may be a solution to the global exponential population explosion on our planet! A human mission to and the colonization of the Red Planet requires multi-disciplined expertise in many areas including engineering, technology, science, human health and medicine and the human psychological and behavior. To capture the relevant areas of needed expertise, we have invited a group of more than 70 U. S. and foreign experts in these areas, including astronauts, scientists, engineers, technologists, medical doctors, psychologists and economists to share their views and thoughts on a human mission to Mars.

  6. The Effect of Bad Human Activities on Marine Life as Portrayed in Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage

    OpenAIRE

    LATHIFAH, ISNA NUR

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: ecocriticism, bad humans activities, marine life, Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage movie. The balance of marine life is often damaged by irresponsible humans who do not care about their environment. This problem has inspired some works to criticize humans' reckless behavior toward environment, especially ocean. Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage is one of the examples that have been created to criticize the bad human activities in the ocean. This research applies ecocritici...

  7. Data Adventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A B Barros, Gabriella; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system for generating adventure games based on open data, and describes a sketch of the system im- plementation at its current state. The adventure game genre has been popular for a long time and diers signicantly in design priorities from game genres which are commonly ad......- dressed in PCG research. In order to create believable and engaging content, we use data from DBpedia to generate the game's non-playable characters locations and plot, and OpenStreetMaps to create the game's levels...

  8. Adventure tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løseth, Kristin

    In a rapidly changing tourism industry, the international competition is strong and the well-travelled tourists have high expectations. This has led to an increasing emphasis on the development of new services and experiences to attract tourists’ attention. Innovation has become a “buzz-word”, seen...... as essential for survival and growth. With cases from Norway and NZ this thesis examines what innovation means in the context of adventure tourism businesses, and explore relations between such change processes and the available knowledge resources of the business. Several factors influence the knowledge...... resources of a given business, and this study looks specifically at how the size of the business, its location, and the maturity of the specific adventure tourism activity shapes processes of knowledge development and innovation. The study takes it starting point in research on small businesses and tourism...

  9. 'Adventurous' judgments
    A comparative exploration into human rights as a moral-political force in judicial law development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas de Gaay Fortman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the development of law by the judiciary in the sense of judgments taking the law beyond the point of what was hitherto regarded as ius positivum. Its main perspective, however, is not the creation of law by the courts as such, but rather the ways and means in which the human rights idea has encouraged judges to deliver decisions that imply an overturning of 'settled' law. In the comparative exploration of 'adventurous' judgments that we shall embark on, our focus will be on the political morality of human rights as a driving force in judicial activism. It is assumed, in other words, that where the judiciary is 'active', human rights may play a part as general principles of law as distinct from rules already incorporated in positive law. Notably then, human rights in this way affect positive law in a manner other than through processes of international, regional and national standard setting connected with the establishment of new supervisory institutions and mechanisms. For this reason, the article does not so much consider typical human rights cases; instead the focus is on major decisions by national courts that were not in the first place regarded as human rights cases at all. In this endeavour, the article aims to be no more than an initial comparative exploration, intended to illustrate a function of human rights that is not normally highlighted, namely its function as an inspirational force towards 'adventurous' judgments. Yet, the judicial potential illustrated here is of great significance, as it may lead to law development inspired by the two principal pillars underpinning the international quest for the realization of human rights: universality and human dignity. After reviewing a variety of characteristic cases from such diverse legal backgrounds as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States of America, India, South Africa and Nigeria, some conclusions are drawn as to the ways in which human rights

  10. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  11. Adventures in Celestial Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Szebehely, Victor G

    1998-01-01

    A fascinating introduction to the basic principles of orbital mechanics. It has been three hundred years since Isaac Newton first formulated laws to explain the orbits of the Moon and the planets of our solar system. In so doing he laid the groundwork for modern science's understanding of the workings of the cosmos and helped pave the way to the age of space exploration. Adventures in Celestial Mechanics offers students an enjoyable way to become acquainted with the basic principles involved in the motions of natural and human-made bodies in space. Packed with examples in which these principle

  12. Adventure Education: Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mike; Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the meanings of adventure and its role in learning. An analysis of literature from the fields of education, recreation and tourism suggests that definitions of adventure are constantly undergoing reinterpretation. We highlight how "narrow" views of adventure, which appeal to notions of risk and danger, are…

  13. Inside/outside the Western 'Bubble': The nexus of adventure, adventure sports and perceptions of risk in UK and Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Humberstone, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Globalization can be thought of as the widening, deepening and quickening of the worldwide interconnections in social, cultural, political and economic life (Held et al., 1999). For adventure sports enthusiasts from the West, this has opened up the world for them to pursue their activities in more ‘exotic’ natural locations. Marketing of adventure holidays has increased with the greater ease of travelling to suitable geographical locations, providing apparently ‘authentic’ adventure experienc...

  14. The Analysis of Fourth Adventure of Seven-Adventures of Iranian National Epic based on Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Ebrahimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seven-adventures of Rostam, in particular, and other Iranian seven-adventures such as Esfandyar seven-adventures or Gorshasp pseudo-seven-adventures are a kind of eternity search, a kind of battle with selfhood that aims to facilitate the problems, the difficulties of evolution way and human ascent. By discussing and analyzing Iranian seven-adventures, this research aims to study the fourth adventure of all the seven-adventures, which is, at the surface, the battle between man (hero, champion and woman but, in essence, it is the battle between fire and water. Fire is the son of Ahura Mazda and water is its enemy. Water, which was at one time the symbol of holiness and purity of Ahura, became a satanic element during Sassanid era and following the dominance of Zorvani thoughts on religious system of that time. By analyzing Rostam, Esfandyar, Gorshasp, Heracles fourth adventure and looking at Zal and Roodabe stories, Khajavi Kermani’s Sam-Nameh, Nezemi’s Khosro and Shirin and Mahmoud Dolatabadi’s Kalidar, we try to prove this hypothesis.

  15. Safe adventures. An ethnographic study of safety and adventure guides in Arctic Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Mats Hoel

    2016-01-01

    With numerous entrepreneurs already established within the area, adventure tourism is a growing industry within Arctic Norway. The continuously expanding interest for the phenomenon has gained universities’ attention with recent education programs for guides being established. A cultural change involving a more professionalized approach to adventure tourism has also been noticed. At the forefront of ensuring tourists’ safety are the guides, who work in the area. In former research on safety i...

  16. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Stewart Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  17. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-01-01

    Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person liv...

  18. Fermilab Education Office: Science Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Education Office: Science Adventures Adventure Catalog Search for Adventures Calendar Class Facebook Group. Contact: Science Adventures Registrar, Education Office Fermilab, MS 777, P.O. Box 500 it again." Opportunities for Instructors The Education Office has openings for instructors who

  19. Adventures in Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bonniejean

    1971-01-01

    Objects to an alleged misrepresentation and inaccurate presentation of a J. R. R. Tolkien quotation in "Adventures in Reading" (Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969), a ninth grade literature anthology. (RD)

  20. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person lives and works. It is mainly about the answer to the question of which values of technical culture are closely related to and what are the inter dependencies? The primary task is to define the concept of the technical culture and to show its teaching essence. The second task boils down to indicate the range of values ​​inherent in the culture of technology, determining the value of the technological culture and values, which are developed by the technical culture. Indication of the interaction between the technical culture and values ​​is the third task.

  1. Radiosensitivity in cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.; Masson, W.K.

    1980-01-01

    Caution is urged in the use of freshly isolated cultures of human diploid fibroblasts for quantitative studies of radiosensitivity. The distribution of x ray sensitivities of 'normal' human fibroblast cultures of foetal origin (10 subjects, skin or lung biopsy) and post-foetal origin (34 subjects, skin biopsy) are compared with the distribution in 12 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (probability of including any one of these in a normal post-foetal distribution is 0.01%). Cultures from nominally normal subjects showed a broad distribution of D 0 range of 98 +- 160 rad and assuming normal distribution, a mean +- one standard deviation of 122 +- 17 rad. Mean D 0 values for foetal origin cultures were 117 +- 12; values for post-foetal cultures D 0 were 124 +- 18. No systematic variation in D 0 was observed for age of donor, number of cell divisions in culture or for cloning efficiency. For ataxia telangiectasia D 0 values were 46 +- 7 rad. (U.K.)

  2. ADVENTURE TOURISM IN THE SURVEYED POLISH ADVENTURE TOURISTS’ OPINION – OUTLINE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a kind of human activity, which has the ability to simultaneously satisfy a wide human needs’ range and develop people’s personality. Adventure tourism term is a type of tourism able to fulfill these types of human needs. The aim of the study was to know the Polish tourists opinion about the adventure tourism in Poland. The study involved 50 people, taking into account their gender, age, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The study indicated that it is not a popular form of tourism in Poland. Its proponents, the information about places and facilities derive mainly from the Internet. The most popular forms are trekking, tramping, caves exploration, paintball, windsurfing, bungejumping and rafting. Rather average possibility of practicing the adventure tourism in Poland is associated with multitude barriers, mainly financial investments, lack of free time, as well as fear and general fear of some of its forms.

  3. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  4. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teamwork in adventure racing

    OpenAIRE

    Šavrňák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  6. Adventure in a Bun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynes, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Aspects of outdoor adventure education such as sport and risk are increasingly commercialized, whereas the core value of connection--to community, the environment, or other people--is being lost. A shift from providing challenge to encouraging exploration may enable programs emphasizing connection to find a home in the "third sector"…

  7. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2018-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  8. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A

    2007-11-01

    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  9. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  10. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  11. The Romance of Risk: Adventure's Incorporation in Risk Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Adventure has outgrown its use as a metaphor and motive for educational journeys into the cultural outdoors. Self-reliance cannot counter the mechanisation of everyday life. "Adventure" is produced and serviced by the very people who felt its worth to their own individualisation and now advance its professionalisation for their own…

  12. A Review of Adventure Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adventure learning (AL is an approach for the design of digitally-enhanced teaching and learning environments driven by a framework of guidelines grounded on experiential and inquiry-based education. The purpose of this paper is to review the adventure learning literature and to describe the status quo of the practice by identifying the current knowledge, misconceptions, and future opportunities in adventure learning. Specifically, the authors present an integrative analysis of the adventure learning literature, identify knowledge gaps, present future research directions, and discuss research methods and approaches that may improve the AL approach.The authors engaged in a systematic search strategy to identify adventure learning studies then applied a set of criteria to decide whether to include or exclude each study. Results from the systematic review were combined, analyzed, and critiqued inductively using the constant comparative method and weaved together using the qualitative metasynthesis approach.Results indicate the appeal and promise of the adventure learning approach. Nevertheless, the authors recommend further investigation of the approach. Along with studies that investigate learning outcomes, aspects of the AL approach that are engaging, and the nature of expert-learner collaboration, future adventure learning projects that focus on higher education and are (a small and (b diverse can yield significant knowledge into adventure learning. Research and design in this area will benefit by taking an activity theory and design-based research perspective.

  13. Adventures in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The complete beginner's guide to Python, for young people whowant to start today Adventures in Python is designed for 11-to 15-year oldswho want to teach themselves Python programming, but don't knowwhere to start. Even if you have no programming experience at all,this easy to follow format and clear, simple instruction will getyou up and running quickly. The book walks you through nineprojects that teach you the fundamentals of programming in general,and Python in particular, gradually building your skills until youhave the confidence and ability to tackle your own projects. Videoclips accom

  14. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  15. The Adventurous Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Cantwell, John A.; Kappen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the notion of imprinting in the multinational corporation (MNC), specifically how during the brief period when foreign subsidiaries turn into technologically advanced units they are influenced by the technological activities carried out at headquarters and home country...... units. We hypothesize and empirically show that during that period of transition the degree of adventurousness or explorative intensity of home country units is replicated and has a long-lasting effect on the type of technological work carried out by the foreign subsidiaries. The results suggest...

  16. Visual Culture, Art History and the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    This essay will discuss the need for the humanities to address visual culture studies as part of its interdisciplinary mission in today's university. Although mostly unnoticed in recent debates in the humanities over historical and theoretical frameworks, the relatively new field of visual culture has emerged as a corrective to a growing…

  17. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  18. 'Adventurous' judgments A comparative exploration into human rights as a moral-political force in judicial law development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the development of law by the judiciary in the sense of judgments taking the law beyond the point of what was hitherto regarded as ius positivum. Its main perspective, however, is not the creation of law by the courts as such, but rather the ways and means in which the human

  19. The Crouzille (Haute-Vienne, France) uranium ores. Half a century of human and industrial adventure in Limousin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavoux, B.; Guiollard, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The 16 uranium deposits of the Crouzille (Haute-Vienne, France) have produced 25000 tons of uranium between 1950 and 1995. The uranium content of the ores ranges from 1 to 10/1000. The main production came from the underground exploitation up to 300 m of depth. This book presents the historical aspects of this industrial and human epopee and describes with details the underground exploitation of the ore, its processing and the rehabilitation of the site after the mines have closed down. (J.S.)

  20. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF ADVENTURE TOURISTS IN PRETORIA

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter; Sue Geldenhuys; Marius Potgieter

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to examine different motivations and segment differentiations in niche markets such as adventure tourism seeing that it is not a well-defined segment in the discipline of tourism studies. In order to assist adventure tourism companies towards identifying and developing effective marketing strategies to attract or penetrate the adventure niche market, this study aims to contribute towards the current understanding of adventure tourists in Pretoria by compiling a demographic pro...

  1. Marketing of adventure tourism destination in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Baral, Nirajan

    2016-01-01

    Adventure tourism is one of the key factors of the Nepalese tourism industry. The main aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to clarify the current situation and challenges for developing adventure tourism in Nepal and to evaluate the importance of appropriate marketing strategies. The thesis also focuses on promoting adventure tourism activities and rural tourism destinations. The objective of the thesis was to explore Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve as an adventure tourism destination at internationa...

  2. Human embryo culture media comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Thomas B; Schoolfield, John; Han, David

    2012-01-01

    Every program of assisted reproduction strives to maximize pregnancy outcomes from in vitro fertilization and selecting an embryo culture medium, or medium pair, consistent with high success rates is key to this process. The common approach is to replace an existing medium with a new one of interest in the overall culture system and then perform enough cycles of IVF to see if a difference is noted both in laboratory measures of embryo quality and in pregnancy. This approach may allow a laboratory to select one medium over another but the outcomes are only relevant to that program, given that there are well over 200 other variables that may influence the results in an IVF cycle. A study design that will allow for a more global application of IVF results, ones due to culture medium composition as the single variable, is suggested. To perform a study of this design, the center must have a patient caseload appropriate to meet study entrance criteria, success rates high enough to reveal a difference if one exists and a strong program of quality assurance and control in both the laboratory and clinic. Sibling oocytes are randomized to two study arms and embryos are evaluated on day 3 for quality grades. Inter and intra-observer variability are evaluated by kappa statistics and statistical power and study size estimates are performed to bring discriminatory capability to the study. Finally, the complications associated with extending such a study to include blastocyst production on day 5 or 6 are enumerated.

  3. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, L M

    2014-04-03

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our human biology are adaptive and evolutionary while others are pathological. What changes in human biology may be wrought by the modern urban environment? One significant new change in the environment is the introduction of pollutants largely through urbanization. Pollutants can affect human biology in myriad ways. Evidence shows that human growth, reproduction, and cognitive functioning can be altered by some pollutants, and altered in different ways depending on the pollutant. Thus, pollutants have significance for human biologists and anthropologists generally. Further, they illustrate the bio-cultural interaction characterizing human change. Humans adapt by changing the environment, a cultural process, and then change biologically to adjust to that new environment. This ongoing, interactive process is a fundamental characteristic of human change over the millennia.

  4. Outdoor Adventure Programs Fulfilling Heroic Archetypal Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johnny

    The experiences found in adventure programs often parallel the archetypes depicted in mythological quests. Drawing on the work of Joseph Campbell, the stages and trials of adventure participants are compared to similar rites of passage and epic adventures experienced by heroes and heroines in epic literature and mythology. The basic pattern of…

  5. The impact of an adventure based experiential learning programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an adventure based experiential learning programme (AEP) in developing the life effectiveness of black high school learners. “Life Effectiveness” reflects the psychological and behavioural aspects of human functioning which determine the proficiency of a person in society.

  6. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  7. Human cultural diversity in prehistoric Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan E. Cochrane

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.

  8. Adventures in graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Joyner, W David

    2017-01-01

    This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...

  9. It's Time for an Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldam Pommer, R.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, studies have repeatedly illustrated the significance of children seeing themselves reflected in careers and cultures that they may not typically identify with. The current lack of diversity in accessible media, however, limits the potential for self-reflection from children of different socioeconomic, racial, and gender identity backgrounds. This isolates substantial sections of our population from experiencing these moments of recognition and inspiration. As scientists in a rapidly evolving field that requires diversity in perspective and ideas, it is incumbent upon us to innovate new ways to engage with these future generations in the pursuit of inspiring future earth scientists. Inspired by the work of others (e.g. Doc McStuffins, The Sandwich Swap) and through a successful crowdfunding campaign, I was able to develop a project which integrates children's love of adventure with foundational critical thinking skills. That project is MD and Finn. MD and Finn is a self-written/published children's book series which was developed to address the lack of diversity in children's literature. MD is a little girl who continuously explores, discovers, and builds the world around her with her best friend, Finn the fox. They encourage one another to ask questions, brainstorm, make mistakes, and learn from absolutely everything. While the primary goal of the series is to create a character in which young girls can see themselves solving problems, learning from mistakes, and enjoying the little pieces of science in daily life, as the project progresses, characters from different races, ethnicities, gender identities, religions, and disabilities are purposefully introduced. In bringing these books to life, I have been given the unique opportunity to regularly engage with classrooms and families who may be meeting an actual scientist for the very first time. For a few young girls, they may also finally be seeing just a little bit of themselves - in a lab coat

  10. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. However, it has been exceedingly difficult to model disease at the tissue level. Since recently, the gap between cell line studies and in vivo modeling has been narrowing thanks to progress in biomaterials and stem cell research. Development of reliable 3D...... culture systems has enabled a rapid expansion of sophisticated in vitro models. Here we focus on some of the latest advances and future perspectives in 3D organoids for human disease modeling....

  11. Time to take human embryo culture seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Arne; Brison, Daniel; Dumoulin, John; Harper, Joyce; Lundin, Kersti; Magli, M Cristina; Van den Abbeel, Etienne; Veiga, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Is it important that end-users know the composition of human embryo culture media? We argue that there is as strong case for full transparency concerning the composition of embryo culture media intended for human use. Published data suggest that the composition of embryo culture media may influence the phenotype of the offspring. A review of the literature was carried out. Data concerning the potential effects on embryo development of culture media were assessed and recommendations for users made. The safety of ART procedures, especially with respect to the health of the offspring, is of major importance. There are reports from the literature indicating a possible effect of culture conditions, including culture media, on embryo and fetal development. Since the introduction of commercially available culture media, there has been a rapid development of different formulations, often not fully documented, disclosed or justified. There is now evidence that the environment the early embryo is exposed to can cause reprogramming of embryonic growth leading to alterations in fetal growth trajectory, birthweight, childhood growth and long-term disease including Type II diabetes and cardiovascular problems. The mechanism for this is likely to be epigenetic changes during the preimplantation period of development. In the present paper the ESHRE working group on culture media summarizes the present knowledge of potential effects on embryo development related to culture media, and makes recommendations. There is still a need for large prospective randomized trials to further elucidate the link between the composition of embryo culture media used and the phenotype of the offspring. We do not presently know if the phenotypic changes induced by in vitro embryo culture represent a problem for long-term health of the offspring. Published data indicate that there is a strong case for demanding full transparency concerning the compositions of and the scientific rationale behind the

  12. Medical humanities as expressive of Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Noonan, Estelle

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we articulate a growing awareness within the field of the ways in which medical humanities could be deemed expressive of Western cultural values. The authors suggest that medical humanities is culturally limited by a pedagogical and scholarly emphasis on Western cultural artefacts, as well as a tendency to enact an uncritical reliance upon foundational concepts (such as 'patient' and 'experience') within Western medicine. Both these tendencies within the field, we suggest, are underpinned by a humanistic emphasis on appreciative or receptive encounters with 'difference' among patients that may unwittingly contribute to the marginalisation of some patients and healthcare workers. While cultural difference should be acknowledged as a central preoccupation of medical humanities, we argue that the discipline must continue to expand its scholarly and critical engagements with processes of Othering in biomedicine. We suggest that such improvements are necessary in order to reflect the cultural diversification of medical humanities students, and the geographical expansion of the discipline within non-Western and/or non-Anglophone locations.

  13. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Company culture and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.

    1999-01-01

    Human beings constitute an important factor for smooth operation and fulfilment of special safety requirements in the workplace environment of a nuclear power station. It is therefore important to carry out investigations and continual checks in order to prevent routine complacency of the employees, not only for their respective tasks but also with regard to the structure of the plant. Frantisek Rerucha reports on the investigation of procedural approaches, the methods thereby involved and the results obtained in the nuclear power station Dukovany. The investigation came to the conclusion that communication and information problems exist in many areas. The company goals are communicated inadequately, especially on the lower and middle levels, with the result that employees do not always comply exactly with the directives. On the other hand, the employees are often overstressed with additional, often useless, information. However, willingness to communicate is mostly absent, and the employees have a feeling that personal relationships in general tend to be unsatisfactory in the nuclear power station. Management personnel is experienced as highly qualified experts without qualifications for leadership. But the study came to the conclusion that communication on the operative sector functions very well, by virtue of a well-established personal network. (orig.) [de

  15. Culture and Human Rights: The Wroclaw Commentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesand, A.J.; Chainoglou, K.; Śledzińska-Simon, A.; Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The City of Wroclaw, in cooperation with the National Cultural Centre (Warsaw), has asked Andreas Joh. Wiesand to prepare, together with experts from many different countries, a basic handbook which cover all relevant legal questions as well as main political consequences related to human rights and

  16. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  17. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without

  18. Adventures in public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Dan W

    2011-10-14

    This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'). We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge) EDITORIAL PREFACE: The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually decided to publish this

  19. Adventures in public data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharevitz Dan W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'. We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge Editorial preface The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually

  20. Designing and Building of 3D Adventure Game “Tetuko: Childhood of Ghatotkacha” Using Kinect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Basuki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the young people are not interested in the local culture as a “wayang” puppet. This condition threatens the extinction of some of the local culture that should be a mainstay of the industry entering an era of creative industries. On the other hand, theyare more interested in playing computer games as changing of people's lifestyles. It becomes our basic idea to produce a game as a creative product. The genre of this game is fighting-adventure. This game depictures a story of fighting between the baby Tetuko and giant Kala Pracona. The game uses Kinect and 3D platform technology to attract more players to feel their adventures. With Kinect technology, the player can control the character with his gesture. Thus, this game will increase the awareness of young people about the culture of Wayang. Keywords : 3D game, kinect,adventure, local culture, creative industry.

  1. Human Behavioral Representations with Realistic Personality and Cultural Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary, Wayne; Le Mentec, Jean-Christopher; Miller, Lynn; Read, Stephen; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2005-01-01

    ...) with pre-defined and specific personality traits and cultural characteristics. This capability meets a current and growing need for human models that exhibit personality and cultural variability...

  2. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various diagnostic...

  3. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  4. Stakeholders willingness to apply sustainable adventure tourism indicators: a case of Waterval Boven in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Tshipala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa and across the globe, the development of adventure tourism industry has resulted in a multitude of different types of activities, destinations, risks, impacts and unsustainable practices. The development of adventure tourism in many destinations has boosted many economies across rural communities and countries. The added benefits of developing adventure tourism in a sustainable manner include the promotion of responsible investment, infrastructure development and a host of other positive economic, social and environmental impacts. This study investigates the stakeholders will to utilise sustainable adventure tourism indicators from residents, tourists, business owners and government employees at Waterval Boven if made available. Descriptive statistics were presented; Cronbach Alpha and Chi-square tests were also applied. In general, the respondents perceived the indicators positively and felt they could assist in the sustainable development of adventure tourism. The study contributes towards the development of sustainable adventure tourism destinations that can make a significant contribution towards poverty alleviation by maximising social and economic benefits for locals, enhancing cultural heritage and reducing any negative impacts on the environment.

  5. Influence of organizational culture on human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.A.; Evans, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Much has been written in contemporary business literature during the last decade describing the role that corporate culture plays in virtually every aspect of a firm's success. In 1990 Kotter and Heskett wrote, open-quotes We found that firms with cultures that emphasized all of the key managerial constituencies (customers, stockholders, and employees) and leadership from managers at all levels out-performed firms that did not have those cultural traits by a huge margin. Over an eleven year period, the former increased revenues by an average of 682 percent versus 166 percent for the latter, expanded their workforce by 282 percent versus 36 percent, grew their stock prices by 901 percent versus 74 percent, and improved their net incomes by 756 percent versus 1 percent.close quotes Since the mid-1980s, several electric utilities have documented their efforts to undertake strategic culture change. In almost every case, these efforts have yielded dramatic improvements in the open-quotes bottom-lineclose quotes operational and financial results (e.g., Western Resources, Arizona Public Service, San Diego Gas ampersand Electric, and Electricity Trust of South Australia). Given the body of evidence that indicates a relationship between high-performing organizational culture and the financial and business success of a firm, Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light Company undertook a study to identify the relationship between organizational culture and the frequency, severity, and nature of human error at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. The underlying proposition for this asssessment is that organizational culture is an independent variable that transforms external events into organizational performance

  6. Outdoor Adventure Education in East Asia: Interpreting Data from Outward Bound Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Funnell, Aaron; Riley, Mike; Chan, Bacon; Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is philosophically rooted in Western values, yet it has been implemented in non-Western cultures, such as East Asia. This paper examines how OAE functions in East Asia, through data from Hong Kong. Although some cultural differences are clear, there is no compelling evidence that OAE cannot provide benefits in…

  7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  8. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa

    2009-01-01

    When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  9. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  10. Our Heroic Adventure: Creating a Personal Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing Joseph Campbell's concept of the hero's adventure, this article provides a technique through which clients can story their lives and challenges as an unfolding personal myth or epic adventure. The use of personal narrative and storytelling has found efficacy in the counseling field and, as such, forms a useful foundation for clinical…

  11. Learning in Action and Adventure Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmer, Eva; Rynne, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth in action and adventure sport (e.g. snowboarding, bicycle motorcross (BMX), surfing, parkour) participation over the past two decades has been showcased in world championship events and the inclusion in Olympic programs. Yet, by virtue of their alternative, escapist and/or adventure-based origins, these sports do not fully…

  12. Gestalt and Adventure Therapy: Parallels and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsdorf, Rudiger

    This paper calls attention to parallels in the literature of adventure education and that of Gestalt therapy, demonstrating that both are rooted in an experiential tradition. The philosophies of adventure or experiential education and Gestalt therapy have the following areas in common: (1) emphasis on personal growth and the development of present…

  13. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  14. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : A Cross-Cultural Managerial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anyangwe, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the thesis was to examine the impact of the concepts of culture, human resource management and strategic human resource management. A man without a culture is like a man with no identity, so the identity of people needs to be identified for effective unity in diversity. The findings of the thesis show that cultural diversity is an inclusive aspect of almost all communities and countries in the world. The richness of these cultures in terms of cultural values, languages, intera...

  16. Physiology and culture of the human blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Lane, Michelle; Schoolcraft, William B

    2002-01-01

    The human embryo undergoes many changes in physiology during the first 4 days of life as it develops and differentiates from a fertilized oocyte to the blastocyst stage. Concomitantly, the embryo is exposed to gradients of nutrients within the female reproductive tract and exhibits changes in its own nutrient requirements and utilization. Determining the nature of such nutrient gradients in the female tract and the changing requirements of the embryo has facilitated the formulation of stage-specific culture media designed to support embryo development throughout the preimplantation period. Resultant implantation rates attained with the culture and transfer of human blastocysts are higher than those associated with the transfer of cleavage stage embryos to the uterus. Such increases in implantation rates have facilitated the establishment of high pregnancy rates while reducing the number of embryos transferred. With the introduction of new scoring systems for the blastocyst and the non-invasive assessment of metabolic activity of individual embryos, it should be possible to move to single blastocyst transfer for the majority of patients.

  17. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  18. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Because human amniotic fluid is a physiological, balanced ultrafiltrate, it has been considered as an inexpensive alternative culture medium in. IVF. A study of the development of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid was undertaken to assess the suitability of this as an optional culture medium in human ...

  19. The natural-geographical basics for the development of the adventure tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalević Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adventure tourism represents traveling motivated by the wish to be in the nature. It includes both physical and cultural interaction between the nature and a tourist. The concept of “adventure” includes the wish of a guest for unusual activities and experience. This is also followed by excitement. The natural and tourist potentials of Serbia are analyzed in this work. The types of adventure tourism, for which there are favorable conditions in our country, are sorted out. Among different adventure activities the most important are: hiking, speleo tourism, rafting, cannoning, paragliding and mountain biking. Nevertheless, due to many problems this branch of tourism is undeveloped. In the analysis of the tourist space of Serbia, the beginning point is the mountain documents from the section about the development of tourism. In accordance with them and based on natural and anthropogenic resources and the potentials of Serbia, the possible ways of development of adventure tourism in Serbia are defined. The aim of this work is to draw attention to adventure tourism of Serbia and to point out the possibilities of its development based on the characteristics of the natural values. It also aims to suggest the potential areas-centers of development of this tourist branch.

  20. Citizenship and Children's Identity in "The Wonderful Adventures of Nils" and "Scouting for Boys"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundmark, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    "The Wonderful Adventures of Nils" (1906-1907) by Selma Lagerlof and "Scouting for Boys" (1908) by Robert Baden-Powell are characteristic of their time and their respective national and cultural contexts--the Swedish nation state of the early twentieth century and the British Empire. Taking its cue from recent theories on…

  1. Adventure Education and the Acculturation of First-Generation Chinese Canadians in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Simon; Gidlow, Bob; Cushman, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research that demonstrates how parents in first-generation Chinese families in Vancouver, Canada, most of them from Hong Kong, control their children's involvement in local adventure education (AE) programs and in so doing minimize the likelihood of intergenerational culture conflict involving those children. The research…

  2. Human Sexual Conflict from Molecules to Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between males and females have equipped both sexes with mutually manipulative and defensive adaptations. These adaptations function to benefit individual reproductive interests at the cost of the reproductive interests of opposite-sex mates, and arise from evolutionary dynamics such as parental investment (unequal reproductive costs between the sexes and sexual selection (unequal access to opposite-sex mates. Individuals use these adaptations to hijack others' reproductive systems, psychological states, and behaviors—essentially using other individuals as extended phenotypes of themselves. Such extended phenotypic manipulation of sexual rivals and opposite-sex mates is enacted by humans with the aid of hormones, pheromones, neurotransmitters, emotions, language, mind-altering substances, social institutions, technologies, and ideologies. Furthermore, sexual conflict may be experienced at an individual level when maternal genes and paternal genes are in conflict within an organism. Sexual conflict may be physically and emotionally destructive, but may also be exciting and constructive for relationships. By extending the biological concept of sexual conflict into social and cultural domains, scholars may successfully bridge many of the interdisciplinary gaps that separate the sciences from the humanities.

  3. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K

    2011-12-15

    Coevolutionary arms races between males and females have equipped both sexes with mutually manipulative and defensive adaptations. These adaptations function to benefit individual reproductive interests at the cost of the reproductive interests of opposite-sex mates, and arise from evolutionary dynamics such as parental investment (unequal reproductive costs between the sexes) and sexual selection (unequal access to opposite-sex mates). Individuals use these adaptations to hijack others' reproductive systems, psychological states, and behaviors--essentially using other individuals as extended phenotypes of themselves. Such extended phenotypic manipulation of sexual rivals and opposite-sex mates is enacted by humans with the aid of hormones, pheromones, neurotransmitters, emotions, language, mind-altering substances, social institutions, technologies, and ideologies. Furthermore, sexual conflict may be experienced at an individual level when maternal genes and paternal genes are in conflict within an organism. Sexual conflict may be physically and emotionally destructive, but may also be exciting and constructive for relationships. By extending the biological concept of sexual conflict into social and cultural domains, scholars may successfully bridge many of the interdisciplinary gaps that separate the sciences from the humanities.

  4. The adventure of atom. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gorce, P.M. de; Bacher, P.; Bourgeois, J.; Bussac, J.; Cauquais, C.; Gauvenet, A.; Goldschmidt, B.; Le Baut, Y.; Mezin, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the first volume on the ambiguous adventure of atom, the authors present the history of atom conquest with the discoveries of natural and artificial radioactivity and chain reactions, before to explain the first military uses

  5. The "Nature" of Leadership Philosophy in Outdoor and Adventure Education: Partnership or Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlik, Kim S.

    2006-01-01

    Nature continually impresses humans in its role as an omnipresent, if not ultimate, source of power. One hallmark of outdoor and adventure education (OAE) has been its presumption that humans' interaction with aspects of Nature's "power" promotes the antecedents of leadership: measurable, persistent psychological effects and behavioral…

  6. Interrelationships between climate and human cultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolitschka, B.

    2010-03-01

    Human influence on the environment increased continuously during the late Holocene and often interferes with the reconstruction of climatic fluctuations in natural archives. However, for the first millennium BC there exist convincing evidences of a climatic deterioration determined by geological, geomorphological, paleoecological and archaeological records from Europe and beyond. A fluctuation in the -14C record from tree rings indicates that this climatic setback seems to be of a global character which would support its solar origin. Geochemical and physical data of very well-dated lacustrine sediments from a German maar (Lake Holzmaar, West Eifel Volcanic Field) records a dramatic environmental change which coincides with or follows this climatic deterioration at 800 BC. These changes are related to a conspicuous shift towards an increased erosion of the soils in the catchment area. Thus sediment yields of the lacustrine system more than quadruple from the low mean mid-Holocene (7900-800 BC) level of 1.5 t km-2 yr-1 to values of 6.3 t km-2 yr-1 for the last centuries of the first millennium BC, i.e. until the start of the Roman occupation in the West Eifel region around 50 BC. Still, this elevated sediment yield value is rather low compared to 19 t km-2 yr-1 reached during the period of the Roman Empire (50 BC-400 AD) or even to 25 t km-2 yr-1 that were gained during the Middle Ages (11th to 13th century). During the Migration Period and the early Middle Ages, however, sediment yield data decreased again to almost mid-Holocene values of 2.3 t km-2 yr-1. Whether the shift in ecosystem stability following immediately after 800 BC was triggered by a solar-induced climatic change cannot absolutely be excluded but must be cast into doubt. Intensive deforestation indicated by pollen analyses suggests that human cultural development from the late Bronze Age to the early Iron Age, accompanied by the introduction of iron tools, was the reason for this alteration. Using

  7. Developing Cultural Competence in Human Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R.; And Others

    Cultural competence assumes greater importance in the United States as international relations shift and the United States changes its own demographic makeup. Hispanics have significant health care needs and cultural beliefs that influence their acceptance of service. As part of an effort to build cultural competence in undergraduate social work…

  8. A method for culturing human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1981-01-01

    For the first time a method for culturing human hair follicle cells is described. The bovine eye lens capsule, a basement membrane-like structure, is used as the substrate for the cultures. In a culture medium supplemented with hydrocortisone and insulin about 70% of the original follicles will form growing colonies of diploid keratinocytes.

  9. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  10. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E

    2014-01-01

    cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. RESULTS: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis....... Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Hanging drop cultures of human testis...

  11. Analysis of supply adventure tourism in the South Bohemian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klečacká, Simona

    2009-01-01

    The thesis, entitled "Analysis of supply adventure tourism in the South Bohemian Region" is to describe and analyze the options and instruments of tourism in selected destination. Work processes typology adventure tourism and also defines key terms related to this topic. It then focuses on identifying different types of adventure tourism, cooperation in the design of an appropriate design and implementation of a new product in the field of adventure tourism.

  12. Empowerment and women in adventure tourism : a negotiated journey

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Adele

    2016-01-01

    Women’s participation in adventure tourism is growing, yet few studies have explored this group of tourists. This conceptual paper seeks to extend our understanding of female adventure tourists by examining the empowering journey women can take through constraint negotiation to enjoy the benefits of adventure tourism. Using content analysis to review the literature on women’s adventure experiences in tourism and recreation settings reveals prominent themes that have been consolidated to propo...

  13. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  14. Here Be Dragons: voorgeschiedenis en ontstaan van Adventure Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, Connie

    2004-01-01

    The article traces the history of adventure games from the birth of the fantasy genre in William Morris' work and the origins of the Kriegspiel, through Tolkien's fantasy world and Dungeons and Dragons to the early text adventures and the first graphical adventures.

  15. Investigation of cytogenetic activity of radioprotectors in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egiazaryan, S.V.; Arutyunyan, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studied are the effects of the F-11 and F-37 indene preparations on chromosome aberrations induced in lymphocyte culture of peripheral human blood by thioTEP. Investigation into the action of the substance in euqimolar concentrations has not shown their protective effect. Indene preparations did not change the spectrum of chromosome aberrations induced by thioTEP as well as did not increase the level of chromosome aberrations in lumphocyte culture of human peripheral human blood

  16. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: the client accident experience of adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley , T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S

    2000-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence

  18. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature......, Workplace observation, Think-Aloud Usability Test, etc. These techniques often give - seemingly - similar results when applied in diverse cultural settings, but experience shows that we need a deep understanding of the cultural, social and organizational context to interpret the results, and to transform...

  19. Graphene foam as a biocompatible scaffold for culturing human neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Cristiana; Nasr, Babak; Hudson, Emma J.; Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian P.; Dottori, Mirella; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation. PMID:29657752

  20. Participating in Paintball: Adventure or extreme sport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Jessica (2012 paintball is recognised as one of the world's most exciting outdoor participation sports. Paintball is played in over 104 countries by millions of men and women of all ages and lifestyles. Whether homemakers or high-school students, professionals or retirees, all paintball players share in common a love for adventure and a strong competitive spirit. Some confusion exists in industry and amongst players on whether paintball is and adventure or extreme sport as well as terminologies used. The article serves to analyse and clarify the unique terminologies used in paintball and debate classification of paintball as either an adventure or extreme sport. A detailed description of equipment used, player categories as well as formats that are employed are discussed so as to elucidate for readers who are unfamiliar with paintball.

  1. ADVENTURE TOURISM AN INSUFFICENTLY EXPLOITED OPPORTUNITY IN BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Liana LĂZURAN (GIURĂU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The routine of everyday life, the stifling society, the desire of novel and unexpected alongside the unlimited access to information got the modern man on the threshold of a new experience: adventure. Within this context in the tourism industry one type of tourism seems to gain more and more followers: adventure tourism. The adventure tourism is a nature-based tourism involving challenging outdoors activities with a great potential of thrill and excitement. Thus, this paper aims to emphasise the potential for adventure tourism in Bihor County by highlighting the areas where activities related to adventure tourism are developed and to propose new itineraries.

  2. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  3. Newton's laws through a science adventure

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštar, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...

  4. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterprise operations continue to be globalized through overseas expansions, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions as well as strategic relationships and partnerships transnational organizations need to give attention to issues of culture in human resource management practices as a panacea for prosperity. The global organization is competent if only it is able to bridge the gap between management and culture so that personal relationships with other peoples in the organization and society become in harmony. This is critical because cultural relativity and reality in organizations influence operations. The study was designed to explore possible relationships between cultural dimensions and global human resource management. The survey research design was employed and data generated through primary and secondary sources. The participants comprised of 385 respondents from a cross-section of the population in Nigeria. By Chi-Square test, it was found that culture has a significant positive relationship with global human resource management.

  5. The South African Adventure Tourism Economy: An urban phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Tracey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and outdoor spaces. With many adventure tourism enterprises located in South Africa’s metropolitan areas, it is a hither too unknown sub-sector of the South African urban tourism market. Urban settlements with large populations and a strong general tourism sector form a significant support base for adventure tourism operators. Cape Town is the dominant adventure tourism destination, making it the adventure capital of South Africa. A few small settlements were found to be highly dependent upon the sector for survival.

  6. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  7. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  8. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.

  9. Immunocytochemical characterization of explant cultures of human prostatic stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kooistra (Anko); A.M.J. Elissen (Arianne ); J.J. Konig (Josee); M. Vermey; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); J.C. Romijn (Johannes); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe study of stromal-epithelial interactions greatly depends on the ability to culture both cell types separately, in order to permit analysis of their interactions under defined conditions in reconstitution experiments. Here we report the establishment of explant cultures of human

  10. Human meniscal proteoglycan metabolism in long-term tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, G.; Verdonk, R.; Veys, E. M.; van Daele, P.; de Smet, P.; van den Abbeele, K.; Claus, B.; Baeten, D.

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of human meniscal allografting, menisci have been maintained viable in in vitro culture. The influence of long-term tissue culture on the extracellular matrix metabolism of the meniscus has been studied. Fetal calf serum (FCS) was used as a supplement for the growth factors necessary

  11. Free-energy carriers in human cultured muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; de Zwart, H. J.; Ponne, N. J.; de Jong, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Creatine phosphate (CrP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), protein, and DNA were quantified in human muscle cell cultures undergoing transition from dividing myoblasts to multinucleate myotubes. CrP is negligible in cultures grown in commonly applied media

  12. Human Possibilities: The Interaction of Biology and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the two main strands of a new unified theory about human nature and human possibilities: cultural transformation theory and bio-culturalism. Bio-culturalism combines findings from neuroscience about how our brains develop in interaction with our environments with findings from the study of relational dynamics, a new method of social analysis focusing on what kinds of relations—from intimate to international—a particular culture or subculture supports. Bio-culturalism recognizes that our species has a vast spectrum of genetic capacities, ranging from consciousness, caring, empathy, cooperation, and creativity to insensitivity, cruelty, exploitation, and destructiveness, and proposes that which of these capacities are expressed or inhibited largely hinges on the nature of our cultural environments. Cultural transformation theory looks at the whole span of human cultural evolution from the perspective of the tension between the contrasting configurations of the partnership system and the domination system as two underlying possibilities for structuring beliefs, institutions, and relationships. The article describes the core components of partnership- and domination-oriented societies, provides examples of each, and proposes that our future hinges on accelerating the cultural transformation from domination to partnership in our time of nuclear and biological weapons and the ever more efficient despoliation of nature, when high technology guided by an ethos of domination and conquest could take us to an evolutionary dead end.

  13. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  14. On culture and human development: Interview with Barbara Rogoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2011-01-01

    In this interview Professor Barbara Rogoff explores the many ways in which culture shapes the course of human development, and illustrates this with several findings from her past as well as most recent work. These reveal the vital importance of growing up in a family and a community for the human...... child and participating, from early on, in their various rituals and practices. Building on and enriching cultural psychological sources, Professor Rogoff offers us a comprehensive framework with which to understand both cultural and developmental phenomena and, above all, their multiple intersections...

  15. Radiosensitivity of normal human epidermal cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, R.; Potten, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Using an in vitro culture system the authors have derived #betta#-radiation survival curves over a dose range 0-8 Gy for the clonogenic cells of normal human epidermis. The culture system used allows the epidermal cells to stratify and form a multi-layered sheet of keratinizing cells. The cultures appear to be a very good model for epidermis in vivo. The survival curves show a population which is apparently more sensitive than murine epidermis in vivo. It remains unclear whether this is an intrinsic difference between the species or is a consequence of the in vitro cultivation of the human cells. (author)

  16. Culturing the Unculturable: Human Coronavirus HKU1 Infects, Replicates, and Produces Progeny Virions in Human Ciliated Airway Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyrc, Krzysztof; Sims, Amy C.; Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten; Long, Casey; Deming, Damon; Donaldson, Eric; Vabret, Astrid; Baric, Ralph; van der Hoek, Lia; Pickles, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Culturing newly identified human lung pathogens from clinical sample isolates can represent a daunting task, with problems ranging from low levels of pathogens to the presence of growth suppressive factors in the specimens, compounded by the lack of a suitable tissue culture system. However, it is

  17. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing ''state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing ''hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs

  18. The Tipping Point and the Adventure Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Insights from chaos theory--the interconnectedness of everything, nonlinear cause and effect, leverage and the "tipping point," and the importance of aligning interventions within a system--are applied to social action and illustrated via the role of adventure education in school and community interventions in the Brattleboro (Vermont) Leadership…

  19. The Universe Adventure - The Beginnings of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Universe Adventure [ next ] [ home ] Go The Beginnings of Cosmology Since the beginning of of stars? What do the stars tell us about the future? Where did the Universe come from? Cosmology is will introduce you to Cosmology and the study of the structure, history, and fate of the Universe. In

  20. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    Universality is much more than the determination by a majority at a particular moment ..... accepted human rights and not only the favourite rights of any particular .... sole breadwinners, caring for children and taking important decisions on.

  1. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  2. Cultural Difference and Human Rights : A Philosophical-Anthropological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kloeg (Julien)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn ‘Cultural Difference and Human Rights’, Julien Kloeg claims, with Pablo Gilabert, that theoretical attempts to justify human rights should move beyond the dichotomy of providing either a humanist or a political justification. Kloeg demonstrates how philosophical anthropology could

  3. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  4. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  5. Differences in gene expression profiles between human preimplantation embryos cultured in two different IVF culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Eijssen, Lars M T; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Mantikou, Eleni; Jonker, Martijs J; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2015-10-01

    Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes involved in apoptosis, protein degradation, metabolism and cell-cycle regulation. Several human studies have shown an effect of culture medium on embryo development, pregnancy outcome and birthweight. However, the underlying mechanisms in human embryos are still unknown. In animal models of human development, it has been demonstrated that culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro affects gene expression. In humans, it has been found that culture medium affects gene expression of cryopreserved embryos that, after thawing, were cultured in two different media for 2 more days. In a multicenter trial, women were randomly assigned to two culture medium groups [G5 and human tubal fluid (HTF)]. Data on embryonic development were collected for all embryos. In one center, embryos originating from two pronuclei (2PN) zygotes that were not selected for transfer or cryopreservation on Day 2 or 3 because of lower morphological quality, were cultured until Day 6 and used in this study, if couples consented. Ten blastocysts each from the G5 and HTF study groups, matched for fertilization method, maternal age and blastocyst quality, were selected and their mRNA was isolated and amplified. Embryos were examined individually for genome-wide gene expression using Agilent microarrays and PathVisio was used to identify the pathways that showed a culture medium-dependent activity. Expression of 951 genes differed significantly (P differences observed between the study groups are caused by factors that we did not investigate. Extrapolation of these results to embryos used for transfer demands caution as in the present study embryos that were not selected for either embryo transfer or cryopreservation have been used for the

  6. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  7. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long-te...

  8. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-01-01

    and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender...

  9. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  10. Cultural diversity and human resources management in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian MARINAS; Monica CONDRUZ- BACESCU

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the international dimensions of human resources management and the extension of European Union represents important premises regarding the harmonization of human resources practices at the level of the European countries. Despite this, the main characteristic of the European model of management is diversity. During the last decade, the human resource function registered profound changes, determined especially by the economic, social, cultural and political context registered a...

  11. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of Formation of Human Culture in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baboshina Helen B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research problem lies in the necessity of an axiological approach to the formation of the personality in education and the task of strengthening the ideal image of the function. The aim of this article is studying and understanding the culture of personality formation mechanisms in relation to future specialists. The leading method of research was the theoretical analysis of philosophical and cultural approaches to the cultural formation of the personality and to the content of human culture. Content analysis was based on the philosophical and cultural concepts of V. S. Bibler, M. Buber, J. G. Herder, I. Kant, L. N. Kogan, D. S. Likhachev, A. Schweitzer, M. Scheler, and others. The experiment method was the experimental realization of formation stages of the future specialist as a person of culture, which allowed revealing the positive role of cultural mechanisms in this process. The result is the stages of human culture formation as well as mechanisms for their implementation. The article may be useful for specialists of the educational sphere, social philosophers, and culturologists.

  13. Radiation effects on cultured human lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Nilsson, K.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Jakobsson, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cloning efficiency of human normal and malignant lymphoid cells is usually low. Radiation effects in vitro on such cells can therefore not be analysed with conventional cloning. However, this problem can be circumscribed by using the growth extrapolation method. A panel of human leukemia-lymphoma cell-lines representing Epstein-Barr virus carrying lymphoblastoid cells of presumed non-neoplastic derivation and neoplastic T- and B-lymphocytes was used to test the efficiency of this method. The sensitivity to radiation could be determined for all these cell types. The growth extrapolation method gave generally the same result as conventional cloning demonstrated by comparison with one exceptional cell-line with capacity for cloning in agar. The sensitivity varied largely between the different cell types. A common feature was that none of the cell lines had a good capacity to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. (Auth.)

  14. Maps to the other side adventures of a bipolar cartographer

    CERN Document Server

    DuBrul, Sascha Altman

    2013-01-01

    Part mad manifesto, part revolutionary love letter, part freight train adventure story — Maps to the Other Side is a self-reflective shattered mirror, a twist on the classic punk rock travel narrative that searches for authenticity and connection in the lives of strangers and the solidarity and limitations of underground community. Beginning at the edge of the internet age, a time when radical zine culture prefigured social networking sites, these timely writings paint an illuminated trail through a complex labyrinth of undocumented migrants, anarchist community organizers, brilliant visionary artists, revolutionary seed savers, punk rock historians, social justice farmers, radical mental health activists, and iconoclastic bridge builders. This book is a document of one person's odyssey to transform his experiences navigating the psychiatric system by building community in the face of adversity; a set of maps for how rebels and dreamers can survive and thrive in a crazy world.

  15. Adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa: A demographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adventure activities and experiences constantly evolve because individuals, motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. In order to assist adventure tourism companies to promote and sell specific activities and experiences that will meet the specific needs and wants of their identified target markets, this paper focuses on the demographic profile of adventure tourists who used the products/services of adventure tourism companies within Pretoria, South Africa. The realised sample was 234, providing a 93.6% response rate. The research instrument used was a self-completing questionnaire. Based on the results, these adventure tourists were Afrikaans speaking individuals between the ages of twenty-eight and forty-nine years. Their households consisted of two to four people and there were generally two income earners per household. This study established that there is a need for further researching of comprehensive adventure tourist profiles.

  16. The cultural dimension of economic activities in international human right jurisprudence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vadi, V.; de Witte, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity and human rights are mutually linked: human rights protect and promote cultural diversity while cultural diversity also forms an important aspect of the enjoyment of human rights. Cultural diversity and the economy are also increasingly connected, for example through cultural

  17. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  18. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with 14 C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. 14 CO 2 production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more 14 C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO 2 by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of 14 CO 2 from [1- 14 C]-D-glucose and [6- 14 C]-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro

  19. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant's Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results

  20. Improving the safety culture of human organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    Inquiries into past serious accidents, both nuclear and non-nuclear, reveal that the causes, largely attributed to human error, are also failures on the part of the institutions responsible. Conventional wisdom holds that quality assurance is an essential element for any production process, but the inquiries have not suggested applying quality assurance to the institutions themselves. The ACNS argues the need for Institutional Quality Assurance, with some illustrations of what might be involved, and proposes what should be done to achieve this end

  1. Cultural crossings of care: An appeal to the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Julia; Moro, Marie Rose; Ødemark, John; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2018-03-01

    Modern medicine is confronted with cultural crossings in various forms. In facing these challenges, it is not enough to simply increase our insight into the cultural dimensions of health and well-being. We must, more radically, question the conventional distinction between the 'objectivity of science' and the 'subjectivity of culture'. This obligation creates an urgent call for the medical humanities but also for a fundamental rethinking of their grounding assumptions.Julia Kristeva (JK) has problematised the biomedical concept of health through her reading of the anthropogony of Cura (Care), who according to the Roman myth created man out of a piece of clay. JK uses this fable as an allegory for the cultural distinction between health construed as a 'definitive state', which belongs to biological life ( bios ), and healing as a durative 'process with twists and turns in time' that characterises human living ( zoe ). A consequence of this demarcation is that biomedicine is in constant need of 'repairing' and bridging the gap between bios and zoe, nature and culture. Even in radical versions, the medical humanities are mostly reduced to such an instrument of repairment, seeing them as what we refer to as a soft, 'subjective' and cultural supplement to a stable body of 'objective', biomedical and scientific knowledge. In this article, we present a prolegomenon to a more radical programme for the medical humanities, which calls the conventional distinctions between the humanities and the natural sciences into question, acknowledges the pathological and healing powers of culture, and sees the body as a complex biocultural fact. A key element in such a project is the rethinking of the concept of 'evidence' in healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Peter Berg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.

  3. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-07

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems.

  4. Radiation transformation in differentiated human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Moriarty, M.; Malone, J.; Byrne, P.; Hennessy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A tissue culture technique is described for human thyroid tissue as an approach to studying mechanisms of human radiation carcinogenesis. Normal human tissue obtained from surgery is treated in one of two ways, depending upon size of specimen. Large pieces are completely digested in trypsin/ collagenase solution to a single cell suspension. Small pieces of tissue are plated as explants following partial digestion in trypsin/collagenase solution. Following irradiation of the primary differentiated monolayers (normally 10 days after plating), the development of transformed characteristics is monitored in the subsequent subcultures. A very high level of morphological and functional differentiation is apparent in the primary cultures. Over a period of approx. 6 months, the irradiated surviving cells continue to grow in culture, unlike the unirradiated controls which senesce after 2-3 subcultures. (UK)

  5. Micronucleus formation in cultured human keratinocytes: Involvement of intercellular bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, F N; Haring, R M; Weterings, P J

    1991-01-01

    Micronucleus formation in cultured human keratinocytes was studied after exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate without the addition of an exogenous metabolizing system. The first two agents need bioactivation by specific isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 to form genotoxic intermediates. Benzo[a]pyrene induced the micronucleus formation in both uninduced and Aroclor 1254-pretreated cultures. Clastogenic effects of cyclophosphamide were observed only in Aroclor 1254-pretreated cells. The tumour promotor 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate did not affect the frequency of micronuclei in human keratinocytes. The data indicate that cultured human keratinocytes can be used to study the tissue-specific response to genotoxic agents as well as interindividual variation in biotransformation capacity.

  6. Selected aspects of organizational culture vs. formation of Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kisiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of employees in relation to organizational culture existing in a company and their knowledge in this subject - have a crucial meaning. In the face of intensity of transformations, constant searching for the best solutions which bring the organization closer to success seams necessary. The organizational culture can help employees among others to: engage in performance of tasks. Organizational culture helps to understand mission, strategy of the organization and assumptions carried out by it. The purpose of this paper is the description of different aspects of organizational culture with reference to actions taken in the scope of management of human resources. The nature of leadership was also stressed in shaping the organizational culture. The analysis of literature in the field of management, own experience and observation of the author in the above mentioned matter made it possible to respond to the research problem presented in this paper.

  7. Differentiation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Verhagen, H; Wirtz, P; Vermorken, A J

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes, cultured on the bovine eye lens capsule, is studied by light and electron microscopy. The hair follicle keratinocytes in the stratified cultures are characterized by the presence of numerous tonofilaments, desmosomes and lysosomes and by the presence of glycogen accumulations. The cells in the upper layers develop a cornified envelope. Moreover, an incomplete basal lamina is found between the capsule and the basal cells. However, some features of epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, such as keratohyalin granules and stratum corneum formation, are absent. Analysis of the polypeptides by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also reveals differences between the cultured hair follicle cells and epidermis, whilst the patterns of cultured cells and hair follicle sheaths are similar. The morphological and protein biosynthetic aspects of terminal differentiation of the keratinocytes in vitro are correlated. These results are discussed in the light of the findings with cultured epidermal keratinocytes, reported in the literature.

  8. Adventure tourism in South Africa: Challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Giddy, Julia Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    There is great potential for the development of adventure tourism in Southern Africa for a number of reasons. One is the variety of landscapes provided by South Africa's natural environment that are suitable for adventure tourism activities, many of which remain relatively pristine. In addition, the development of adventure tourism has significant potential to uplift local communities through local economic development strategies due to the relatively low capital needed to establish many acti...

  9. The South African Adventure Tourism Economy: An urban phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McKay Tracey

    2017-01-01

    The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and...

  10. ADVENTURE TOURISM AN INSUFFICENTLY EXPLOITED OPPORTUNITY IN BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria Liana LĂZURAN (GIURĂU); Mihaela UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    The routine of everyday life, the stifling society, the desire of novel and unexpected alongside the unlimited access to information got the modern man on the threshold of a new experience: adventure. Within this context in the tourism industry one type of tourism seems to gain more and more followers: adventure tourism. The adventure tourism is a nature-based tourism involving challenging outdoors activities with a great potential of thrill and excitement. Thus, this paper aim...

  11. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Microplastics are present throughout the marine environment and ingestion of these plastic particles (microplastics in two species of commercially grown bivalves: Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Microplastics were recovered from the soft tissues of both species. At time of human consumption, M. edulis contains on average 0.36 ± 0.07 particles g(-1) (wet weight), while a plastic load of 0.47 ± 0.16 particles g(-1) ww was detected in C. gigas. As a result, the annual dietary exposure for European shellfish consumers can amount to 11,000 microplastics per year. The presence of marine microplastics in seafood could pose a threat to food safety, however, due to the complexity of estimating microplastic toxicity, estimations of the potential risks for human health posed by microplastics in food stuffs is not (yet) possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  13. Protein biosynthesis in cultured human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1980-10-31

    A new technique has been used for culturing human keratinocytes. The cells grow on the basement membrane-like capsules of bovine lenses. Lens cells were removed from the capsules by rigid trypsinization. In order to exclude any contamination with remaining living cells the isolated capsules were irradiated with X-rays at a dose of 10,000 rad. In this way human epithelial cells can be brought in culture from individual hair follicles. Since feeder cells are not used in this culture technique, the biosynthesis of keratinocyte proteins can be studied in these cultures. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble, and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions revealing protein patterns identical to those of intact hair follicles. Product analysis of the urea-soluble fractions of microdissected hair follicles shows that the protein pattern of the cultured keratinocytes resembles the protein pattern of the hair follicle sheath. Studies on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene revealed that the enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) is present in cultured hair follicle cells. A possible use of our culture system for eventual detection of inherited predisposition for smoking-dependent lung cancer is discussed.

  14. Adventure Tourism Benchmark – Analyzing the Case of Suesca, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Tsao Borrero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adventure tourism is a growing sector within the tourism industry and understanding its dynamics is fundamental for adventure tourism destinations and their local authorities. Destination benchmarking is a strong tool to identify the performance of tourism services offered at the destination in order to design appropriate policies to improve its competitiveness. The benchmarking study of Suesca, an adventure tourism destination in Colombia, helps to identify the gaps compared with successful adventure tourism destinations around the world, and provides valuable information to local policy-makers on the features to be improved. The lack of available information to tourists and financial facilities hinders the capability of Suesca to improve its competitiveness.

  15. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  16. Microfluidic perfusion culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under fully defined culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Ryosuke; Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kondo, Yuki; Yamada, Rotaro; Tachikawa, Saoko; Satoh, Taku; Kurisaki, Akira; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source for drug screening. For this application, self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is required, and undefined factors in the culture conditions are not desirable. Microfluidic perfusion culture allows the production of small volume cultures with precisely controlled microenvironments, and is applicable to high-throughput cellular environment screening. Here, we developed a microfluidic perfusion culture system for hiPSCs that uses a microchamber array chip under defined extracellular matrix (ECM) and culture medium conditions. By screening various ECMs we determined that fibronectin and laminin are appropriate for microfluidic devices made out of the most popular material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We found that the growth rate of hiPSCs under pressure-driven perfusion culture conditions was higher than under static culture conditions in the microchamber array. We applied our new system to self-renewal and differentiation cultures of hiPSCs, and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the state of the hiPSCs was successfully controlled. The effects of three antitumor drugs on hiPSCs were comparable between microchamber array and 96-well plates. We believe that our system will be a platform technology for future large-scale screening of fully defined conditions for differentiation cultures on integrated microfluidic devices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A History of Adventure in Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCausland, Elly

    2017-01-01

    with popular medievalism and the figure of the bold chivalric knight intersected with bourgeois forms of venture capitalism; the resulting children’s adventure narratives attempt to negotiate and even combine these two very different forms of risk-taking. Next, I will explore the rise of fantasy literature......This project will examine representations of risk in children’s literature from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. It will explore how issues of risk and trust have been mediated through children’s narratives, and how the adventurous child has served, and continues to serve...... for children following the Second World War. There are numerous overviews of trends within children’s literature during this period, but little exists that links these trends with their immediate sociocultural context and with changing attitudes towards childhood during the aftermath of the war...

  18. Kant and the development of the human and cultural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkreel, Rudolf A

    2008-12-01

    Starting with Kant's doubts about psychology as a natural science capable of explaining human behavior, several alternative attempts to conceive of human life, culture and history are examined. Kant proposes an anthropology that will be a commonly useful human science rather than a universally valid natural science. This anthropology relates to philosophy as a mode of world-cognition. Special attention is given to how Kant's theory of right can help define our appropriate place in a communal world. The different ways in which Wilhelm Dilthey and Hermann Cohen respond to Kant's idea of legitimate appropriation are also considered. The various tasks that descriptive elucidation, explanation, reflective understanding, characterization and interpretation can perform for the human and cultural sciences are examined throughout the essay.

  19. GoNorth! - An Adventure Learning Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsild, M.; Doering, A.; Pregont, P.

    2008-12-01

    GoNorth! is an adventure learning series developed at the University of Minnesota in collaboration with NOMADS Online Expeditions. GoNorth! uses real-time experiences of dogsled expeditions on a multimedia saturated website at http://www.PolarHusky.com to motivate and engage millions of K-12 students and teachers. The program is free and research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007) shows that it can be adopted by any teacher who signs up to use the program. It is currently utilized in 3400+ classrooms across the 50 US States and in 29 countries worldwide. Research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007; 2008) notes that students working with GoNorth! are excited, motivated, and eager to engage with authentic tasks, solve real-world problems, collaborate with colleagues and experts, and initiate actions in their own community. Our team of educators, scientists and explorers circumnavigate the Arctic traveling by dog team to a new Arctic locale every year. Driven by an environmental question of particular relevance to the given Arctic region, each year a comprehensive natural and social science GoNorth! Curriculum & Activity Guide (450+ pages) is developed reflecting the expedition's current Arctic locale and its indigenous culture. The associated online learning environment delivers comprehensive resources about the region of travel, collaborative opportunities, live field updates and field research findings synched real-time to the curriculum. Field research relevant to understanding patterns of climate change and polar science is conducted with independent researchers featured as "Cool GoNorth! Scientists." Collaborations span from scientists at NASA and the United States Department of Agriculture to student observers in pan-Arctic communities as part of the NSF-supported initiative "What Is Climate Change to You?." This scientific research and fieldwork in turn coincides with the curriculum. The result is a community of learners on the Internet gaining knowledge from Arctic

  20. Injuries to New Zealanders participating in adventure tourism and adventure sports: an analysis of Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Macky, Keith; Edwards, Jo

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.

  1. Incorporating Campus-Based Cultural Resources into Humanities Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Amy E.; Nedd, Rolecia

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors reviewed one effort to deepen students' connections to the humanities through the use of campus-based cultural resources at Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a minority-serving institution in one of the most diverse counties in the United States. Focusing specifically on…

  2. Cornelia Roux on Religion, Culture and Human Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She identified human rights values as common denominators within cultural and religious spaces of fear and resistance. She also focused on interreligious and intercultural dialogue in education as a means to enhance empathetic and caring interactions with others. In recent years, Roux has initiated three projects: The first ...

  3. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H.; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J. P. L.; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain

  4. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  5. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber an...

  6. Toward "harder" medical humanities: moving beyond the "two cultures" dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polianski, Igor J; Fangerau, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Using the current international debate surrounding the incorporation of medical humanities into medical curricula as a starting point, the authors address both the legitimacy and didactics of teaching medical humanities to medical students. They highlight the paradox of the increasing prevalence of medical humanities in medical curricula and the often critical reception humanities courses receive. The alleged lack of empirical evidence linking such courses with improved patient care cannot alone explain the criticism they engender. After a short overview of the debate surrounding medical humanities and their inclusion in outcomes-based education, the authors outline the medical humanities block, "The History, Theory, and Ethics of Medicine," which is part of the German medical curriculum. A model developed at Ulm University exemplifies the integrated inclusion of the heterogeneous aspects of medical culture into medical education. This model emphasizes a reflexive approach (i.e., understanding how the humanities are manifested in medicine) as an alternative to the currently dominant narrative approach (i.e., liberal arts, moral development, and/or mental retreat), which has gradually been limited to a quasi-"secular religion" for doctors. This model uses established concepts from science and cultural studies as the "instruments" for seminars and courses; paradigms, discourses, social systems, and cosmologies constitute the tools for teaching and learning about the historical, theoretical, and ethical dimensions of medicine. The authors argue that this approach both precludes the need to justify the medical humanities and overcomes the dichotomy that has heretofore existed between the two cultures of science and the humanities in medicine.

  7. Human dignity in religion-embedded cross-cultural nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Manookian, Arpi; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-12-01

    Although human dignity is an unconditional value of every human being, it can be shattered by extrinsic factors. It is necessary to discover the authentic meaning of patients' dignity preservation from different religious perspectives to provide professional cross-cultural care in a diverse setting. This article identifies common experiences of Iranian Muslim and Armenian Christian patients regarding dignified care at the bedside. This is a qualitative study of participants' experiences of dignified care elicited by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews. A purposeful sample of 10 participants (five Iranian Muslims and five Iranian Armenians) from various private and governmental hospital settings was chosen. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All the participants were provided with information about the purpose and the nature of the study, the voluntary condition of their participation in this study, and the anonymous reporting of recorded interviews. The common experiences of Christian and Muslim patients regarding dignity preservation emerged as "exigency of respecting human nobility" and "providing person-centered care." It is essential to recognize the humanness and individuality of each patient to preserve and promote human dignity in diverse cross-cultural settings. The findings support and expand current understanding about the objective and subjective nature of dignity preservation in cross-cultural nursing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. R.L. Stevenson's 'Most Grim and Gloomy Tale': The Ebb-Tide as Deconstruction of Colonial Adventure Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Danelle Di Frances

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Edinburgh-born author Robert Louis Stevenson is best known as a writer of nineteenth-century popular adventures, his work to a great extent challenges prevailing adventure ideology of the Victorian era. This paper focuses on Stevenson's complexification of the villain trope in The Ebb-Tide, a South Seas novella published only a few months before his death in 1894. In the text, Stevenson blatantly disregards or dismantles typical colonial presentations of a simplistic villain personified through such topoi as the 'demonic male', the violent-but-beautiful female savage, or the vaguely formidable Other - all of which frequently populate adventure's exotic realm in nineteenth-century fiction. Rather than relying upon these culturally codified depictions, in The Ebb-Tide Stevenson presents villainy as embodied by a dangerous amalgamation of ordinary vice and extraordinary evil that traverses those national and ethnic boundaries that colonialism so often sought to demarcate and solidify. The portrayal of villainy within this text culminates in a nightmarish atmosphere which, in Stevenson's fiction, inevitably results from the unchecked workings of personal transgressions combined with a larger and more powerful indicator of evil. In so doing, the author succeeds in creating a dark narrative latent with culturally relevant commentary which, in turn, contributes to his broader re-navigation of an ethically-charged aesthetics of adventure for a modern audience.

  9. Culture and art: Importance of art practice, not aesthetics, to early human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2018-01-01

    Art is expressed in multiple formats in today's human cultures. Physical traces of stone tools and other archaeological landmarks suggest early nonart cultural behavior and symbolic cognition in the early Homo sapiens (HS) who emerged ~300,000-200,000 years ago in Africa. Fundamental to art expression is the neural underpinning for symbolic cognition, and material art is considered its prime example. However, prior to producing material art, HS could have exploited symbolically through art-rooted biological neural pathways for social purpose, namely, those controlling interpersonal motoric coordination and sound codependence. Aesthetics would not have been the primary purpose; arguments for group dance and rhythmical musical sounds are offered here. In addition, triggers for symbolic body painting are discussed. These cultural art formats could well have preceded material art and would have enhanced unity, inclusiveness, and cooperative behavior, contributing significantly to already existing nonart cultural practices. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Going Pro: Point of View Cameras in Adventure Sports Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of the adventure sports coach was first identified by Collins and Collins (2012) who suggested that the sports coaching process is significantly different in an adventurous context. Whilst there is a growing body of literature surrounding coaching pedagogy (Hay, Dickens, Crudginton, & Engstrom, 2012), investigation of coaching…

  11. Emotional Safety in Adventure Therapy Programs: Can It Be Defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Ninety-eight adventure therapy professionals analyzed a proposed definition of emotional safety and rated 26 factors hypothesized to affect an individual's level of emotional safety during adventure activities. Factors were related to specific techniques used by instructors, instructor skills and abilities, the physical environment, and group…

  12. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  13. Outdoor Recreation and Adventure Tourism: Unique but Allied Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…

  14. Mitigating Litigation for Adventure Recreation Operators: The Ski Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgoch, Shea; Lower, Leeann M.

    2017-01-01

    Adventure tourism is a rapidly growing segment of the tourism industry, which can be regarded as specific activities that are alluring for their uncertain and potentially dangerous outcomes. Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors may be common among adventure recreationists and increase the potential for litigation against recreation operators. In…

  15. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  16. Outdoor Program Models: Placing Cooperative Adventure and Adventure Education Models on the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Steven P.

    In two articles on outdoor programming models, Watters distinguished four models on a continuum ranging from the common adventure model, with minimal organizational structure and leadership control, to the guide service model, in which leaders are autocratic and trips are highly structured. Club programs and instructional programs were in between,…

  17. Modeling human gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases using microphysiological culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kira G; Bortner, James D; Falk, Gary W; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Jhala, Nirag; Yu, Jian; Martín, Martín G; Rustgi, Anil K; Lynch, John P

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal illnesses are a significant health burden for the US population, with 40 million office visits each year for gastrointestinal complaints and nearly 250,000 deaths. Acute and chronic inflammations are a common element of many gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammatory processes may be initiated by a chemical injury (acid reflux in the esophagus), an infectious agent (Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), autoimmune processes (graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation), or idiopathic (as in the case of inflammatory bowel diseases). Inflammation in these settings can contribute to acute complaints (pain, bleeding, obstruction, and diarrhea) as well as chronic sequelae including strictures and cancer. Research into the pathophysiology of these conditions has been limited by the availability of primary human tissues or appropriate animal models that attempt to physiologically model the human disease. With the many recent advances in tissue engineering and primary human cell culture systems, it is conceivable that these approaches can be adapted to develop novel human ex vivo systems that incorporate many human cell types to recapitulate in vivo growth and differentiation in inflammatory microphysiological environments. Such an advance in technology would improve our understanding of human disease progression and enhance our ability to test for disease prevention strategies and novel therapeutics. We will review current models for the inflammatory and immunological aspects of Barrett's esophagus, acute graft versus host disease, and inflammatory bowel disease and explore recent advances in culture methodologies that make these novel microphysiological research systems possible. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Social learning, culture and the 'socio-cultural brain' of human and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; van de Waal, Erica

    2017-11-01

    Noting important recent discoveries, we review primate social learning, traditions and culture, together with associated findings about primate brains. We survey our current knowledge of primate cultures in the wild, and complementary experimental diffusion studies testing species' capacity to sustain traditions. We relate this work to theories that seek to explain the enlarged brain size of primates as specializations for social intelligence, that have most recently extended to learning from others and the cultural transmission this permits. We discuss alternative theories and review a variety of recent findings that support cultural intelligence hypotheses for primate encephalization. At a more fine-grained neuroscientific level we focus on the underlying processes of social learning, especially emulation and imitation. Here, our own and others' recent research has established capacities for bodily imitation in both monkeys and apes, results that are consistent with a role for the mirror neuron system in social learning. We review important convergences between behavioural findings and recent non-invasive neuroscientific studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Borrowing" Activities from Another Culture: A Native American's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Gordon W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Criticizes the practice in adventure education of using Native American rituals and practices without the proper cultural context. Suggests that western society uses rites and ceremonies initiated in its own culture for experiential education. (KS)

  20. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  2. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Nagai, Momoko; Tajino, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Zhang, Xiangkai; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C) for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and citrate synthase (CS), which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan (ACAN), was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and chondrogenesis.

  3. Human Rights in the Context of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The human rights understood in the sense of fundamental inalienable rights are therefore considered as universal – they apply to everything and egalitarian exist in two ways: as natural or legal rights, both in the rights doctrine in the international practice within the international law, the global and regional institutions, in the state policies and the activities of non from all over the world regardless of peoples’ cultures. manage the ethnic-cultural communities living on the territory of a state often contributes, in fact, to the separation and not to the reunion of peoples, the ideological and political factors acting rather as division factors whereas the affective spiritual connection exists only between the states having deep similarities. For this purpose, serving justice having as a goal the pres on the social feelings of humanity.

  4. Generation of organotypic raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Daniel; Moody, Cary

    2012-02-22

    The development of organotypic epithelial raft cultures has provided researchers with an efficient in vitro system that faithfully recapitulates epithelial differentiation. There are many uses for this system. For instance, the ability to grow three-dimensional organotypic raft cultures of keratinocytes has been an important milestone in the study of human papillomavirus (HPV)(1). The life cycle of HPV is tightly linked to the differentiation of squamous epithelium(2). Organotypic epithelial raft cultures as demonstrated here reproduce the entire papillomavirus life cycle, including virus production(3,4,5). In addition, these raft cultures exhibit dysplastic lesions similar to those observed upon in vivo infection with HPV. Hence this system can also be used to study epithelial cell cancers, as well as the effect of drugs on epithelial cell differentiation in general. Originally developed by Asselineau and Prunieras(6) and modified by Kopan et al.(7), the organotypic epithelial raft culture system has matured into a general, relatively easy culture model, which involves the growth of cells on collagen plugs maintained at an air-liquid interface (Figure 1A). Over the course of 10-14 days, the cells stratify and differentiate, forming a full thickness epithelium that produces differentiation-specific cytokeratins. Harvested rafts can be examined histologically, as well as by standard molecular and biochemical techniques. In this article, we describe a method for the generation of raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes. The same technique can be used with established epithelial cell lines, and can easily be adapted for use with epithelial tissue from normal or diseased biopsies(8). Many viruses target either the cutaneous or mucosal epithelium as part of their replicative life cycle. Over the past several years, the feasibility of using organotypic raft cultures as a method of studying virus-host cell interactions has been shown for several herpesviruses, as

  5. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  6. Monitoring injury in the New Zealand adventure tourism sector: an operator survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Edwards, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Client safety is a major risk management concern for the commercial adventure tourism sector in New Zealand. This study built on previous exploratory analyses of New Zealand adventure tourism safety, including industry surveys conducted by these authors in 1999 and 2003. The aims of the study were to provide a continuation of injury monitoring across the sector through data collected from self-reported injury incidence by industry operators and to compare findings with those from other primary and secondary research studies conducted by the authors. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators during 2006. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, and safety management practices. Some 21 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n = 127), with most operations being very small in terms of staff numbers, although responding operators catered to nearly 1 million clients in total annually. Highest ranked risk factors for client injury included clients not following instructions; level of client skill, ability, and fitness; and changeable/unpredictable weather conditions. Highest client injury was reported for horse riding, ecotourism, and white water rafting sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evidenced across the sector. Slips, trips, and falls were the most frequently reported injury mechanism, while safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the sector. The industry should address reporting culture issues and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (eg, falls) as well as catastrophic events.

  7. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  8. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  9. Morphology of primary human venous endothelial cell cultures before and after culture medium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Genge, A; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F; Franke, R P

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the interaction of human, venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) with body foreign materials on the cellular level cannot be performed in vivo, but is investigated in vitro under standard culture conditions. To maintain the vitality, proliferation and morphology of HUVEC seeded on body foreign substrates over days, the cell culture medium is usually exchanged every second day. It is well known, that alterations in the microenvironment of cells bear the risk of influencing cell morphology and function. In the current study the influence of cell culture medium exchange on HUVEC cytoskeletal microfilament structure and function was investigated. HUVEC in the third passage were seeded on extracellular matrix (ECM) - which was secreted from bovine corneal endothelial cells on glass- until functional confluence was reached. The experiment started 11 days after HUVEC seeding with an exchange of the cell culture medium followed by a staining of the actin microfilaments with phalloidin-rhodamin 1.5 and 5 minutes after medium exchange. The microfilaments were documented by use of an Olympus microscope (IMT-2) equipped with a UV lamp and online connected to a TV chain (Sony XC 50 ST/monochrome) implying an OPTIMAS - Image analysis system. Prostacyclin was analysed in the cell culture supernatant. 1.5 min after culture medium exchange in the functionally confluent cultures a slight disturbance of the actin microfilament structure with a broadening of the marginal filament band, a partial disconnection of cell-cell contacts and the appearance of intercellular fenestrations were observed. 5 minutes after medium exchange a redevelopment of the slightly disturbed microfilament structure with a condensation and narrowing of the marginal filament band was seen. 12 h later a further consolidation of the microfilament structure occurred. In addition, a perturbation of the cultured HUVEC occurred after cell culture medium exchange. The prostacyclin concentration in the

  10. Supplements in human islet culture: human serum albumin is inferior to fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Scott, William E; Suszynski, Thomas M; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Nelson, Rebecca A; Rozak, Phillip R; Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A N; Ansite, Jeffrey D; Fraga, Daniel W; Friberg, Andrew S; Wildey, Gina M; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Lyons, Connor A; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2012-01-01

    Culture of human islets before clinical transplantation or distribution for research purposes is standard practice. At the time the Edmonton protocol was introduced, clinical islet manufacturing did not include culture, and human serum albumin (HSA), instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), was used during other steps of the process to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic material. When culture was subsequently introduced, HSA was also used for medium supplementation instead of FBS, which was typically used for research islet culture. The use of HSA as culture supplement was not evaluated before this implementation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 high-purity islet preparations (76 research preparations, all with FBS culture supplementation, and 27 clinical preparations, all with HSA supplementation) for oxygen consumption rate per DNA content (OCR/DNA; a measure of viability) and diabetes reversal rate in diabetic nude mice (a measure of potency). After 2-day culture, research preparations exhibited an average OCR/DNA 51% higher (p < 0.001) and an average diabetes reversal rate 54% higher (p < 0.05) than clinical preparations, despite 87% of the research islet preparations having been derived from research-grade pancreata that are considered of lower quality. In a prospective paired study on islets from eight research preparations, OCR/DNA was, on average, 27% higher with FBS supplementation than that with HSA supplementation (p < 0.05). We conclude that the quality of clinical islet preparations can be improved when culture is performed in media supplemented with serum instead of albumin.

  11. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  12. Oogenesis in cultures derived from adult human ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Michael R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten years ago, we reported that in adult human females the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is a source of germ cells. Recently, we also demonstrated that new primary follicles are formed by assembly of oocytes with nests of primitive granulosa cells in the ovarian cortex. The components of the new primary follicles, primitive granulosa and germ cells, differentiated sequentially from the OSE, which arises from cytokeratin positive mesenchymal progenitor cells residing in the ovarian tunica albuginea. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that the oocytes and granulosa cells may differentiate in cultures derived from adult human ovaries. Cells were scrapped from the surface of ovaries and cultured for 5 to 6 days, in the presence or absence of estrogenic stimuli [phenol red (PhR]. The OSE cells cultured in the medium without PhR differentiated into small (15 micron cells of granulosa phenotype, and epithelial, neural, and mesenchymal type cells. In contrast, OSE cells cultured in the presence of PhR differentiated directly into large (180 micron cells of the oocyte phenotype. Such cells exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown, expulsion of the polar body, and surface expression of zona pellucida proteins, i.e. characteristics of secondary oocytes. These in vitro studies confirm our in vivo observations that in adult human ovaries, the OSE is a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells. Development of numerous mature oocytes from adult ovarian stem cells in vitro offers new strategies for the egg preservation, IVF utilization, and treatment of female infertility. In addition, other clinical applications aiming to utilize stem cells, and basic stem cell research as well, may employ totipotent embryonic stem cells developing from fertilized oocytes.

  13. Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L

    2009-12-01

    The relative importance of the roles of adaptation and chance in determining genetic diversity and evolution has received attention in the last 50 years, but our understanding is still incomplete. All statements about the relative effects of evolutionary factors, especially drift, need confirmation by strong demographic observations, some of which are easier to obtain in a species like ours. Earlier quantitative studies on a variety of data have shown that the amount of genetic differentiation in living human populations indicates that the role of positive (or directional) selection is modest. We observe geographic peculiarities with some Y chromosome mutants, most probably due to a drift-related phenomenon called the surfing effect. We also compare the overall genetic diversity in Y chromosome DNA data with that of other chromosomes and their expectations under drift and natural selection, as well as the rate of fall of diversity within populations known as the serial founder effect during the recent "Out of Africa" expansion of modern humans to the whole world. All these observations are difficult to explain without accepting a major relative role for drift in the course of human expansions. The increasing role of human creativity and the fast diffusion of inventions seem to have favored cultural solutions for many of the problems encountered in the expansion. We suggest that cultural evolution has been subrogating biologic evolution in providing natural selection advantages and reducing our dependence on genetic mutations, especially in the last phase of transition from food collection to food production.

  14. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.G.; Haidar, M.A.; Baxter, J.D.; Reudelhuber, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3 endash to 6 endash fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'endash flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'endash flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter

  15. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  16. The response of human glioblastoma in culture to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Koji; Aramaki, Ryoji; Takagi, Tosuke

    1980-01-01

    Cells from two human glioblastoma multiforme and one mouse glioma were grown in tissue cultures and their X-ray survival curve parameters were determined under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. These were compared with the survival parameters for mouse fibroblasts (L5) and established cell lines from human carcinoma coli (HeLa S3) irradiated under identical conditions. There was no significant difference in response among the cell lines used. Repair of potentially lethal damage for human glioblastoma and HeLa S3 was assessed by the increase in survival which occurred as the cells were held in density inhibited stationary phase. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage (slope modifying factors) for the glioblastoma and HeLa were 1.9 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  17. Development of humanized culture medium with plant-derived serum replacement for human pluripotent stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunová, M.; Matulka, K.; Eiselleová, L.; Trčková, P.; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2010), s. 676-686 ISSN 1472-6483 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; EC FP6(XE) LSHG-CT-2006-018739 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : animal protein-free culture * high-density culture * human embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.285, year: 2010

  18. Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmini, Gaia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Mavilia, Carmelo; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Luzi, Ettore; Marini, Francesca; Franchi, Alessandro; Capanna, Rodolfo; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-14

    The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients. Isolating CSCs, establishing cell cultures of CSCs, and studying their biology are important steps to improving our understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis. The establishment of human-derived OS-CSCs from biopsies of OS has been made possible using several methods, including the capacity to create 3-dimensional stem cell cultures under nonadherent conditions. Under these conditions, CSCs are able to create spherical floating colonies formed by daughter stem cells; these colonies are termed "cellular spheres". Here, we describe a method to establish CSC cultures from primary cell cultures of conventional OS obtained from OS biopsies. We clearly describe the several passages required to isolate and characterize CSCs.

  19. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Goodarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group or autologous serum (2nd group. After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35 and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32, 97/33% (SD=1.22 and 11.77 (SD=2.58 days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00, 97.55% (SD=1.33 and 10.33 days (SD=1.65 in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05. The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03. The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  20. Culture of human cell lines by a pathogen-inactivated human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Mariotti, A; Fioravanti, D; Procoli, A; Cicchetti, E; Scambia, G; Bonanno, G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-01

    Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) have been investigated to ensure xeno-free growth condition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of human platelet lysate (PL) as a substitute of FBS for the in vitro culture of some human cell lines. PL was obtained by pools of pathogen inactivated human donor platelet (PLT) concentrates. Human leukemia cell lines (KG-1, K562, JURKAT, HL-60) and epithelial tumor cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7) were cultured with either FBS or PL. Changes in cell proliferation, viability, morphology, surface markers and cell cycle were evaluated for each cell line. Functional characteristics were analysed by drug sensitivity test and cytotoxicity assay. Our results demonstrated that PL can support growth and expansion of all cell lines, although the cells cultured in presence of PL experienced a less massive proliferation compared to those grown with FBS. We found a comparable percentage of viable specific marker-expressing cells in both conditions, confirming lineage fidelity in all cultures. Functionality assays showed that cells in both FBS- and PL-supported cultures maintained their normal responsiveness to adriamycin and NK cell-mediated lysis. Our findings indicate that PL is a feasible serum substitute for supporting growth and propagation of haematopoietic and epithelial cell lines with many advantages from a perspective of process standardization, ethicality and product safety.

  1. Human rights for women: battles of culture and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, K

    1995-06-01

    In Africa, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focussing on human rights have mushroomed during the past 10-15 years, and, with several of these organizations run by and for women, it is possible to find free legal aid for women in almost every capital city. The collapse of the extended family and, thus, the framework for customary law has meant that women are faced with problems of maintenance and widows with problems of inheritance. Customary law and the protection it afforded women and children has also been weakened by a poverty-driven shift in urban areas from a focus on community support to a focus on individual survival. The vacuum left by this change in legal and social structure is being filled by the human rights NGOs. Paradoxically, in the face of such change, a static, communal, and neutral concept of "culture" was held out by African state representatives at the 1993 UN Conference on Human Rights to justify their opposition to the acceptance of the crosscultural legitimacy of human rights, especially for women. While these arguments were being aired at the Conference, African NGOs were vigorously using examples of the marginalization of women to promote the opposite view. The most important aspect of these conflicting views is which group has the most power and resources to voice its interpretation of the situation. With most African countries governed by a dual system of laws, customary law and common or civil law (left over from colonialism), human rights groups are working to instill human rights principles into common law through the ratification of international conventions. Thus, persons in need could be viewed not as victims but as individuals entitled to enforceable and universal rights. Misuse of the term "culture" can marginalize women even as it is being promoted as a protective device for women. A more useful view of culture is as something which transcends traditional boundaries and locates people and institutions in the global community

  2. Outdoor adventure program builds confidence and competence to help new graduate RNs become "everyday" leaders at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer-Day, Susan; Medland, Jackie; Watson, Lynn; Bojak, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A nontraditional approach to leadership development promoted successful transition of new graduate RN residents to professional nurses. Utilizing an outdoor adventure program increased nurses' feelings of competence by boosting their confidence, facilitating an environment where leadership at the bedside became an ingrained part of their nursing practice. RN residents at a Midwestern medical center represented only 17% of the nursing population but reshaped the culture of the entire organization by becoming dynamic "everyday" leaders.

  3. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the ninth story in a series of chemical mysteries with emphasis on forensic chemistry, physical properties, and qualitative organic analysis. The mystery centers around the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (DDR)

  4. Comparison of human anxiety based on different cultural backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwar, Santosh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    This work conceptualizes human behavior on the Internet. The study was conducted with 10 university participants representing two different cultural backgrounds, Asian and Western. The participants were asked to visit any Web page on the Internet for 15 minutes, for 30 minutes, and for 1 hour. The results showed that participants displayed no signs of anxiousness during the 15-minute task and very little anxiousness during the 30-minute task. Western participants showed overall more anxiousness than Asian participants. However, all participants showed anxiousness during the 1-hour task. Data on comparative human anxiety were collected on the basis of a literature review of social fun, online belonging, and community on the Internet. Only the limited set of data of the participant is discussed in this article.

  5. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Ib Schou

    2014-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  6. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  7. Nuclear deterrence - The French nuclear adventure - The cockerel's spurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    This book reveals the secrets of the French strike force: the formidable adventure which provided France with first ranking strategic forces, the incredible fight given by Europe and the European Commission states to prohibit France from acquiring nuclear weapons, the US ambiguous game of accompanying France in her nuclear adventure in order to better monitor her, the core of deterrence with its doctrine of use, and for the future, the measures which will make French deterrence a decisive tool for worldwide peace

  8. Optimization of human corneal endothelial cell culture: density dependency of successful cultures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Gary S L; Toh, Kah-Peng; Ang, Heng-Pei; Seah, Xin-Yi; George, Benjamin L; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2013-05-03

    Global shortage of donor corneas greatly restricts the numbers of corneal transplantations performed yearly. Limited ex vivo expansion of primary human corneal endothelial cells is possible, and a considerable clinical interest exists for development of tissue-engineered constructs using cultivated corneal endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the density-dependent growth of human corneal endothelial cells isolated from paired donor corneas and to elucidate an optimal seeding density for their extended expansion in vitro whilst maintaining their unique cellular morphology. Established primary human corneal endothelial cells were propagated to the second passage (P2) before they were utilized for this study. Confluent P2 cells were dissociated and seeded at four seeding densities: 2,500 cells per cm2 ('LOW'); 5,000 cells per cm2 ('MID'); 10,000 cells per cm2 ('HIGH'); and 20,000 cells per cm2 ('HIGH(×2)'), and subsequently analyzed for their propensity to proliferate. They were also subjected to morphometric analyses comparing cell sizes, coefficient of variance, as well as cell circularity when each culture became confluent. At the two lower densities, proliferation rates were higher than cells seeded at higher densities, though not statistically significant. However, corneal endothelial cells seeded at lower densities were significantly larger in size, heterogeneous in shape and less circular (fibroblastic-like), and remained hypertrophic after one month in culture. Comparatively, cells seeded at higher densities were significantly homogeneous, compact and circular at confluence. Potentially, at an optimal seeding density of 10,000 cells per cm2, it is possible to obtain between 10 million to 25 million cells at the third passage. More importantly, these expanded human corneal endothelial cells retained their unique cellular morphology. Our results demonstrated a density dependency in the culture of primary human corneal endothelial

  9. The LHIN adventure: The journey continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huras, Paul; Switzer, Gary; Eliasoph, Hy

    2015-11-01

    The Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) adventure began 10 years ago with the intent of transforming the Ontario health system by providing system-based leadership and building collaborative capacity among health service providers. The LHIN construct has continued its evolution during this time and is still in the midst of testing and reshaping the boundaries of its mandate and authority. Working closely and in tandem with the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, LHINs have grappled with governance, funding, integration, and engagement, changing the nature of relationships and the dynamics inherent across the health system. The next decade holds considerable promise for LHINs and the health system in Ontario as a whole. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  10. Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. KEMASAN PAKET WISATA JATILUWIH SIGHTSEEING AND ADVENTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Sri Lestari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses and examines potential identification and package tour in Tabanan regency. Qualitative approaches were applied in this research. The data were collected by using observation techniques, in-depths interviews, and documentation technique. Informant and key informant techniques were used to determine the informantion. This study used descriptive qualitative data analysis techniques with three steps which are data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. In this study, showed potential identifications taken place in Alas Kedaton, Jatiluwih, Batukaru Temple, Subak Museum, and Tengkudak Village. The packaging of this package tour with itinerary such as visit the Subak Museum, Tengkudak village adventure, visit Jatiluwih, sightseeing in Batukaru temple, sightseeing in Alas Kedaton and shopping in Krisna oleh-oleh. This package tour was presented in tabulated style, Graphic style as well as the calculation of travel costs.

  12. Photodynamic toxicity of hematoporphyrin derivatives to human keratinocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H; Reinhold, C; Artuc, M

    Human keratinocytes in culture were able to take up hematoporphyrin derivatives (HPDs) used during photodynamic chemotherapy of tumors. In the absence of light, HPDs showed no cytotoxic effects to keratinocytes. However, after irradiation with visible light, HPDs induced immediate cytotoxicity as measured by the neutral red uptake assay. On the other hand, cell attachment as measured by protein estimation was not affected. When the cells treated with HPDs and irradiated with light were cultured for a further 72 h, they partially lost their ability to attach to the collagen surface. Most of the cells remaining attached after 72 h were no longer viable following treatment with HPDs and light. All parameters measured depended on the intracellular concentration of HPDs used (7-50 ng/10(5) cells) and the time of irradiation (0-30 min). These results suggest that human keratinocytes are a good model to study cytotoxic effects of photodynamically active drugs. Further, keratinocytes were unable to recover after damage caused by HPDs and light.

  13. The cultural animal human nature, meaning, and social life

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2005-01-01

    What makes us human? Why do people think, feel, and act as they do? What is the essence of human nature? What is the basic relationship between the individual and society? These questions have fascinated both great thinkers and ordinary humans for centuries. Now, at last, there is a solid basis for answering them, in the form of the accumulated efforts and studies by thousands of psychology researchers. We no longer have to rely on navel-gazing and speculation to understand why people are the way they are - we can instead turn to solid, objective findings. This book, by an eminent social psychologist at the peak of his career, not only summarizes what we know about people - it also offers a coherent, easy-to-understand, through radical, explanation. Turning conventional wisdom on its head, the author argues that culture shaped human evolution. Contrary to theories that depict the individual's relation to society as one of victimization, endless malleability, or just a square peg in a round hole, he proposes t...

  14. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  16. Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: a transcultural neuroimaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2008-08-01

    Our brains and minds are shaped by our experiences, which mainly occur in the context of the culture in which we develop and live. Although psychologists have provided abundant evidence for diversity of human cognition and behaviour across cultures, the question of whether the neural correlates of human cognition are also culture-dependent is often not considered by neuroscientists. However, recent transcultural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that one's cultural background can influence the neural activity that underlies both high- and low-level cognitive functions. The findings provide a novel approach by which to distinguish culture-sensitive from culture-invariant neural mechanisms of human cognition.

  17. Culture in Animals: The Case of a Non-human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…

  18. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of 14 C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms

  19. Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of hominin culture is well-documented in the archeological and fossil record, but such a record is largely absent for nonhuman primates. An alternative approach to studying cultural evolution is to examine patterns of modern cultural variation. In this article we measure nestedness across human and great ape "cultural repertoires" to gain insight into the accumulation and maintenance of putative cultural diversity in these species. Cultural assemblages are nested if cultures with a small repertoire of traits tend to comprise a proper subset of those traits present in more complex cultures. This nesting will occur if some traits are sequentially gained or lost, which may be because of the differential dispersal or extinction of traits. Here we apply statistical tools from ecology to examine the degree of nestedness in four datasets documenting the presence or absence of specific cultural traits across indigenous human populations in North America and New Guinea. We then compare the human data to patterns observed for putative cultural traits in chimpanzee and orangutan populations. In both humans and chimpanzees, cultural diversity is highly nonrandom, showing significant nested structure for all of the datasets examined. We find no evidence for nestedness in the orangutan cultural data. These findings are consistent with a sequential "layering" of cultural diversity in humans and chimpanzees, but not orangutans. Such an interpretation implies that the traits required for sequential cultural evolution first appeared in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  20. 227 Globalization, Culture and Human Development in the 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issues on globalization and its impact on culture, cultural values .... impose its hegemony on other subjugated and exploited nations. ... The dynamism of culture casts doubt on the possibility of a global culture. Part of this dynamism is that each culture has its own personality. But central to globalization is the idea of a global.

  1. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05.These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

  2. A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric; Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A constraints-based framework enables a new understanding of expertise in outdoor adventure sports by considering performer-environment couplings through emergent and self-organizing behaviours in relation to interacting constraints. Expert adventure athletes, conceptualized as complex, dynamical

  3. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  4. When culture clashes with individual human rights: A practical theological reflection on the dignity of widows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift T. Baloyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of human beings (men and women as an egalitarian one even beyond cultural expectations. It argues against some cultural practices on women, especially widows, which claim supremacy and bind the widows to its ritual processes among the Tsonga people. It stresses the importance of human individual that overtakes everything from God�s creation, including cultural rituals which are created by human beings. It claims that the existence of culture depends solely on the existence or presence of human beings and their communities. Therefore, culture cannot use humans to shape itself and to transform the community. It is humans themselves who use culture to identify themselves and ultimately change their communities. Although the paper is theological in its approach, it argues for individual human rights to be respected and weighed above all cultural practices. It further concludes that such cultural practices are not static and that they can be removed from the rest of culture.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article, from a practical theological view, challenges the African cultural rituals that claim authority over women�s rights and dignity. The interdisciplinary nature of this article indicates the sanctity of human individuals especially widows and thereby calls for paradigm shift to deconstruct certain oppressive teachings and practices against widows among African women. This article concludes thus, cultural deconstruction is possible.

  5. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  6. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  7. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  8. Sonia-Ania-Alisa, or, Alice’s Adventures in Russianland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Sicari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865 is a text rich of cultural and literary references to Victorian England. This feature is one of the major obstacles to translating this work since the transfer of cultural markers from source to target text often produces partial or total loss of certain nuances of meaning. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Russian translations of Alice through a comparative study of three translation specimens (Nabokov 1923; Olenič-Gnenenko 1940; Demurova 1967, 1978, which constitute just as many methods (domestication, foreignization, hybridization. Through the study of some difficult cases of translation – proper names with culture-specific connotations, puns and parodies – I will highlight the specificities of these different versions to understand whether and how the translator’s choices have affected the reception of Wonderland in Russia.

  9. Human environment and cultural influence on the development of international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ȚÂU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peoples always seek to improve their life conditions. This sought had significantly contributed to the improvement of human life. Urbanization was a major turning point in the history of human development. It contributed to a change of lifestyle and a progress of business. The establishment of urban areas led to a transformation in the human and cultural environments. Furthermore, globalization processes contributed considerably to the alteration of human and cultural environments. In this work, we are going to explore the components of the human and cultural environment. The main aim of this work is reveal how can human environment and cultural influence the development of international business. This work is similarly meant to exhibit how cultural differences can and cultural transformation caused by globalization processes, affect communication, negotiation and management processes, thus influencing the development of international business.

  10. The Eustress Paradigm: A Strategy for Decreasing Stress in Wilderness Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrellas, Anjanette

    This essay proposes that stress has been misused in traditional adventure education and presents a new model of risk taking based on the literature on stress and feminist perspectives in adventure education. Proponents of the traditional adventure perspective state that the intentional use of stress is central to the change process in wilderness…

  11. Adolescent Girls and Body Image: Influence of Outdoor Adventure on Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…

  12. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas-Montes, Rebeca; Melguizo-Rodríguez, Lucía; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco Javier; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2) using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed). The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing. PMID:28773152

  13. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Illescas-Montes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2 using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed. The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing.

  14. DTIC Review: Human, Social, Cultural and Behavior Modeling. Volume 9, Number 1 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...: Human, Social, Cultural and Behavior (HSCB) models are designed to help understand the structure, interconnections, dependencies, behavior, and trends associated with any collection of individuals...

  15. Adventures with cyanobacteria: a personal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindjee e

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, or the blue-green algae as they used to be called until 1974, are the oldest oxygenic photosynthesizers. We summarize here adventures with them since the early 1960s. This includes studies on light absorption by cyanobacteria, excitation energy transfer at room temperature down to liquid helium temperature, fluorescence (kinetics as well as spectra and its relationship to photosynthesis, and afterglow (or thermoluminescence from them. Further, we summarize experiments on their two-light reaction - two-pigment system, as well as the unique role of bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate on the electron acceptor side of their photosystem II, PSII. This review, in addition, includes a discussion on the regulation of changes in phycobilins (mostly in PSII and chlorophyll a (Chl a; mostly in photosystem I, PSI under oscillating light, on the relationship of the slow fluorescence increase (the so-called S to M rise, especially in the presence of diuron in minute time scale with the so-called state-changes, and on the possibility of limited oxygen evolution in mixotrophic PSI (minus mutants, up to 30 minutes, in the presence of glucose. We end this review with a brief discussion on the position of cyanobacteria in the evolution of photosynthetic systems.

  16. SOTUNKI: An Island Of Education and Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi HEIKKILÄ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Last year some of the teachers of Sotunki Distance Learning Centre set out to find a new approach to teaching different subjects in Upper Secondary School. We wanted to do this by using social media and finally decided on using Second Life. I think social media like Second Life can offer a lot to our students who study via internet and rarely meet each other or their teachers. In Second Life students can meet their teachers, guidance counselors and fellow students face to face and in real time. This brings more interaction to the learning process and gives the students a chance to get to know each other. Also the interaction in Second Life is slightly different – it gives us teachers a different kind of chance to get to know our students better in a more informal way. There were many decisions to make when we first started building our school. We started by deciding on whether we wanted to have a traditional school building with traditional classrooms in it – and decided against it. Why repeat the real world in Second Life? What is the point of using a virtual world if not to benefit from the possibilities that the real world does not have? So we set out to do something new and extraordinary: instead of a school house we have a mountainous jungle waiting for explorers, and instead of classrooms we have lots of different innovations customized to fit the virtual world. It is important to us that students want to explore our island and learn while exploring it: learning can be a real adventure.I chose the course of history of literature as my project because Second Life has wonderful tools for creating historical settings. Building a pathway came naturally too: the history of literature is linear by nature; a pathway is its natural form. There are plenty of time periods in literature that have distinctive styles but I could not include them all. Finally I decided to build information points for eight different stylistic periods

  17. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  18. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  19. Discarded human fetal tissue and cell cultures for transplantation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.J.; Phillips, T.; Thompson, A.; Vilner, L.; Cleland, M.; Tchaw-ren Chen; Zabrenetzky, V.

    1999-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to explore the utility of various tissues from discarded human abortuses for transplantation and related research. Specifically, aborted fetuses plus parental blood samples and all relevant clinical data were obtained through a local hospital complex. Whenever possible, pancreas, skin and skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidney, cartilage and lung tissues were removed, dissociated and subfractionated for cryopreservation, characterization and cultivation trials in vitro. Existing protocols for these manipulations were compared and improved upon as required. Clonal culture, cell aggregate maintenance techniques and use of feeder cell populations have been utilized where appropriate to develop quantitative comparative data. Histological and biochemical assays were applied both to evaluate separation/cultivation methods and to identify optimal culture conditions for maintaining functional cells. Immunochemical and molecular biological procedures were applied to study expression of Major Histocompatibility Vomplex (MHC) class 1 and 11 molecules on cell lines derived. Tissue and cell culture populations were examined for infections with bacteria, ftingi, mycoplasma, HIV, CMV, hepatitis B and other viruses. Only 1% of the abortuses tested were virally infected. Cytogenetic analyses confin-ned the normal diploid status in the vast majority (>98%) of lines tested. A total of over 250 abortuses have been obtained and processed. Only 25 were found to be contaminated with bacteria or fungi and unsuitable for further cultivation trials. A total of over 200 cell populations were isolated, characterized and cryopreserved for further study. Included were kidney, lung, liver and epidermal epithelia: cartilage-derived cells from the spine and epiphyses plus myogenic myoblasts. Selected lines have been immortalized using HPV I 6E6/E7 sequences. Epithelia from the liver and pancreas and cardiac myocytes were the most problematic in that initial

  20. Evolution of social learning does not explain the origin of human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2007-05-07

    Because culture requires transmission of information between individuals, thinking about the origin of culture has mainly focused on the genetic evolution of abilities for social learning. Current theory considers how social learning affects the adaptiveness of a single cultural trait, yet human culture consists of the accumulation of very many traits. Here we introduce a new modeling strategy that tracks the adaptive value of many cultural traits, showing that genetic evolution favors only limited social learning owing to the accumulation of maladaptive as well as adaptive culture. We further show that culture can be adaptive, and refined social learning can evolve, if individuals can identify and discard maladaptive culture. This suggests that the evolution of such "adaptive filtering" mechanisms may have been crucial for the birth of human culture.

  1. Cells in human postmortem brain tissue slices remain alive for several weeks in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Hermens, Wim T. J. M. C.; Dijkhuizen, PaulaA; ter Brake, Olivier; Baker, Robert E.; Salehi, Ahmad; Sluiter, Arja A.; Kok, Marloes J. M.; Muller, Linda J.; Verhaagen, Joost; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for human neurological and psychiatric diseases only partially mimic the underlying pathogenic processes. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of cultured postmortem brain tissue from adult neurological patients and controls. The present study shows that human brain tissue

  2. Integrating Chinese and African Culture into Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally recognized that culturally insensitive attitudes and behaviours stemming from ... when they integrate Chinese and African cultures in managing HR activities like hiring, promoting, ... Key Words: China, Africa, Culture, Investment, job satisfaction, performance, value orientations ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Cultural Adventures for the Google[TM] Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Google Earth is a computer program that allows users to view the Earth through satellite imagery and maps, to see cities from above and through street views, and to search for addresses and browse locations. Many famous buildings and structures from around the world have detailed 3D views accessible on Google Earth. It is possible to explore the…

  4. Matołek Broda. Creative and publishing adventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Staroń

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to the creative process and the editorial fate of The Adventures of Matołek the Billy-Goat by Kornel Makuszyński. It contains collected informations on the appearance of an idea for a book-comic for children (as told by Makuszyński’s wife – Janina, Marian Walentynowicz, Jan Gebethner, through the actual process of writing, the first edition and post-war issue. Also it discusses drawings from The 120 adventures of Matołek the Billy-Goat which sometimes differ quite significantly depending on the edition.

  5. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  6. David Bowie’s Influence on JoJo’s Bizarre Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco-Alessio Ursini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the influence of David Bowie’s work in JoJo’s Bizarre Adventure, a manga known for its wealth of references to western popular culture. It is argued that David Bowie’s cultural reception can be attested via the presence of three narrative themes featuring in this manga series. The first theme is the exploration of diverse genres and an innovative, genre-defying attitude. The second theme is the use of avant-garde, flamboyant and gender-ambiguous aesthetics for its fictional characters. The third theme is a self-reflexive approach to the creation of fictional characters, intended as an awareness of the temporary, transient nature of their role as reluctant heroes in their own stories.

  7. Repair replication in cultured normal and transformed human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Repair replication in response to ultraviolet irradiation has been studied in normal human diploid fibroblast cultures, W138, and an SV40 transformant, VA13. Quantitative comparisons have been made using the combined isotopic and density labelling method for assaying repair replication. No significant difference was found in the amount of repair replication performed, its dose response, or the time course between growing and confluent W138 cells, early passage and senescent cells, or normal W138 cells and the transformed VA13 cells. When [ 3 H]dThd was employed as the isotopic label in the presence of a 30-200 fold excess of unlabelled BrdUrd apparent differences in repair replication were seen between W138 cells shortly after subcultivation and cells which had been allowed to reach confluence. These differences were the same over a wide dose range and regardless of the passage number of the cells, but could be influenced by using different serum lots. The differences were not seen, however, when [ 3 H]BrdUrd provided the isotopic label; thus they reflect either impurities in the [ 3 H]dThd or a slight discrimination by some cellular process

  8. Kinetics of growth and differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the interrelationship between replication and differentiation in cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. Measures of both parameters were made using newly developed methods to quantify the rate at which keratinocytes replicate and the rate at which they withdraw from the cell cycle. Keratinocyte replication was measured by determining the cell doubling time, labeling index, and cell cycle duration. Cell cycle length was measured using a double label assay that determines the length of time between two successive phases of DNA synthesis. The first DNA synthesis phase was marked by labeling keratinocytes with 14 C-thymidine. At the next round of DNA synthesis, cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a heavy analog of thymidine. The cell cycle length is given by the time required for the 14 C-labeled DNA to become double labeled. To measure keratinocyte differentiation, the rate at which cells withdraw from the cell cycle was determined. To measure withdrawal, the percentage of cells labeled by a pulse of 14 C-thymidine that failed to undergo a second cycle of DNA synthesis, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was determined. Cells which failed to undergo a second cycle of synthesis were considered to have differentiated and withdrawn from the cell cycle

  9. The Paradox of Freedom: John Dewey on Human Nature, Culture, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Cherilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that John Dewey's view of human nature entails that culture is a necessary but not sufficient condition for freedom. A surprising corollary of this argument is that, if left to run its natural course, culture in fact tends not to enable but rather to preclude freedom. Hence, there are specific cultural practices--habits…

  10. Schools as Travel Agencies: Helping People to Move Up, Down, and Sideways Through Human Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lee F.

    The three major objectives of intercultural education are to help people effectively manage encounters among culturally different individuals, competently move in and out of culturally diverse settings, and skillfully utilize resources of human culture in creating new settings. At present, schools and the social studies profession are not…

  11. The genotoxicity of sodium arsenite in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhabit, O.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and in combination with x-irradiation on whole blood culture and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 hr whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocytes culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with SA. The results suggest that SA also is mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect any suspected mutagen. Using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  12. Human keratinocyte sensitivity towards inflammatory cytokines varies with culture time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elliott

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating keratinocyte cultures have been reported to synthesize higher concentrations of prostaglandin (PG E than confluent ones. As interleukin-1 (IL-1 stimulates keratinocyte PGE synthesis we investigated whether the degree of confluency of the keratinocyte culture modified the response of the cells to IL-1. It was found that IL-1α (100 U/ml stimulated PGE2 synthesis by proliferating (7 days in culture but not differentiating (14 days in culture keratinocytes. Similar effects were observed using tumour necrosis factor-α. Both arachidonic acid (AA and the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated PGE2 synthesis by 7 and 14 day cultures although the increase was greatest when 7 day cultures were used. Our data indicate that there is a specific down-regulation of the mechanism(s by which some inflammatory cytokines stimulate keratinocyte eicosanoid synthesis as cultured keratinocytes begin to differentiate.

  13. The Digital Future of Humanities through the Lens of DIY Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks the question: Do the humanities by necessity have a digital future? It argues that the answer to this question is both yes and no. The argument looks through the lens of DIY culture as an attempt to try and understand the future for the humanities in terms of both cultural material...... and processes. The argument is made first by examining the case of information sharing within DIY culture as an expression of current day cultural material. Secondly, it illustrated how traditional humanities scholarship, such as reading ancient documents, compares to it’s DIY equivalent within family history...

  14. From risky behaviour to sexy adventures: reconceptualising young people's online sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naezer, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses. In this paper, which is based on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in The Netherlands, I argue that we need a reconceptualisation not only of youth, but also of their sexual practices, especially their online sexual practices. Mobilising an interdisciplinary interaction between critical socio-cultural studies of risk, feminist theory and adventure studies, I propose to reconceptualise these practices as 'adventures' rather than 'risky behaviour'. This opens up possibilities for a more reasoned analysis that acknowledges: (1) the distinction between risks and outcomes of an activity; (2) the constructive potential of risk; and (3) the subjective, dynamic character of risk and pleasure.

  15. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate conjugated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene into three major fractions: sulfate esters, glucuronides and glutathione conjugates. In cultured human colon, formation of sulfate esters and glutathione conjugates is the major conjugation pathway, while formation......-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were the major substrates for sulfotransferase in cultured human colon....

  16. Human osteoarthritic cartilage is synthetically more active but in culture less vital than normal cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; van Roy, H.; Wilbrink, B.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The proteoglycan turnover of human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage was compared to that of normal (N) cartilage. The cartilage was obtained postmortem from human femoral knee condyles. Short term cultures were compared to longterm cultures, and proteoglycan synthesis rate, content and release

  17. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter…

  18. Significant profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different adventure activities/experiences evolve because individuals, their motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. This notion illustrates the broad nature of adventure tourism and its links with other forms of tourism. In turn, adventure tourism companies are compelled to promote/sell an array of activities/experiences to a diverse range of markets as novel and exclusive experiences to facilitate the growth of adventure holidays (Swarbrooke et al., 2003. To assist adventure tourism companies in achieving effective marketing strategies, the study’s objective is to identify significant sociopsychological profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa. Furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of adventure tourists’ profiles, an equal number of respondents were male (117 and female (117, which provided a 93.6% response rate. In comparison to female respondents, male respondents prefer winter as a season to participate in hard/high-risk adventure activities when they are with or without their family, and they participate in adventure activities for travelling and socialising purposes. Whereas, female respondents predominantly regard scuba-diving, abseiling, and helicopter flights as a hard/high-risk adventure activity, although these activities are generally regarded by the overall sample as being soft/low-risk adventure activities. Furthermore, even though females’ participation in adventure activities is sponsored, they did not participate or only participated in adventure activities once over the past year due to fear/risk and/or lack of skill. This study established that there is a need to further research adventure tourists’ profiles before it could be equally accepted and interpreted.

  19. The Genotoxicity of Sodium Arsenite in Human Lymphocyte Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Habit Ola, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of chromosome aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 h. Whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocyte culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in their first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with S A. The results suggest that S A is also mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect of any suspected mustagen using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  20. Cultural Evolutionary Perspectives on Creativity and Human Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Creanza, Nicole; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-12-01

    Cultural traits originate through creative or innovative processes, which might be crucial to understanding how culture evolves and accumulates. However, because of its complexity and apparent subjectivity, creativity has remained largely unexplored as the dynamic underpinning of cultural evolution. Here, we explore the approach to innovation commonly taken in theoretical studies of cultural evolution and discuss its limitations. Drawing insights from cognitive science, psychology, archeology, and even animal behavior, it is possible to generate a formal description of creativity and to incorporate a dynamic theory of creativity into models of cultural evolution. We discuss the implications of such models for our understanding of the archaeological record and the history of hominid culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selected aspects of organizational culture vs. formation of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    The awareness of employees in relation to organizational culture existing in a company and their knowledge in this subject - have a crucial meaning. In the face of intensity of transformations, constant searching for the best solutions which bring the organization closer to success seams necessary. The organizational culture can help employees among others to: engage in performance of tasks. Organizational culture helps to understand mission, strategy of the organization and assumptions carri...

  2. Growth of melanocytes in human epidermal cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Hefton, J.M.; Amadeo, C.; Pagan-Charry, I.; Madden, M.R.; Cardon-Cardo, C.

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal cell cultures were grown in keratinocyte-conditioned medium for use as burn wound grafts; the melanocyte composition of the grafts was studied under a variety of conditions. Melanocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry based on a monoclonal antibody (MEL-5) that has previously been shown to react specifically with melanocytes. During the first 7 days of growth in primary culture, the total number of melanocytes in the epidermal cultures decreased to 10% of the number present in normal skin. Beginning on day 2 of culture, bipolar melanocytes were present at a mean cell density of 116 +/- 2/mm2; the keratinocyte to melanocyte ratio was preserved during further primary culture and through three subpassages. Moreover, exposure of cultures to mild UVB irradiation stimulated the melanocytes to proliferate, suggesting that the melanocytes growing in culture maintained their responsiveness to external stimuli. When the sheets of cultured cells were enzymatically detached from the plastic culture flasks before grafting, melanocytes remained in the basal layer of cells as part of the graft applied to the patient

  3. AMPK regulation of the growth of cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Asish K.; Persons, Kelly; Safer, Joshua D.; Luo Zhijun; Holick, Michael F.; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2006-01-01

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensing enzyme that responds to cellular energy depletion by increasing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that require ATP but are not acutely necessary for survival. In the present study, we examined the relationship between AMPK activation and the growth (proliferation) of cultured human keratinocytes and assessed whether the inhibition of keratinocyte growth by vitamin D involves AMPK activation. In addition, we explored whether the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation as they approach confluence could be AMPK-related. Keratinocytes were incubated for 12 h with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). At concentrations of 10 -4 and 10 -3 M, AICAR inhibited keratinocyte growth by 50% and 95%, respectively, based on measurements of thymidine incorporation into DNA. It also increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (P-AMPK and P-ACC) and decreased the concentration of malonyl CoA confirming that AMPK activation had occurred. Incubation with the thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (10 -6 M) caused similar alterations in P-AMPK, P-ACC, and cell growth. In contrast, the well known inhibition of keratinocyte growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (10 -7 and 10 -6 M) was not associated with changes in P-AMPK or P-ACC. Like most cells, the growth of keratinocytes diminished as they approached confluence. Thus, it was of note that we found a progressive increase in P-AMPK (1.5- to 2-fold, p 3 is AMPK-independent

  4. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  5. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  6. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  7. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  8. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation: Camphor to Vitamin B12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 593-623 ... Keywords. Camphor; vitamin B12; art of creation.

  9. “Soldiers of paint”: Relationship between leisure adventure combat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adventure sports tourism has shown consistent growth during the last several decades as a leisure activity that stands as an antithesis of traditional leisure tourism. ... An exploratory factor analysis on the leisure aspects of paintball, positive sport lifestyle, leisure and recreation life domain positive/negative effect and quality ...

  10. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the…

  11. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  12. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  13. Cardiovascular disease in the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, S V

    2001-03-12

    The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle contains many incidents of medical interest. While disorders of the cardiovascular system do not play an important role in these tales, there are, nevertheless, some illnesses that invite speculation. Eleven such incidents are reviewed and discussed in light of the times in which they occurred and in light of current medical knowledge.

  14. Challenges in the delivery of adventure education: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This qualitative study explored the substantive issues and challenges faced by Physical Education teachers in delivering adventure education in the context of Botswana junior secondary schools. In the first stage of the study, 22 respondents completed a semi-structured questionnaire requesting information pertaining to the ...

  15. The effect of adventure-based experiential learning on personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Adventure-based Experiential Learning (AEL) in developing the personal effectiveness of adolescents. Twenty three adolescents, currently enrolled in a post-matriculation development centre were studied. The study consisted of an experimental (n=12) and ...

  16. The Writing Process for "Edutaining" CD-ROM Adventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Lee

    2000-01-01

    Describes a CD-ROM adventure story written by the author to educate her students about the word relationships of synonyms and antonyms. Discusses how this interactive medium put a different twist on each of the stages of the writing process itself. Relates how two students enthusiastically used the program, and were inspired to write one of their…

  17. An Environmental Scan of Adventure Therapy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Patrick, Krysten; Corbould, Gordon Marcus; Harper, Nevin J.; Oddson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmental scan (ES) of adventure therapy (AT) literature, organizations, and activities in Canada. The ES methodology involved (a) an examination of final reports related to a series of national symposiums on AT in Canada, (b) a review of academic literature related to AT in Canada, and (c) a summary of AT programs and courses…

  18. Evaluation of Team Development in a Corporate Adventure Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Jim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An intact work unit of 17 corporate managers participated in a 3-day adventure training program to develop teamwork and group unity. The unit improved significantly on 8 of 10 items of the Team Development Inventory, administered before and 2 months after training, relative to an intact control group. (SV)

  19. Locating opportunities for outdoor action and adventure recreation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper indicates how modern spatial computing technology can be used for developing spatial policy for, and planning of outdoor action and adventure recreation and tourism (OAART). An application was performed in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research overviews spatial recreation and tourism ...

  20. The Censorship of the "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn": An Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Michele V.

    1984-01-01

    Explores reasons why "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" has been continuously censored from its publication in 1885 to present. Historical precedents for censorship of library materials in the United States and specific censorship attempts are discussed. Controversial passages are examined in light of both praise and criticism.…

  1. Re-Examining Group Development in Adventure Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraaf, Don; Ashby, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Small-group development is an important aspect of adventure therapy. Supplementing knowledge of sequential stages of group development with knowledge concerning within-stage nonsequential development yields a richer understanding of groups. Integrating elements of the individual counseling relationship (working alliance, transference, and real…

  2. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  3. The Social System in Outdoor Adventure Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…

  4. Human cultures as niche constructions within the solar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    This commentary seeks to refine Kashima’s (2016) timely and topical but too-general call for embedding culture within the planetary ecosystem. My starting point is that cultures are to an underestimated extent ongoing niche constructions within the merry-go-round of the Sun’s radiation, the Earth’s

  5. Characterization of cryopreserved primary human corneal endothelial cells cultured in human serum-supplemented media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Monferrari Monteiro Vianna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare cryopreserved human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs grown in human serum-supplemented media (HS-SM with cryopreserved HCECs grown in fetal bovine serum-supplemented media (FBS-SM. Methods: Three pairs of human corneas from donors aged 8, 28, and 31 years were obtained from the eye bank. From each pair, one cornea was used to start a HCEC culture using HS-SM; the other cornea was grown in FBS-SM. On reaching confluence, the six cell populations were frozen using 10% dimethyl sulfoxidecontaining medium. Thawed cells grown in HS-SM were compared with those grown in FBS-SM with respect to morphology, growth curves, immunohistochemistry, real time-reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for endothelial cell markers, and detachment time. Results: No difference in morphology was observed for cells grown in the two media before or after cryopreservation. By growth curves, cell counts after thawing were similar in both media, with a slight trend toward higher cell counts in FBS-SM. Cells grown in both the media demonstrated a similar expression of endothelial cell markers when assessed by immunohistochemistry, although HCEC marker gene expression was higher in cells grown in HS-SM than in those grown in FBS-SM as assessed by RT-PCR. With FBS-SM, there was a tendency of longer detachment time and lower cell passages. Conclusions: HS-SM was similar to FBS-SM for cryopreservation of cultured HCECs as assessed by analysis of cell morphology, proliferation, and protein expression, although marker gene expression was higher in cells grown in HS-SM than in those grown in FBS-SM. Detachment time was longer with FBS-SM and in lower passages.

  6. Adventures in Evaluation: Reviewing a CD-ROM Based Adventure Game Designed for Young People Recovering from Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Bradley; Hurworth, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Recently the Centre for Program Evaluation (CPE) at the University of Melbourne was approached by a mental health agency to undertake the unique and challenging task of evaluating a prototype CD-ROM based adventure game designed for young people recovering from psychosis. This unusual and inventive game, titled Pogo's Pledge, used…

  7. Cultured rat and purified human Pneumocystis carinii stimulate intra- but not extracellular free radical production in human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Aliouat, E M; Lundgren, B

    1998-01-01

    The production of free radicals in human neutrophils was studied in both Pneumocystis carinii derived from cultures of L2 rat lung epithelial-like cells and Pneumocystis carinii purified from human lung. Using the cytochrome C technique, which selectively measured extracellular superoxide...... generation, hardly any free radical production was observed after stimulation with cultured rat-derived P. carinii. A chemiluminescence technique, which separately measured intra- and extracellular free radical production, was subsequently employed to differentiate the free radical generation....... It was established that 1) P. carinii stimulated intra- but not extracellular free radical production in human neutrophils, 2) opsonized cultured rat-derived P. carinii stimulated human neutrophils to a strong intracellular response of superoxide production, and 3) opsonized P. carinii, purified from human lung also...

  8. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures

  9. Composition of commercial media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Krisher, Rebecca L; Herrick, Jason R; Baumann, Nikola A; Matern, Dietrich; Moyer, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    To determine the composition of commercially available culture media and test whether differences in composition are biologically relevant in a murine model. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Cryopreserved hybrid mouse one-cell embryos were used in experiments. Amino acid, organic acid, ions, and metal content were determined for two different lots of media from Cook, In Vitro Care, Origio, Sage, Vitrolife, Irvine CSC, and Global. To determine whether differences in the composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were thawed and cultured for 120 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in the presence or absence of protein in an EmbryoScope time-lapse incubator. The compositions of seven culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 39 individual amino acids, organic acids, ions, and elements. Blastocyst rates and cell cycle timings were calculated at 96 hours of culture, and the experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the 39 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium were present in variable concentrations, likely reflecting differences in the interpretation of animal studies. Essential trace elements, such as copper and zinc, were not detected. Mouse embryos failed to develop in one culture medium and were differentially affected by oxygen in two other media. Culture media composition varies widely, with differences in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids especially notable. Blastocyst development was culture media dependent and showed an interaction with oxygen concentration and presence of protein. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  11. Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962): A pioneer in human brain tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2018-05-16

    The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. Research with the developmental biologist Theodor Boveri (1862-1915) in Würzburg, Germany, resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Hogue transitioned from studying protozoa to the culture of human brain tissue in the 1940s and 1950s, when she was one of the first to culture cells from human fetal, infant, and adult brain explants. We review Hogue's pioneering contributions to the study of human brain cells in culture, her putative identification of progenitor neuroblast and/or glioblast cells, and her use of the cultures to study the cytopathogenic effects of poliovirus. We also put Hogue's work in perspective by discussing how other women pioneers in tissue culture influenced Hogue and her research.

  12. INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN BEING AND URBAN CULTURE SPACE: ONE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.

  13. How safe is adventure tourism in New Zealand? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, T; Page, S; Meyer, D; Chalmers, D; Laird, I

    2001-08-01

    The paper reports findings from a multidisciplinary programme of research, the major aims of which were to determine the nature and extent of the New Zealand adventure tourism injury problem. Analysis of hospital discharge and mortality data for a 15-year period identified adventure tourism-related activities as contributing to approximately 20% of overseas visitor injuries, and 22% of fatalities. Activities that commonly involve independent-unguided adventure tourism, notably mountaineering, skiing and tramping, contributed most to injury and fatality incidence. Horse riding and cycling activities were identified from hospital discharge data and adventure tourism operators' reported client injury-incidence, as the commercial adventure tourism activities most frequently involved in client injuries. Falls were the most common injury events, and a range of client, equipment, environmental and organisational risk factors were identified. Possible interventions to reduce injury risk among overseas and domestic adventure tourists are discussed.

  14. Culture of human mesenchymal stem cells using a candidate pharmaceutical grade xeno-free cell culture supplement derived from industrial human plasma pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, José M; Bauman, Ewa; Gajardo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Juan I

    2015-03-13

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is an animal product used as a medium supplement. The animal origin of FBS is a concern if cultured stem cells are to be utilized for human cell therapy. Therefore, a substitute for FBS is desirable. In this study, an industrial, xeno-free, pharmaceutical-grade supplement for cell culture (SCC) under development at Grifols was tested for growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), cell characterization, and differentiation capacity. SCC is a freeze-dried product obtained through cold-ethanol fractionation of industrial human plasma pools from healthy donors. Bone marrow-derived hMSC cell lines were obtained from two commercial suppliers. Cell growth was evaluated by culturing hMSCs with commercial media or media supplemented with SCC or FBS. Cell viability and cell yield were assessed with an automated cell counter. Cell surface markers were studied by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cells were cultured then differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, as assessed by specific staining and microscopy observation. SCC supported the growth of commercial hMSCs. Starting from the same number of seeded cells in two consecutive passages of culture with medium supplemented with SCC, hMSC yield and cell population doubling time were equivalent to the values obtained with the commercial medium and was consistent among lots. The viability of hMSCs was higher than 90%, while maintaining the characteristic phenotype of undifferentiated hMSCs (positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD146, CD166 and Stro-1; negative for CD14 and CD19). Cultured hMSCs maintained the potential for differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons. The tested human plasma-derived SCC sustains the adequate growth of hMSCs, while preserving their differentiation capacity. SCC can be a potential candidate for cell culture supplement in advanced cell therapies.

  15. Psychosocial and Cultural Modeling in Human Computation Systems: A Gamification Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Haack, Jereme N.; Butner, R. Scott

    2013-11-20

    “Gamification”, the application of gameplay to real-world problems, enables the development of human computation systems that support decision-making through the integration of social and machine intelligence. One of gamification’s major benefits includes the creation of a problem solving environment where the influence of cognitive and cultural biases on human judgment can be curtailed through collaborative and competitive reasoning. By reducing biases on human judgment, gamification allows human computation systems to exploit human creativity relatively unhindered by human error. Operationally, gamification uses simulation to harvest human behavioral data that provide valuable insights for the solution of real-world problems.

  16. INPO Perspectives and Activities to Enhance Supplier Human Performance and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Within their own organizations, utilities have made significant improvements in human performance and safety culture, supported by a strong community of practice through INPO and WANO. In recent years, utilities have been making increasing use of suppliers for design, construction, inspection and maintenance services in support of their NPPs. Many of these suppliers do not have the benefit of being members of a community of practice when it comes to human performance and safety culture. To help the supplier community make improvements similar to what the utilities have achieved, INPO has recently expanded its Supplier Participant program to address the issue of human performance and safety culture in the supplier community. The intent of this paper will be to share the INPO’s perspectives and activities in helping suppliers of services and products to NPPs enhance their human performance and safety culture. (author)

  17. Metabolism of dimethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in cultured human bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Curtis C.; Autrup, Herman; Stoner, Gary D.

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic activation of several chemical classes of procarcinogens is being studied in cultured human bronchi. Previous studies have shown that carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are metabolically activated by the bronchial epithelium. In the study reported here, dimethylnitrosami...

  18. A rapid radioassay for human IgG produced in lymphocyte in vitro culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, D.R.; Shale, D.J.; Tomlinson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus was used to develop a solid-phase radioassay for IgG immunoglobulins. The assay was specifically optimised for use in vitro human lymphocyte culture work. Compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG produced in lymphocyte culture, this assay had a similar performance profile and the advantages of rapidity and technical ease. (Auth.)

  19. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with various pore sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lea; Bünger, Cody; Baatrup, Anette

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to obtain a clinically relevant substitute size using a direct perfusion culture system. Human bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with 200 μm or 500 μm pores, and resulting constructs were cultured in a perfusion bioreactor or in static...

  20. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a molecular signature for enriched adult human stem/progenitor spermatogonia during short-term (<2 weeks and long-term culture (up to more than 14 months in comparison to human testicular fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells. Human spermatogonia were isolated by CD49f magnetic activated cell sorting and collagen−/laminin+ matrix binding from primary testis cultures obtained from ten adult men. For transcriptomic analysis, single spermatogonia-like cells were collected based on their morphology and dimensions using a micromanipulation system from the enriched germ cell cultures. Immunocytochemical, RT-PCR and microarray analyses revealed that the analyzed populations of cells were distinct at the molecular level. The germ- and pluripotency-associated genes and genes of differentiation/spermatogenesis pathway were highly expressed in enriched short-term cultured spermatogonia. After long-term culture, a proportion of cells retained and aggravated the “spermatogonial” gene expression profile with the expression of germ and pluripotency-associated genes, while in the majority of long-term cultured cells this molecular profile, typical for the differentiation pathway, was reduced and more genes related to the extracellular matrix production and attachment were expressed. The approach we provide here to study the molecular status of in vitro cultured spermatogonia may be important to optimize the culture conditions and to evaluate the germ cell plasticity in the future.

  1. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  2. The Oblique Art of Shoes: Popular Culture, Aesthetic Pleasure, and the Humanities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses popular culture and the humanities. It uses shoes as an object of analysis to interrogate the place and function of aesthetic pleasure in critical thinking and cultural practice in the age of globalization and the neoliberal university. Tracking contemporary articulations of

  3. Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform SocialConstructionis Social constructionism is a school of thought Peter L...HUMAN, SOCIAL , CULTURAL BEHAVIOR (HSCB) MODELING WORKSHOP I: CHARACTERIZING THE CAPABILITY NEEDS FOR HSCB MODELING FINAL REPORT... Social , Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. EXPLANTATION OF MESANGIAL CELL HILLOCKS - A METHOD FOR OBTAINING HUMAN MESANGIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, EW; KIM, Y; MICHAEL, AF; VERNIER, RL; VANDERHEM, GK; VANDERWOUDE, FJ

    A simple method is presented for selective cell culture of human mesangial cells using explanatation of mesangial cell hillocks. Glomeruli which had been incubated with collagenase were explanted on plastic tissue culture flasks. Three to 6 weeks after explantation, a rapidly growing multilayer of

  5. Primary culture of human Schwann and schwannoma cells: improved and simplified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilwali, Sonam; Patel, Pratik B; Roberts, Daniel S; Basinsky, Gina M; Harris, Gordon J; Emerick, Kevin S; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2014-09-01

    Primary culture of human Schwann cells (SCs) and vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells are invaluable tools to investigate SC physiology and VS pathobiology, and to devise effective pharmacotherapies against VS, which are sorely needed. However, existing culture protocols, in aiming to create robust, pure cultures, employ methods that can lead to loss of biological characteristics of the original cells, potentially resulting in misleading biological findings. We have developed a minimally manipulative method to culture primary human SC and VS cells, without the use of selective mitogens, toxins, or time-consuming and potentially transformative laboratory techniques. Schwann cell purity was quantified longitudinally using S100 staining in SC cultures derived from the great auricular nerve and VS cultures followed for 7 and 12 weeks, respectively. SC cultures retained approximately ≥85% purity for 2 weeks. VS cultures retained approximately ≥80% purity for the majority of the span of 12 weeks, with maximal purity of 87% at 2 weeks. The VS cultures showed high level of biological similarity (68% on average) to their respective parent tumors, as assessed using a protein array featuring 41 growth factors and receptors. Apoptosis rate in vitro negatively correlated with tumor volume. Our results, obtained using a faster, simplified culturing method than previously utilized, indicate that highly pure, primary human SC and VS cultures can be established with minimal manipulation, reaching maximal purity at 2 weeks of culture. The VS cultures recapitulate the parent tumors' biology to a great degree, making them relevant models to investigate VS pathobiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithelial cells, while endothelin-3 was added to stimulate their growth. By adding endothelin-3, the achievement ratio (viable cell cultures/total cultures was enhanced to 60% of a total of 10 cultures (initiated from 8 distinct fetal small intestines, allowing the generation of viable epithelial cell cultures. Western blot, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining showed that cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 had high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated markers such as sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV also showed high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells, with the expression of surface markers (cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 and secretion of cytokines (sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, may be cultured by the thermolysin and endothelin-3 method and maintained for at least 20 passages. This is relatively simple, requiring no sophisticated techniques or instruments, and may have a number of varied applications.

  7. Pathogen prevalence predicts human cross-cultural variability in individualism/collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy; Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic diseases impose selection pressures on the social behaviour of host populations. In humans (Homo sapiens), many psychological phenomena appear to serve an antipathogen defence function. One broad implication is the existence of cross-cultural differences in human cognition and behaviour contingent upon the relative presence of pathogens in the local ecology. We focus specifically on one fundamental cultural variable: differences in individualistic versus collectivist values. We sug...

  8. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z.; Zhang, P.; Zhou, Y.; Qin, H.; Shen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithel...

  9. Ramogi Dance and Luo Cultural Values | Odwar | Humanities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically the study describes the dance performance with a view to analyze the dance vocabulary so as to provide an interpretation of how the dance movements enact the Luo cultural values. This study is based on personal interview with two Ramogi performers and my observation of the dance performance during ...

  10. Humanism of the Nigerian womanist: a cultural appraisal of Femi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution of global societies in this age is taking alarmingly negative turns that seem to be catapulting the world into inevitable self-destruction. The incessant violence, terror, horror, disease and deprivation that have enveloped most societies in the world bear testimony to that. Within the Cultural context of the Nigerian ...

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in cultured human epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, F N; Meierink, Y J; Blaauboer, B J; Weterings, P J

    1990-12-01

    We used specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes to determine the presence of these proteins in human epidermal cells. Two MAb (P450-5 and P450-8) recognize major forms of hepatic cytochrome P450 involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics. A third MAb, to cytochrome P450-9, is not fully characterized. The proteins were determined by the indirect immunoperoxidase technique after fixation with methanol and acetone. Biopsy materials for cultured keratinocytes, i.e., foreskin and hair follicles, contained the two major forms of cytochrome P450. In cultured keratinocytes derived from hair follicles the proteins were undetectable, whereas the keratinocytes derived from foreskin continued to express the two major forms of hepatic cytochrome P450. Cultured human fibroblasts and a human keratinocyte cell line (SVK14) showed staining similar to that of the foreskin keratinocytes. Cytochrome P450-9 was detectable only in human hepatocytes. The results indicate that, under the culture conditions applied, cultured human foreskin cells and the cell line SVK14 continue to express specific cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in culture, in contrast to hair follicle keratinocytes.

  12. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.

  13. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities. PMID:27559204

  14. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-06-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities.

  15. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Human Performance Technology Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.

    2010-01-01

    Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a field of practice that has evolved from advancements in organizational development, instructional design, strategic human resource management and cognitive psychology. As globalization and trends like outsourcing and off-shoring start to dominate the way organizations grow, HPT practitioners are managing the…

  16. Is ecotourism an alternative to adventure tourism in El Chaco?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polanco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El Chaco is one of the cantons has excelled in adventure tourism. However, since 2006 this activity has not broken and tourism has been separated from the local development. The objective of the present investigation is to find out the issues that affect the adventure tourism in El Chaco and to propose a new tourism product regarding the zone possibilities. In order to obtain the results, it has been developed a theoretical and methodological investigation focused in interviews and social cartography in Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda and in the cantonal head El Chaco. The main results denote the lack of organization, the high costs and the impacts generated by the construction of the Coca Codo Sinclair hydroelectric power plant. These results make visible the problems and support the suggestion of practicing ecotourism as a new choice of local development in the region.

  17. Mythic Frodo and his Predestinate Call to Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of J.R.R. Tolkien’s stories, especially The Lord of the Rings is the presentation of the multidimensional characters; therefore, the complexity of interpretations concerning their actions, motives, and aims will be manifested from the beginning of the story, until the end. Following the study of a mythic hero’s adventure, initiation, and psychological aspects, the present paper focuses on the investigation of Predestinate Call to Adventure. The researcher has benefited the theories of Joseph Campbell, presented in his renowned book The Hero with a Thousand Faces and the supplementary comments of Christopher Vogler. In fact, the researcher’s motivation for the work initiated in this regard is to improve the very few previous attempts studied by others, concerning Frodo Baggins’ role as the main and the most tragic hero of The Lord of the Rings.

  18. Split, Croatia - Educational, Adventurous and Sustainable Tourism Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Chabik, Szymon; Imran, Md. Azim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create an audio-visual documentation about an educational trip to Split, Croatia. The trip took place in April, 2014. The educational tour was organized by Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The destination, Split, were chosen by participants’ vote. The tour was arranged and planned by a group of students and the theme of the tour was Educational Tourism. The entire trip was taken into consideration from sustainable, Adventure and educational po...

  19. CREATING NEW MARKETING STRATEGY FOR CASE COMPANY ADVENTURE NET

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, Hristina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create new, more successful marketing strategy for case company Adventure Net through analyzing the current marketing strategy and market environment of the company. The tools included in the theoretical part were used to analyze the market environment and marketing strategy. The analyzing tools included were PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Ecologic, Legal) analysis, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats, Opportunities) analysis and com...

  20. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  1. Humane Orientation as a New Cultural Dimension of the GLOBE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlösser, Oliver; Frese, Michael; Heintze, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    We validate, extend, and empirically and theoretically criticize the cultural dimension of humane orientation of the project GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program). Theoretically, humane orientation is not just a one-dimensionally positive concept about...... study used student samples from 25 countries that were either high or low in humane orientation (N = 876) and studied their relation to the traditional GLOBE scale and other cultural-level measures (agreeableness, religiosity, authoritarianism, and welfare state score). Findings revealed a strong...... correlation between humane orientation and agreeableness, welfare state score, and religiosity. Out-group humane orientation proved to be the more relevant subfacet of the original humane orientation construct, suggesting that future research on humane orientation should make use of this measure instead...

  2. The Cultural Historical Complexity of Human Personality Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. Wynn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on implicit intelligence has conceptualized students’ beliefs about the nature of intelligence as either fixed or malleable. This research has largely not included African American adolescents, a group for whom beliefs about intelligence have a cultural historical complexity related to both scientific racism and master narratives of race and intelligence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of implicit theories of intelligence for 63 African American adolescents who are seventh and eighth graders in a public charter school. The two-way ANOVA revealed that these adolescents held a malleable view of intelligence, which did not vary by gender or grade. Exploratory correlation analysis showed some consistent relationships with achievement motivation variables found in other studies. These findings may be explained by African American cultural values and the personality characteristic adaptations that they make living within a racialized society.

  3. Immunoglobulin production in human mixed lymphocyte cultures: implications for co-cultures of cells from patients and healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruemke, H.C.; Terpstra, F.G.; Huis, B.; Out, T.A.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    When human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are cultured in the presence of irradiated allogeneic lymphocytes, the resulting mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) leads to the secretion into the supernatant of substantial amounts of IgM and IgG, derived from nonirradiated responder B lymphocytes. Our data indicate that stimulation to Ig production by responder B cells may result from different types of of interactions. First, B cells and monocytes among the irradiated stimulator cells activate T responder B cells to produce Ig; second, ''responder'' B cells activate irradiated ''stimulator'' T cells, leading to a ''helper'' signal, back to the responder B cells and leading to Ig production. The latter system is radiosensitive, because allogeneic T cells, irradiated at a dose of 4000 rad or more, failed to induce Ig production by responder B cells. In some combinations of human allogeneic lymphocytes, the co-culture of the cells leads to inhibition of Ig production, both in the presence and in the absence of PWM. Thus, co-culture of allogeneic cells may cause ''positive'' as well as ''negative'' allogeneic effects. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of co-cultures that are aimed at establishing defects in lymphocytes from patients with, for example, immunodeficiencies, who fail to produce Ig in the presence of PWM are discussed

  4. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  5. Serially cultured keratinocytes from human scalp hair follicles: a tool for cytogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Jansen, B A; Vermorken, A J

    1983-01-01

    Keratinocytes originating from adult human hair follicles, the most convenient biopsy tissue, can be serially cultured using a combination of two techniques. Primary cultures are established using plucked scalp hair follicles and the bovine eye lens capsule as a growth substrate. Subsequently, cells from these cultures are serially cultivated in the presence of irradiated 3T3 cells as feeders. By this combination of techniques many keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. These cultures, appropriately treated with colchicine, can provide an adequate number of metaphases suitable for chromosome studies.

  6. The influence of culture on human resource management processes and practices: The propositions for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to address the influence of national culture on HRM practices and processes in order to draw conclusions for Serbian HR practitioners, multinational corporations operating in Serbia, and any other country or organizational context that has similar cultural characteristics. To achieve this we first review the relevant literature to identify the interdependencies between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and HRM practices and processes. On the basis of recognized relationships we put forward 11 propositions about likely appropriate HRM practices (such as job analysis, recruitment and selection, human resource planning and career management for the Serbian cultural context, characterized by high Uncertainty Avoidance, high Power Distance, Collectivism and Femininity.

  7. Light microscope observation of circulating human lymphocytes cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the isolation and a light microscopy technique for cultured lymphocytes. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture with an anticoagulant added and centrifuged in a Percoll density gradient to separate the leukocytes. Lymphocytes were placed in 25 cm ³ tissue culture flasks at 37ºC. After culturing, they were fixed and stained with the methods used for blood smears. Results showed that not all fixing solutions and stains were an equally good choice for cultured lymphocytes.Os linfócitos são células importantes do sistema imune e têm sido largamente utilizados em estudos morfológicos. Entretanto, a literatura sobre técnicas de preparação dessas células é escassa e antiga, especialmente para linfócitos cultivados in vitro. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi relatar com detalhes as técnicas de isolamento e microscopia de luz de linfócitos mantidos em cultura. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas por punção venosa e centrifugadas em gradiente de densidade de Percoll, para separar os leucócitos. Os linfócitos foram mantidos em frascos de cultura de 25 cm³ a 37ºC. Após a cultura, as células foram fixadas e coradas de acordo com a metodologia utilizada para esfregaços sanguíneos. Nossos resultados mostraram que nem todos os fixadores e corantes utilizados para esfregaços sanguíneos são uma boa escolha para linfócitos cultivados in vitro.

  8. Culture conditions affect photoreactivating enzyme levels in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Oliver, R.

    1976-01-01

    Photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers occured under the experimental conditions given in this study, but has not been observed under conditions used by others. Three possible differences were tested in experimental procedures including dimer separation and analysis methods, illumination conditions and cell culture techniques. The methods in this study of dimer separation and analysis indeed measure cis-syn pyrimidine dimers and give results in quantitative agreement with the methods of others. It was found that white light pre-illumination of fibroblasts from the xeroderma pigmentosum line XP12BE or of normal cells does not affect the cellular capacity for dimer photoreactivation. However, the cell culture conditions can affect photoreactivating enzyme levels, and thus cellular dimer photoreactivation capacity. Cells grown in Eagle's minimal essential medium (supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum) contain very low levels of photoreactivating enzyme and cannot photoreactivate dimers in their DNA; but companion cultures maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal medium do contain photoreactivating enzyme and can reactivate photoreactive cellular dimers

  9. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  10. Biologic activities of recombinant human-beta-defensin-4 toward cultured human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, O L; Zhuravel, E V; Skachkova, O V; Khranovska, N N; Filonenko, V V; Pogrebnoy, P V; Soldatkina, M A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was in vitro analysis of biological activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-4 (rec-hBD-4). hBD-4 cDNA was cloned into pGEX-2T vector, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. To purify soluble fusion GST-hBD-4 protein, affinity chromatography was applied. Rec-hBD-4 was cleaved from the fusion protein with thrombin, and purified by reverse phase chromatography on Sep-Pack C18. Effects of rec-hBD-4 on proliferation, viability, cell cycle distribution, substrate-independent growth, and mobility of cultured human cancer cells of A431, A549, and TPC-1 lines were analyzed by direct cell counting technique, MTT assay, flow cytofluorometry, colony forming assay in semi-soft medium, and wound healing assay. Rec-hBD-4 was expressed in bacterial cells as GST-hBD-4 fusion protein, and purified by routine 3-step procedure (affine chromatography on glutathione-agarose, cleavage of fusion protein by thrombin, and reverse phase chromatography). Analysis of in vitro activity of rec-hBD-4 toward three human cancer cell lines has demonstrated that the defensin is capable to affect cell behaviour in concentration-dependent manner. In 1-100 nM concentrations rec-hBD-4 significantly stimulates cancer cell proliferation and viability, and promotes cell cycle progression through G2/M checkpoint, greatly enhances colony-forming activity and mobility of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 500 nM of rec-hBD-4 resulted in opposite effects: significant suppression of cell proliferation and viability, blockage of cell cycle in G1/S checkpoint, significant inhibition of cell migration and colony forming activity. Recombinant human beta-defensin-4 is biologically active peptide capable to cause oppositely directed effects toward biologic features of cancer cells in vitro dependent on its concentration.

  11. The impact of culture on human and space development—New millennial challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    The Space Age is causing new applications to the concept of culture, a human coping tool. The exploration and exploitation of outer space resources are altering human culture both on Earth and in orbit. For the first time in history, our species need not merely react and adapt to environment, but plan for a space culture appropriate for extraterrestrial migration. The impact of culture can be analyzed in terms of how space developments alter human perceptions and behavior on this planet; the emergence of a new culture to suit the orbital environment; the organizations that build spacecraft and deploy people aloft; and the technological systems created for spacefaring. This article presents a paradigm for analyzing some of the non-technical human factors involved in space undertakings. It also offers a method for classifying a culture according to ten categories which may be applied both to a macroculture, such as a lunar base; or a microculture, such as a space agency or crew. Human enterprise in space is viewed as both altering the species, and providing a challenge for expanded behavioral and biological scientific research on living and working in space.

  12. Further characterization of the adhesive-tumor-cell culture system for measuring the radiosensitivity of human tumor primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, W.A.; Bock, S.P.; Williams, M.; Baker, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study extends the use of the adhesive-tumor-cell culture system to include: over 100 sensitivity measurements at 2.0 Gy; tumorgenicity determinations in nude mice; and flow cytometry of the cells grown in the system. The malignant nature of the growing cells was proved by injecting cells into nude mice. Tumors resulted in 60% of the cases and the histology of each xenograft was similar to that of the human tumor. Flow cytometry was used to obtain DNA histograms of the original cell suspension and of cultures during the two week culture period in order to obtain quantitative information about the growth of aneuploid versus diploid populations. The results thus far demonstrate that 95% of aneuploid populations yield aneuploid growth; of the first 20 cases studied, only one suspension with an aneuploid peak resulted in diploid growth. Of further interest was the observation that it is not unusual for a minor aneuploid population to become the predominate growth fraction after two weeks in culture. These results demonstrate that the adhesive-tumor-cell culture system supports the growth of malignant cells, that multiple cell populations exist in cell suspensions derived from solid tumors, and that differences exist between the radiosensitivity of cells at 2.0 Gy in different histology types

  13. How social learning adds up to a culture: from birdsong to human public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Feher, Olga; Fimiarz, Daniel; Conley, Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Distributed social learning may occur at many temporal and spatial scales, but it rarely adds up to a stable culture. Cultures vary in stability and diversity (polymorphism), ranging from chaotic or drifting cultures, through cumulative polymorphic cultures, to stable monolithic cultures with high conformity levels. What features can sustain polymorphism, preventing cultures from collapsing into either chaotic or highly conforming states? We investigate this question by integrating studies across two quite separate disciplines: the emergence of song cultures in birds, and the spread of public opinion and social conventions in humans. In songbirds, the learning process has been studied in great detail, while in human studies the structure of social networks has been experimentally manipulated on large scales. In both cases, the manner in which communication signals are compressed and filtered - either during learning or while traveling through the social network - can affect culture polymorphism and stability. We suggest a simple mechanism of a shifting balance between converging and diverging social forces to explain these effects. Understanding social forces that shape cultural evolution might be useful for designing agile communication systems, which are stable and polymorphic enough to promote gradual changes in institutional behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  15. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Learning World Culture or Changing It? Human Rights Education and the Police in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how local law enforcers in India respond to NGO efforts to disseminate world culture through human rights education. Law enforcement officers do not merely decouple from human rights discourse by superficially endorsing it. They also go further than infusing rights with local meaning. Officers use the language and logic of…

  17. Exploring cultural factors in human-robot interaction : A matter of personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Astrid; Evers, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study to investigate task-dependence and cultural-background dependence of the personality trait attribution on humanoid robots. In Human-Robot Interaction, as well as in Human-Agent Interaction research, the attribution of personality traits towards intelligent

  18. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M. J.; Wong, K. M.; van Montfoort, A. P. A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation embryos than the culture medium or

  19. 77 FR 38374 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Human Beast: German...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7935] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Human Beast: German Expressionism at The San Diego Museum of Art'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Human Beast: German Expressionism at The San Diego Museum...

  20. Influence of socio-cultural modernization on development of human capital assets in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major points of research into socio-cultural conditions of human capital assets accumulation in Russia. Notion of social justice, social responsibility of business, realization of their role as “vehicle of capital” by employees, national mentality – all this essentially influences on efficiency of human capital assets accumulation in Russia.

  1. Experimental studies on the radiosensitizing agents against cultured human glioblastoma and human neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawatari, Yutaka

    1976-01-01

    The radiosensitivity increasing effect of bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BUdR) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), alone and in combination, was studied comparatively using tissue culture of brain tumor cells (No. 60 cells originating in human glioblastoma and N cells originating in human neurinoma) with colony formation and growth curve as the quantitative indices and the phase contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope for morphological observation. The inhibitive effect of BUdR on growth of the N cells was above 4μg/ml, while 3000μg/ml was required in the case of the No. 60 cells. This indicates that there is a large difference between the sensitivities of these two cell types against BUdR. Increased sensitivity can be anticipated by pretreatment of the No. 60 cells or the N cells with BUdR with a dose of no growth inhibition effect. N cells have a lower radiosensitivity than No. 60 cells; but when both cells are pretreated with BUdR, N cells have a higher radiosensitivity than No. 60 cells. This increasing radiosensitivity of the N cells, which is clinically benign, suggests the possibility of wider application for radiotherapy in the future. A dose of 2μg/ml of 5-FU alone showed no growth inhibiting effect on either the N cells or the No. 60 cells, but it intensified the effect of BUdR. Using a phase contrast microscope and a scanning electron microscope for morphological observation of the No. 60 cells and the N cells which had been exposed to BUdR+5-FU+X-ray, unique findings were observed on the surface structures of these two kinds of cells. (J.P.N.)

  2. Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems: selected aspects of a cross-cultural system engineering; Interkulturelle Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: ausgewaehlte Aspekte einer interkulturellen Systemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). AG Nutzergerechte Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems are one key factor for success in the global market era. Nowadays the machine producer have to offer their products worldwide. With the export to other nations they have to consider on the user behaviour in these other cultures. The analysis of cross-cultural user requirements and their integration into the product development process is a real chance to cape with these challenge. This paper describe two aspects of cross-cultural user aspects. It gives an impression of the complex and sometimes unknown cultural influencing factors and their impact on Human-Machine-System-Engineering. (orig.)

  3. Bringing Darwin into the social sciences and the humanities: cultural evolution and its philosophical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Denis, Gilles

    2018-04-10

    In the field of cultural evolution it is generally assumed that the study of culture and cultural change would benefit enormously from being informed by evolutionary thinking. Recently, however, there has been much debate about what this "being informed" means. According to the standard view, an interesting analogy obtains between cultural and biological evolution. In the literature, however, the analogy is interpreted and used in at least three distinct, but interrelated ways. We provide a taxonomy in order to clarify these different meanings. Subsequently, we discuss the alternatives model of cultural attraction theory and memetics, which both challenge basic assumptions of the standard view. Finally, we briefly summarize the contributions to the special issue on Darwin in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, which is the result of a collaborative project between scholars and scientists from the universities of Lille and Ghent. Furthermore, we explain how they add to the discussions about the integration of evolutionary thinking and the study of culture.

  4. Clonal proliferation of cultured nonmalignant and malignant human breast epithelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.S.; Lan, S.; Ceriani, R.; Hackett, A.J.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have developed a method for clonal growth of human mammary epithelial cells of both nonmalignant and malignant origin. Plating efficiencies of 1 to 50% were obtained by seeding second-passage mammary epithelial cells on fibroblast feeder layers in an enriched medium composed of various hormones and growth factors, as well as conditioned media from three specific human cell lines. Single mammary epithelial cells seeded sparsely onto the fibroblasts underwent at least eight population doublings to form large, readily visible colonies. Optimal colony formation required both feeder cells and the enriched medium. Epithelial colonies containing at least 16 cells were visible 5 days postseeding, and these colonies continued to grow progressively. Plating efficiency and colony size were similar on ultraviolet-irradiated or nonirradiated fibroblasts. The number of colonies formed was proportional to the number of epithelial cells plated. The colonies were identified as epithelial by the presence of human mammary epithelial antigens

  5. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Call, Josep; Hernàndez-Lloreda, Maráa Victoria; Hare, Brian; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-09-07

    Humans have many cognitive skills not possessed by their nearest primate relatives. The cultural intelligence hypothesis argues that this is mainly due to a species-specific set of social-cognitive skills, emerging early in ontogeny, for participating and exchanging knowledge in cultural groups. We tested this hypothesis by giving a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests to large numbers of two of humans' closest primate relatives, chimpanzees and orangutans, as well as to 2.5-year-old human children before literacy and schooling. Supporting the cultural intelligence hypothesis and contradicting the hypothesis that humans simply have more "general intelligence," we found that the children and chimpanzees had very similar cognitive skills for dealing with the physical world but that the children had more sophisticated cognitive skills than either of the ape species for dealing with the social world.

  6. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, COGNITION AND SCHOOL EDUCATION: REFLECTIONS BELOW THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Alves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This text is fruit of studies, reflections and dialogues developed with graduate and post-graduate students inteaching and research coordinated by me, allocated in the research group: Human Development, Culture and Education, in rows : Language, Learning and Development and Imaginary Production and Creative Education. Over several years, the task of educational coordinating processes of teaching and research, allowed the construction of synthesis (always provisional, presented here. Having as a foundation the historic-cultural theory of Vygotsky and collaborators, the text reflects about human development, cognition and school education, pursuing the thesis that cognition is human development. To do this, search, in theoretical foundations of historical-cultural conception, the key elements that explain the process by which the biological becomes socio-historical, it takes up more carefully in the explicit about Vygotsky translates as plans or genetic fields of human development, increase the reflection articulating the categories: labor and language.

  7. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have accumulated more experimental evidences that demonstrated the comparative approaches with human cells will allow us to predict human risk with good accuracy following exposure to toxic chemicals. We also synthesized several carcinogenic DNA adducts, i.e., the major benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct, 0 6 -methyldeoxyguanosine, 7-methyl- deoxyguanosine and 2-methyl-deoxyguanosine to be used as standards for quantitating DNA adduct formation in carcinogen exposed cells. A simple synthetic method was developed for preparation of the major B[a]p DNA adduct with yields better than those reported. The main accomplishments related to the originally stated objectives are summarized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. An International Polar Year Adventure in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2008-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The program's student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of biochemistry, math, business, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 26 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of RAHI's alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 245 have earned a bachelor's degree, thirty-one have earned master's degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Pharm., or M.D.), along with 156 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelor's degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural

  9. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, A.

    2008-12-01

    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they

  10. Human rights values or cultural values? Pursuing values to maintain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international ...

  11. Why only humans shed emotional tears : Evolutionary and cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; Bylsma, L.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the

  12. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  13. Long-term culture and expansion of primary human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, G.; Bomze, D.; Heinz, S.; Ramachandran, S.D.; Noerenberg, A.; Cohen, M.; Shibolet, O.; Sklan, E.; Braspenning, J.C.; Nahmias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes have a critical role in metabolism, but their study is limited by the inability to expand primary hepatocytes in vitro while maintaining proliferative capacity and metabolic function. Here we describe the oncostatin M (OSM)-dependent expansion of primary human hepatocytes by low

  14. Human ecology and environmentalism: Two different approaches to the relationships ecosystem/culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Sicard, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the human ecology focus versus the environmental dimension analysis, emphasizing that the first one does not have theoretical instruments to adequately consider the human action inside the ecosystems, while the second one considers the concept of culture as an explanation of the human niche and then of the environmental problem. It ends with thoughts about the environmental or ecologist conception that is discussed in the Colombian peace negotiations

  15. The Driving Forces of Cultural Complexity : Neanderthals, Modern Humans, and the Question of Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity. Here we use both an analytical model and an agent-based simulation model to show that a full understanding of the emergence of behavioral modernity, and the cultural evolution that has followed, depends on understanding and untangling the complex relationships among culture, genetically determined cognitive ability, and demographic history. For example, we show that a small but growing population could have a different number of cultural traits from a shrinking population with the same absolute number of individuals in some circumstances.

  16. Differences in the characteristics of cell cultures established from seven human osteosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Mackevicius, F.

    1975-01-01

    Cell cultures derived from seven human osteosarcomas have been characterized with respect to their pattern of growth and cell morphology using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Other characteristics studied included growth rates, chromosomal abnormalities, and ability to grow in low serum concentrations and on a semisolid substrate. Normal human fibroblasts in culture have also been examined by the same methods. The results show many differences both between individual osteosarcoma cultures and normal fibroblasts. Two of the osteosarcoma cultures were epithelium-like, and five had a more fibroblastic appearance when viewed by the light microscope. Examination by electron microscopy showed a wide variety of cells in each culture. Many of the features exhibited in the fibroblast-like tumor cells were different from those seen with the normal fibroblast cultures. Growth rates differed widely with characteristic doubling times varying between 1 and 7 days from the osteosarcoma cultures, compared to 3 to 4 days for normal fibroblasts. Unlike normal mouse fibroblasts, which grow poorly or not at all in low serum concentrations, the normal human fibroblasts tested grew almost as well in media with 1 percent serum as with 15 percent serum

  17. Hairy-root organ cultures for the production of human acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Tsafrir S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cholinesterases can be used as a bioscavenger of organophosphate toxins used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The practicality of this approach depends on the availability of the human enzymes, but because of inherent supply and regulatory constraints, a suitable production system is yet to be identified. Results As a promising alternative, we report the creation of "hairy root" organ cultures derived via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation from human acetylcholinesterase-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Acetylcholinesterase-expressing hairy root cultures had a slower growth rate, reached to the stationary phase faster and grew to lower maximal densities as compared to wild type control cultures. Acetylcholinesterase accumulated to levels of up to 3.3% of total soluble protein, ~3 fold higher than the expression level observed in the parental plant. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Enzymatic properties were nearly identical to those of the transgenic plant-derived enzyme as well as to those of mammalian cell culture derived enzyme. Pharmacokinetic properties of the hairy-root culture derived enzyme demonstrated a biphasic clearing profile. We demonstrate that master banking of plant material is possible by storage at 4°C for up to 5 months. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of using plant organ cultures as a successful alternative to traditional transgenic plant and mammalian cell culture technologies.

  18. Arabian, Asian, western: a cross-cultural comparison of aircraft accidents from human factor perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wardi, Yousuf

    2017-09-01

    Rates of aviation accident differ in different regions; and national culture has been implicated as a factor. This invites a discussion about the role of national culture in aviation accidents. This study makes a cross-cultural comparison between Oman, Taiwan and the USA. A cross-cultural comparison was acquired using data from three studies, including this study, by applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. The Taiwan study presented 523 mishaps with 1762 occurrences of human error obtained from the Republic of China Air Force. The study from the USA carried out for commercial aviation had 119 accidents with 245 instances of human error. This study carried out in Oman had a total of 40 aircraft accidents with 129 incidences. Variations were found between Oman, Taiwan and the USA at the levels of organisational influence and unsafe supervision. Seven HFACS categories showed significant differences between the three countries (p culture can have an impact on aviation safety. This study revealed that national culture plays a role in aircraft accidents related to human factors that cannot be disregarded.

  19. Corporate Culture in Developing Professionalism of Human Resources in LEMHANNAS RI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Theresia Ekowati Purwaning Utami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study by Lemhannas RI, this work attempts to discuss the relation of professionalism of human resources and corporate culture. The change and growth of corporate culture in an organization requires strong commitment from those involved in it. Corporate culture should be continually developed through a persistent socialization, partnership and supervision programs. The right management of human resources, which follows the basis of management, will give a great contribution when applied well. In addition, policy evaluation on corporate culture should include structural and cultural aspects and be conducted in several steps, including identification of goals and ways of completing them, measurement of relevant information activities, analysis of data for a conclusion and recommendation. The recommendation is a crucial step that needs a special attention for the restructurization of culture for better results. This study concludes that interaction between structure and culture is a key and pre-condition for the growth of a better and conducive corporate culture for accomplishing the goals of organization.

  20. The Meaning Associated with the Experience of a Sea Kayaking Adventure among Adults with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Eagan

    2004-01-01

    What is the meaning associated with participation in an outdoor adventure for a person with a disability? A number of studies have investigated the topic of adventure program outcomes for people with and without disabilities. The author located two studies about kayaking with individuals with disabilities: 1) Siegel Taylor and Evans McGruder (1995) found “subjects...

  1. Adventure Counseling as an Adjunct to Group Counseling in Hospital and Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.; Balkin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Adventure counseling has been thought of as a highly specialized application of group counseling skills in a wilderness environment. In fact, adventure counseling is based on a developmental theory of group, can be useful for a variety of clients, and can be thoughtfully integrated into clinical and hospital settings. This article describes the…

  2. Outdoor Education Opportunities for Middle School Students: Academic and Social Impacts of Adventure Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines components of outdoor adventure programs for middle school students, using a school with a successful program as a model. Outdoor education is often left out of these years for financial and safety reasons, however the benefits of adventure programs are both measurable and profound to self-concept, confidence, identity growth,…

  3. Effects of a Developmental Adventure on the Self-Esteem of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Linda; Brassard, Audrey; Guérin, Audrey; Fortin-Chevalier, Justine; Tanguay-Beaudoin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of outdoor developmental adventure programming (ODA) on college students' self-esteem. Although some previous studies have shown that outdoor adventure programming has positive effects on self-esteem, others did not find any effect. A quasi-experimental study was conducted over 5 months, which included two pretests…

  4. Connecting to the Good Life through Outdoor Adventure Leadership Experiences Designed for Indigenous Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Wabano, Mary Jo; Corbiere, Rita G.; Restoule, Brenda M.; Russell, Keith C.; Young, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous voices are largely silent in the outdoor education and adventure therapy literature. The purpose of this research collaboration was to understand how a 10-day outdoor adventure leadership experience (OALE) may promote resilience and well-being for Indigenous youth through their participation in the program. The process was examined…

  5. Constructing Self Awareness Using Education Human Value In School Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wija Astawa Dewa Nyoman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The big number of poverty in Indonesia impact to the hope of having a free learning service, especially education for early age and elementary school students from the less fortunate families. Many people usually ask the quality of such kinds of free of charge schools. The low price makes a low standard for the students. Sathya Sai School in Denpasar has proven that the free learning service does not mean the standard quality of the school is low. This study will explain how the teachers and the members of the foundation build the awareness of the students and parents by socializing and internalizing the value that empower their collective awareness to help the school achievement. By using local cultural approach, the school builds a program that involves the parents especially the woman.

  6. Generation of Genetically Modified Organotypic Skin Cultures Using Devitalized Human Dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingting; Sen, George L

    2015-12-14

    Organotypic cultures allow the reconstitution of a 3D environment critical for cell-cell contact and cell-matrix interactions which mimics the function and physiology of their in vivo tissue counterparts. This is exemplified by organotypic skin cultures which faithfully recapitulates the epidermal differentiation and stratification program. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes are genetically manipulable through retroviruses where genes can be easily overexpressed or knocked down. These genetically modified keratinocytes can then be used to regenerate human epidermis in organotypic skin cultures providing a powerful model to study genetic pathways impacting epidermal growth, differentiation, and disease progression. The protocols presented here describe methods to prepare devitalized human dermis as well as to genetically manipulate primary human keratinocytes in order to generate organotypic skin cultures. Regenerated human skin can be used in downstream applications such as gene expression profiling, immunostaining, and chromatin immunoprecipitations followed by high throughput sequencing. Thus, generation of these genetically modified organotypic skin cultures will allow the determination of genes that are critical for maintaining skin homeostasis.

  7. 5-Fluorouracil modulation of radiosensitivity in cultured human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, S.R.; Kimler, B.F.; Evans, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated conventional pulse exposure versus continuous exposure models of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) radiosensitization in HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) and DU-145 (human prostate cancer adenocarcinoma) cell lines. Cell survival following treatment with drug and/or radiation was determined by colony formation assays. Radiation was delivered either by itself, approximately midway through a 1-hr exposure to 5-FU (10 micrograms/ml), or at various times following initiation of exposure to 5-FU (0.5 microgram/ml) present throughout the entire period of incubation. Drug concentrations were selected to approximate those achieved in vivo in humans. HT-29 cells showed a plating efficiency of 87% and similar cytotoxicity (survival reduced to 0.57-0.71) for all 5-FU conditions. The Do's of the radiation survival curves were not different for 1 hr of 5-FU exposure versus radiation alone. However, continuous exposure conditions demonstrated statistically significantly different Do's from radiation alone and pulse 5-FU exposure. DU-145 cells displayed a plating efficiency of 17% and cytotoxicities of 0.10-0.91 for the 5-FU conditions. DU-145 cells showed different radiation 5-FU interactions: 5-FU produced statistically significant changes in Do well as the differences between cell lines insofar as their radiosensitization by 5-FU underscore the caution required in extrapolating these radiobiologic models to the clinical setting

  8. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Risk Stratification for Athletes and Adventurers in High-Altitude Environments: Recommendations for Preparticipation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aaron D; McIntosh, Scott E; Nyberg, Andy; Powell, Amy P; Schoene, Robert B; Hackett, Peter

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude athletes and adventurers face a number of environmental and medical risks. Clinicians often advise participants or guiding agencies before or during these experiences. Preparticipation evaluation (PPE) has the potential to reduce risk of high-altitude illnesses in athletes and adventurers. Specific conditions susceptible to high-altitude exacerbation also important to evaluate include cardiovascular and lung diseases. Recommendations by which to counsel individuals before participation in altitude sports and adventures are few and of limited focus. We reviewed the literature, collected expert opinion, and augmented principles of a traditional sport PPE to accommodate the high-altitude wilderness athlete/adventurer. We present our findings with specific recommendations on risk stratification during a PPE for the high-altitude athlete/adventurer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Reconstitution activity of hypoxic cultured human cord blood CD34-positive cells in NOG mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Haruko; Takubo, Keiyo; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Gomei, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Arai, Fumio; Takahashi, Takao; Suda, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in hypoxic areas of the bone marrow. However, the role of hypoxia in the maintenance of HSCs has not been fully characterized. We performed xenotransplantation of human cord blood cells cultured in hypoxic or normoxic conditions into adult NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ null (NOG) mice. Hypoxic culture (1% O 2 ) for 6 days efficiently supported the maintenance of HSCs, although cell proliferation was suppressed compared to the normoxic culture. In contrast, hypoxia did not affect in vitro colony-forming ability. Upregulation of a cell cycle inhibitor, p21, was observed in hypoxic culture. Immunohistochemical analysis of recipient bone marrow revealed that engrafted CD34 + CD38 - cord blood HSCs were hypoxic. Taken together, these results demonstrate the significance of hypoxia in the maintenance of quiescent human cord blood HSCs.

  11. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    NSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types. Changes in femurs gross morphology......We have previously reported that human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs) promote angiogenesis in vitro and in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. To examine the in vivo relevance of this observation, we examined in the present study the differentiation potential of h......NSSC + HUVEC cultures. Our data suggest that organotypic cultures can be employed to test the differentiation potential of stem cells and demonstrate the importance of stem cell interaction with 3D-intact tissue microenvironment for their differentiation....

  12. EMPLOYEE ADAPTATION AS KEY ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UPON IMPLEMENTING AND MAINTAINING DESIRED ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stacho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the greatest possible equivalence between human resources in a company and desired organisational culture elements declared by a company, it is necessary to interconnect activities within individual functions of human resource management with desired values, attitudes and work behaviour. Such an interconnection is crucial for a positive response of employees to a suitable organisational culture, its embedding in their behaviour and subsequent sharing and spreading of organisational values. This paper will specifically define individual activities related to the adaptation of employees which need to be carried out in this regard. Based on a research conducted between 2011 and 2013, the paper will also define the present state and level of focus of organisations operating in Slovakia on both organisational culture as a whole and organisational culture in the context of employee adaptation.

  13. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  14. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  15. Human cultured cells are capable to incorporate isolated plant mitochondria loaded with exogenous DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laktionov P. P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the possibility of human cultured cells to incorporate isolated mitochondria together with exogenous DNA introduced into organelles. Methods. Two approaches were used for this purpose, fluorescent labelling of mitochondria and/or DNA with subsequent analysis of the cells subjected to incubation by microscopy or by quantitative PCR. Results. We have shown that human cultured cells lines, HeLa and HUVEC, are capable to uptake isolated plant mitochondria and that this process depends on the incubation time and concentration of organelles present in medium. The incorporated mitochondria can serve as vehicles to deliver exogenous DNA into human cells, this DNA is then distributed in different cell compartments. Conclusions. These results are preliminary and need further investigations, including testing the possibility of human cells to incorporate the mitochondria of human or animal origin and creating genetic construction which could provide certain selectivity or stability of the transferred exogenous DNA upon cell uptake of the mitochondria as vectors.

  16. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  17. [Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Renli; Han, Dong; Liu, Caixia; Cai, Jiajie; Bi, Yanling; Wen, Anmin; Quan, Song

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.

  18. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Virtual Reality Techniques for Eliciting Empathy and Cultural Awareness: Affective Human-Virtual World Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chirino-Klevans, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    On the average human beings have about 50,000 thoughts every day. If we consider that thoughts influence how we feel there is little doubt that the way we perceive reality will strongly correlate with how we act upon that reality. Let’s contextualize this thinking process within the realm of global business where interacting with individuals from other cultural backgrounds is the norm. Our own perceptions and stereotypes towards those cultural groups will strongly influence how we interact wi...

  20. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  1. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  2. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    the endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native......A proteolytically modified form of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) present in the serum of patients suffering from autoimmune, immunodeficient diseases and cancer has been reported in the literature. In the present study we show that human beta 2-m as well as the proteolytically modified human form...... (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases...

  3. Interaction of lipid nanoparticles with human epidermis and an organotypic cell culture model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, Heike; Fahr, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Various lipid nanoparticle formulations were investigated with respect to (trans)dermal drug delivery with special regard to the mechanism of their effects on human and an organotypic cell culture epidermis. Potential alterations of stratum corneum lipid domains were studied using fluorescence...... assays with labeled liposomes and thermal analysis of isolated stratum corneum. Influences on the permeation of corticosterone were investigated and the occlusive properties of the nanoparticles were determined by measurements of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The penetration of a fluorescence dye...... studies and thermal analysis of human and cell culture epidermis indicate that surface lipids, which are not present to the same extent in the cell culture model than in human epidermis, seem to play an important role....

  4. Explant culture of human peripheral lung. I. Metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoner, G.D.; Harris, C.C.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    the predominant alveolar epithelial cell type. Lamellar inclusion bodies were released from the type 2 cells and accumulated in the alveolar spaces. The metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene (BP) in human lung explants cultured for up to 7 days was investigated. Human lung explants had measurable aryl hydrocarbon......Human lung explants have been maintained in vitro for a period of 25 days. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the broncholar epithelial cells, type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, and stromal fibroblasts incorporated 3H-thymidine during the culture. After 7 to 10 days, type 2 cells were...... hydroxylase activity and could metabolize BP into forms that were bound to cellular DNA and protein. Peripheral lung had significantly lower aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity than cultured bronchus but both tissues had similar binding levels of BP to DNA. Radioautographic studies indicated that all cell...

  5. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  6. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  7. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  8. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  9. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  10. A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Robert; Neumann, Markus; Daugs, Aila; Bloch, Oliver; Nitsche, Andreas; Langhammer, Stefan; Ellerbrok, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. 3D cell cultures, which meanwhile are widely distributed across all fields of research, are a promising tool for more predictive in vitro investigations of antiviral compounds. In this study the spreading of cowpox virus and the antiviral efficacy of gefitinib were analyzed in primary human keratinocytes (NHEK) grown in a novel 3D extracellular matrix-based cell culture model and compared to the respective monolayer culture. 3D-cultivated NHEK grew in a polarized and thus a more physiological manner with altered morphology and close cell-cell contact. Infected cultures showed a strongly elevated sensitivity towards gefitinib. EGFR phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and virus replication were significantly reduced in 3D cultures at gefitinib concentrations which were at least 100-fold lower than those in monolayer cultures and well below the level of cytotoxicity. Our newly established 3D cell culture model with primary human cells is an easy-to-handle alternative to conventional monolayer cell cultures and previously described more complex 3D cell culture systems. It can easily be adapted to other cell types and a broad spectrum of viruses for antiviral drug screening and many other aspects of virus research under more in vivo-like conditions. In consequence, it may contribute to a more targeted realization of necessary in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  12. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Szűcs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982 that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  13. High level of expression of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic rice cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) has been previously produced in tobacco cell suspension cultures. However, the amount of hGM-CSF accumulated in the culture medium dropped quickly from its maximum of 150 microg/L at 5 d after incubation. To overcome...... of recombinant hGM-CSF in transgenic rice cell suspension culture and protease activity of this culture medium was low compared to that of tobacco culture system....

  14. A medical perspective on the adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J

    2001-12-01

    The adventures of Sherlock Holmes, although primarily famous as stories of detection of crime, offer a considerable amount to interest the medical reader. There are many medical references in the stories, and the influence of Conan Doyle's medical background is clearly seen in the main characters. Aspects of the stories also reflect Conan Doyle's medical career, and also something of his attitude towards the profession. From Holmes's sayings and accounts of his methods, parallels can be drawn between Holmesian deduction and the diagnostic process. It is concluded, however, that deduction cannot be used as a direct paradigm since medical problems are rarely soluble through a process of logic alone.

  15. How to challenge a culturalization of human existence? Promoting interculturalism and ethical thinking in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brossard Børhaug

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What if culture appears to be a universal solution – and problem – to all human encounters in the multicultural school? When teachers explain the problems encountered by minority pupils simply by reference to their cultural (religious backgrounds, one faces the danger of culturalization where the other’s difference is explained only by his/her ethnicity. Culturalization is highly problematic because it emphasizes stereotyped inter-group differences and by doing so erases intra-group and inter-individual differences. The article argues that culture is fundamental in human existence, but it should not be an ambiguous dimension if the school seeks to help the learner get a stronger capacity of voice and aspiration. In order to challenge culturalization of human existence, it is crucial for education to promote the paradigm of interculturalism. Such a paradigm requires educators to acknowledge multiple forms of identity belongings for the individual and to resist the interpretation of culture as common sense. Education becomes intercultural and provides liberating categorizations for the individual when it acknowledges the true value of chosen cultural affiliations and individual aspirations. Nonetheless, promoting interculturalism might not be sufficient. Facing the potential danger of culturalization, we also need to foster ethics in education, in order to deconstruct the categories of cultural identity and belonging. Drawing on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas (1905-1995 the article argues that loving the other implies the act of loving the other person as a brother and as a stranger. Responsibility understood as an ethical responsibility opens up the community’s traditional structures and promotes a politics of ethical difference. Justice, thus, is not only about how well rights and duties are enforced, but also a matter of the other’s right to be other. Difference as a category is in other words not cultural but refers to the

  16. Assessment of Human Performance and Safety Culture at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Janos; Hadnagy, Lajos

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of human performance and safety culture of the personnel at a Nuclear Power Plant is a very important element of the self assessment process. At the Paks NPP a systematic approach to this problem started in the early 90's. The first comprehensive analysis of the human performance of the personnel was performed by the Hungarian Research Institute for Electric Power (VEIKI). The analysis of human failures is also a part of the investigation and analysis of safety related reported events. This human performance analysis of events is carried out by the Laboratory of Psychology of the plant and a supporting organisation namely the Department of Ergonomics and Psychology of the Budapest University of Technical and Economical Sciences. The analysis of safety culture at the Paks NPP has been in the focus of attention since the implementation of the INSAG-4 document started world-wide. In 1993 an IAEA model project namely 'Strengthening Training for Operational Safety' was initiated with a sub-project called 'Enhancement of Safety Culture'. Within this project the first step was the initial assessment of the safety culture level at the Paks NPP. It was followed by some corrective actions and safety culture improvement programme. In 1999 the second assessment was performed in order to evaluate the progress as a result of the improvement programme. A few indicators reflecting the elements of safety culture were defined and compared. The assessment of the safety culture with a survey among the managers was performed in September 2000 and the results are being evaluated at the moment. The intention of the plant management is to repeat the assessment every 2-3 years and evaluate the trend of the indicator. (authors)

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Current Human Coronavirus Strains in Primary Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Reveal Differences in Target Cell Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized and hospitalized children. Studies of the fundamental aspects of these HCoV infections at the primary entry port, such as cell tropism, are seriously hampered by the lack of a universal culture system or suitable animal models. To expand the knowledge on fundamental virus-host interactions for all four HCoVs at the site of primary infection, we used pseudostratified HAE cell cultures to isolate and characterize representative clinical HCoV strains directly from nasopharyngeal material. Ten contemporary isolates were obtained, representing HCoV-229E (n = 1), HCoV-NL63 (n = 1), HCoV-HKU1 (n = 4), and HCoV-OC43 (n = 4). For each strain, we analyzed the replication kinetics and progeny virus release on HAE cell cultures derived from different donors. Surprisingly, by visualizing HCoV infection by confocal microscopy, we observed that HCoV-229E employs a target cell tropism for nonciliated cells, whereas HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 all infect ciliated cells. Collectively, the data demonstrate that HAE cell cultures, which morphologically and functionally resemble human airways in vivo, represent a robust universal culture system for isolating and comparing all contemporary HCoV strains. PMID:23427150

  18. Three-dimensional culture conditions lead to decreased radiation induced cytotoxicity in human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Chrisler, William B.; Zens, Kyra D.; Ashjian, Emily J.; Opresko, Lee K.

    2010-01-01

    For both targeted and non-targeted exposures, the cellular responses to ionizing radiation have predominantly been measured in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Although convenient for biochemical analysis, the true interactions in vivo depend upon complex interactions between cells themselves and the surrounding extracellular matrix. This study directly compares the influence of culture conditions on radiation induced cytotoxicity following exposure to low-LET ionizing radiation. Using a three-dimensional (3D) human mammary epithelial tissue model, we have found a protective effect of 3D cell culture on cell survival after irradiation. The initial state of the cells (i.e., 2D versus 3D culture) at the time of irradiation does not alter survival, nor does the presence of extracellular matrix during and after exposure to dose, but long term culture in 3D which offers significant reduction in cytotoxicity at a given dose (e.g. ∼4-fold increased survival at 5 Gy). The cell cycle delay induced following exposure to 2 and 5 Gy was almost identical between 2D and 3D culture conditions and cannot account for the observed differences in radiation responses. However the amount of apoptosis following radiation exposure is significantly decreased in 3D culture relative to the 2D monolayer after the same dose. A likely mechanism of the cytoprotective effect afforded by 3D culture conditions is the down regulation of radiation induced apoptosis in 3D structures.

  19. Evolving building blocks of rhythm: how human cognition creates music via cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Thompson, Bill; Grossi, Thomas; Delgado, Tania; Kirby, Simon

    2018-03-06

    Why does musical rhythm have the structure it does? Musical rhythm, in all its cross-cultural diversity, exhibits commonalities across world cultures. Traditionally, music research has been split into two fields. Some scientists focused on musicality, namely the human biocognitive predispositions for music, with an emphasis on cross-cultural similarities. Other scholars investigated music, seen as a cultural product, focusing on the variation in world musical cultures. Recent experiments found deep connections between music and musicality, reconciling these opposing views. Here, we address the question of how individual cognitive biases affect the process of cultural evolution of music. Data from two experiments are analyzed using two complementary techniques. In the experiments, participants hear drumming patterns and imitate them. These patterns are then given to the same or another participant to imitate. The structure of these initially random patterns is tracked along experimental "generations." Frequentist statistics show how participants' biases are amplified by cultural transmission, making drumming patterns more structured. Structure is achieved faster in transmission within rather than between participants. A Bayesian model approximates the motif structures participants learned and created. Our data and models suggest that individual biases for musicality may shape the cultural transmission of musical rhythm. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Effects of alkylating carcinogens on human tumor cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goth-Goldstein, R.; Hughes, M.

    1987-01-01

    In Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine and 3-methylguanine have been identified as lethal lesions, since two types of alkylating agent-sensitive mutants were deficient in repair of either of these lesions. Similar alkylation-sensitive human cell lines exist. These are the tumor cell lines of the complex Mer - phenotype. All Mer - cells examined were hypersensitive to killing by MNNG and other alkylating agents, and failed to repair O 6 -methylguanine. The widely studied HeLa S3 cell line has the Mer + phenotype, but a Mer - variant (HeLa MR) has arisen. This offers the possibility to study Mer - and Mer + cells of otherwise similar genetic background. We are using these two variants to analyze the Mer - phenotype further. When HeLa S3 and HeLa MR were treated with a highly dose of MNNG, and the surviving population exposed to a second dose of MNNG 2-3 weeks later, HeLa S3 (Mer + ) cells were equally or even slightly more sensitive to a second exposure of MNNG, whereas the surviving HeLa MR (Mer - ) population was much more resistant to MNNG. 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Direct induction of chondrogenic cells from human dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Outani

    Full Text Available The repair of large cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical issue. We recently reported that the forced expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4 and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9 can induce chondrogenic cells from mouse dermal fibroblast culture without going through a pluripotent state. We here generated induced chondrogenic (iChon cells from human dermal fibroblast (HDF culture with the same factors. We developed a chondrocyte-specific COL11A2 promoter/enhancer lentiviral reporter vector to select iChon cells. The human iChon cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, and were derived from non-chondrogenic COL11A2-negative cells. The human iChon cells formed cartilage but not tumors in nude mice. This approach could lead to the preparation of cartilage directly from skin in human, without going through pluripotent stem cells.

  2. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B.; Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  3. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Lab. de Microcirurgia Plastica; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M. [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle Biologico; Herson, Marisa R. [DonorTissue Bank of Victoria (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  4. A Refined Culture System for Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Epithelial Organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut epithelial organoids are routinely used to investigate intestinal biology; however, current culture methods are not amenable to genetic manipulation, and it is difficult to generate sufficient numbers for high-throughput studies. Here, we present an improved culture system of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal organoids involving four methodological advances. (1 We adopted a lentiviral vector to readily establish and optimize conditioned medium for human intestinal organoid culture. (2 We obtained intestinal organoids from human iPSCs more efficiently by supplementing WNT3A and fibroblast growth factor 2 to induce differentiation into definitive endoderm. (3 Using 2D culture, followed by re-establishment of organoids, we achieved an efficient transduction of exogenous genes in organoids. (4 We investigated suspension organoid culture without scaffolds for easier harvesting and assays. These techniques enable us to develop, maintain, and expand intestinal organoids readily and quickly at low cost, facilitating high-throughput screening of pathogenic factors and candidate treatments for gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. Pathogen prevalence predicts human cross-cultural variability in individualism/collectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy; Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark

    2008-06-07

    Pathogenic diseases impose selection pressures on the social behaviour of host populations. In humans (Homo sapiens), many psychological phenomena appear to serve an antipathogen defence function. One broad implication is the existence of cross-cultural differences in human cognition and behaviour contingent upon the relative presence of pathogens in the local ecology. We focus specifically on one fundamental cultural variable: differences in individualistic versus collectivist values. We suggest that specific behavioural manifestations of collectivism (e.g. ethnocentrism, conformity) can inhibit the transmission of pathogens; and so we hypothesize that collectivism (compared with individualism) will more often characterize cultures in regions that have historically had higher prevalence of pathogens. Drawing on epidemiological data and the findings of worldwide cross-national surveys of individualism/collectivism, our results support this hypothesis: the regional prevalence of pathogens has a strong positive correlation with cultural indicators of collectivism and a strong negative correlation with individualism. The correlations remain significant even when controlling for potential confounding variables. These results help to explain the origin of a paradigmatic cross-cultural difference, and reveal previously undocumented consequences of pathogenic diseases on the variable nature of human societies.

  6. Effect of amniotic fluid on the in vitro culture of human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Sepehr; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Bagheri, Abouzar; Balagholi, Sahar; Mohammadian, Azam; Rezaei-Kanavi, Mozhgan; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Negahban, Kambiz

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on the growth of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) and to establish an in vitro method for expanding HCECs. HCECs were cultured in DMEM-F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Confluent monolayer cultures were trypsinized and passaged using either FBS- or HAF-containing media. Cell proliferation and cell death ELISA assays were performed to determine the effect of HAF on cell growth and viability. The identity of the cells cultured in 20% HAF was determined using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to evaluate the expression of factors that are characteristic of HCECs, including Ki-67, Vimentin, Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1. HCEC primary cultures were successfully established using 20% HAF-containing medium, and these cultures demonstrated rapid cell proliferation according to the cell proliferation and death ELISA assay results. The ICC and real time RT-PCR results indicated that there was a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1 in the 20% HAF cell cultures compared with the control (20% FBS) (P < 0.05). The 20% HAF-containing medium exhibited a greater stimulatory effect on HCEC growth and could represent a potential enriched supplement for HCEC regeneration studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Prat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine. The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements, they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  9. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G; Puaud, Simon J; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aging Adventure Athletes Assess Achievements and Alter Aspirations to Maintain Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2018-01-01

    Achievements and capabilities influence the self-esteem of skilled adventure athletes. Self-esteem affects individual mental health. Aging commonly reduces adventure capabilities. To avoid loss in self-esteem, aging adventure athletes are forced to adjust their aspirations. Here, I examine this process using participant observation, ethnographic and autoethnographic approaches. The qualitative data for this analysis are derived from 60 years' experience in outdoor adventure activities, and ∼30,000 person-hours of participant observation. I argue that individuals assess their own capabilities against a set of specific feats. For some activities, successful completion of a specific feat is known as nailing it. The selection of these feats depends on factors such as activity and geographic location, as well as individual experience and peer comparisons. I examine the detailed process using a single feat repeated over a period of decades, the bubble-line kayak run through Lava Falls on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. I compare other examples of nail or fail to construct a general framework for self-esteem in aging adventure athletes, with both physical and psychological feedback loops. I also identify two key thresholds, as aging adventure athletes recognize their declining skills. These may apply to aging more broadly, beyond outdoor adventure.

  12. Aging Adventure Athletes Assess Achievements and Alter Aspirations to Maintain Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C. Buckley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Achievements and capabilities influence the self-esteem of skilled adventure athletes. Self-esteem affects individual mental health. Aging commonly reduces adventure capabilities. To avoid loss in self-esteem, aging adventure athletes are forced to adjust their aspirations. Here, I examine this process using participant observation, ethnographic and autoethnographic approaches. The qualitative data for this analysis are derived from 60 years’ experience in outdoor adventure activities, and ∼30,000 person-hours of participant observation. I argue that individuals assess their own capabilities against a set of specific feats. For some activities, successful completion of a specific feat is known as nailing it. The selection of these feats depends on factors such as activity and geographic location, as well as individual experience and peer comparisons. I examine the detailed process using a single feat repeated over a period of decades, the bubble-line kayak run through Lava Falls on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. I compare other examples of nail or fail to construct a general framework for self-esteem in aging adventure athletes, with both physical and psychological feedback loops. I also identify two key thresholds, as aging adventure athletes recognize their declining skills. These may apply to aging more broadly, beyond outdoor adventure.

  13. Devious Lies: Adventures in Freelance Science Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Observations are given from two freelance science outreach projects undertaken by the author: Tutoring at-risk secondary students and teaching astronomy to 5th-7th graders in a camp retreat environment. Two recurring thematic challenges in these experiences are considered: First the 'Misperception Problem', the institutionalized chasm between the process of doing science and K-12 science education (wherein science is often portrayed as something distant and inaccessible, while ironically children are necessarily excellent scientists). And second the 'Engagement Problem', engaging a student's attention and energy by matching teaching material and--more importantly--teaching techniques to the student's state of development. The objective of this work is twofold: To learn how to address these two challenges and to empower the students in a manner independent of the scientific content of any particular subject. An underlying hypothesis is that confidence to problem solve (a desirable life-skill) can be made more accessible through a combination of problem solving by the student and seeing how others have solved seemingly impossible problems. This hypothesis (or agenda) compels an emphasis on critical thinking and raises the dilemma of reconciling non-directed teaching with very pointed conclusions about the verity of pseudo-science and ideas prevalent about science in popular culture. An interesting pedagogical found-object in this regard is the useful 'devious lie' which can encourage a student to question the assumption that the teacher (and by extension any professed expert) has the right answers.

  14. Metaphase II oocytes from human unilaminar follicles grown in a multi-step culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, M; Albertini, D F; Wallace, W H B; Anderson, R A; Telfer, E E

    2018-03-01

    Can complete oocyte development be achieved from human ovarian tissue containing primordial/unilaminar follicles and grown in vitro in a multi-step culture to meiotic maturation demonstrated by the formation of polar bodies and a Metaphase II spindle? Development of human oocytes from primordial/unilaminar stages to resumption of meiosis (Metaphase II) and emission of a polar body was achieved within a serum free multi-step culture system. Complete development of oocytes in vitro has been achieved in mouse, where in vitro grown (IVG) oocytes from primordial follicles have resulted in the production of live offspring. Human oocytes have been grown in vitro from the secondary/multi-laminar stage to obtain fully grown oocytes capable of meiotic maturation. However, there are no reports of a culture system supporting complete growth from the earliest stages of human follicle development through to Metaphase II. Ovarian cortical biopsies were obtained with informed consent from women undergoing elective caesarean section (mean age: 30.7 ± 1.7; range: 25-39 years, n = 10). Laboratory setting. Ovarian biopsies were dissected into thin strips, and after removal of growing follicles were cultured in serum free medium for 8 days (Step 1). At the end of this period secondary/multi-laminar follicles were dissected from the strips and intact follicles 100-150 μm in diameter were selected for further culture. Isolated follicles were cultured individually in serum free medium in the presence of 100 ng/ml of human recombinant Activin A (Step 2). Individual follicles were monitored and after 8 days, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were retrieved by gentle pressure on the cultured follicles. Complexes with complete cumulus and adherent mural granulosa cells were selected and cultured in the presence of Activin A and FSH on membranes for a further 4 days (Step 3). At the end of Step 3, complexes containing oocytes >100 μm diameter were selected for IVM in SAGE medium (Step 4) then

  15. Insulin binding properties of normal and transformed human epidermal cultured keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrando, P.; Ortonne, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin binding to its receptors was studied in cultured normal and transformed (A431 line) human epidermal keratinocytes. The specific binding was a temperature-dependent, saturable process. Normal keratinocytes possess a mean value of about 80,000 receptors per cell. Fifteen hours exposure of the cells to insulin lowered their receptor number (about 65% loss in available sites); these reappeared when the hormone was removed from the culture medium. In the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, there is a net decrease in insulin binding (84% of the initial bound/free hormone ratio in comparison with normal cells) essentially related to a loss in receptor affinity for insulin. Thus, cultured human keratinocytes which express insulin receptors may be a useful tool in understanding skin pathology related to insulin disorders

  16. Biogenesis of corticosteroids in monolayer cultures of human foetal adrenal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyer, C.G.; Torday, J.S.; St George Hall, C.; Smith, B.T.; Giroud, C.J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Human foetal adrenal cells were grown in monolayer culture and their steroidogenic capacity observed for up to a month. The cells produced a complex array of steroids and some of their ester sulphates from endogenous as well as from [ 14 C] and[ 3 H] precursors. ACTH stimulated corticoidogenesis, particularly cortisol secretion, and markedly enhanced the incorporation of progesterone and pregnenolone into cortisol. Following incubation with the same precursors, large amounts of radioactivity remained water soluble. From the butanol extractable material of this fraction, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was characterized as the main metabolite of pregnenolone and corticosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone sulphates as the main metabolites of progesterone. With time in culture there was a decrease in steroidogenesis as well as a steady decline in responsiveness to ACTH, mainly manifested by cortisol secretion. The medium from homologous foetal pituitary cultures stimulated cortisol production by the human adrenal cell monolayer. (author)

  17. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three

  18. Effect of in vitro culture of human embryos on birthweight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, John C.; Land, Jolande A.; Van Montfoort, Aafke P.; Nelissen, Ewka C.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Schreurs, Inge L.; Dunselman, Gerard A.; Kester, Arnold D.; Geraedts, Joep P.; Evers, Johannes L.

    In animal models, in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos has been shown to be a risk factor for abnormal fetal outcome, including high and low birthweight. In the human, mean birthweight of singletons after in vitro fertilization (IVF) is considerably lower than after natural conception, but it

  19. Selective inhibition of B lymphocytes in TBTC-treated human bone marrow long-term culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M.; Bowe, G.; Pieters, R.; Gribaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC) is well known for its immunotoxic effect, in particular towards immature thymocytes. TBTC is also known to induce adipocyte differentiation in primary human bone marrow cultures, which is reflected in the decrease in a number of adipocyte-derived cytokines, chemokines and

  20. "Human Potential" and Progressive Pedagogy: A Long Cultural History of the Ambiguity of "Race" and "Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child's human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault's notion of "dispositifs" and the "elements of history," encircling a complex transformation of continuity and discontinuity of…

  1. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  2. Human parechovirus type 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 detection in picornavirus cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Michel; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Berkhout, Ron; Vermeulen-Oost, Wilma; Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Bruisten, Sylvia; Berkhout, Ben; van der Hoek, Lia

    2008-01-01

    Picornavirus cultures that could not be typed in neutralization assays were analyzed by VP1 reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and a virus discovery tool (VIDISCA). Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) were frequently identified, among which were the uncommon isolates HPeV-4, HPeV-5, and HPeV-6. The HPeV-5

  3. Characterization of bovine embryos cultured under conditions appropriate for sustaining human naïve pluripotency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Bas; van Tol, Helena T A; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Wubbolts, Richard W; Haagsman, Henk P; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian preimplantation development, pluripotent cells are set aside from cells that contribute to extra-embryonic tissues. Although the pluripotent cell population of mouse and human embryos can be cultured as embryonic stem cells, little is known about the pathways involved in formation of a

  4. Metabolism of acyclic and cyclic N-nitroamines by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    Cultured human colon mucosa was found to metabolize both acyclic and cyclic N-nitrosamines as measured by 14C-CO2 formation and reaction of the activated moieties with cellular macromolecules. Dimethylnitrosamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine were metabolized by explants from all patients studied. A p...

  5. Low calcium culture condition induces mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Murakami, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Okano, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Normal human epidermal keratinocytes serially cultured under low calcium concentration were cytokeratin and vimentin double positive cells. → The human keratinocytes expressed some epithelial stem/progenitor cell makers, mesenchymal cell markers, and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. → Mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in the keratinocytes was suppressed under high-calcium condition. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular phenomenon in organ developments, cancer invasions, and wound healing, and many types of transformed cell lines are used for investigating for molecular mechanisms of EMT. However, there are few reports for EMT in normal human epithelial cells, which are non-transformed or non-immortalized cells, in vitro. Therefore, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) serially cultured in low-calcium concentration medium (LCM) were used for investigating relations between differentiation and proliferation and mesenchymal-like phenotype in the present study, since long-term cultivation of NHEK is achieved in LCM. Interestingly, NHEK serially cultured in LCM consisted essentially of cytokeratin-vimentin double positive cells (98%), although the NHEK exhibited differentiation under high-calcium culture condition with 3T3 feeder layer. The vimentin expression was suppressed under high-calcium condition. These results may indicate the importance of mesenchymal-like phenotype for serially cultivation of NHEK in vitro.

  6. Adhesion of cultured human endothelial cells onto methacrylate polymers with varying surface wettability and charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; Hogt, A.H.; Beugeling, T.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.; Detmers, J.P.; van Aken, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The adhesion of human endothelial cells (HEC) onto a series of well-characterized methacrylate polymer surfaces with varying wettabilities and surface charges was studied either in serum-containing (CMS) or in serum-free (CM) culture medium. HEC adhesion in CMS onto (co)polymers * of hydroxyethyl

  7. Examining the Impact of Culture and Human Elements on OLAP Tools Usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoupim, Magdy S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of culture and human-related elements on the On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) usability in generating decision-making information. The use of OLAP technology has evolved rapidly and gained momentum, mainly due to the ability of OLAP tools to examine and query large amounts of data sets…

  8. Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

  9. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro. Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. PMID:27385595

  10. Long-term Culture of Human iPS Cell-derived Telencephalic Neuron Aggregates on Collagen Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Haga, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    It takes several months to form the 3-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain. Therefore, establishing a long-term culture method for neuronal tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is very important for studying human brain development. However, it is difficult to keep primary neurons alive for more than 3 weeks in culture. Moreover, long-term adherent culture to maintain the morphology of telencephalic neuron aggregates induced from human iPS cells is also difficult. Although collagen gel has been widely used to support long-term culture of cells, it is not clear whether human iPS cell-derived neuron aggregates can be cultured for long periods on this substrate. In the present study, we differentiated human iPS cells to telencephalic neuron aggregates and examined long-term culture of these aggregates on collagen gel. The results indicated that these aggregates could be cultured for over 3 months by adhering tightly onto collagen gel. Furthermore, telencephalic neuronal precursors within these aggregates matured over time and formed layered structures. Thus, long-term culture of telencephalic neuron aggregates derived from human iPS cells on collagen gel would be useful for studying human cerebral cortex development.Key words: Induced pluripotent stem cell, forebrain neuron, collagen gel, long-term culture.

  11. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  12. Long-term culture of human liver tissue with advanced hepatic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soon Seng; Xiong, Anming; Nguyen, Khanh; Masek, Marilyn; No, Da Yoon; Elazar, Menashe; Shteyer, Eyal; Winters, Mark A; Voedisch, Amy; Shaw, Kate; Rashid, Sheikh Tamir; Frank, Curtis W; Cho, Nam Joon; Glenn, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-02

    A major challenge for studying authentic liver cell function and cell replacement therapies is that primary human hepatocytes rapidly lose their advanced function in conventional, 2-dimensional culture platforms. Here, we describe the fabrication of 3-dimensional hexagonally arrayed lobular human liver tissues inspired by the liver's natural architecture. The engineered liver tissues exhibit key features of advanced differentiation, such as human-specific cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and the ability to support efficient infection with patient-derived inoculums of hepatitis C virus. The tissues permit the assessment of antiviral agents and maintain their advanced functions for over 5 months in culture. This extended functionality enabled the prediction of a fatal human-specific hepatotoxicity caused by fialuridine (FIAU), which had escaped detection by preclinical models and short-term clinical studies. The results obtained with the engineered human liver tissue in this study provide proof-of-concept determination of human-specific drug metabolism, demonstrate the ability to support infection with human hepatitis virus derived from an infected patient and subsequent antiviral drug testing against said infection, and facilitate detection of human-specific drug hepatotoxicity associated with late-onset liver failure. Looking forward, the scalability and biocompatibility of the scaffold are also ideal for future cell replacement therapeutic strategies.

  13. 3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling. Furthermore, using PPARα agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPARα signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.

  14. Effects of deprivation of background environmental radiation on cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, M.C.; Pinto, M.; Antonelli, F.; Balata, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present results from an experiment aimed at investigating whether living cells are influenced by background ionizing radiation. Parallel human cell cultures were set-up in two separate laboratories and maintained for several months under identical conditions but for a 80 x different level of background ionizing radiation. Periodically, the cell cultures were monitored for the onset of divergences in biochemical behavior, using two distinct cellular biology assays, namely micronuclei induction and activity of enzymes implicated in the management of oxidative stress. To reveal any subtle modifications, responses were also amplified by subjecting cell cultures to acute stress induced by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. Compared to reference radiation background conditions, cultures maintained in a reduced background radiation environment handled the consequences of acute stress with diminished efficacy.

  15. Comparison of gene expression profiles of normal human bronchial epithelial cells in 2D and 3D cultural conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The experiment is part of a project to study DNA repair process after ionizing radiation in organotypic 3-dimentional human bronchial epithlial cell culture. Human...

  16. Humanized medium (h7H) allows long-term primary follicular thyroid cultures from human normal thyroid, benign neoplasm, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Susana B; Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E R; Garcia-Rendueles, Angela R; Rodrigues, Joana S; Perez-Romero, Sihara; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Suarez-Fariña, Maria; Barreiro, Francisco; Czarnocka, Barbara; Senra, Ana; Lareu, Maria V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Javier; Cameselle-Teijeiro, Jose; Alvarez, Clara V

    2013-06-01

    Mechanisms of thyroid physiology and cancer are principally studied in follicular cell lines. However, human thyroid cancer lines were found to be heavily contaminated by other sources, and only one supposedly normal-thyroid cell line, immortalized with SV40 antigen, is available. In primary culture, human follicular cultures lose their phenotype after passage. We hypothesized that the loss of the thyroid phenotype could be related to culture conditions in which human cells are grown in medium optimized for rodent culture, including hormones with marked differences in its affinity for the relevant rodent/human receptor. The objective of the study was to define conditions that allow the proliferation of primary human follicular thyrocytes for many passages without losing phenotype. Concentrations of hormones, transferrin, iodine, oligoelements, antioxidants, metabolites, and ethanol were adjusted within normal homeostatic human serum ranges. Single cultures were identified by short tandem repeats. Human-rodent interspecies contamination was assessed. We defined an humanized 7 homeostatic additives medium enabling growth of human thyroid cultures for more than 20 passages maintaining thyrocyte phenotype. Thyrocytes proliferated and were grouped as follicle-like structures; expressed Na+/I- symporter, pendrin, cytokeratins, thyroglobulin, and thyroperoxidase showed iodine-uptake and secreted thyroglobulin and free T3. Using these conditions, we generated a bank of thyroid tumors in culture from normal thyroids, Grave's hyperplasias, benign neoplasms (goiter, adenomas), and carcinomas. Using appropriate culture conditions is essential for phenotype maintenance in human thyrocytes. The bank of thyroid tumors in culture generated under humanized humanized 7 homeostatic additives culture conditions will provide a much-needed tool to compare similarly growing cells from normal vs pathological origins and thus to elucidate the molecular basis of thyroid disease.

  17. Application of stem-cell media to explant culture of human periosteum: An optimal approach for preparing osteogenic cell material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Kohya; Nagata, Masaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2013-01-01

    As part of our clinical tests on bone regeneration using cultured periosteal sheets, here, we prepared cultured periosteal sheets in two types of stem-cell culture media, STK1 and STK3. Human periosteum was expanded either in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1 for 28 days, in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1 for 14 days followed by 1% human serum-supplemented STK3 for 14 days (1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3), or in 10% fetal bovine serum-supplemented Medium 199 for 28 days (control). Cultured periosteal sheet diameter and DNA content were significantly higher, and the multilayer structure was prominent in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1 and 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3. The messenger RNA of osteoblastic markers was significantly upregulated in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3. Osteopontin-immunopositive staining and mineralization were evident across a wide area of the cultured periosteal sheet in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3. Subcutaneous implantation in nude mice following expansion in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3 produced the highest cultured periosteal sheet osteogenic activity. Expansion in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3 successfully induced cultured periosteal sheet growth while retaining osteogenic potential, and subsequent osteoblastic induction promoted the production of homogeneous cell material.

  18. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from ‘popular’ forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in ‘medical gothic’ fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's ‘Good Lady Ducayne’ (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. PMID:28495908

  19. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from 'popular' forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in 'medical gothic' fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's 'Good Lady Ducayne' (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cultured endothelial cells from capillaries and large vessels of human and bovine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, R.S.; Dake, B.L.; Spanheimer, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The ( 35 S)glycosaminoglycans (( 35 S)GAG) synthesized by capillary endothelial cells were analyzed and compared to GAG synthesized by endothelial cells cultured from 4 larger vessels. Two separate cultures of endothelial cells were established from bovine fat capillaries and from 4 larger vessels of human origin (umbilical vein) and bovine origin (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and aorta). After incubation with 35 SO 4 for 72 h, the ( 35 S)glycosaminoglycans (GAG) composition of the media, pericellular and cellular fractions of each culture were determined by selective degradation with nitrous acid, chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC. All endothelial cells produced large amounts of ( 35 S)GAG with increased proportions of heparinoids (heparan sulfate and heparin) in the cellular and pericellular fractions. Each culture showed a distinct distribution of ( 35 S)GAG in the media, pericellular and cellular fractions with several specific differences found among the 5 cultures. The differences in GAG content were confirmed in a second group of separate cultures from each of the 5 vessels indicating that, although having several features of GAG metabolism in common, each endothelial cell culture demonstrated a characteristic complement of synthesized, secreted and cell surface-sulfated glycosaminoglycans. (author)

  2. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cultured endothelial cells from capillaries and large vessels of human and bovine origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.S.; Dake, B.L.; Spanheimer, R.G.

    1985-07-01

    The (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans ((/sup 35/S)GAG) synthesized by capillary endothelial cells were analyzed and compared to GAG synthesized by endothelial cells cultured from 4 larger vessels. Two separate cultures of endothelial cells were established from bovine fat capillaries and from 4 larger vessels of human origin (umbilical vein) and bovine origin (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and aorta). After incubation with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ for 72 h, the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans (GAG) composition of the media, pericellular and cellular fractions of each culture were determined by selective degradation with nitrous acid, chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC. All endothelial cells produced large amounts of (/sup 35/S)GAG with increased proportions of heparinoids (heparan sulfate and heparin) in the cellular and pericellular fractions. Each culture showed a distinct distribution of (/sup 35/S)GAG in the media, pericellular and cellular fractions with several specific differences found among the 5 cultures. The differences in GAG content were confirmed in a second group of separate cultures from each of the 5 vessels indicating that, although having several features of GAG metabolism in common, each endothelial cell culture demonstrated a characteristic complement of synthesized, secreted and cell surface-sulfated glycosaminoglycans. (author). 16 refs.

  3. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Human serum-derived protein removes the need for coating in defined human pluripotent stem cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Tamm, Christoffer; Schuster, Jens; Sobol, Maria; Forsberg, Lars; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Annerén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Reliable, scalable and time-efficient culture methods are required to fully realize the clinical and industrial applications of human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells. Here we present a completely defined, xeno-free medium that supports long-term propagation of hPS cells on uncoated tissue culture plastic. The medium consists of the Essential 8 (E8) formulation supplemented with inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), a human serum-derived protein, recently demonstrated to activate key pluripotency pathways in mouse PS cells. IαI efficiently induces attachment and long-term growth of both embryonic and induced hPS cell lines when added as a soluble protein to the medium at seeding. IαI supplementation efficiently supports adaptation of feeder-dependent hPS cells to xeno-free conditions, clonal growth as well as single-cell survival in the absence of Rho-associated kinase inhibitor (ROCKi). This time-efficient and simplified culture method paves the way for large-scale, high-throughput hPS cell culture, and will be valuable for both basic research and commercial applications. PMID:27405751

  5. Choreographing Compassion: A Clinical Adventure of Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopst, Charles George

    2015-06-01

    Compassion is a primary catalyst motivating positive human relationships, especially of those less fortunate. Our rhythms Expand-Contract of our own non-verbal body joints movements and of the law of counter-balance, enable us to identify which of nine innate affects-emotions is directing the body's movements. With this reading, a trained person can synchronize choreography of these into fully authentic compassion between two or more persons. Primary references for this are the late Silvan S. Tomkins's four volumes "Affect Imagery Consciousness," and choreographers the late Rudolf Laban, Warren Lamb, Irmgard Bartenieff, and Marian Chace. Professionals, clinicians, and laity counselors can all use these. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Human Rights and the Environmental Protection: The Naïveté in Environmental Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Adhitya Anggriawan Wisadha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are growing trends in the human rights to substantially extend the values to protect the environment or moreover to welcome the ideas of the rights to environment, not to mention the rights of environment. The purpose is to inclusively embrace the environmental problems wherein the humanity challenges posited on, but this agenda may leave a room of doubt how far the human rights body can address the environmental destruction as it needs the interplay of culture and environmental ethics to promoting such concepts. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the justification of how human rights in the environmental protection in the contemporary discourse are bringing to light, as many current cases attempt to linkage the environmental approach to the human rights instrument, such as the rights to life, healthy environment, and intergenerational equity. To analyse further, the theoretical framework in this paper will be explicated by environmental culture paradigm which illustrates the egalitarian concept between human and environment to elicit the clear thoughts of how human rights is naïve to protect the environment. This article will firstly depict the human rights and the environmental protection discourse and then, explore the naïveté narratives of environmental culture about the ecological crisis roots that are fundamentally anthropogenic, as to reflect the ground realities how this nexus will play out. Finally, this paper found the moral justification per se relies on the effort of elaborating the human prudence in their relationship with nature, albeit bringing the naïveté.

  7. Effects of national culture on human failures in container shipping: the moderating role of Confucian dynamism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Lai, Kee-hung; Lun, Y H Venus; Cheng, T C E

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports on work safety in container shipping operations highlight high frequencies of human failures. In this study, we empirically examine the effects of seafarers' perceptions of national culture on the occurrence of human failures affecting work safety in shipping operations. We develop a model adopting Hofstede's national culture construct, which comprises five dimensions, namely power distance, collectivism/individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and Confucian dynamism. We then formulate research hypotheses from theory and test the hypotheses using survey data collected from 608 seafarers who work on global container carriers. Using a point scale for evaluating seafarers' perception of the five national culture dimensions, we find that Filipino seafarers score highest on collectivism, whereas Chinese and Taiwanese seafarers score highest on Confucian dynamism, followed by collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. The results also indicate that Taiwanese seafarers have a propensity for uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, whereas Filipino seafarers lean more towards power distance, masculinity, and collectivism, which are consistent with the findings of Hofstede and Bond (1988). The results suggest that there will be fewer human failures in container shipping operations when power distance is low, and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are high. Specifically, this study finds that Confucian dynamism plays an important moderating role as it affects the strength of associations between some national culture dimensions and human failures. Finally, we discuss our findings' contribution to the development of national culture theory and their managerial implications for reducing the occurrence of human failures in shipping operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  9. Radiation-induced inhibition of human endothelial cells replicating in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGowin, R.L.; Lewis, L.J.; Mason, R.E.; Borke, M.K.; Hoak, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of some tumors may depend upon the sensitivity of their microvasculature to radiation. Heretofore, the dose-response of human endothelial cells replicating in tissue culture has not been published. In studies reported here, we exposed flasks containing 4 to 7 x 10 4 genetically identical human endothelial cells to doses of x irradiation from 125 to 1000 rad. During the phase of logarithmic growth, cell counts were compared to those of an unirradiated control to construct a dose--response curve. Similar studies were performed with normal fibroblasts. We found that 160 rad suppressed endothelial cell replication by 37 percent. Although recovery was evident with doses of 500 rad, no net increase in cell number occurred in 3 weeks in flasks of endothelial cells that received 750 or 1000 rad. Fibroblasts were slightly less sensitive under these conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a radiation dose--response curve for human endothelial cells replicating in culture

  10. THE HUMAN ACTIVITY AS AFFECTIVE-COGNITIVE UNIT: A HISTORIC-CULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Márcia Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts in question the affectional-cognitive unit which sustains the human activity, with the purpose to light incorrectness of approaches which dichotomize reason and emotion. It asserts that such dissociations are founded in theorical-methodological principles which set bounds for explanations about the human psychism, so that the overcoming of referred dualisms puts on as a method matter. For making explicit that assertion, it resorted to Historic-Cultural Psychology, based on that it explains about the psychism as subjective image of objective reality, of Vygotskyan criticisms to Cartesian dualism and the need of a historic-cultural approach on emotion studies, intend to analyzing the human activity as a affective-cognitive unit and the imbricated relations that are waged, within it, among affections, emotions, feelings and thoughts. Once presented the interrelations between emotions and cognitions this exhibition argues that the concepts are necessary as a minimum unit of analysis both of thought and feelings.

  11. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  12. On the Use of Geographic Information in Humanities Research Infrastructure: A Case Study on Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mościcka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an invaluable source of knowledge about the past, cultural heritage may be an important element of the humanities research infrastructure, along with other elements, such as spatial references. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an answer to the questions concerning the ways in which spatial information can contribute to the development of this infrastructure and the aspects of storytelling based on cultural resources that can be supported by such infrastructure. The objective of the methodology that was used was to combine the aspects that refer to spatial information and cultural items into a single, common issue, and to describe them in a formalized way with use of Unified Modeling Language (UML. As a result, the study presents a proposal of the Humanities Infrastructure Architecture based on spatially-oriented movable cultural items, taking into account their use in the context of interoperability, along with the concept of creating spatial databases that would include movable monuments. The authors also demonstrate that the ISO 19100 series of geographical information standards may be a source of interesting conceptual solutions that may be used in the process of the standardization of geographical information that was recorded in the descriptions of cultural heritage items in form of metadata and data structure descriptions.

  13. Surface-engineered substrates for improved human pluripotent stem cell culture under fully defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Krishanu; Mei, Ying; Reisterer, Colin M; Pyzocha, Neena Kenton; Yang, Jing; Muffat, Julien; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-11-15

    The current gold standard for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells requires the use of a feeder layer of cells. Here, we develop a spatially defined culture system based on UV/ozone radiation modification of typical cell culture plastics to define a favorable surface environment for human pluripotent stem cell culture. Chemical and geometrical optimization of the surfaces enables control of early cell aggregation from fully dissociated cells, as predicted from a numerical model of cell migration, and results in significant increases in cell growth of undifferentiated cells. These chemically defined xeno-free substrates generate more than three times the number of cells than feeder-containing substrates per surface area. Further, reprogramming and typical gene-targeting protocols can be readily performed on these engineered surfaces. These substrates provide an attractive cell culture platform for the production of clinically relevant factor-free reprogrammed cells from patient tissue samples and facilitate the definition of standardized scale-up friendly methods for disease modeling and cell therapeutic applications.

  14. Experimental studies of animal social learning in the wild: Trying to untangle the mystery of human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim

    2010-08-01

    Here I discuss how studies on animal social learning may help us understand human culture. It is an evolutionary truism that complex biological adaptations always evolve from less complex but related adaptations, but occasionally evolutionary transitions lead to major biological changes whose end products are difficult to anticipate. Language-based cumulative adaptive culture in humans may represent an evolutionary transition of this type. Most of the social learning observed in animals (and even plants) may be due to mechanisms that cannot produce cumulative cultural adaptations. Likewise, much of the critical content of socially transmitted human culture seems to show no parallel in nonhuman species. Thus, with regard to the uniquely human extent and quality of culture, we are forced to ask: Are other species only a few small steps away from this transition, or do they lack multiple critical features that make us the only truly cultural species? Only future research into animal social learning can answer these questions.

  15. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by Toxcast Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary human hepatocyte cultures are useful in vitro model systems of human liver because when cultured under appropriate conditions the hepatocytes retain liver-like functionality such as metabolism, transport, and cell signaling. This model system was used to characterize the ...

  16. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, Sander H. M.; van Montfoort, Aafke P. A.; Smits, Luc J. M.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Nelissen, Ewka C. M.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E. L.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Dumoulin, John C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared

  17. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (Pcultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (Pculture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Qu, Ying; Gomez, Liliana J; Chung, Stacey; Han, Bingchen; Gao, Bowen; Yue, Yong; Gong, Yiping; Liu, Xuefeng; Amersi, Farin; Dang, Catherine; Giuliano, Armando E; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-02-20

    Conditional reprogramming methods allow for the inexhaustible in vitro proliferation of primary epithelial cells from human tissue specimens. This methodology has the potential to enhance the utility of primary cell culture as a model for mammary gland research. However, few studies have systematically characterized this method in generating in vitro normal human mammary epithelial cell models. We show that cells derived from fresh normal breast tissues can be propagated and exhibit heterogeneous morphologic features. The cultures are composed of CK18, desmoglein 3, and CK19-positive luminal cells and vimentin, p63, and CK14-positive myoepithelial cells, suggesting the maintenance of in vivo heterogeneity. In addition, the cultures contain subpopulations with different CD49f and EpCAM expression profiles. When grown in 3D conditions, cells self-organize into distinct structures that express either luminal or basal cell markers. Among these structures, CK8-positive cells enclosing a lumen are capable of differentiation into milk-producing cells in the presence of lactogenic stimulus. Furthermore, our short-term cultures retain the expression of ERα, as well as its ability to respond to estrogen stimulation. We have investigated conditionally reprogrammed normal epithelial cells in terms of cell type heterogeneity, cellular marker expression, and structural arrangement in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) systems. The conditional reprogramming methodology allows generation of a heterogeneous culture from normal human mammary tissue in vitro . We believe that this cell culture model will provide a valuable tool to study mammary cell function and malignant transformation.

  19. Variations in Humanized and Defined Culture Conditions Supporting Derivation of New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Judy M; Ferrier, Patricia M; Gardner, John O

    2006-01-01

    matrix substrate of purified human laminin (Ln) with transitional reliance on mitotically inactivated human fibroblast (HDF) feeder cells. With this integrated system hESC lines were isolated using either HDF conditioned medium supplemented with a bovine-sourced serum replacement (bSRM), or a defined...

  20. Adventure of Architecture Example of Housing and Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asasoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing and the concept of space associated with this requirement are among the initial attitudes towards the human reign over the nature. The dawn of the structured environment found life with this approach within the nature. Both, housing and the housing design process overlap with the historical development of modern man, and is covered within the concept of architecture today. The contribution made by culture within this period is yet another undeniable fact. While the interaction between architecture and culture are moving forward thereby leaving traces in every era throughout the history, the culture of housing and housing design exhibits a parallel attitude which is a subsidiary, yet a highly title with a close human relationship. Culture and architecture are two closely interacting aspects which are drawing the borders of each other from time to time, hinting at quality and quantity, and evaluating such. Quite naturally, the structure which is in a deep relationship with mankind is in an exchange with all physical, social and economic qualities of the human. These qualities are fundamental determinants of the concept of culture as a human trait. The process of architecture which is usually defined as a sequence of eras that involve social movements, impulses and trends, sometimes kept moving ahead in the pursuit of individual leadership and styles. The concerns regarding the solution of space problems, setting up /designing venues and arranging the environment in line with the requirements brought up increasingly complex issues and stacks of solutions which follow such problems. It is this dynamic structure which forms the basis of the architectural problem to date. Starting with the housing and residential concepts, this study brings a critical view on the application samples and methods of the relationship between architecture and culture in terms of our country in particular while putting emphasis on the architectural venture of the

  1. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  2. Human embryos secrete microRNAs into culture media--a potential biomarker for implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Evan M; Shelton, Dawne N; Wells, Lindsay M; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether human blastocysts secrete microRNA (miRNAs) into culture media and whether these reflect embryonic ploidy status and can predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Experimental study of human embryos and IVF culture media. Academic IVF program. 91 donated, cryopreserved embryos that developed into 28 tested blastocysts, from 13 couples who had previously completed IVF cycles. None. Relative miRNA expression in IVF culture media. Blastocysts were assessed by chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization analysis, and the culture media from 55 single-embryo transfer cycles was tested for miRNA expression using an array-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the identified miRNA was correlated with pregnancy outcomes. Ten miRNA were identified in the culture media; two were specific to spent media (miR-191 and miR-372), and one was only present in media before the embryos had been cultured (miR-645). MicroRNA-191 was more highly concentrated in media from aneuploid embryos, and miR-191, miR-372, and miR-645 were more highly concentrated in media from failed IVF/non-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Additionally, miRNA were found to be more highly concentrated in ICSI and day-5 media samples when compared with regularly inseminated and day-4 samples, respectively. MicroRNA can be detected in IVF culture media. Some of these miRNA are differentially expressed according to the fertilization method, chromosomal status, and pregnancy outcome, which makes them potential biomarkers for predicting IVF success. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Delphine; Pellequer, Yann; Tempesta, Camille; Lorscheidt, Stefan; Kettel, Bernadette; Tamaddon, Lana; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf; Béduneau, Arnaud

    2015-03-15

    Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT. Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF). Co-culture was set up from Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells using an original seeding procedure. Viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed following incubation of FeSSIF and FaSSIF with co-culture. Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated. Results were compared with Caco-2 and HT29-MTX monocultures. While Caco-2 viability was strongly affected with FeSSIF, no toxic effect was detected for the co-cultures in terms of viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of FeSSIF to the basolateral compartment of the co-culture induced cytotoxic effects which suggested the apical mucus barrier being cell protective. In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture. Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic β-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids. This study demonstrated the compatibility of the Caco-2/HT29-MTX model with some of the current biorelevant media. Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Bone marrow extract as a growth supplement for human iliac apophyseal chondrocyte culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Balakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Human bone marrow is rich in various growth factors which may support the chondrocyte growth. This study was conducted to compare the culture characteristics of human growth plate chondrocyte in foetal bovine serum (FBS and human autologous bone marrow extract (BME in monolayer culture. Methods: Iliac crest apophyseal cartilage was harvested from four donors, aged between two and nine years, undergoing hip surgery. Chondrocytes were propagated under two culture conditions, with 10 per cent FBS and 10 per cent autologous BME harvested from the same donors. Cells were harvested at 7, 14 and 21 days to assess viability, morphology, cell count and immunocytochemistry. Results: With an initial seeding density of 2500 cells/cm 2 , the average yield in monolayer cultured with FBS was 3.35 × 10 5 , 5.9 × 10 5 , 14.1 × 10 5 and BME was 0.66 × 10 5 , 1.57 × 10 5 and 3.48 × 10 5 at 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Viability was 98.21 per cent with FBS and 97.45 per cent with BME at 21 days. In BME supplemented cultures, hyaline phenotype was maintained up to 21 days. The yield was higher in the FBS supplemented group; however, the phenotype could not be maintained by the FBS group as long as BME group. Interpretation & conclusions: Autologous BME was found to be a safer alternative to FBS for human studies. BME could maintain the hyaline phenotype for a longer time. Ways to enhance the cell yield needs to be explored in future studies.

  5. Characteristics of human infant primary fibroblast cultures from Achilles tendons removed post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell cultures were investigated as a tool for molecular diagnostics in a forensic setting. Fibroblast cultures had been established from human Achilles tendon resected at autopsies, from cases of sudden infant death syndrome and control infants who died in traumatic events (n=41). After...... established from post-mortem tissue are renewable sources of biological material; they can be the foundation for genetic, metabolic and other functional studies and thus constitute a valuable tool for molecular and pathophysiological investigations in biomedical and forensic sciences....

  6. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic...

  7. Effect of Dynamic Culture and Periodic Compression on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Yu, Li; Lim, Casey G; Goodley, Addison S; Xiao, Xuan; Placone, Jesse K; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Hsieh, Adam H; Fisher, John P

    2016-07-01

    We have recently developed a bioreactor that can apply both shear and compressive forces to engineered tissues in dynamic culture. In our system, alginate hydrogel beads with encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured under different dynamic conditions while subjected to periodic, compressive force. A customized pressure sensor was developed to track the pressure fluctuations when shear forces and compressive forces were applied. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture can maintain a higher cell population throughout the study. With the application of only shear stress, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that hMSCs experienced less chondrogenic differentiation than the static group. The second study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was enhanced by additional mechanical compression. After 14 days, alcian blue staining showed more extracellular matrix formed in the compression group. The upregulation of the positive chondrogenic markers such as Sox 9, aggrecan, and type II collagen were demonstrated by qPCR. Our bioreactor provides a novel approach to apply mechanical forces to engineered cartilage. Results suggest that a combination of dynamic culture with proper mechanical stimulation may promote efficient progenitor cell expansion in vitro, thereby allowing the culture of clinically relevant articular chondrocytes for the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  8. The production of collagenase by adherent mononuclear cells cultured from human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, J S; Weiss, J; Ryhänen, L; Nies, K M; Rantala-Ryhänen, S; Uitto, J

    1984-12-01

    Mononuclear cells were isolated from human peripheral blood by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation, and the cells adherent to plastic substrata were cultured in serum-free media supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate. These cell cultures, which consisted predominantly of monocyte-macrophages as judged by nonspecific esterase staining, accumulated collagenase in the medium. This collagenase resembled other vertebrate collagenases in that it cleaved native triple-helical type I collagen at a locus 3/4-length away from the amino-terminal end of the molecule. The collagenase activity was inhibited by Na2EDTA, dithiothreitol, and fetal calf serum, while the addition of Ca++ or N-ethylmaleimide enhanced the enzyme activity. The accumulation of collagenase in the culture media was markedly enhanced by the incubation of cells with concanavalin A or phorbol myristic acetate. In the presence of cycloheximide, the levels of collagenase activity were markedly reduced, suggesting that active protein synthesis was required to express the enzyme activity. In additional experiments, monocytes were further purified by counterflow centrifugation-elutriation. The collagenase production was markedly increased in cultures enriched in monocyte-macrophages and devoid of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The accumulation of collagenase in monocyte cultures incubated for 48 hours in the presence of concanavalin A or phorbol myristic acetate was of the same order of magnitude as in parallel cultures containing the same number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes purified by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and Plasmagel sedimentation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. A Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of the Cultural Cognition of Humans and Other Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2017-01-09

    The comparative and evolutionary analysis of social learning and all manner of cultural processes has become a flourishing field. Applying the 'comparative method' to such phenomena allows us to exploit the good fortunate we have in being able to study them in satisfying detail in our living primate relatives, using the results to reconstruct the cultural cognition of the ancestral forms we share with these species. Here I offer an overview of principal discoveries in recent years, organized through a developing scheme that targets three main dimensions of culture: the patterning of culturally transmitted traditions in time and space; the underlying social learning processes; and the particular behavioral and psychological contents of cultures. I focus on a comparison between humans, particularly children, and our closest primate relative the chimpanzee, for which we now have much the richest database of relevant observational and experimental findings. Commonalities across these sister-species can be identified in each of the three dimensions listed above and in several subcategories within them, but the comparisons also highlight the major contrasts in the nature of culture that have evolved between ourselves and closest primate relatives.

  10. The cross-cultural variation of predictors of human papillomavirus vaccination intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey R; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2011-02-01

    The influence of health beliefs on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability have been extensively documented in past research. However, studies documenting the generalizability of prior findings to culturally diverse participants are lacking. The importance of generalizability studies is underscored by the immense disparities in cervical cancer rates across ethnicities. Moreover, theory in cultural psychology suggests that beliefs derived from personal expectations may not be the strongest predictors of intentions in individuals socialized in collectivist cultures. The purpose of this research was to investigate the strongest predictors of mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters across three cultural groups: Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and African American. One hundred fifty mothers were recruited from Public Health Department clinics in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Mothers were asked to answer measures that assessed personal and normative predictors of intentions. Results indicated that predictors of vaccination intentions varied cross-culturally. Specifically, culture moderated the influence of norms on intentions. Interventions designed for Hispanics may be more effective if norms, rather than attitudes, are targeted.

  11. Interaction between oxytocin receptor polymorphism and interdependent culture values on human empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Ma, Yina; Liu, Yi; Li, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and whether such gene × culture interactions occurs at both behavioral and neural level. This study investigated whether and how OXTR rs53576 interacts with interdependence-a key dimension of cultural orientations that distinguish between East Asian and Western cultures-to affect human empathy that underlies altruistic motivation and prosocial behavior. Experiment 1 measured interdependence, empathy trait and OXTR rs53576 genotypes of 1536 Chinese participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a stronger association between interdependence and empathy trait in G allele carriers compared with A/A homozygotes of OXTR rs53576. Experiment 2 measured neural responses to others' suffering by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of OXTR rs53576 using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed stronger associations between interdependence and empathic neural responses in the insula, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus in G/G compared with A/A carriers. Our results provide the first evidence for gene × culture interactions on empathy at both behavioral tendency and underlying brain activity. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cross-cultural study on human-robot greeting interaction : acceptance and discomfort by Egyptians and Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Trovato, G.; Zecca, M.; Sessa, S.; Jamone, L.; Ham, J.R.C.; Hashimoto, K.; Takanishi, A.

    2013-01-01

    As witnessed in several behavioural studies, a complex relationship exists between people’s cultural background and their general acceptance towards robots. However, very few studies have investigated whether a robot’s original language and gesture based on certain culture have an impact on the people of the different cultures. The purpose of this work is to provide experimental evidence which supports the idea that humans may accept more easily a robot that can adapt to their specific cultur...

  13. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  14. Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene; Rustan, Arild C

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. As the prolif......Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways...... number and could be explained by reduced incorporation into diacyl- and triacylglycerols. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoA esters decreased with increased passage number. Late-passage, non-proliferating, myoblast cultures showed strong senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity indicating...... that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength....

  15. About social and cultural aspects of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the approaches to socio­cultural understanding of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology, analyzes the essence of human nature contradictions inherent in the contradiction between biological and social components; author focuses attention on the concept of «identity» in the context of philosophical anthropology and characterization of the status of human life; put forward a reasoned statement that outlook, as the level of philosophical understanding of the world, combining both biological and social components of human nature. It is emphasized that universal principle transistorychnym public attitudes towards human life is the recognition of its absolute value in different dimensions ­ religious, philosophical, scientific. The author notes that religious, especially biblical doctrine emphasizes the value of human life that flows from dignity of man, created in God’s image, a rational being who comes to Earth as, in a sense, a representative of God. The article stresses the urgency of a new philosophical paradigm as an important ideological guideline that requires perceive and understand the biological basis of man is not as indispensable, but neutral background of social life, but as a basis upon which and through which a person is transformed into a cultural and civilized being.

  16. TGFβ1-mediated expression and alternative splicing of Fibronectin Extra Domain A in human podocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madne, Tarunkumar Hemraj; Dockrell, Mark Edward Carl

    2018-02-28

    Alternative splicing is a fundamental phenomenon to build protein diversity in health and diseases. Extra Domain A+ Fibronectin (EDA+Fn) is an alternatively spliced form of fibronectin protein present in the extra cellular matrix (ECM) in renal fibrosis. Podocytes are spectacular cell type and play a key role in filtration and synthesise ECM proteins in renal physiology and pathology. TGFβ1 is a strong stimulator of ECM proteins in renal injury. In this study, we have investigated alternative splicing of EDA+ Fn in human podocytes in response to TGFβ1. We have performed western blotting and immunofluorescence to characterise the expression of the EDA+Fn protein, real-time PCR for RNA expression and RT-PCR to look for alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in conditionally immortalised human podocytes culture.We used TGFβ1 as a stimulator and SB431542 and SRPIN340 for inhibitory studies. In this work, for the first time we have demonstrated in human podocytes culture EDA+Fn is expressed in the basal condition and TGFβ1 2.5ng/ml induced the Fn mRNA and EDA+Fn protein expression demonstrated by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. TGFβ1 2.5ng/ml induced the alternative splicing of EDA+Fn shown by conventional RT-PCR. Studies with ALK5 inhibitor SB431542 and SRPIN340 show that TGFβ1 induced alternative splicing of EDA+Fn was by the ALK5 receptor and the SR proteins.  In human podocytes culture, alternative splicing of EDA+Fn occurs at basal conditions and TGFβ1 further induced the alternative splicing of EDA+Fn via ALK5 receptor activation and SR proteins. This is the first evidence of basal and TGFβ1 mediated alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in human podocytes culture.

  17. Improving student understanding in web programming material through multimedia adventure games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriasari, N. S.; Ashiddiqi, M. F.; Nurdin, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to make multimedia adventure games and find out the improvement of learners’ understanding after being given treatment of using multimedia adventure game in learning Web Programming. Participants of this study are students of class X (ten) in one of the Vocational Schools (SMK) in Indonesia. The material of web programming is a material that difficult enough to be understood by the participant therefore needed tools to facilitate the participants to understand the material. Solutions offered in this study is by using multimedia adventures game. Multimedia has been created using Construct2 and measured understood with method Non-equivalent Control Group Design. Pre-test and post-test has given to learners who received treatment using the multimedia adventure showed increase in understanding web programming material.

  18. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  19. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR ® technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA concentrations

  20. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Tracy L., E-mail: tracylmarion@qualyst.com [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7270 (United States); Perry, Cassandra H., E-mail: cassandraperry@qualyst.com [Qualyst, Inc., Durham, NC 27713 (United States); St Claire, Robert L., E-mail: bobstclaire@qualyst.com [Qualyst, Inc., Durham, NC 27713 (United States); Brouwer, Kim L.R., E-mail: kbrouwer@unc.edu [Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7569 Kerr Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7569 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR{sup ®} technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na{sup +}-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA

  1. SMART-1 - the lunar adventure begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    On the one hand, SMART-1 will test new state-of-the art instruments and techniques essential to ambitious future interplanetary missions, such as a solar-electric primary propulsion system. On the other, SMART-1 will answer pending scientific questions, addressing key issues such as the Moon's formation, its precise mineralogical composition, and the presence and quantity of water. These data will help scientists to understand the Earth-Moon system and Earth-like planets, and will also provide invaluable information when considering a long-lasting human presence on the Moon. On 15 July 2003, SMART 1 was shipped to the European launch base in Kourou, French Guiana, where it is being prepared for its launch, due to take place on an Ariane-5 rocket on 29 August 2003 (Central European Summer Time). For the first time, SMART-1 will combine the power obtained by solar-electric propulsion - never used before by Europe as a main propulsion system - with lunar gravity. It will not follow a direct path to cross the 400 000 kilometres distance between the Earth and the Moon. Instead, from an elliptical orbit around the Earth where it is placed by the rocket, SMART-1 will gradually expand the orbit in a spiral pathway that will bring it closer to the Moon every month. Finally, the Moon’s gravitational field will capture the spacecraft. SMART-1 will not land on the Moon, but will make its observations from orbit, obtaining a global view. When it reaches its destination, in December 2004, it will enter orbit around the Moon and make measurements for a period of six months possibly extended to one year. Why the Moon? Water, minerals, and a violent origin “Our knowledge of the Moon is still surprisingly incomplete,” says Bernard Foing, ESA’s SMART-1 Project Scientist. “We still want to know how the Earth-Moon system formed and evolved, as well as the role of geophysical processes such as volcanism, tectonics, cratering, or erosion in shaping the Moon. And, of course, in

  2. Culture Medium Supplements Derived from Human Platelet and Plasma: Cell Commitment and Proliferation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Muraglia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Present cell culture medium supplements, in most cases based on animal sera, are not fully satisfactory especially for the in vitro expansion of cells intended for human cell therapy. This paper refers to (i an heparin-free human platelet lysate (PL devoid of serum or plasma components (v-PL and (ii an heparin-free human serum derived from plasma devoid of PL components (Pl-s and to their use as single components or in combination in primary or cell line cultures. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC primary cultures were obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and umbilical cord. Human chondrocytes were obtained from articular cartilage biopsies. In general, MSC expanded in the presence of Pl-s alone showed a low or no proliferation in comparison to cells grown with the combination of Pl-s and v-PL. Confluent, growth-arrested cells, either human MSC or human articular chondrocytes, treated with v-PL resumed proliferation, whereas control cultures, not supplemented with v-PL, remained quiescent and did not proliferate. Interestingly, signal transduction pathways distinctive of proliferation were activated also in cells treated with v-PL in the absence of serum, when cell proliferation did not occur, indicating that v-PL could induce the cell re-entry in the cell cycle (cell commitment, but the presence of serum proteins was an absolute requirement for cell proliferation to happen. Indeed, Pl-s alone supported cell growth in constitutively activated cell lines (U-937, HeLa, HaCaT, and V-79 regardless of the co-presence of v-PL. Plasma- and plasma-derived serum were equally able to sustain cell proliferation although, for cells cultured in adhesion, the Pl-s was more efficient than the plasma from which it was derived. In conclusion, the cells expanded in the presence of the new additives maintained their differentiation potential and did not show alterations in their karyotype.

  3. [Human myoblast culture as muscle stem cells in medical and biological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, S M; Krokhina, T B; Shishkin, S S; Krakhmaleva, I N; Zakharov, S F; Ershova, E S

    2001-01-01

    The method for obtaining human myoblast culture has been modified to consider the specific histological localization of the satellite cells as well as their growth properties; the cultivation conditions have been selected to grow up to 150000 cells/cm2. At high densities, the cells remain mononuclear and preserve their typical myoblast morphology as well as the capacity for fusion and the formation of myotubes. By contrast to fibroblasts, up to 80% of the cells in the myoblast culture were positive in the acid phosphatase test, which indicates their stem nature. The obtained myoblast cultures were used in the clinical tests of cell-mediated gene therapy of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy as well as in the bioassay for the effects of biologically active compounds.

  4. Comparison of different culture conditions for human mesenchymal stromal cells for clinical stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sorensen, M.; Friis, T.; Bindslev, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adult bone marrow (BM) are considered potential candidates for therapeutic neovascularization in cardiovascular disease. When implementing results from animal trials in clinical treatment, it is essential to isolate and expand the MSCs under...... conditions following good manufacturing practice (GMP). The aims of the study were first to establish culture conditions following GMP quality demands for human MSC expansion and differentiation for use in clinical trials, and second to compare these MSCs with MSCs derived from culture in four media commonly...... analysis showed that the plastic-adherent MSCs cultured in EMEA medium or in the other four media were identically negative for the haematopoietic surface markers CD45 and CD34 and positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, CD166 and CD13, which in combined expression is characteristic of MSCs. MSC stimulation...

  5. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  6. Opposing discourses? Do the two cultural paradigms - natural science and humanities - exist in our school?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyen, Marianne; Mumiah, Rasmusen

    the humanities and natural sciences influence the newly educated teachers’ understanding of the teaching profession. From earlier research on teachers in natural science subjects it became clear that teachers from the two major areas are in conflict. Mutual understanding is lacking; the organization...... of the consequences was that teacher students today must choose between to teach either language and literature or maths and therefore, and as a consequence, early in their studies choose between the main areas of culture and nature. Starting from this basis, we want to see if, and in which ways, perspectives from...... of the school day gives priority to cultural subjects; the physical design of the school implies that natural science subjects are of a special kind. and consequently teachers within cultural subjects appear to regard natural science subjects as peripheral educationally to pupils development. Our starting point...

  7. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  8. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on silicate-substituted tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lea; Bünger, Cody E; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Autologous bone grafts are currently the gold standard for treatment of large bone defects, but their availability is limited due to donor site morbidity. Different substitutes have been suggested to replace these grafts, and this study presents a bone tissue engineered alternative using silicate......-substituted tricalcium phosphate (Si-TCP) scaffolds seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). The cells were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultured either statically or in a perfusion bioreactor for up to 21 days and assessed for osteogenic differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity...... assays and by quantitative real-time RT-PCR on bone markers. During culture, cells from the flow cultured constructs demonstrated improved proliferation and osteogenic differentiation verified by a more pronounced expression of several bone markers, e.g. alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, Runx2, bone...

  9. Effects of UV, sunlight and X-ray radiation on quiescent human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nondividing human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) in culture have been used to study the effect on cell lethality of ultraviolet light, natural sunlight and X-rays. A lethal effect is defined as cellular degeneration, loss from the culture and inability to exclude vital strains. Far- and mid-UV have a readily observable lethal effect (cell loss), with DNA and DNA damage as the critical target and critical damage respectively. In part, natural sunlight kills cells by a similar mechanism but has an additional lethal effect at longer exposure times. This additional effect is expressed by the retention of the dead cells in culture, in contrast to the UV-induced promotion of cell degeneration and loss. Relatively large doses of X-rays that destroy proliferative capacity, have no detectable lethal effect on the maintenance of non-dividing cells. The biological response of nondividing HDF to radiations from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is dissimilar. (author)

  10. Micronucleus formation in cultured human keratinocytes following exposure to mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, F N; Haring, R M; Overkamp, M J; Weterings, P J

    1991-02-01

    A method is described to investigate the induction of micronuclei in cultured human keratinocytes after short-term exposure to known clastogenic agents. The cytokinesis-block method was applied to facilitate the scoring of micronucleated cells. Mitomycin C, a direct-acting compound, caused a 5-20-fold increase in micronuclei over the controls at the highest concentration tested (1 microgram/ml). Cyclophosphamide, an agent requiring metabolic activation, did not induce the formation of micronuclei in cultured keratinocytes. However, after pretreatment of the keratinocyte cultures with Aroclor 1254 for 72 h, exposure to cyclophosphamide resulted in a 3-fold increase in micronucleus frequency over the controls. No cytogenetic effect of Aroclor 1254 was observed in control experiments.

  11. Development of microfluidic cell culture devices towards an in vitro human intestinal barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin

    to enable real-time detection of cell responses, adjustment of cellular stimulation etc. leading to establishment of conditional experiments. In this project, microfluidic systems engineering was leveraged to develop an eight chamber multi-layer microchip for intestinal barrier studies. Sandwiched between...... the layers was a modified Teflon porous membrane for cell culture. The novelty lies in modifying the surface of the porous Teflon support membrane using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry, thus allowing the modified Teflon membrane to be bonded between the chip layers to form an enclosed microchip. Successful...... application of the multi-layer microchip was demonstrated by integrating the microchip to an existing cell culture fluidic system to culture the human intestinal epithelial cells, Caco-2, for long term studies. Under the continuous low flow conditions, the cells differentiated into columnar cells displaying...

  12. Chromosome dosimetry: the influence of culture media on the proliferation of irradiated and unirradiated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purrott, R.J.; Lloyd, D.C.; Vulpis, N.

    1981-01-01

    The proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin stimulated human lymphocytes in four types of synthetic culture medium has been studied using the fluorescence plus Giemsa staining technique to determine cell cycle status. 48 hour cultures of unirradiated cells containing Ham's F10 or RPMI 1640 media yielded significant numbers of second cycle metaphases. Cultures containing Eagle's MEM or TC 199 media, however, required longer incubation times to produce appreciable numbers of second division cells. Intrinsic differences between donors in the rate of proliferation had little effect on the relative ranking of the media. Radiation induced mitotic delay of about 1 hour per Gray was observed for each medium. The relevance of these results to the accuracy of radiation dose estimation by chromosome aberration analysis is discussed. (author)

  13. Characterization of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins expressed by cells cultured from human arachnoid granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bhavya C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are projections of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses. They function, along with the extracranial lymphatics, to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to the systemic venous circulation. Disruption of normal CSF dynamics may result in increased intracranial pressures causing many problems including headaches and visual loss, as in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. To study the role of AGs in CSF egress, we have grown cells from human AG tissue in vitro and have characterized their expression of those cytoskeletal and junctional proteins that may function in the regulation of CSF outflow. Methods Human AG tissue was obtained at autopsy, and explanted to cell culture dishes coated with fibronectin. Typically, cells migrated from the explanted tissue after 7–10 days in vitro. Second or third passage cells were seeded onto fibronectin-coated coverslips at confluent densities and grown to confluency for 7–10 days. Arachnoidal cells were tested using immunocytochemical methods for the expression of several common cytoskeletal and junctional proteins. Second and third passage cultures were also labeled with the common endothelial markers CD-31 or VE-cadherin (CD144 and their expression was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. Results Confluent cultures of arachnoidal cells expressed the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Cytokeratin intermediate filaments were expressed variably in a subpopulation of cells. The cultures also expressed the junctional proteins connexin43, desmoplakin 1 and 2, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that second and third passage cultures failed to express the endothelial cell markers CD31 or VE-cadherin in significant quantities, thereby showing that these cultures did not consist of endothelial cells from the venous sinus wall. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of

  14. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1-mediated effects were

  15. Reconstruction of Hyaline Cartilage Deep Layer Properties in 3-Dimensional Cultures of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Vibudha; Tattikota, Surendra Mohan; T, Avinash Raj; Sriramagiri, Vijaya Rama Rao; Kantipudi, Suma; Pande, Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) injuries and malformations are commonly noticed because of trauma or age-related degeneration. Many methods have been adopted for replacing or repairing the damaged tissue. Currently available AC repair methods, in several cases, fail to yield good-quality long-lasting results, perhaps because the reconstructed tissue lacks the cellular and matrix properties seen in hyaline cartilage (HC). To reconstruct HC tissue from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of AC-derived human chondrocytes that would specifically exhibit the cellular and biochemical properties of the deep layer of HC. Descriptive laboratory study. Two-dimensional cultures of human AC-derived chondrocytes were established in classical medium (CM) and newly defined medium (NDM) and maintained for a period of 6 weeks. These cells were suspended in 2 mm-thick collagen I gels, placed in 24-well culture inserts, and further cultured up to 30 days. Properties of chondrocytes, grown in 2D cultures and the reconstructed 3D cartilage tissue, were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopic techniques, immunohistochemistry, and cartilage-specific gene expression profiling by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and were compared with those of the deep layer of native human AC. Two-dimensional chondrocyte cultures grown in NDM, in comparison with those grown in CM, showed more chondrocyte-specific gene activity and matrix properties. The NDM-grown chondrocytes in 3D cultures also showed better reproduction of deep layer properties of HC, as confirmed by microscopic and gene expression analysis. The method used in this study can yield cartilage tissue up to approximately 1.6 cm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness that satisfies the very low cell density and matrix composition properties present in the deep layer of normal HC. This study presents a novel and reproducible method for long-term culture of AC-derived chondrocytes and reconstruction of cartilage

  16. Tourists’ Satisfaction at Trijuginarayan: An Emerging Spiritual and Adventure Tourist Destination in Garhwal Himalaya India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Bagri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourists’ satisfaction has been acknowledged as one of the most important elements of competitive advantage and formulating effective destination management strategies because it is a reliable standard to evaluate performance of tangible and intangible elements of tourism products and services. The purpose of this study is to investigate tourists’ satisfaction by examining the relationship between destination attribute importance and performance in a tourist destination. Trijuginarayan, an emerging spiritual and adventure tourist destination located in Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state of India was selected as the study area for this research. Importance-Performance Analysis was employed to examine the relationship between importance and performance of various destination attributes. Results revealed that attributes related to tourism product of spiritual and cultural nature, atmosphere and climate, a variety of tourist activities, hospitality and safety are significant factors in determining tourist satisfaction, whereas basic facilities such as accommodation, transportation, tourism infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation at destination are of significant importance in satisfaction evaluation. Findings also reveal that tourists were satisfied with the core products, but were dissatisfied with basic tourist facilities offered at the destination. The findings alert concerned tourism stakeholders for outlining effective strategies for holistic development and improving performance of attributes in a given destination.

  17. Production, secretion, and stability of human secreted alkaline phosphatase in tobacco NT1 cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Arteaga, Alejandro; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco NT1 cell suspension cultures secreting active human secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) were generated for the first time as a model system to study recombinant protein production, secretion, and stability in plant cell cultures. The SEAP gene encodes a secreted form of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). During batch culture, the highest level of active SEAP in the culture medium (0.4 U/mL, corresponding to approximately 27 mg/L) was observed at the end of the exponential growth phase. Although the level of active SEAP decreased during the stationary phase, the activity loss did not appear to be due to SEAP degradation (based on Western blots) but due to SEAP denaturation. The protein-stabilizing agents polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) and bacitracin were added extracellularly to test for their ability to reduce the loss of SEAP activity during the stationary phase. Bacitracin (100 mg/L) was the most effective treatment at sustaining activity levels for up to 17 days post-subculture. Commercially available human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) was used to probe the mechanism of SEAP deactivation. Experiments with PLAP in sterile and conditioned medium corroborated the denaturation of SEAP by factors generated by cell growth and not due to simple proteolysis. We also show for the first time that the factors promoting activity loss are heat labile at 95 degrees C but not at 70 degrees C, and they are not inactivated after a 5 day incubation period under normal culture conditions (27 degrees C). In addition, there were no significant changes in pH or redox potential when comparing sterile and cell-free conditioned medium during PLAP incubation, indicating that these factors were unimportant.

  18. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A General Education Course in Cultural Astronomy: Exploring the Universe Through Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy courses for non-science majors (often referred to as Astro 101) are the bread and butter of the general education service obligation of astronomy faculty and programs across the US. Their content has traditionally been a general survey of the solar system, stars and galaxies, or even the entire universe. However, because the audience is students who will not be continuing on in astronomy, there is actually no need to cover a broad range of specific topics. Rather, it is more important to concentrate on the scientific process, and hopefully leave the student with an understanding of the relevance of science in everyday life, regardless of his or her major. As a result, some faculty prefer a more interdisciplinary focus for their Astro 101 classes, for example courses on the search for extraterrestrial life. Another option for general education astronomy courses is what has become known as cultural astronomy. Cultural astronomy focuses on the ways in which astronomical knowledge and belief influences human behavior and social structures. Under this umbrella fall two important areas of study, archaeoastronomy (concentrating on ancient cultures) and enthoastronomy (focusing on extant cultures). Such interdisciplinary courses draw heavily upon archaeology, history, anthropology, art, and other fields more traditionally aligned with the humanities and social sciences than the natural sciences, and therefore can be attractive to students in these non-science majors. In such courses, students experience the “humanity” of science: the important connections between science and the human experience, and how experts in myriad fields contribute in meaningful ways to our understanding of how astronomical knowledge has been constructed and disseminated across time and space. This poster describes the content and pedagogy of a general education course in cultural astronomy for non-science majors that stresses hands-on and experiential learning, including the use of

  20. Uranium mines and French mining companies: a magnificent adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.

    2008-01-01

    The French mining adventure still arouses enthusiasm. The search for uranium began in 1945 with the creation of the Cea (Atomic Energy Board) whose one mission was to supply the nascent French nuclear programme with the necessary materials. Prospecting works were then led throughout France, Madagascar, the Ivory Coast and the French equatorial Africa. More than 60 years later the only surviving actor of this quest for uranium has become the mining department of Areva Nuclear Cycle which is itself a sub-company of Areva. The author, who was an ancient high executive of Cogema draws a detailed history of the French uranium mining industry with with its ups and downs, by analysing the impact of the 2 oil crisis and of the decline of nuclear energy in the decade following the Chernobyl accident. (A.C.)