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Sample records for human adult cadavers

  1. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

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    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  2. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Beetles (Silphidae from Human Cadavers in Cali, Colombia

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    Barreto Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae, Musca domestica (Muscidae, Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

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    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  4. A study of the formation and branching pattern of brachial plexus and its variations in adult human cadavers of north Karnataka

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    Sheetal V Pattanshetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: The brachial plexus is highly variable, in its formation and branching pattern thus, knowledge of its anatomical patterns, may be insufficient for the surgeon operating on or around these nerves or for the regional anesthesiologist working in this area. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to study further about variations of brachial plexus encountered during routine dissection classes. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out by dissection of 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers, in the age group of 18 to 85 years, obtained during a study period of 2 years from the Department of Anatomy. The plexus was studied in its entire course commencing from the formation in cervical region, course through root of the neck and axilla, up to the main terminal branches of the upper extremity. During the dissection, variations of brachial plexus pertaining to its formation from the roots, trunks, divisions and cords and the branching pattern were observed and data was collected. Results: Out of the 60 cadaveric upper limbs studied for the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus, 2 limbs (3.33% were pre-fixed plexuses. Fusion of adjacent trunks was detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. Variations in branches of lateral cord were detected in 8 limbs (13.33%. Among Posterior cord variations 2-thoracodorsal nerves were detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. All the other branches from brachial plexus had been found to have no anatomical variations. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the possible variations of the brachial plexus. Though the variations mentioned may not alter the normal functioning of the limb of the individual, but knowledge of the variations is of prime importance to be kept in mind, during anaesthetic and surgical procedures.

  5. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

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    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  6. Human cadavers to evaluate prototypes of minimally invasive surgical instruments: A feasibility study.

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    van den Haak, Lukas; Alleblas, Chantal; Rhemrev, Johann P; Scheltes, Jules; Nieboer, Bertho; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2017-09-15

    New technology should be extensively tested before it is tried on patients. Unfortunately representative models are lacking. In theory, fresh frozen human cadavers are excellent models. To identify strengths and weaknesses of fresh frozen human cadavers as research models for new technology prior to implementation in gynecological surgery. During pre-clinical validation studies regarding the MobiSep uterine manipulator, test procedures were performed on fresh frozen cadavers. Both the experimental setup as the performance of the prototype were assessed. Five tests including six human cadavers were performed. Major changes were made to the MobiSep prototype design. The cadavers of two tests closely resembled surgical experiences as found in live patients. The anatomy of 4 of the 6 cadavers was not fully representative due to atrophy of the internal genitalia caused by age and due to the presence of pathology such extensive tumorous tissue. The cadaver tests provided vital information regarding design and functionality, that failed to emerge during the in-vitro testing. However, experiments are subject to anatomical uncertainties or restrictions. Consequently, the suitability of a cadaver should be carefully assessed before it is used for testing new technology.

  7. Permeation Studies of Captopril Transdermal Films Through Human Cadaver Skin.

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    Nair, Rajesh Sreedharan; Nair, Sujith

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.

  8. Extended TRAM flap: feasibility study on fresh human cadavers.

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    Zenn, Michael R; Heitmann, Christoph

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a superiorly based TRAM flap for breast reconstruction with its superior border abutting the inframammary fold. This flap would have a primary blood supply from the superior epigastric vessels, similar to a free flap attached to the mammary system. This flap, however, would not require microsurgery. Instead, it would have its superior epigastric pedicle lengthened by partial rib resection. Donor site closure would be accomplished by reverse abdominoplasty and the donor scar hidden in the inframammary fold. The surgical anatomy of such an extended TRAM flap (eTRAM) was investigated by cannulation of the internal mammary artery (IMA) in 10 fresh human cadavers bilaterally, injection with latex, and then dissection throughout its intrathoracic course. At the level of the third intercostal space, the mean external diameters of the right and left IMA were found to be 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. The diameter of the vessel decreased until the IMA bifurcated into the superior epigastric artery and the musculophrenic artery, usually at the sixth intercostal space. The superior epigastric artery, having a mean diameter of 1.6 mm at its origin, descended caudally behind the seventh costal cartilage and could be followed until it entered the posterior rectus sheath and the rectus abdominis muscle. On its downward course, it was not embedded in the diaphragm muscle and was easily separated without violation of the thoracic cavity. From this anatomic study, it seems to be possible to raise an eTRAM after partial rib resection. Some technical considerations of such a flap are discussed. This modification of the TRAM would be helpful to surgeons commonly performing pedicled TRAM flaps and might extend its applicability beyond breast reconstruction to chest wall, intrathoracic, and head and neck reconstruction.

  9. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

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    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  10. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

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    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  11. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

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    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  12. An evaluation of soil chemistry in human cadaver decomposition islands: Potential for estimating postmortem interval (PMI).

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    Fancher, J P; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Farris, T; Mix, K; Schwab, A P; Wescott, D J; Hamilton, M D

    2017-08-18

    Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4-N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile. Other soil chemistry, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), orthophosphate-P (PO4-P), sodium (Na(+)), and potassium (K(+)), remained higher than the control soil up to a PMI of 1752days postmortem. The body mass index (BMI) of the cadaver appeared to have some effect on the cadaver decomposition island chemistry. To estimate PMI using soil chemistry, backward, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used with PMI as the dependent variable and soil chemistry, body mass index (BMI) and physical soil characteristics such as saturated hydraulic conductivity as independent variables. Measures of soil parameters derived from predator and microbial mediated decomposition of human remains shows promise in estimating PMI to within 365days for a period up to nearly five years. This persistent change in soil chemistry extends the ability to estimate PMI beyond the traditionally utilized methods of entomology and taphonomy in support of medical-legal investigations, humanitarian recovery efforts, and criminal and civil cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy skills acquisition: augmented reality simulator versus human cadaver training models.

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    Leblanc, Fabien; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Delaney, Conor P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a simulator with the human cadaver model for hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training. An observational prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the laparoscopic surgery training models. The study took place during the laparoscopic colectomy training course performed at the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Thirty four practicing surgeons performed hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on human cadavers (n = 7) and on an augmented reality simulator (n = 27). Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Trainers and trainees completed independently objective structured assessment forms. Training models were compared by trainees' technical skills scores, events scores, and satisfaction. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both surgeon groups. Generic and specific skills scores were similar on both training models. Generic events scores were significantly better on the cadaver model. The 2 most frequent generic events occurring on the simulator were poor hand-eye coordination and inefficient use of retraction. Specific events were scored better on the simulator and reached the significance limit (p = 0.051) for trainers. The specific events occurring on the cadaver were intestinal perforation and left ureter identification difficulties. Overall satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p = 0.009). With regard to skills scores, the augmented reality simulator had adequate qualities for the hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy training. Nevertheless, events scores highlighted weaknesses of the anatomical replication on the simulator. Although improvements likely will be required to incorporate the simulator more routinely into the colorectal training, it may be useful in its current form for more junior trainees or those early on their learning curve. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  14. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

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    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  15. How legitimate is the use of human cadavers in modern-day anatomy?

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    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  16. Mapping the lateral extent of human cadaver decomposition with soil chemistry.

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    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Owings, C G; Alexander, M B; Larison, N; Bytheway, J A

    2012-03-10

    Soil below decomposing cadavers may have a different lateral spatial extent depending upon whether scavengers have access to the human cadaver or not. We examined the lateral spatial extent of decomposition products to a depth of 7cm of soils beneath two decomposing corpses, one in which the subject was autopsied, unclothed and placed under a wire cage to restrict scavenger access and one in which the subject was not autopsied, unclothed and exposed to scavengers. The two bodies had accumulated degree days (ADD) of 5799 and 5469 and post mortem interval (PMI) of 288 and 248d, respectively. The spatial extent for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON) for both bodies was large but similar suggesting some movement off site for both compounds. Mean DOC was 1087±727 and 1484±1236μgg(-1) dry soil under the two corpses relative to 150±68μgg(-1) in upslope control soils. Sulfate tended to have 'hot spots' of lower values relative to the control soils indicative of anaerobic respiration. pH was lower and electrical conductivity was higher in the soil under both decomposing cadavers relative to control soils. Some of the nutrients examined downslope of the human remains were significantly higher than control soils upslope suggesting movement of decomposition products off-site which could be an important factor when using human remains detector dogs.

  17. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

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    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  18. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

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    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain.

  19. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

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    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  20. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

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    Kelly L Cobaugh

    Full Text Available The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death. Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem, respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%, with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%. Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem, respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9% and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional

  1. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers

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    Cobaugh, Kelly L.; Schaeffer, Sean M.; DeBruyn, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death). Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a) periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b) human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia) and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem), respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance) and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%), with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%). Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem), respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9%) and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional succession

  2. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

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    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  3. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

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    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  4. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy with central neck dissection:experimental studies on human cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Peiyi; Tang Zhiping; Ding Zihai; Chu Guoliang; Yao Huosheng; Pan Tao; Wang Huaqiao

    2014-01-01

    Background With the development of natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery,studies on transoral video-assisted thymidectomy in preclinical experiments (e.g.,human anatomy and animal trials) were progressing gradually.From 2009 to 2011,embalmed human cadavers were dissected to define the anatomical location,surgical planes,and related neural and vascular structures to create a safe transoral access to the front cervical spaces.Recently,experimental transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy was performed to verify the feasibility of this approach on 15 fresh specimens.Methods Fifteen specimens were placed in the supine position with slight neck extension.Endoscopic incision was made on the midline between the Wharton's duct papillae and two other incisions were made on mandibular first premolar buccal mucosa.Sublingual combined bilateral vestibular tunnels were created from oral cavity to the cervical region.The neck subplatysmal working space was insufflated with CO2 at 6-8 mmHg.The bilateral thyroid lobes and central lymph nodes were dissected under craniocaudal view.Results Three incisions were made in the oral cavity without any incisions on the body surfaces.The distance from the oral cavity to front neck region was the shortest.Bilateral thyroid lobes and central neck region were fully resected via transoral approach.This approach provided a craniocaudal view,in which retrosternal thyroid gland and lymph nodes were easily accessible.The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be identified safely on the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage.The only structure at risk was the mental nerve.Camera motion was somewhat limited by the maxillary dentition.The volume of harvested thyroid nodule through sublingual tunnel in the fifteen human cadavers was (40±15) cm3.Conclusion The transoral procedure is progressive and innovative which not only gives the best cosmetic result and minimal access trauma but also provides a craniocaudal view.

  5. Liver displacement during ventilation in Thiel embalmed human cadavers - a possible model for research and training in minimally invasive therapies.

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    Eisma, Roos; Gueorguieva, Mariana; Immel, Erwin; Toomey, Rachel; McLeod, Graeme; Soames, Roger; Melzer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Respiration-related movement of organs is a complication in a range of diagnostic and interventional procedures. The development and validation of techniques to compensate for such movement requires appropriate models. Human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel method remain flexible and could provide a suitable model. In this study liver displacement during ventilation was assessed in eight Thiel embalmed cadavers, all of which showed thoracic and abdominal motion. Four cadavers displayed realistic lung behaviour, one showed some signs of pneumothorax after prolonged ventilation, one had limited filling of the lungs, and two displayed significant leakage of air into the thorax. A coronal slice containing the largest section through the liver was imaged with a real-time Fast Gradient Echo (FGR) MRI sequence: Craniocaudal displacement of the liver was then determined from a time-series of slices. The maximum liver displacement observed in the cadavers ranged from 7 to 35 mm. The ventilation applied was comparable to tidal breathing at rest and the results found for liver displacement are similar to values in the literature for respiratory motion of the liver under similar conditions. This indicates that Thiel embalmed cadavers have potential as a model for research and training in minimally invasive procedures.

  6. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-01-01

    for surface area. To authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have measured the entire surface area of the orbital cavity.The volume and surface area of the orbital cavity were estimated in computed tomography scans of 11 human cadavers using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. The mean (± SD......Blow-out fractures affect the volume and surface area of the orbital cavity. Estimation of these values after the trauma may help in deciding whether or not a patient is a candidate for surgery. Recent studies have provided estimates of orbital volume and area of bone defect, and correlated them...... with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used...

  7. Assessment of a Human Cadaver Model for Training Emergency Medicine Residents in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikar Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess a human cadaver model for training emergency medicine residents in the ultrasound diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods. Single-blinded observational study using a human cadaveric model at an academic medical center. Three lightly embalmed cadavers were used to create three “normal lungs” and three lungs modeling a “pneumothorax.” The residents were blinded to the side and number of pneumothoraces, as well as to each other’s findings. Each resident performed an ultrasound examination on all six lung models during ventilation of cadavers. They were evaluated on their ability to identify the presence or absence of the sliding-lung sign and seashore sign. Results. A total of 84 ultrasound examinations (42-“normal lung,” 42-“pneumothorax” were performed. A sliding-lung sign was accurately identified in 39 scans, and the seashore sign was accurately identified in 34 scans. The sensitivity and specificity for the sliding-lung sign were 93% (95% CI, 85–100% and 90% (95% CI, 81–99%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the seashore sign were 80% (95% CI, 68–92% and 83% (95% CI, 72–94%, respectively. Conclusions. Lightly embalmed human cadavers may provide an excellent model for mimicking the sonographic appearance of pneumothorax.

  8. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling

  10. Perceptions of human cadaver dissection by medical students: a highly valued experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Inaya; Dany, Mohammed; Forbes, William; Barremkala, Mallikarjuna; Thompson, Brent J; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Cadaver dissection remains a cornerstone in the study of anatomical sciences by medical students. However, this activity can cause emotions that may affect learning outcomes. This study, which involved medical students of various cultural backgrounds, assessed their responses to dissection. Medicine I year students (n = 100) at Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine were invited to complete a questionnaire after the first week of dissection, and again at the end of the course. The questionnaire asked for demographics, and assessed the students' appraisal of their dissection experience, cultural influences, coping activities and learning outcomes. After the first week of dissection, most of the students found the experience challenging, stimulating, exciting and informative, rather than nauseating or unbearable. Still, some students found the experience anxiety-provoking, especially when they thought about human mortality. Cultural background influenced the students' emotional development as they worked through the course. Most of the participants agreed that dissection promotes teamwork, familiarity with the human body, and integration of the theoretical knowledge with practical application. At the end of the course, dissection was significantly less anxiety-provoking, and, interestingly, the study found that culture and religious beliefs became more important to the students. Most students agreed that dissection is important, relevant, and necessary, and has the potential to improve learning outcomes that are essential to the development of physicians. The study suggests that an introductory course in social, behavioral and ethical considerations be presented at the beginning of the medical curriculum.

  11. Acromioclavicular joint dislocations: radiological correlation between Rockwood classification system and injury patterns in human cadaver species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Anica; Rösler, Klaus; Rotter, Robert; Gradl, Georg; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The classification system of Rockwood and Young is a commonly used classification for acromioclavicular joint separations subdividing types I-VI. This classification hypothesizes specific lesions to anatomical structures (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, capsule, attached muscles) leading to the injury. In recent literature, our understanding for anatomical correlates leading to the radiological-based Rockwood classification is questioned. The goal of this experimental-based investigation was to approve the correlation between the anatomical injury pattern and the Rockwood classification. In four human cadavers (seven shoulders), the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were transected stepwise. Radiological correlates were recorded (Zanca view) with 15-kg longitudinal tension applied at the wrist. The resulting acromio- and coracoclavicular distances were measured. Radiographs after acromioclavicular ligament transection showed joint space enlargement (8.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, p acromioclavicular joint space width increased to 16.7 ± 2.7 vs. 8.6 ± 0.3 mm, p acromioclavicular joint lesions higher than Rockwood type I and II. The clinical consequence for reconstruction of low-grade injuries might be a solely surgical approach for the acromioclavicular ligaments or conservative treatment. High-grade injuries were always based on additional structural damage to the coracoclavicular ligaments. Rockwood type V lesions occurred while muscle attachments were intact.

  12. Penetration profile and human cadaver skin distribution of finasteride from vesicular nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Liang, Xingguang; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Xiaoyang

    2015-12-01

    The skin accumulation of therapeutic agents affects the efficiency of topical drug delivery. In this study, in vitro distribution of finasteride of ethosomes and liposomes in human cadaver skin after percutaneous delivery were investigated. Experiments were performed using modified Franz diffusion cells. Finasteride ethosomes, liposomes or hydroethanolic solutions were used as donor medium. Drug distribution at different skin layers and depths were studied by hotplate separation and frozen horizontal slicing technique. The result showed that the accumulation of finasteride in skin ranged from 9.7-24.3 μg/cm(2) at 12 or 24 hours. The ethosomes demonstrated better enhancing ability to deliver finasteride into the dermis layer than liposomes did. The finasteride concentration in the dermis layer from ethosomes was more than sevenfold higher than from liposomes. The finasteride accumulation in ethosomes group showed a distinctive reversed distribution profile. This distinctive reversed distribution profile is meaningful for exerting a favorable pharmacological effect for finasteride. The drug distribution profile in skin layers showed no significant difference between 12 and 24 hours application (p > 0.05). The study demonstrated that finasteride can be accumulated at target site more effectively and maintained at higher level through the application of novel ethosomal carriers.

  13. Alfuzosin hydrochloride transdermal films: evaluation of physicochemical, in vitro human cadaver skin permeation and thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayan Pattnaik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the investigation was to develop a transdermal therapeutic system for alfuzosin hydrochloride and to study the effects of polymeric system and loading dose on the in vitro skin permeation pattern. Materials and methods: Principles of experimental design have been exploited to develop the dosage form. Ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and loading dose were selected as independent variables and their influence on the cumulative amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride permeated per cm2 of human cadaver skin at 24 h (Q24, permeation flux (J and steady state permeability coefficient (P SS were studied using experimental design. Various physicochemical parameters of the transdermal films were also evaluated. Activation energy for in vitro transdermal permeation has been estimated. Results: Ratio of EC and PVP was found to be the main influential factor for all the dependent variables studied. Drug loading dose was also found to influence the dependent variables but to a lesser extent. Physicochemical parameters of the prepared films were evaluated and found satisfactory. Activation energy for alfuzosin permeation has also been estimated and reported. Conclusion: The therapeutic system was found to be dermatologically non-irritant and hence, a therapeutically effective amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride can be delivered via a transdermal route.

  14. STUDY OF COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE AND MEDIAN NERVE IN ADULT CADAVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangulappa Derangula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Variations of the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve, like the communications between the two, may prove valuable in the traumatology of the shoulder joint and upper arm region. These variations are important in the procedure of blocking the brachial plexus and in clinical neurology. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 100 upper limbs belonging to 50 cadavers (Right 50 &left 50 obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Kakatiya medical college, Warangal, Telangana. Dissection of the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus was done. The variations in the origin, course and communications with the median nerve were noted. RESULTS In 2% of the limbs the nerve was found to give one communicating branch to the median nerve after piercing the coracobrachialis. CONCLUSION Knowledge of possible variations between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve is necessary to general surgeons, plastic surgeons, neurologists and orthopaedic surgeons.

  15. STUDY OF PROFUNDA FEMORIS ARTERY OF HUMAN CADAVERS IN RAJKOT CITY, INDIA

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    Pradip R. Chauhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profunda femoris artery is the major branch of the femoral artery. It is at critical place in relation to femoral artery for various interventions. Aim: To study the origin of profunda femoris artery. And to compare the cross sectional area of profunda femoris artery between right and left limbs. Material and methods: In this cross sectional study, 51 human femoral triangles from 26 (18 male and 08 female human cadavers in P.D.U. Government Medical College, Rajkot were dissected and studied during regular dissection classes. Site of origin of profunda femoris artery was noted in relation to femoral artery. The distance of origin of profunda femoris artery from the midpoint of inguinal point was measured and noted. Circumference of profunda femoris artery at the level of origin was measured. The cross sectional area was calculated. Collected data was analyzed by standard statistical formulas with the help of Microsoft excel 2007 and Epi info TM 7 software. Result: Most common (52.95% cases site of origin was posterolateral from femoral artery. The mean distance of origin of profunda femoris artery from the midpoint of inguinal ligament was 30.17 mm. There was no significant difference in cross sectional area of right and left profunda femoris artery (at 95% confidence interval Conclusion: Profunda femoris artery is used for angiography, ultrasonography and cardiac catheterization also. It is the major blood supply of the thigh. Its relations with femoral artery, femoral vein and femoral nerve makes it important structure for clinicians. Variations in origin of profunda femoris artery must be considered to avoid complication like aneurism and faulty passage of the catheter. High origin of profunda femoris artery is more prone to damage while accessing femoral artery.

  16. Effects of human hair on trans-cranial focused ultrasound efficacy in an ex-vivo cadaver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananel, Arik; Snell, John W.; Kassell, Neal F.; Eames, Matthew D. C.

    2012-11-01

    Current practice before a trans-cranial MR guided Focused ultrasound procedure is shaving the patient head on treatment day. Here we present an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility of trans-cranial FUS, in an unshaved, ex-vivo cadaver skull. We have sonicated using 220kHz and 710kHz head transducers, a cadaver skull filled with tissue mimicking phantom and covered with a wig made of human hair to evaluate feasibility of acoustic energy transfer in a full size model. Heating at focal point was measured using MR proton resonance shift thermometry. Results showed negligible effect of hair in 220kHz, and an 18% drop in temperature elevation when using 710kHz.

  17. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-06-01

    Blow-out fractures affect the volume and surface area of the orbital cavity. Estimation of these values after the trauma may help in deciding whether or not a patient is a candidate for surgery. Recent studies have provided estimates of orbital volume and area of bone defect, and correlated them with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used for surface area. To authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have measured the entire surface area of the orbital cavity.The volume and surface area of the orbital cavity were estimated in computed tomography scans of 11 human cadavers using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. The mean (± SD) total volume and total surface area of the orbital cavities was 24.27 ± 3.88 cm and 32.47 ± 2.96 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference in volume (P = 0.315) or surface area (P = 0.566) between the 2 orbital cavities.The stereological technique proved to be a robust and unbiased method that may be used as a gold standard for comparison with automated computer software. Future imaging studies in blow-out fracture patients may be based on individual and relative calculation involving both herniated volume and fractured surface area in relation to the total volume and surface area of the uninjured orbital cavity.

  18. The utility of cadaver-based approaches for the teaching of human anatomy: A survey of British and Irish anatomy teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2017-03-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire based approach was used to gain a better insight into the opinion of anatomists on the use of preserved cadavers for the teaching of human anatomy. This study focused on anatomy teachers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. From the 125 participating anatomists, 34.4% were medically qualified, 30.4% had a PhD in a non-anatomical science and 22.4% had a PhD in an anatomical science, these figures include ten anatomists who had combinations of MD with the two other PhD qualifications. The main findings from the questionnaire were that 61.6% of participants agreed that hard-fixed formalin cadavers accurately resemble features of a human body whereas 21.6% disagreed. Moreover, anatomists rated the teaching aids on how accurately they resemble features of the human body as follows: plastic models the least accurate followed by plastinated specimens, hard fixed cadavers; soft preserved cadavers were considered to be the most accurate when it comes to resembling features of the human body. Though anatomists considered soft preserved cadavers as the most accurate tool, further research is required in order to investigate which techniques or methods provide better teaching tool for a range of anatomical teaching levels and for surgical training. Anat Sci Educ 10: 137-143. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Kruse, R.R.; Reijnen, M.M.; Kozicz, T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and

  20. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, T.G. van; Buma, P.; Scholten, J.G.; Kampen, A. van; Veth, R.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furth

  1. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, T.G. van; Buma, P.; Scholten, J.G.; Kampen, A. van; Veth, R.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furth

  2. 3D deformation and dynamics of the human cadaver abdomen under seatbelt loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamielle, Sophie; Vezin, Philippe; Verriest, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallancien, Guy

    2008-11-01

    According to accident analysis, submarining is responsible for most of the frontal car crash AIS 3+ abdominal injuries sustained by restrained occupants. Submarining is characterized by an initial position of the lap belt on the iliac spine. During the crash, the pelvis slips under the lap belt which loads the abdomen. The order of magnitude of the abdominal deflection rate was reported by Uriot to be approximately 4 m/s. In addition, the use of active restraint devices such as pretensioners in recent cars lead to the need for the investigation of Out-Of-Position injuries. OOP is defined by an initial position of the lap belt on the abdomen instead of the pelvis resulting in a direct loading of the abdomen during pretensioning and the crash. In that case, the penetration speed of the belt into the abdomen was reported by Trosseille to be approximately 8 to 12 m/s. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the human abdomen in submarining and OOP. A total of 8 PMHS abdomens were loaded using a lap belt. In order to investigate the injury mechanisms, the abdominal deflection rate and the compression were imposed such that they were not correlated. The specimens were seated upright in a fixed back configuration. The lap belt was placed at the level of the mid-umbilicus, between the iliac crest and the 12th rib. The belt was pulled horizontally along the sides of the specimens causing a symmetrical loading of the abdomen. In addition to the local parameters such as the belt and back forces or the belt displacements, the 3D external deformation of the abdomen was recorded. The forces measured between the back of the cadaver and the seat showed that a mass effect should be taken into account in the abdominal behaviour in addition to viscosity. The back force was greater than the belt force in low speed (submarining like) tests while it was lower for high-speed (OOP like) tests. A lumped parameter model was developed to confirm the experimental results and

  3. Elongamento do enxerto de tendões do músculo grácial e semitendinoso humanos: estudo realizado em cadáveres de adultos jovens Graft semitendinosus and gracilis human muscle tendons elongation: a study carried out on young adult human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho, os enxertos de tendões autólogos são a principal opção como substitutos ligamentares. Entretanto, uma das razões da falha da reconstrução ligamentar com tecidos moles é o estiramento ou elongamento do enxerto com o tempo. Neste trabalho, foram ensaiados oito tendões do músculo grácil e oito do músculo semitendinoso humanos, obtidos de quatro cadáveres do sexo masculino, com idade média de 24,5 anos. Cada tendão foi submetido a uma deformação relativa constante de 2,5% durante 600 s, com registro contínuo do relaxamento de força. A seguir, o tendão retornava ao seu comprimento inicial e era mantido num período de repouso de 300 s. Após este intervalo, um segundo ensaio, semelhante ao primeiro, era realizado. A velocidade de carregamento empregada foi de 10% do comprimento inicial do corpo de prova por segundo. Foram obtidos valores de força inicial, com 300 s e 600 s nos dois ensaios. A análise estatística sugere um comportamento mecânico mais uniforme para o tendão do músculo semitendinoso quando comparado ao tendão do músculo grácil.In the anterior cruciate ligament knee surgery reconstruction, autologous tendons graft remains as a main option as substitutive ligaments. However time effect on graft elongation is the main reason of ligament reconstruction failure. Traction tests have been performed on eight gracilis as well as on eight semitendinosus human muscles tendons obtained from four male cadavers at an average of 24.5 years. Each tendon specimen has been submitted to a deformation of 2.5% of its initial length for a time interval of 600 s with continuous recording of the corresponding force relaxation. The tendon specimen was then kept at rest for 300 s as soon as it returned to its initial length. The same specimen was then submitted to a similar test. Deformation rate for both tests was 10% of its initial length per second. Initial

  4. Postmortem distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissues of a human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koutaro; Wurita, Amin; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    During the latter part of 2014, we experienced an autopsy case in which 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, was identified and quantitated in solid tissues and in three herbal blend products [Forensic Toxicol (2015) 33:112-121]. At that time, although we suspected that there may be some drug(s) other than 5-fluoro-ADB in the herbal products, all trials to find it/them were unsuccessful. Subsequently, we carefully re-examined the presence of other synthetic cannabinoid(s) in the above herbal blend products using accurate mass spectrometry and found two new compounds, 5-fluoro-ADB-PINACA and MAB-CHMINACA (Forensic Toxicol. doi: 10.1007/s 11419-015-0264-y). In the present communication, we report the distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissue specimens collected from the same deceased individual (kept frozen at -80 °C) as described above for demonstration of 5-fluoro-ADB. Unexpectedly, unchanged MAB-CHMINACA could be identified and quantitated in whole blood and in pericardial fluid specimens, but it was below the detection limit (0.1 ng/ml) in the urine specimen. A higher concentration of MAB-CHMINACA could be found in all of the nine solid tissues; the highest concentration of MAB-CHMINACA was found in the liver (156 ng/g), followed by the kidney, pancreas and so on. The compounds were detected in all nine solid tissues; their levels were generally higher than those in the whole blood and pericardial fluid. Contrary to expectations, the concentration of MAB-CHMINACA in the adipose tissue was relatively low. Our results show that the victim smoked one of the three herbal blend products containing both MAB-CHMINACA and 5-fluoro-ADB, resulting in the coexistence of both compounds. It should be concluded that 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA synergically exerted their toxicities, leading to death after a short interval. The differences in the distribution of 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA among the cadaver specimens were

  5. The sciatic nerve in human cadavers - high division or low formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Asari, M A; Pasha, M A

    2016-01-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve have been extensively studied in the past including its relationship with the piriformis muscle and associated clinical conditions like piriformis syndrome and sciatica. In the present study we noticed some interesting variations of the sciatic nerve, which were slightly different from the cases described earlier. In the previous studies most of the authors described the higher division of sciatic nerve and none of them discussed its formation. In this study we tried to look its formation from the sacral plexus and its divisions in the thigh. We noticed that in one cadaver the two components of the sciatic nerve originated directly from the sacral plexus and coursed down without merging in the thigh. Should this be called a higher division or non formation of the sciatic nerve? On the other hand in two other cadavers, the two divisions after emerging separately from the sacral plexus, united in the gluteal region and in the thigh respectively. Should we call this as higher division or low formation of the sciatic nerve? In two other cadavers the sciatic nerve emerged from the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and divided in the gluteal region itself. Ideally this should be called as higher division of sciatic nerve.

  6. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams.

  7. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L

    2017-01-01

    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SIM Life: a new surgical simulation device using a human perfused cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J P; Breque, C; Danion, J; Delpech, P O; Oriot, D; Richer, J P

    2017-02-01

    In primary and continuing medical education, simulation is becoming a mandatory technique. In surgery, simulation spreading is slowed down by the distance which exists between the devices currently available on the market and the reality, in particular anatomical, of an operating room. We propose a new model for surgical simulation with the use of cadavers in a circulation model mimicking pulse and artificial respiration available for both open and laparoscopic surgery. The model was a task trainer designed by four experts in our simulation laboratory combining plastic, electronic, and biologic material. The cost of supplies needed for the construction was evaluated. The model was used and tested over 24 months on 35 participants, of whom 20 were surveyed regarding the realism of the model. The model involved a cadaver, connected to a specific device that permits beating circulation and artificial respiration. The demonstration contributed to teaching small groups of up to four participants and was reproducible over 24 months of courses. Anatomic correlation, realism, and learning experience were highly rated by users CONCLUSION: This model for surgical simulation in both open and laparoscopic surgery was found to be realistic, available to assessed objectively performance in a pedagogic program.

  9. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments.

  10. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  11. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  12. A comparative study of the Osstell™ versus the Osstell Mentor™ to evaluate implant stability in human cadaver mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, R S; van Wijk, A J; Lindeboom, J A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the primary stability of dental implants by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) using the Osstell™ and Osstell Mentor™ devices and to investigate the reproducibility and comparability of the results obtained with these devices. Twenty-four Straumann implants (Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were placed in the anterior mandible of 12 fresh edentulous human cadaver mandibles. The implant stability quotients (ISQs) were measured with the Osstell™ and Osstell Mentor™ when implants were inserted at 50% of their length and following their complete insertion. The Osstell™ device measured lower scores compared with the Osstell Mentor™. This was significant for the full position (mean difference = 9·9), t (11) = 7·4, P < 0·001 and for the halfway position (mean difference = 5·9), t (11) = 2·41, P = 0·03. In conclusion, the Osstell™ produced relatively lower ISQ scores than the Osstell Mentor™.

  13. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Xu, X George; Liu, Bob

    2015-11-01

    To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o'clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the geant4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80-140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  14. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  15. A glimpse into the process of gaining permission for the educational dissection of human cadavers in the Ottoman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkin, Salih Murat; Dinc, Gulten

    2014-10-01

    Dissection of the human body for educational purposes became officially permitted in the Ottoman Empire only after a long, difficult process. In the West, studies based on the findings of Galen had been taboo during a long period in which dissection of human bodies had been prohibited. Although the first dissection studies since ancient times began to appear in the Western literature in the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the post-Galen taboo against dissection was broken only in the 16th century by the studies of Vesalius. However, in the Eastern World, it was only fairly recently that the idea of the "sanctity of the human body" could be challenged. In the medieval Islamic world, as during the Middle Ages in the West, prohibitions against the dissection of human cadavers continued for social and religious reasons, although the Koran does not specifically ban such dissection. This prohibition also continued through the Ottoman era, which began in the 14th century. The first efforts to end the prohibition on dissection in the Ottoman Empire were made at the beginning of the 19th century during the reign of Sultan Selim III but official permission for dissection was given only in 1841 during the reign of Sultan Abdulmecid. Educational dissections in the Ottoman Empire officially began at the Istanbul Medical School following the granting of this permission. This article will discuss the attempts to end the prohibition of dissection in Ottomans within the scope of the history of anatomical study in Turkey.

  16. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    Full Text Available Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field.Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm.The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5. A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation shows that the accuracy of this system is

  18. Intra-op measurement of the mechanical axis deviation: an evaluation study on 19 human cadaver legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Brand, Alexander; Erat, Okan; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of the lower limb in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be determined intraoperatively. One way to do so is to deform the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), for which a tolerance measurement of 10 mm is widely accepted. Many techniques are proposed in clinical practice such as visual inspection, cable method, grid with lead impregnated reference lines, or more recently, navigation systems. Each has their disadvantages including reliability of the MAD measurement, excess radiation, prolonged operation time, complicated setup and high cost. To alleviate such shortcomings, we propose a novel clinical protocol that allows quick and accurate intraoperative calculation of MAD. This is achieved by an X-ray stitching method requiring only three X-ray images placed into a panoramic image frame during the entire procedure. The method has been systematically analyzed in a simulation framework in order to investigate its accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we validated our protocol via a preclinical study comprising 19 human cadaver legs. Four surgeons determined MAD measurements using our X-ray panorama and compared these values to a gold-standard CT-based technique. The maximum average MAD error was 3.5mm which shows great potential for the technique.

  19. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%] were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator’s mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.

  20. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  1. Spinal cord bypass surgery with intercostal and spinal accessory nerves: an anatomical feasibility study in human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Raqeeb M; Malone, Hani R; Bauknight, Martin W; Kellner, Michael A; Ogden, Alfred T; Martin, John H; Tanji, Kurenai; Winfree, Christopher J

    2012-02-01

    Despite extensive study, no meaningful progress has been made in encouraging healing and recovery across the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. Spinal cord bypass surgery is an unconventional strategy in which intact peripheral nerves rostral to the level of injury are transferred into the spinal cord below the injury. This report details the feasibility of using spinal accessory nerves to bypass cervical SCI and intercostal nerves to bypass thoracolumbar SCI in human cadavers. Twenty-three human cadavers underwent cervical and/or lumbar laminectomy and dural opening to expose the cervical cord and/or conus medullaris. Spinal accessory nerves were harvested from the Erb point to the origin of the nerve's first major branch into the trapezius. Intercostal nerves from the T6-12 levels were dissected from the lateral border of paraspinal muscles to the posterior axillary line. The distal ends of dissected nerves were then transferred medially and sequentially inserted 4 mm deep into the ipsilateral cervical cord (spinal accessory nerve) or conus medullaris (intercostals). The length of each transferred nerve was measured, and representative distal and proximal cross-sections were preserved for axonal counting. Spinal accessory nerves were consistently of sufficient length to be transferred to caudal cervical spinal cord levels (C4-8). Similarly, intercostal nerves (from T-7 to T-12) were of sufficient length to be transferred in a tension-free manner to the conus medullaris. Spinal accessory data revealed an average harvested nerve length of 15.85 cm with the average length needed to reach C4-8 of 4.7, 5.9, 6.5, 7.1, and 7.8 cm. The average length of available intercostal nerve from each thoracic level compared with the average length required to reach the conus medullaris in a tension-free manner was determined to be as follows (available, required in cm): T-7 (18.0, 14.5), T-8 (18.7, 11.7), T-9 (18.8, 9.0), T-10 (19.6, 7.0), T-11 (18.8, 4.6), and T-12 (15

  2. Measurement of the topography of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal topography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal Topography System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.

  3. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  4. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus “infusing” age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs. PMID:26697422

  5. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus "infusing" age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs.

  6. Age infusion approach to derive injury assessment risk curves for dummies from human cadaver tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan eYoganandan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves/values (IARCs and IARVs. This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data was based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus infusing age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs.

  7. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  8. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period.

  9. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  10. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienen, T G; Buma, P; Scholten, J G F; van Kampen, A; Veth, R P H; Verdonschot, N

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the influence of tibial torque on the meniscal displacement during knee-joint flexion. Three tantalum beads were inserted in the medial meniscus of six human-cadaver joints. The knee joints were placed and loaded in a loading apparatus, and the movements of the beads were determined by means of RSA during knee-joint flexion and extension with and without internal tibial (IT) and external tibial (ET) torque. During flexion without tibial torque, all menisci moved in posterior and lateral direction. The anterior horn showed significantly greater excursions than the posterior horn in both posterior and lateral direction. Internal tibial torque caused an anterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau. External tibial torque caused a posterior displacement of the pathway. External tibial torque restricted the meniscal displacement during the first 30 degrees of knee-joint flexion. The displacements of the meniscus in this experiment were similar to the displacements described in the in vivo MRI studies. Furthermore, the application of tibial torque confirmed the relative immobility of the posterior horn of the meniscus. During external tibial torque, the posterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau during the first 30 degrees of flexion might be restricted by the attached knee-joint capsule or the femoral condyle. This model revealed representative meniscal displacements during simple knee-joint flexion and also during the outer limits of passive knee-joint motion.

  11. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  12. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods to learn human anatomy: perceptions of medical students in paraclinical and clinical phases regarding cadaver dissection and other learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyee Mutalik

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Perception of knowledge by an individual student is different based on the individual primary mental abilities. Therefore, some individuals may show better learning by particular methods. Hence a blend of different methodologies to teach a subject is helpful for majority of the students. In the teaching of human gross anatomy too, a combination of different methods has been in use. However, in the era of decrease in course duration, high and ldquo;student:cadaver ratio and rdquo;, and easy availability of newer technologies, there is a need to review the priorities and preferences of the methods or to find out different ways to use the existing methods to increase their effectiveness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2536-2541

  15. Intrathecal Spread of Injectate Following an Ultrasound-Guided Selective C5 Nerve Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falyar, Christian R; Abercrombie, Caroline; Becker, Robert; Biddle, Chuck

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root blocks have been described in several case reports as a safe and effective means to anesthetize the distal clavicle while maintaining innervation of the upper extremity and preserving diaphragmatic function. In this study, cadavers were injected with 5 mL of 0.5% methylene blue dye under ultrasound guidance to investigate possible proximal and distal spread of injectate along the brachial plexus, if any. Following the injections, the specimens were dissected and examined to determine the distribution of dye and the structures affected. One injection revealed dye extended proximally into the epidural space, which penetrated the dura mater and was present on the spinal cord and brainstem. Dye was noted distally to the divisions in 3 injections. The anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve were stained in all 4 injections. It appears unlikely that local anesthetic spread is limited to the nerve root following an ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root injection. Under certain conditions, intrathecal spread also appears possible, which has major patient safety implications. Additional safety measures, such as injection pressure monitoring, should be incorporated into this block, or approaches that are more distal should be considered for the acute pain management of distal clavicle fractures.

  16. Evaluation of performance of two different chest tubes with either a sharp or a blunt tip for thoracostomy in 100 human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Clemens M; Ruetzler, Kurt; Schaumann, Nikolaus; Lorenz, Veit; Schellongowski, Peter; Schuster, Ernst; Salem, Ramez M; Frass, Michael

    2012-02-02

    Emergent placement of a chest tube is a potentially life-saving procedure, but rate of misplacement and organ injury is up to 30%. In principle, chest tube insertion can be performed by using Trocar or Non-trocar techniques. If using trocar technique, two different chest tubes (equipped with sharp or blunt tip) are currently commercially available. This study was performed to detect any difference with respect to time until tube insertion, to success and to misplacement rate. Twenty emergency physicians performed five tube thoracostomies using both blunt and sharp tipped tube kits in 100 fresh human cadavers (100 thoracostomies with each kit). Time until tube insertion served as primary outcome. Complications and success rate were examined by pathological dissection and served as further outcomes parameters. Difference in mean time until tube insertion (63 s vs. 59 s) was statistically not significant. In both groups, time for insertion decreased from the 1st to the 5th attempt and showed dependency on the cadaver's BMI and on the individual physician. Success rate differed between both groups (92% using blunt vs. 86% using sharp tipped kits) and injuries and misplacements occurred significantly more frequently using chest tubes with sharp tips (p = 0.04). Data suggest that chest drain insertion with trocars is associated with a 6-14% operator-related complication rate. No difference in average time could be found. However, misplacements and organ injuries occurred more frequently using sharp tips. Consequently, if using a trocar technique, the use of blunt tipped kits is recommended.

  17. The human adult cardiomyocyte phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bird, SD; Doevendans, PA; van Rooijen, MA; de la Riviere, AB; Hassink, RJ; Passier, R; Mummery, CL

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Determination of the phenotype of adult human atrial and ventricular myocytes based on gene expression and morphology. Methods: Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes were obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery using a modified isolation procedure. Myocytes were isolated and cultured

  18. ATTITUDE AND EMOTIONAL REACTIONS OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS CADAVER DISSECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaraman; Bharathi Prabakaran; Ismail; Thirumalaikolundu Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Cadaver dissection is mandatory for medical education. The cadaver dissection develops the knowledge and skill of the students regarding human anatomy to understand and fulfill the requirement of medical education. AIM: This study was conducted with objective of observing attitude and emotional reactions of first year Medical students to the dissecting cadavers. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The attitude and view of students on cadaver dissection was assessed by a ...

  19. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Hoermann Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C, being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1 Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2 During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex

  20. Estudo anatômico das válvulas do tronco gastrocnêmio em cadáveres humanos Anatomical study of valves in the gastrocnemius trunk in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aderval Aragão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: As válvulas são estruturas características das veias, importantes na orientação do fluxo sangüíneo. Sua presença no sistema venoso superficial dos membros inferiores tem sido bastante estudada. No entanto, nas veias profundas, como a veia gastrocnêmia, a literatura é escassa. OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo anatômico das válvulas do tronco gastrocnêmio principal em cadáveres humanos adultos. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados os troncos gastrocnêmios principais de 80 cabeças de músculos gastrocnêmios de 20 cadáveres adultos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 40 e 68 anos, após fixados e mantidos em solução de formol a 10%. Os troncos e tipos de redes foram classificados de acordo com o proposto por Aragão et al. As válvulas foram estudadas quanto ao número, distribuição, localização e tipo com relação ao tronco, perna, cabeça do músculo e tipo de rede gastrocnêmia. RESULTADO: Em 80 cabeças de músculos gastrocnêmios, foram encontrados 95 troncos gastrocnêmios principais, sendo que 17 deles eram duplicados. Foram encontradas 65 válvulas em 60 troncos gastrocnêmios principais, todas elas do tipo bicúspide, sendo 35 na rede tipo I, 23 na do tipo II e sete na rede tipo III. Em 74% dos casos, as válvulas estavam localizadas no terço proximal do tronco gastrocnêmio principal. CONCLUSÃO: As válvulas foram encontradas em todos os tipos de redes que possuíam tronco gastrocnêmio principal, eram todas do tipo bicúspide e se localizaram predominantemente no terço proximal dos troncos gastrocnêmios principais.BACKGROUND: Valves are characteristic structures of veins and are important to guide blood flow. Their presence in the superficial venous system of lower limbs has been well studied. However, there is a lack of published literature on deep veins, such as the gastrocnemius vein. OBJECTIVE: To carry out an anatomical study of the veins in the main gastrocnemius trunk in adult human cadavers. METHODS: The

  1. Evaluation of potential infectivity of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease proteins in recipients of cadaver-derived human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David J; Abrams, Joseph Y; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Leschek, Ellen Werber; Mills, James L; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2013-04-01

    Growing evidence of cell-to-cell transmission of neurodegenerative disease (ND)-associated proteins (NDAPs) (ie, tau, Aβ, and α-synuclein) suggests possible similarities to the infectious prion protein (PrPsc) in spongiform encephalopathies. There are limited data on the potential human-to-human transmission of NDAPs associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other non-PrPsc ND. To examine evidence for human-to-human transmission of AD, Parkinson disease (PD), and related NDAPs in cadaveric human growth hormone (c-hGH) recipients. We conducted a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of pathological NDAPs other than PrPsc in human pituitary glands. We also searched for ND in recipients of pituitary-derived c-hGH by reviewing the National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP) cohort database and medical literature. University-based academic center and agencies of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Thirty-four routine autopsy subjects (10 non-ND controls and 24 patients with ND) and a US cohort of c-hGH recipients in the NHPP. Detectable NDAPs in human pituitary sections and death certificate reports of non-PrPsc ND in the NHPP database. We found mild amounts of pathological tau, Aβ, and α-synuclein deposits in the adeno/neurohypophysis of patients with ND and control patients. No cases of AD or PD were identified, and 3 deaths attributed to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were found among US NHPP c-hGH recipients, including 2 of the 796 decedents in the originally confirmed NHPP c-hGH cohort database. Despite the likely frequent exposure of c-hGH recipients to NDAPs, and their markedly elevated risk of PrPsc-related disease, this population of NHPP c-hGH recipients does not appear to be at increased risk of AD or PD. We discovered 3 ALS cases of unclear significance among US c-hGH recipients despite the absence of pathological deposits of ALS-associated proteins (TDP-43, FUS, and ubiquilin) in human pituitary glands. In this unique in vivo model

  2. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  3. ATTITUDE AND EMOTIONAL REACTIONS OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS CADAVER DISSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Cadaver dissection is mandatory for medical education. The cadaver dissection develops the knowledge and skill of the students regarding human anatomy to understand and fulfill the requirement of medical education. AIM: This study was conducted with objective of observing attitude and emotional reactions of first year Medical students to the dissecting cadavers. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The attitude and view of students on cadaver dissection was assessed by a modified structured pretested Questionnaire. Also the emotional reactions at the time of doing dissection were assessed by a standard questionnaire ALE (Appraisal of Life Events scale. RESULTS: Of the 141 participants, 49% were female and 51% were Male. The attitude and emotional status of students varied in cadaver dissection and even among sex. Altogether 83.68% had experienced the excitement, 85.82% sympathized for the cadaver. However, 92.90% expressed confidence over cadaver dissection and 98.57 % answered cadaver dissection was the best method for Medical Education to understand human anatomy. CONCLUSION: Majority of Medical students viewed Cadaver dissection was the best method for medical education to understand Human anatomy. They do not report their first exposure to cadaver dissection as an aversive experience. Instead, as per ALE (Appraisal of Life Events scale, they found it to be a positive and a challenging life event.

  4. Primary Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Cultures on Human Amniotic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shweta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells grow well on surfaces that provide an extracellular matrix. Our aim was to establish primary adult human RPE cell cultures that retain their epithelial morphology in vitro using human amniotic membrane (hAM as substrate. Materials and Methods: Human cadaver eyeballs (16 were obtained from the eye bank after corneal trephination. RPE cells were harvested by a mechanical dissection of the inner choroid surface (10, group 1 or by b enzymatic digestion using 0.25% Trypsin/0.02% EDTA (6, group 2. The cells were explanted onto de-epithelialized hAM, nourished using DMEM/HAMS F-12 media and monitored for growth under the phase contrast microscope. Cell cultures were characterised by whole mount studies and paraffin sections. Growth data in the two groups were compared using the students′ ′t′ test. Results: Eleven samples (68.75% showed positive cultures with small, hexagonal cells arising from around the explant which formed a confluent and progressively pigmented monolayer. Whole mounts showed closely placed polygonal cells with heavily pigmented cytoplasm and indistinct nuclei. The histologic sections showed monolayers of cuboidal epithelium with variable pigmentation within the cytoplasm. Growth was seen by day 6-23 (average 11.5 days in the mechanical group, significantly earlier ( P Conclusions: Primary adult human RPE cell cultures retain epithelial morphology in vitro when cultured on human amniotic membranes . Mechanical dissection of the inner choroid surface appears to be an effective method of isolating RPE cells and yields earlier growth in cultures as compared to isolation by enzymatic digestion

  5. 青年人眼晶状体的显微研究及其临床意义%Study on micro-anatomy of the lens of the normal adult cadaver eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁皓; 谭少健; 黄明汉; 区显宁

    2001-01-01

    目的 通过对正常成人尸眼晶状体的显微解剖研究,推动白内障摘出及人工晶状体(IOL)植入术的改进。方法 测量53人共102只成年尸眼(年龄19~41a)的晶状体直径(LD)及无韧带区直径(ZFZ)等有关正常值。结果 正常成年人LD平均为9.61mm,ZFZ为7.73mm,ZFZ与LD呈直线正相关关系;晶状体核直径(ND)平均为7.68mm,核厚度(NT)为2.9mm,同一人的LD、ND、NT呈直线正相关关系;晶状体囊袋直径(CBD)平均为10.15mm,与LD比较有显著差异。结论 成年人白内障摘出术中连续环形撕前囊应在5~6mm之间。%Objective To study the micro-anatomy of the lens of the normaladult cadaver eyes in order to complement the lens micro-anatomical theory and improve the cataract extraction and the intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Methods The mean values of the lens diameter (LD) and the zonular-free zone diameter (ZFZ) in 102 eyes of 53 cadavers were measured. Results The mean LD and ZFZ were 9.61mm,7.73mm respectively. The larger the LD,the larger the ZFZ. The diameter of the lens nucleus (ND) was 7.68mm, the lens nucleus thickness (NT) was 2.9mm. There is a linear positive correlation between the right eye and the left eye of a man. The mean capsular bag diameter (CBD) was 10.15mm,larger than LD.Conclusion It is recommended that the capsular opening diameter be from 5 to 6mm in adult cataract extraction.

  6. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  7. The accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred pedicle screw insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine: a human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Wu, Chunyang; Huang, Zhongren; Pan, Zhimin; Li, Zhiyun; Zhong, Junlong; Chen, Yiwei; Han, Zhimin; Cao, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This is a cadaver specimen study to confirm new pedicle screw (PS) entry point and trajectory for subaxial cervical PS insertion. To assess the accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred PS insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine in cadaver cervical spine. Reported morphometric landmarks used to guide the surgeon in PS insertion show significant variability. In the previous study, we proposed a new technique (as called "notch-referred" technique) primarily based on coronal multiplane reconstruction images (CMRI) and cortical integrity after PS insertion in cadavers. However, the PS position in cadaveric cervical segment was not confirmed radiologically. Therefore, the difference between the pedicle trajectory and the PS trajectory using the notch-referred technique needs to be illuminated. Twelve cadaveric cervical spines were conducted with PS insertion using the lateral vertebral notch-referred technique. The guideline for entry point and trajectory for each vertebra was established based on the morphometric data from our previous study. After 3.5-mm diameter screw insertion, each vertebra was dissected and inspected for pedicle trajectory by CT scan. The pedicle trajectory and PS trajectory were measured and compared in axial plane. The perforation rate was assessed radiologically and was graded from ideal to unacceptable: Grade 0 = screw in pedicle; Grade I = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; Grade II = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter but less than one-second; Grade III = perforation more than one-second outside of the screw diameter. In addition, pedicle width between the acceptable and unacceptable screws was compared. A total of 120 pedicle screws were inserted. The perforation rate of pedicle screws was 78.3% in grade 0 (excellent PS position), 10.0% in grade I (good PS position), 8.3% in grade II (fair PS position), and 3.3% in grade III (poor PS position). The

  8. Medical students' reactions to anatomic dissection and the phenomenon of cadaver naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D; Greenwald, Emily E; Soricelli, Rhonda L; DePace, Dennis M

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body donation. The authors developed a 33-question electronic survey to which 1,156 medical students at 12 medical schools in the United States voluntarily responded (November 2011-March 2012). They also surveyed course directors from each institution regarding their curricula and their observations of students' coping mechanisms. The majority of students (574, 67.8%) named their cadaver. Students most commonly cited the cadaver's age as the reason they chose a particular name for the cadaver. A minority of the students who did not name the cadaver reported finding the practice of naming disrespectful. Almost all students indicated that they would have liked to know more about their donor, particularly his or her medical history. Finally, students who knew the birth name of the donor used it less frequently than predicted. The authors found that the practice of naming cadavers is extremely prevalent among medical students and that inventive naming serves as a beneficial coping mechanism. The authors suggest that developing a method of providing students with more information about their cadaver while protecting the anonymity of the donor and family would be useful.

  9. Arthroscopic latarjet procedure: safety evaluation in cadavers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado; Benegas, Eduardo; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Sunada, Edwin Eiji; Assunção, Jorge Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of arthroscopic Latarjet procedure in cadavers. : Twelve cadaveric shoulders underwent arthroscopic Latarjet procedure in our laboratory for arthroscopy, by four different surgeons...

  10. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  11. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A New Embalming Fluid for Preserving Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Natekar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find out safe and effective enbalming fluid. Aims and Objectives: The main object of the present study is to provide a composition of body-preservation fluid which is effective in preventing decomposition of cadavers, maintaining a desired life-like appearance of the body which is non hazardous for dissection and environmentally safe. It was observed that chemical composition of the embalming fluid was very effective in prevention of growth of bacteria, fungus and also decay and discoloration. Results: This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa (India from the year 2006 to 2011. Total 100 cadavers were embalmed with the following composition of the embalming fluid. It was observed that the solution in tanks where intact bodies were preserved was clear without any fungus form a period of 5 years whereas the dissected cadavers were kept separately also containing 10 percent formalin showed minimal growth of fungus after 12 months and the solution was replaced after 12 months. Conclusions: In our present study the tank containing undissected cadavers has not shown any growth of fungus for a period of 5 years. Routine dissected parts showed fungal growth only after 12 months, whereupon the scum was removed and the tank solution replaced. The arterial fluid was red in colour and could be differentiated from cavity fluid. The cadavers were free from growth of fungus and maggots during their entire first MBBS course. Not

  14. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Garamendi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un caso en el que se evidencia la presencia de lesiones de morfología típica por la acción lesiva postmortal de hormigas, pero con una extensión y localización inhabituales.Post-mortem animal predation can lead to errors when interpreting forensic autopsy findings. Ants are the only insects that can attack human corpses after death and before decomposition process starts. Ants produce post mortal injuries in the skin that have a distinct location and morphology. We present a forensic case in which post mortal injuries produced by ants in a human corpse had a typical morphology; however their location and extension were unusual.

  15. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  16. [History of collecting cadavers in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoko

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated how and from where medical students had acquired cadavers for research throughout Japanese history. At the beginning of dissection in the mid Edo era, they cut up executed prisoners granted by the Tokugawa Shyogunate to study internal body parts. After the Meiji Restoration, the social mechanism of delivering cadavers underwent a complete transformation and they began to utilize 1) dead bodies of inpatients who had received free medical treatment and 2) unclaimed bodies mainly from homes for the aged and prisons. It was quite recently that "kentai", voluntary body donation, became common practice of collecting cadavers. Consequently the history of cadavers submitted to dissection faithfully reflects the relation between medical science and society.

  17. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  18. Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Indian cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kedia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microanatomy features of cerebral arteries may be variable and may be different in different ethnic groups. Aim: To study the anterior cerebral artery (ACA anatomy in North-West Indian cadavers. Materials and Methods: Microanatomy features of the ACA were studied in 15 formalin fixed human cadaveric brains under microscope. The outer diameter, length, and number of perforating branches with respective anomalies were measured for each of the following vessels: ACA (proximal A1 segment to distal A2 segment, anterior communicating artery (ACoA, Recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH, and callosomarginal artery and photographed for documentation. Results: The mean length and external diameter of right and left A1 segment was 12.09 mm and 12.0 mm and 2.32 mm and 2.36 mm respectively. Narrowing, duplication, and median ACA were seen in 6.6%, 3.3% and 6.6% of the vessels respectively. Complex ACoA type was seen in 40% cadavers. RAH originated at an average point of 0.2 mm distal to ACoA, but in one cadaver it arose 5 mm proximal to ACoA. Double RAH was found in 26.6%. The course of RAH in relation to A1 was superiorly in 60%, in anteriorly 30% and posteriorly in 10% of cadavers. The orbitofrontal artery (OFA and frontopolar artery (FPA arose from A2 in 83.3% to 40% respectively. The mean distance of OFA and FPA from ACoA was 4.17 mm and 8.5 mm respectively. After giving rise to central, callosal and cortical branches, pericallosal artery terminated near the splenium of the corpus callosum or on the precuneus as the inferomedial parietal artery. Conclusion: Knowledge of the microvascular anatomy is indispensable and it is mandatory to be aware of the possible variations in the anomalies to minimize morbidity.

  19. Just Say No to NOTA: Why the Prohibition of Compensation for Human Transplant Organs in NOTA Should Be Repealed and a Regulated Market for Cadaver Organs Instituted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristy Lynn; Finley, Marisa; Rohack, J James

    2014-01-01

    The United States faces a shortage of organs for transplantation; thousands of individuals die each year while waiting for organs. The organ donation system relies on altruism because the National Organ Transplantation Act (NOTA) prohibits donors from receiving valuable consideration for organs to be used for transplantation. This paper contains a proposal for a regulated market for cadaveric organs as a mechanism to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. A regulated market for cadaveric organs is appropriate in the United States for the following reasons: (1) it is consistent with the numerous ways in which bodies. are currently treated as commodities; (2) it is unlikely to further disadvantage the poor; (3) it would not expose organ recipients to undue harm; (4) in the current organ transplantation system, everyone except the organ donor, benefits financially; (5) the prohibition in NOTA is inconsistent with laws permitting next of kin to recover for damage to the body of a deceased family member; (6) the protection of the dignitary interests of organs for donation is inconsistent with the current protections of the dignitary interests of human specimens; and (7) permitting a market for organs promotes the American values of autonomy and liberty.

  20. Investigating the warming and cooling rates of human cadavers by development of a gel-filled model to validate core temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, M J; Rooney, P; Kearney, J N

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Services (within NHS Blood and Transplant) plans to bring deceased donors to its state of the art retrieval suite at its new centre in Speke, Liverpool in air-conditioned transport at circa 20 degrees C but without dedicated active cooling. The aim of this study was to determine how quickly a refrigerated body would warm at different ambient temperatures using a gel-filled model. Two models of a human body were prepared consisting of neoprene wetsuits filled with approximately 7 or 18 l of a viscous solution, which once set has similar properties to ballistics gel. This gel consisted of 47.5% distilled water, 47.5% glycerol and 5% agar. Final "dummy" weights were 7.4 and 18.6 kg respectively, representing "virtual" weights of approximately 40 kg and 70 kg. A K-class thermocouple probe was then inserted into a "rectal" position within each model and the models were cooled to a series of different core temperatures: 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C and then were placed in an orbital incubator set at 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C ambient temperature. The rate of temperature increase, in the dummy, was measured, until the model's core temperature was close to the ambient temperature. This was done in triplicate for each size model and ambient temperature. Data indicate that increase in core temperature depends on the size of the model and the initial core temperature. For an equivalent donor weight of 70 kg and background temperature of 20 degrees C, core temperature rises from 5 degrees C to 9.2 degrees C; 10 degrees C to 13.3 degrees C and 15 degrees C to 15.5 degrees C after 2 h. The final core temperatures after 2 h are likely to retard bacterial growth, movement or contamination during transport. Cooling rate data indicated that a 70 kg donor equivalent cooled from 37 degrees C to 15 degrees C within 6 h in a cold room at 4 degrees C. This work has shown that a body can be transported without refrigeration and not cause further tissue deterioration

  1. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our knowledge this is the first case of a bilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle in the medical literature. Anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles may have functional, diagnostic, surgical and pathological implications.

  2. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Stark ME; Wu B; Bluth BE; Wisco JJ

    2009-01-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius) muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our know...

  3. Uterus retrieval in cadaver: technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, M Erman; Ozkan, O; Ozekinci, M; Sindel, M; Yildirim, F; Oguz, N

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe uterus retrieval in cadavers. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature could be successfully achieved in four of the presented cases. Special attention was given to dissection of bilateral ureters and hypogastric vasculature. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature and supporting sacrouterine,vesicouterine peritoneal folds is an anatomically feasible procedure in preparation for uterus transplantation.

  4. Cell pattern in adult human corneal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Wörner

    Full Text Available A review of the current data on the cell density of normal adult human endothelial cells was carried out in order to establish some common parameters appearing in the different considered populations. From the analysis of cell growth patterns, it is inferred that the cell aging rate is similar for each of the different considered populations. Also, the morphology, the cell distribution and the tendency to hexagonallity are studied. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this phenomenon is analogous with cell behavior in other structures such as dry foams and grains in polycrystalline materials. Therefore, its driving force may be controlled by the surface tension and the mobility of the boundaries.

  5. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R

    2003-09-01

    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  6. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    .... An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults...

  7. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  8. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  9. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  10. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  11. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  12. Individual variability in human tibia lead concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, A. C.; Parsons, P J; Tang, S.; Moshier, E L

    2001-01-01

    Our aims in this study were to determine proximal-distal variability in adult human tibia lead concentration via electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and to determine whether there were any differences between core and surface tibia lead concentrations. We analyzed duplicate core and surface tibia samples for lead at multiple proximal-distal sections on 10 adult human cadaver legs. Dried bone samples were digested in nitric acid using microwave-assisted heating, a...

  13. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  14. Adult neurogenesis in humans- common and unique traits in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New neurons are continuously generated in specific regions in the adult brain. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that adult-born neurons have specific functional features and mediate neural plasticity. Data on the extent and dynamics of adult neurogenesis in adult humans are starting to emerge, and there are clear similarities and differences compared to other mammals. Why do these differences arise? And what do they mean?

  15. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The dynamics of adult neurogenesis in human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihunwo, Amadi O; Tembo, Lackson H; Dzamalala, Charles

    2016-12-01

    The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis is now an accepted occurrence in mammals and also in humans. At least two discrete places house stem cells for generation of neurons in adult brain. These are olfactory system and the hippocampus. In animals, newly generated neurons have been directly or indirectly demonstrated to generate a significant amount of new neurons to have a functional role. However, the data in humans on the extent of this process is still scanty and such as difficult to comprehend its functional role in humans. This paper explores the available data on as extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and makes comparison to animal data.

  17. Gliding resistance of flexor tendon associated with carpal tunnel pressure: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.; Ettema, A.M.; Berglund, L.J.; An, K.N.; Amadio, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding r

  18. Biportal neuroendoscopic microsurgical approaches to the subarachnoid cisterns. A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, G; Reisch, R

    1996-12-01

    A preclinical cadaver study was performed to develop the technique of biportal neuroendoscopic dissection in the subarachnoid space of the basal cisterns and to test the feasibility, utility, and safety of this new technique. In 23 fresh post-mortem adult human cadavers and 2 formalin-fixed adult human head specimen a total of 33 biportal endomicrosurgical dissections into and within the basal cisterns were carried out. Following suction of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space 0 degree-, 30 degrees-, and 70 degrees-lens-scopes (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with outer diameters of 4.2 mm and trochars with outer diameters of 5 to 6.5 mm were introduced into the surgical field. 6 different endoscopic routes to the basal cisterns and a total of 10 different combinations of these approaches for biportal endoneurosurgery could be described, but it was found that not all of them were useful and safe. The transventricular approach to the prepontine cisterns through the foramen of Monro and the floor of the third ventricle, biportally combined with a subfrontal or a subtemporal approach, turned out to be not safe enough as it was accompanied by traumatization of the fornix at the interventricular foramen and of the hypothalamus at the level of the tuber cinereum due to relaxation and caudal shift of the brain following suction of cerebrospinal fluid to clear the basal cisterns for the subfrontal or subtemporal approaches. Useful and safe endomicrosurgical approaches to the basal cisterns were: 1st subfrontal, either epidural or intradural, 2nd subtemporal, either anterior or posterior, and 3rd frontal interhemispheric. Various biportal combinations of these approaches are estimated to be feasible, useful, and safe enough to be performed during microsurgical procedures in the operating room. The biportal endomicrosurgical strategy allows for effective and safe dissections within the subarachnoid spaces of the basal cisterns. The tip of the microinstruments as

  19. Adult Human Neurogenesis: from Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eSierra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of gene-rating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases.

  20. Gustofacial and olfactofacial responses in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Romy; Ellgring, Heiner; Macht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Adults' facial reactions in response to tastes and odors were investigated in order to determine whether differential facial displays observed in newborns remain stable in adults who exhibit a greater voluntary facial control. Twenty-eight healthy nonsmokers (14 females) tasted solutions of PROP (bitter), NaCl (salty), citric acid (sour), sucrose (sweet), and glutamate (umami) differing in concentration (low, medium, and high) and smelled different odors (banana, cinnamon, clove, coffee, fish, and garlic). Their facial reactions were video recorded and analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System. Adults' facial reactions discriminated between stimuli with opponent valences. Unpleasant tastes and odors elicited negative displays (brow lower, upper lip raise, and lip corner depress). The pleasant sweet taste elicited positive displays (lip suck), whereas the pleasant odors did not. Unlike newborns, adults smiled with higher concentrations of some unpleasant tastes that can be regarded as serving communicative functions. Moreover, adults expressed negative displays with higher sweetness. Except for the "social" smile in response to unpleasant tastes, adults' facial reactions elicited by tastes and odors mostly correspond to those found in newborns. In conclusion, adults' facial reactions to tastes and odors appear to remain stable in their basic displays; however, some additional reactions might reflect socialization influences.

  1. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  2. Epidemiology and Clinical Parameters of Adult Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow‑up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was ... Adult HIV/AIDS at initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria. 218 .... transmitted infections, low levels of condom use and poverty. Our data set .... Rice BD, et al.

  3. Benefits and Pitfalls of Cadavers as Learning Tool for Ultrasound-guided Regional Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Ray, Bikash Ranjan; Sinha, Sumit; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA), like other basic skills, should be learnt in a simulation laboratory before performing on the patient. Cadavers provide an ideal tool for learning sonoanatomy and skills required for performing UGRA. On the basis of preservation technique used, the cadavers can be formalin embalmed cadavers, Thiel cadavers (soft cadavers), and fresh frozen cadavers. We compared three types of cadavers for performing ultrasound-guided upper and lower limb blocks. We observed that fresh frozen and Thiel cadavers were less smelling and had more realistic appearance as compared to formalin embalmed cadavers. It was seen that Thiel cadavers were more flexible and hence, rotation of neck, shoulder and knee was easier. Although images seen in most cadavers were comparable with live subjects but, Thiel cadavers provided more realistic model.

  4. [Morphology of the ganglion cervicale superius in human fetuses and an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, I; Tanuma, K; Suzuki, K

    1993-10-01

    Morphology of the ganglion cervicale superius (GCS) was studied on 16 sides of 10 human fetuses and the 2 sides of an adult cadaver with a binocular stereomicroscope. The obtained results were as follows. GCS is fusiform on 8 sides, takes the form of an eggplant on 3 sides, and is weakly constricted on 7 sides. The GCS was symmetrical in 2 cases. The GCS lay slightly above the first cervical vertebra and extended downward to the superior half of the second cervical vertebra on 11 sides of fetuses. The level in the adult is lower than in the fetuses by one vertebra. The nervus caroticus internus (CI), originating from the superior pole of the GCS as a cephalic prolongation, comprises one bundle on 14 sides, and splits into 2 bundles in the original position on 4 sides. The Nn. carotici externi (CE) arise from the medial part of the superior half of the GCS with several roots (the average number of roots: 3.4) on 17 sides. The CE communicates with the Rami pharyngei of the N. vagus and the N. laryngeus superior. The Rr. laryngopharyngei arise from CE on many sides. The N. jugularis originates from the laterosuperior side of GCS with one to three branches. On a few sides, the N. jugularis communicates with the N. vagus and the N. hypoglossus. The communicating branch between the Ggl. inferius of the N. vagus and the GCS was observed in all cases. The communicating branch between the R. ventralis of the Nn. cervicales and GCS is found in all sides, and the lower limit of the branch is at the ansa from C3 to C4. The Rr. laryngopharyngei (RL) arise from the medial part of the GCS with several branches near the CE, or it may arise from the CE or from both the GCS and the CE, and join with the N. laryngeus superior (laryngeal branch of RL:RL1), the Plexus pharyngeus (pharyngeal branch of RL:RL2) and CE (RL1 and RL2). It is found in a few sides that RL directly extends to the pharyngeal and laryngeal portions. The N. cardiacus cervicalis superior (CS), which originates from

  5. Posterior cervical foraminotomy: anatomic study in cadavers

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    Luizio Augusto Arantes Júnior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to use different segments of the cervical spine in cadavers to determine how much lateral mass should be resected for adequate foraminal decompression. METHODS: Six cadavers were used. The region of the cervical spine from C1 to the C7-T1 transition was dissected and exposed. The lateral mass of each vertebra was measured bilaterally before the foraminotomy in the following segments: C2-C3, C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6 and C6-C7. The procedure was performed with a high-speed drill and through surgical microscopy. Three foraminotomies were performed (F1, F2, F3 in each level. Lateral masses were measured after foraminotomy procedures and compared to the initial measurement, creating a percentage of lateral mass needed for decompression.. The value of the entire surface was defined as 100%. RESULTS: There was a statistical difference between the amounts of the resected lateral mass through each foraminotomy (F1, F2, F3 at the same level. However, there was no statistical significant difference among the different levels. The average percentage of resection of the lateral masses in F2 were 27.7% at C2-C3, 24.8% at C3-C4, 24.4% at C4-C5 and 23.8% and 31.2% at C5-C6 and C6-C7, respectively. In F3, the level that needed greater resection of the lateral masses was C6-C7 level, where the average resection ranged between 41.2% and 47.9%. CONCLUSION: In all segments studied, the removal of approximately 24 to 32% of the facet joint allowed adequate exposure of the foraminal segment, with visualization of the dural sac and the exit of the cervical root.

  6. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  7. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD.

  8. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-25

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20-40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans.

  9. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Safety zone for posterosuperior shoulder access: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pereira Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The posterosuperior shoulder access used in surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation was constructed through dissection of 20 shoulders from 10 recently chilled adult cadavers, and the distances from this route to the nearby neurovascular structures were analyzed. METHODS: A Kirschner wire was introduced into the top of the base of the coracoid process through the posterosuperior shoulder access, in the area of the origin of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments, thus reproducing the path for inserting two anchors for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The smallest distance from the insertion point of the Kirschner wire to the suprascapular nerve and artery/vein was measured. RESULTS: The mean distance from the suprascapular nerve to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments at the top of the base of the coracoid process was 18.10 mm (range: 13.77-22.80 in the right shoulder and 18.19 mm (range: 12.59-23.75 in the left shoulder. The mean distance from the suprascapular artery/vein to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments was 13.10 mm (range: 9.28-15.44 in the right shoulder and 14.11 mm (range: 8.83-18.89 in the left shoulder. Comparison between the contralateral sides did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The posterosuperior shoulder access route for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments in treating acromioclavicular dislocation should be performed respecting the minimum limit of 8.83 mm medially.

  11. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  12. Adult Education, Basic Human Needs, and Integrated Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Reginald Herbold

    1976-01-01

    This paper argues for an integrated approach to adult education which would require an examination of basic human needs and national development planning each in its own terms. The paper's argument is centered on liberation and participation as ends, not means: Education, development, and planning must be seen and acted on as an integrated whole.…

  13. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

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    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  14. Inception of cadaver dissection and its relevance in present day scenario of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Gayatri; Garg, Krishna

    2006-06-01

    The concept of dissection for acquiring knowledge about the structure of human body was started in 15th century and barber--surgeons used to demonstrate various structures at the professors command. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) was the first medical student to dissect the cadaver and also continued with it even as a professor. Slowly and steadily its importance was realised. Once autopsy was accepted as a ideal parameter to establish the causes of death, the importance of dissection got enhanced. Cadavers were obtained earlier from the grave robbings and mortuaries, which was followed by, an Anatomy Act of 1832, by which unclaimed bodies were provided to the anatomy department. For last two decades, many persons started donating their bodies to the department of anatomy. In India, mostly unclaimed bodies are handed over to anatomy department for teaching and research purpose. Cadavers teach students during 1st professional course, autopsy teaches again in IInd and IIIrd professional courses and even later on throughout the career. Dissection helps in developing a spatial and tactile appreciation for the fabric of the human body that cannot be achieved by prosection or computerised learning aids alone.

  15. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  16. Total mesorectal excision using a soft and flexible robotic arm: a feasibility study in cadaver models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezzo, Alberto; Mintz, Yoav; Allaix, Marco Ettore; Arolfo, Simone; Bonino, Marco; Gerboni, Giada; Brancadoro, Margherita; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna; Wurdemann, Helge; Noh, Yohan; Althoefer, Kaspar; Fras, Jan; Glowka, Jakob; Nawrat, Zbigniew; Cassidy, Gavin; Walker, Rich; Morino, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Sponsored by the European Commission, the FP7 STIFF-FLOP project aimed at developing a STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able manipulator for surgical operations, in order to overcome the current limitations of rigid-link robotic technology. Herein, we describe the first cadaveric series of total mesorectal excision (TME) using a soft and flexible robotic arm for optic vision in a cadaver model. TME assisted by the STIFF-FLOP robotic optics was successfully performed in two embalmed male human cadavers. The soft and flexible optic prototype consisted of two modules, each measuring 60 mm in length and 14.3 mm in maximum outer diameter. The robot was attached to a rigid shaft connected to an anthropomorphic manipulator robot arm with six degrees of freedom. The controller device was equipped with two joysticks. The cadavers (BMI 25 and 28 kg/m(2)) were prepared according to the Thiel embalming method. The procedure was performed using three standard laparoscopic instruments for traction and dissection, with the aid of a 30° rigid optics in the rear for documentation. Following mobilization of the left colonic flexure and division of the inferior mesenteric vessels, TME was completed down to the pelvic floor. The STIFF-FLOP robotic optic arm seemed to acquire superior angles of vision of the surgical field in the pelvis, resulting in an intact mesorectum in both cases. Completion times of the procedures were 165 and 145 min, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. No technical failures were registered. The STIFF-FLOP soft and flexible robotic optic arm proved effective in assisting a laparoscopic TME in human cadavers, with a superior field of vision compared to the standard laparoscopic vision, especially low in the pelvis. The introduction of soft and flexible robotic devices may aid in overcoming the technical challenges of difficult laparoscopic procedures based on standard rigid instruments.

  17. Oogenesis in adult mammals, including humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Wimalasena, Jay; Ayala, Maria E; Dominguez, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    The origin of oocytes and primary follicles in ovaries of adult mammalian females has been a matter of dispute for over 100 yr. The prevailing belief that all oocytes in adult mammalian females must persist from the fetal period of life seems to be a uniquely retrogressive reproductive mechanism requiring humans to preserve their gametes from the fetal period for several decades. The utilization of modern techniques during last 10 yr clearly demonstrates that mammalian primordial germ cells originate from somatic cell precursors. This indicates that if somatic cells are precursors of germ cells, then somatic mutations can be passed on to progeny. Mitotically active germline stem cells have been described earlier in ovaries of adult prosimian primates and recently have been reported to also be present in the ovaries of adult mice. We have earlier shown that in adult human females, mesenchymal cells in the ovarian tunica albuginea undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition into ovarian surface epithelium cells, which differentiate sequentially into primitive granulosa and germ cells. Recently, we have reported that these structures assemble in the deeper ovarian cortex and form new follicles to replace earlier primary follicles undergoing atresia (follicular renewal). Our current observations also indicate that follicular renewal exists in rat ovaries, and human oocytes can differentiate from ovarian surface epithelium in fetal ovaries in vivo and from adult ovaries in vitro. These reports challenge the established dogma regarding the fetal origin of eggs and primary follicles in adult mammalian ovaries. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. Yet, the follicular renewal may cease at a certain age, and this may predetermine the onset of the natural menopause or premature ovarian failure. A lack of follicular renewal in aging ovaries

  18. Perivascular mesenchymal progenitors in human fetal and adult liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Over, Patrick; Turner, Morris E; Thompson, Robert L; Foka, Hubert G; Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno; Gridelli, Bruno; Schmelzer, Eva

    2012-12-10

    The presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been described in various organs. Pericytes possess a multilineage differentiation potential and have been suggested to be one of the developmental sources for MSCs. In human liver, pericytes have not been defined. Here, we describe the identification, purification, and characterization of pericytes in human adult and fetal liver. Flow cytometry sorting revealed that human adult and fetal liver contains 0.56%±0.81% and 0.45%±0.39% of CD146(+)CD45(-)CD56(-)CD34(-) pericytes, respectively. Of these, 41% (adult) and 30% (fetal) were alkaline phosphatase-positive (ALP(+)). In situ, pericytes were localized around periportal blood vessels and were positive for NG2 and vimentin. Purified pericytes could be cultured extensively and had low population doubling times. Immunofluorescence of cultures demonstrated that cells were positive for pericyte and mesenchymal cell markers CD146, NG2, CD90, CD140b, and vimentin, and negative for endothelial, hematopoietic, stellate, muscle, or liver epithelial cell markers von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD144, CD326, CK19, albumin, α-fetoprotein, CYP3A7, glial fibrillary acid protein, MYF5, and Pax7 by gene expression; myogenin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were variable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cultures confirmed surface expression of CD146, CD73, CD90, CD10, CD13, CD44, CD105, and ALP and absence of human leukocyte antigen-DR. In vitro differentiation assays demonstrated that cells possessed robust osteogenic and myogenic, but low adipogenic and low chondrogenic differentiation potentials. In functional in vitro assays, cells had typical mesenchymal strong migratory and invasive activity. In conclusion, human adult and fetal livers harbor pericytes that are similar to those found in other organs and are distinct from hepatic stellate cells.

  19. Análise comparativa das alterações nos fluxos de tensão do joelho nas próteses totais e unicompartimentais cimentadas: estudo experimental em dez cadáveres humanos Comparative analisys of changes in knee strain transfer flow in total and unicompartmental cemented prostheses: a trial in ten human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Pécora

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Análise comparativa das alterações nos fluxos de tensão do joelho nas próteses totais e unicompartimentais cimentadas. Estudo experimental em dez cadáveres humanos. Os autores comparam as alterações nos fluxos de tensão do fêmur distal e da tíbia proximal provocadas pelas próteses total e unicompartimental cimentadas do joelho, por meio de extensometria elétrica em 10 cadáveres humanos. Utilizam um dispositivo mecânico para adaptação das peças anatômicas à máquina de ensaios mecânicos Kratos 5002. Concluem: 1 A prótese total do joelho mantém o padrão de distribuição das cargas no terço distal do fêmur; 2 A prótese unicompartimental aumenta as tensões de compressão na cortical medial e as tensões de tração na cortical lateral do terço distal do fêmur; 3 Os componentes tibiais (parcial medial e total aumentam, da mesma forma, as tensões de compressão na cortical póstero-medial da tíbia.Load transfer changes on cemented total and unicompartmental knee prosthesis. Experimental study on ten human cadavers. The authors compare the load transfer changes on the distal femur and proximal tibia due to cemented total and unicompartmental knee prosthesis under compressive load-bearing on ten human cadavers employing strain gauges and a Kratos 5002 stress-testing system. The conclusions were: 1 The Total knee prosthesis does not alter the load transfer on the distal femur; 2 The unicompartmental knee prosthesis increases the compression load on the femoral medial cortex and increases the strain tension loads on the femoral lateral cortex; 3 The tibial components (partial medial and total increase the compression strain tension on the postero-medial cortex of the tibia.

  20. Morphometry of purkinje cell body of cerebellum in bangladeshi cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Rahman, M; Ara, A; Begum, T; Choudhury, S; Haque, N

    2010-10-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was performed by examining 30 (thirty) relatively fresh cerebellum. Out of them 20 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 10 and female 10) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 10 cerebellums from caesarian section of dead fetuses of both sexes (male 6 and female 4) age ranging from 34 weeks to 41 weeks. Specimen containing cerebellum was collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April'2009 to September'2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Samples were collected by using nonprobability sampling technique. The collected sample was grouped in to three age groups like Group A (34 to 41 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and two sex groups (male and female). Ten cerebellums were studied from each age group for this histological study. Sections were processed following standard histological procedure and were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Slides were examined under 15X40 magnifications and measurement of vertical and transverse diameter of the cell body were taken with the help of ocular micrometer. In this study, the mean difference of mean vertical and transverse diameter of Purkinje cell body between Groups A & B and Groups A & C was statistically highly significant (p<0.001) but differences between Groups B & C was statistically significant only in case of transverse diameter.

  1. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhong Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in technology have been increasingly enabling and facilitating learning and knowledge-related initiatives.. They have largely extended learning opportunities through the provision of resource-rich and learner-centered environment, computer-based learning support, and expanded social interactions and networks. Papers in this special issue are representative of ongoing research on integration of technology with learning for innovation and sustainable development in higher education institutions and organizational and community environments.

  2. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  3. Self-Reported Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Attitudes Towards a Procedural Cadaver Laboratory Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Lance

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Residency applicants consider a variety of factors when ranking emergency medicine (EM programs for their NRMP match list. A human cadaver emergency procedure lab curriculum is uncommon. We hypothesized that the presence this curriculum would positively impact the ranking of an EM residency program.METHODS: The EM residency at Nebraska Medical Center is an urban, university-based program with a PGY I-III format. Residency applicants during the interview for a position in the PGY I class of 2006 were surveyed by three weekly electronic mailings. The survey was distributed in March 2006 after the final NRMP match results were released. The survey explored learner preferences and methodological commonality of models of emergency procedural training, as well as the impact of a procedural cadaver lab curriculum on residency ranking. ANOVA of ranks was used to compare responses to ranking questions.RESULTS: Of the 73 potential subjects, 54 (74% completed the survey. Respondents ranked methods of procedural instruction from 1 (most preferred or most common technique to 4 (least preferred or least common technique. Response averages and 95% confidence intervals for the preferred means of learning a new procedure are as follows: textbook (3.69; 3.51-3.87, mannequin (2.83; 2.64-3.02, human cadaver (1.93; 1.72-2.14, and living patient (1.56; 1.33-1.79. Response averages for the commonality of means used to teach a new procedure are as follows: human cadaver (3.63; 3.46-3.80, mannequin (2.70; 2.50-2.90, living patient (2.09; 1.85-2.33, and textbook (1.57; 1.32-1.82. When asked if the University of Nebraska Medical Center residency ranked higher in the individual's match list because of its procedural cadaver lab, 14.8% strongly disagreed, 14.8% disagreed, 40.7% were neutral, 14.8% agreed, and 14.8% strongly agreed.CONCLUSION: We conclude that, although cadaveric procedural training is viewed by senior medical student learners as a desirable means

  4. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V.; Meachem, S.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.

    2008-01-01

    , carcinoma in situ (CIS), seminoma, non-seminoma and gonadotropin-deprived human testis. ActRIIA mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: ALK2, ALK4 and ActRIIB proteins were observed in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and some spermatocytes within normal and gonadotropin-suppressed adult human...... testis; all three receptor subunits were also detected in CIS, seminoma and non-seminoma cells. ActRIIA immunoreactivity was faint to absent in the normal testis and in CIS and non-seminoma cells, whereas some seminoma cells displayed a strong signal. Also in contrast to the normal testis, a majority...

  5. Mouse xenograft modeling of human adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia provides mechanistic insights into adult LIC biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Aditi; Castleton, Anna Z.; Schwab, Claire; Samuel, Edward; Sivakumaran, Janani; Beaton, Brendan; Zareian, Nahid; Zhang, Christie Yu; Rai, Lena; Enver, Tariq; Moorman, Anthony V.; Fielding, Adele K.

    2014-01-01

    The distinct nature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults, evidenced by inferior treatment outcome and different genetic landscape, mandates specific studies of disease-initiating mechanisms. In this study, we used NOD/LtSz-scid IL2Rγ nullc (NSG) mouse xenotransplantation approaches to elucidate leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) biology in primary adult precursor B (pre-B) ALL to optimize disease modeling. In contrast with xenografting studies of pediatric ALL, we found that modification of the NSG host environment using preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) was indispensable for efficient engraftment of adult non-t(4;11) pre-B ALL, whereas t(4;11) pre-B ALL was successfully reconstituted without this adaptation. Furthermore, TBI-based xenotransplantation of non-t(4;11) pre-B ALL enabled detection of a high frequency of LICs (<1:6900) and permitted frank leukemic engraftment from a remission sample containing drug-resistant minimal residual disease. Investigation of TBI-sensitive stromal-derived factor-1/chemokine receptor type 4 signaling revealed greater functional dependence of non-t(4;11) pre-B ALL on this niche-based interaction, providing a possible basis for the differential engraftment behavior. Thus, our studies establish the optimal conditions for experimental modeling of human adult pre-B ALL and demonstrate the critical protumorogenic role of microenvironment-derived SDF-1 in regulating adult pre-B LIC activity that may present a therapeutic opportunity. PMID:24825861

  6. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  7. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention-the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements-to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults.

  8. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  9. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  10. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  11. CCM2 expression during prenatal development and adult human neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Gamze; Sozen, Berna; Gunel, Murat; Demir, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is one of the most common types of vascular malformations of the central nervous system, affecting nearly one in 200 people. CCM lesions are characterized by grossly dilated vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelium. Genetic linkage analyses have mapped three CCM loci to CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. All three causative genes have now been identified allowing new insights into CCM pathophysiology. We focused on the CCM2 protein that might take place in blood vessel formation; we report here the expression patterns of CCM2 in prenatal development and adult human neocortex by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. CCM2 was obviously detected in vascular endothelium and neuroglial precursor cells during development and also observed in arterial endothelium, neurons, some of the glial cells in adult neocortex. The expression patterns suggest that it could be one of the arterial markers whether this is a cause or a consequence of an altered vascular identity. CCM2 might play a role during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during human brain development. Furthermore, with this study, CCM2 have been described for the first time in developing human neocortex.

  12. Researching the effect of the practical applications performed with cadaver dissection and anatomical models on anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Sabancıoğulları

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most important element in providing good quality of healthcare is well training of healthcare staff, particularly doctors. The way of being a good and successful healthcare staff is to learn the human anatomy accurately and permanently. Practical applications as well as theoretical courses are also highly important in learning human anatomy. In classical anatomy education, using cadaver is accepted to be indispensable. However, along with the new medical faculties, there has been an increase in the shortage of cadaver, and anatomy practices have mainly begun to be carried out on models or mock-ups. Therefore, we aimed to study with anatomic models in practical applications and to research the effect of cadaver dissection on learning anatomy. Method: In this study including 120-second grade students that their achievement levels are close together and participating in the theoretical courses of anatomy in medical faculty during 2015 – 2016 academic year. To realize this, students were divided into four groups (1st group were include students only listening to theoretical course, 2nd group theoretical course and performing application with anatomic models, 3rd group theoretical course and performing application with cadaver dissection, and 4th group theoretical course and performing application with anatomic models and cadaver dissection of 30 people. Degree of students’ understanding the subject was detected with written and practical exams consists of 10 questions after the theoretical and practical courses on each committee. The resulting data are loaded to SPSS 22.0 software and statistical evaluation One-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, chi-square test was used. Results: The average of students who practice on both models and cadavers were statistically significant (p 0.05. Conclusions: The results obtained from our study indicate that anatomy practical training is carried out with the dissection of cadavers that made it easier to

  13. Morphometric study of dentate nucleus of cerebellum in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M; Ara, A; Choudhury, S; Shammi, N J

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 (sixty three) cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9) age ranging from 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April' 2009 to September' 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups like Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and, two sex groups (male and female) and two sides (right and left). A transverse section was made at the level of horizontal fissure, and length and breadth of dentate nucleus were measured by divider and scale. The mean (±SD) length and breadth of dentate nucleus was 8.619±2.995mm and 14.770±3.604mm respectively and it was observed that length and breadth of dentate nucleus increased with age upto certain level then slightly decreased in the late age Group C. In this study, differences of the mean length of dentate nucleus on both right and left sides were statistically moderately significant between age Groups A&B. The differences of mean breadth of dentate nucleus on both right and left side were statistically highly significant between age Groups A&B and moderately significant between age Groups A&C on right side and only significant on left side. The differences between male & female were statistically insignificant in length and breadth of dentate nucleus.

  14. Finite element model of the Jefferson fracture: comparison with a cadaver model

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkus, Hakan; Karakas, Askin; Hancı, Murat; Uzan, Mustafa; Bozdag, Ergun; Sarıoglu, Ali

    2001-01-01

    This study tries to explain the reason why the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture, using two different biomechanical models: a finite element model (FEM) and a cadaver model used to determine strain distribution in C1 during axial static compressive loading. For the FEM model, a three-dimensional model of C1 was obtained from a 29-year-old healthy human, using axial CT scans with intervals of 1.0 mm. The mesh model was composed of 8200 four-noded isoparametric tetrahedrons and 37,400 soli...

  15. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts...... demonstrates that reversal cells colonizing bone surfaces right after resorption are osteoblast-lineage cells, and extends to adult human bone remodeling their role in rendering eroded surfaces osteogenic....

  16. Eye contact elicits bodily self-awareness in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Matias; Hazem, Nesrine; Vilarem, Emma; Beaucousin, Virginie; Picq, Jean-Luc; Conty, Laurence

    2014-10-01

    Eye contact is a typical human behaviour known to impact concurrent or subsequent cognitive processing. In particular, it has been suggested that eye contact induces self-awareness, though this has never been formally proven. Here, we show that the perception of a face with a direct gaze (that establishes eye contact), as compared to either a face with averted gaze or a mere fixation cross, led adult participants to rate more accurately the intensity of their physiological reactions induced by emotional pictures. Our data support the view that bodily self-awareness becomes more acute when one is subjected to another's gaze. Importantly, this effect was not related to a particular arousal state induced by eye contact perception. Rejecting the arousal hypothesis, we suggest that eye contact elicits a self-awareness process by enhancing self-focused attention in humans. We further discuss the implications of this proposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apprehensive about handling cadavers directly, while 29.3% .... physical reactions of health science students at first encounter with cadaver using Pearson chi- square test. ... physiotherapy and occupational therapy students. Australian ...

  18. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  19. Optimal positioning for emergent needle thoracostomy: a cadaver-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kenji; Branco, Bernardino C; Eckstein, Marc; Shatz, David V; Martin, Matthew J; Green, Donald J; Noguchi, Thomas T; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-11-01

    Needle thoracostomy is an emergent procedure designed to relieve tension pneumothorax. High failure rates because of the needle not penetrating into the thoracic cavity have been reported. Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines recommend placement in the second intercostal space, midclavicular line using a 5-cm needle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate placement in the fifth intercostal space, midaxillary line, where tube thoracostomy is routinely performed. We hypothesized that this would result in a higher successful placement rate. Twenty randomly selected unpreserved adult cadavers were evaluated. A standard 14-gauge 5-cm needle was placed in both the fifth intercostal space at the midaxillary line and the traditional second intercostal space at the midclavicular line in both the right and left chest walls. The needles were secured and thoracotomy was then performed to assess penetration into the pleural cavity. The right and left sides were analyzed separately acting as their own controls for a total of 80 needles inserted into 20 cadavers. The thickness of the chest wall at the site of penetration was then measured for each entry position. A total of 14 male and 6 female cadavers were studied. Overall, 100% (40 of 40) of needles placed in the fifth intercostal space and 57.5% (23 of 40) of the needles placed in the second intercostal space entered the chest cavity (p thoracostomy was successfully placed in 100% of attempts at the fifth intercostal space but in only 58% at the traditional second intercostal position. On average, the chest wall was 1 cm thinner at this position and may improve successful needle placement. Live patient validation of these results is warranted.

  20. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  1. "They increase in beauty and elegance": transforming cadavers and the epistemology of dissection in early nineteenth-century American medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Rachel N

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the origins of the practice of dissection in American medical education in order to both understand the function of dissection in medical education and challenge conventional wisdom about that function. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, American medical schools increasingly made human dissection a crucial part of their curricula, privileging use of the human cadaver over any other anatomical model. In this paper, I break apart the claims that American physicians made at that time regarding the unique pedagogic usefulness of the cadaver, and I juxtapose those claims against the realities of the dissection process. In doing so, I show how the realities of dissection differed sharply from the depictions given by physicians. In the conclusion, I argue that the cadaver still remained epistemologically and ontologically useful to the medical profession, although not necessarily for the reasons physicians explicitly stated.

  2. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control....... Methods and Findings The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs), among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20) by tag...... = 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies...

  3. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas do ligamento cruzado posterior e do ligamento patelar de cadáveres de seres humanos após utilização de radiofreqüência Study of the mechanical properties of the posterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon on fresh human cadavers after radiofrequency shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fazzolari Dota

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou estudar os efeitos da radiofreqüência sobre os ligamentos patelares (LP e ligamentos cruzados posteriores (LCP de cadáveres, levando em conta as características de rigidez e deformação máxima. Foram utilizados 11 LCP e 14 LP, sendo feitas as aferições com o aparelho Kratos® K5002 . Foi realizada a termoabrasão das estruturas, com encurtamento obtido entre 15 e 20% do comprimento inicial. Observou-se que essas deformações (encurtamento não se mantiveram no ensaio pós RF. Conclusão: A radiofreqüência permite o encurtamento do LP e LCP. O encurtamento obtido não se mantém completamente quando os ligamentos são submetidos a cargas tensionais padronizadas neste ensaio biomecânico. O uso de radiofrequência causa redução da rigidez do tecido (LP e LCP.This study intended to examine the effects of radiofrequency shrinkage (RF on patellar ligament (PL and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL of fresh human cadavers, measuring stiffness and maximum deformation. Eleven PCLs and 14 PLs were studied with traction tests being performed with the aid of a Kratos® K5002 machine. The structures were reduced by 15-20%, after the shrinkage. However, this reduction was partially lost after the traction test. Conclusion: RF was successful in reducing the length of the structures studied, in spite of the statistically significant stiffness loss. Then, RF was not fully successful in maintaining the reduction of ligament length under the traction forces of the test.

  4. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  5. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  6. Finite element model of the Jefferson fracture: comparison with a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkus, H; Karakas, A; Hanci, M; Uzan, M; Bozdag, E; Sarioglu, A C

    2001-06-01

    This study tries to explain the reason why the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture, using two different biomechanical models: a finite element model (FEM) and a cadaver model used to determine strain distribution in C1 during axial static compressive loading. For the FEM model, a three-dimensional model of C1 was obtained from a 29-year-old healthy human, using axial CT scans with intervals of 1.0 mm. The mesh model was composed of 8200 four-noded isoparametric tetrahedrons and 37,400 solid elements. The material properties of the cortical bone of the vertebra were assessed according to the previous literature and were assumed to be linear isotropic and homogeneous for all elements. Axial static compressive loads were applied at between 200 and 1200 N. The strain and stress (maximum shear and von Mises) analyses were determined on the clinically relevant fracture lines of anterior and posterior arches. The results of the FEM were compared with a cadaver model. The latter comprised the C1 bone of a cadaver placed in a methylmethacrylate foam. Axial static compressive loads between 200 and 1200 N were applied by an electrohydraulic testing machine. Strain values were measured using strain gauges, which were cemented to the bone where the clinically relevant fracture lines of the anterior and posterior arches were located. As a result, compressive strain was observed on the outer surface of the anterior arch and inferior surface of the posterior arch. In addition, there was tensile strain on the inner surface of the anterior arch and superior surface of the posterior arch. The strain values obtained from the two experimental models showed similar trends. The FEM analysis revealed that maximum strain changes occurred where the maximum shear and von Mises stresses were concentrated. The changes in the C1 strain and stress values during static axial loading biomechanically prove that the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture.

  7. Low oxygen tension stimulates redifferentiation of dedifferentiated adult human nasal chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malda, J.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Geffen, van M.; Martens, D.E.; Tramper, J.; Riesle, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of dissolved oxygen tension (DO) on the redifferentiation of dedifferentiated adult human nasal septum chondrocytes cultured as pellets. Design: After isolation, human nasal chondrocytes were expanded in monolayer culture, which resulted in their dedifferentiation.

  8. Low oxygen tension stimulates the redifferentiation of dedifferentiated adult human nasal chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malda, J.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Geffen, van M.; Martens, D.E.; Tramper, J.; Riesle, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of dissolved oxygen tension (DO) on the redifferentiation of dedifferentiated adult human nasal septum chondrocytes cultured as pellets. - Design: After isolation, human nasal chondrocytes were expanded in monolayer culture, which resulted in their dedifferentiati

  9. Ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult human dry vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuri, Kalyan Chakravarthi; Venumadhav, Nelluri; Ks, Siddaraju

    2014-08-01

    The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region.

  10. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Adult human liver mesenchymal progenitor cells express phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, Julien; Nyabi, Omar; Najimi, Mustapha; Fauvart, Maarten; Sokal, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most prevalent inherited metabolic diseases and is accountable for a severe encephalopathy by progressive intoxication of the brain by phenylalanine. This results from an ineffective L-phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) due to a mutated phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Neonatal screening programs allow an early dietetic treatment with restrictive phenylalanine intake. This diet prevents most of the neuropsychological disabilities but remains challenging for lifelong compliance. Adult-derived human liver progenitor cells (ADHLPC) are a pool of precursors that can differentiate into hepatocytes. We aim to study PAH expression and PAH activity in a differenciated ADHLPC. ADHLPC were isolated from human hepatocyte primary culture of two different donors and differenciated under specific culture conditions. We demonstrated the high expression of PAH and a large increase of PAH activity in differenciated LPC. The age of the donor, the cellular viability after liver digestion and cryopreservation affects PAH activity. ADHLPC might therefore be considered as a suitable source for cell therapy in PKU.

  12. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  13. Coupled Physical and Digital Cadaver Dissection Followed by a Visual Test Protocol Provides Insights into the Nature of Anatomical Knowledge and Its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisley, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Larry D.; Smith, Stacy E.; Kavic, Stephen M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-year dissection laboratory by accomplished students: "physical" dissection using an embalmed cadaver and "digital" dissection using three-dimensional volume modeling of whole-body CT and MRI image sets acquired using…

  14. Coupled Physical and Digital Cadaver Dissection Followed by a Visual Test Protocol Provides Insights into the Nature of Anatomical Knowledge and Its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisley, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Larry D.; Smith, Stacy E.; Kavic, Stephen M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-year dissection laboratory by accomplished students: "physical" dissection using an embalmed cadaver and "digital" dissection using three-dimensional volume modeling of whole-body CT and MRI image sets acquired using…

  15. Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma in the Iranian cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aghakhani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although one-fourth of the pituitary tumors are inactive and silent, increased total volume of the pituitary gland exerts pressure on sella turcica and corrodes the clinoid processes, resulting in several problems. Therefore, determination of the prevalence of the concealed pituitary tumors is of major concern among clinical practitioners. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of these tumors in cadavers referred to the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (Kahrizak, Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed between June 2007 and February 2008. A total of 485 cadavers were selected by simple random sampling method. Pituitary glands were removed and then horizontally cut and four slides were prepared from each of them, stained by hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated by a light microscope. For statistical analysis, SPSS software (version 16, Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric test (K-S test, and Chi-square test were used. Results: Of the 485 investigated cadavers, 365 (75.3% were males with an average age of 42 ± 20.5 years and 120 (24.7% were females with an average age of 44 ± 22 years. A total of 61 (12.6% had concealed pituitary masses. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean age, sex, and body mass index (BMI of the cadavers with and without concealed tumors (P=0.380 P=0.450, and P=0.884, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, the prevalence of the concealed pituitary adenomas was 12.6%. There was no correlation between age, sex, and BMI and the prevalence of the concealed masses.

  16. EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR CLEANING EMBALMED CADAVER BONES

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    Bhawani Shankar Modi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to find new technique for development of bone specimens from cadavers. Material and methods: Long bones, skull and other bones from embalmed cadaver were taken and cleansed by various methods. Four methods were employed for preparing specimens. In 1st method bones were boiled in tap water for 7-8 hours on gas stove. In 2nd method bones were immersed in water with addition of detergent at constant temperature. In 3rd method bones were kept at constant temperature in water without addition of detergent. In 4th method bones were buried for one month under superficial surface of soil during rainy season after boiling the bones for 7-8 hours Observations: Use of detergent in warm water (65o C was good for cleaning long bones while best result for long bones as well as skull was seen with boiling followed by burial of embalmed specimens. Results were found as expected. Time consumed in the present study was less than old classical methods. Bones specimens formed were of high quality. Conclusions: Preparation of bone specimen by embalmed cadaver can be of immense value and time saver for many research institutes to get their self-prepared specimens. There are many more ways which has to be modified or rediscovered in this area of research, which has been neglected so far.

  17. Living and cadaver donor transplant programs in the maghreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Hachicha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Maghreb, organ failure constitutes a major public health problem, especially given the increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure and the high cost of care. In this study, we attempted to seek the recommendations, through a questionnaire, of various officials related to organ transplantation as well as leaders of ethics committees and religious groups in different countries of the Maghreb. The objective was to improve the rate of organ donation and transplantation. We received 36 replies (62% within the prescribed time limit. In our survey, 83% of the respondents felt that living donor transplantation should be promoted initially, followed gradually by measures to increase cadaver donor transplantation to achieve a target of about 30 transplants with cadaver kidney donors per million inhabitants. To expand the donor pool, 83% of the respondents proposed to expand the family circle to include the spouse and inlaws. To improve the cadaver donation activity, one should improve the organizational aspects to ensure at least 50 renal transplantations per year (100% and provide material motivation to the treatment team proportional to the activity of organ donation and transplantation. Finally, 93% of the respondents suggested suitable moral motivation of the donors.

  18. [Impression traces from firearms on cadaver skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, K; Koops, E; Kulle, K J

    1996-01-01

    Guns may occasionally leave traces on human skin, for example by compression/impression of the tissue (esp. in the area of livores), by contact-transfer of dirt, oil, and rust, or by forming the pattern of blood-smears. The case of a 31-year-old drug-addict is presented in detail: The man committed suicide by shooting himself (entrance hole under the chin). When the dead body was found there was no weapon at the scene. By careful securing of evidence and analyzing the pattern of metallisations (identified as rust from the old pistol) it was reconstructed that the suicident held the pistol (identified as Russian Tokarew TT33-7.62 mm) in his hand for many hours postmortem until it was removed by an unknown thief.

  19. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  20. A cadaver knee simulator to evaluate the biomechanics of rectus femoris transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael C; Brown, Nicholas A T; Bachus, Kent N; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2009-07-01

    A cadaver knee simulator has been developed to model surgical transfer of the rectus femoris. The simulator allows knee specimens six degrees of freedom and is capable of modeling both the swing and stance phases of human gait. Experiments were conducted using a mechanical hinge analog of the knee to verify that time, flexion angle, and knee extension force measurements recorded when using the simulator were not influenced by its design or operation. A ballistic double pendulum model was used to model the swing phase of gait, and the contributions of hip and ankle torques and hamstrings cocontraction were included when modeling the stance phase of gait. When modeling swing, range of motion and time to peak knee flexion in swing for the hinge knee were similar to those of in vivo test subjects. Measurements of hinge knee extension force when modeling stance under various biomechanical conditions matched those predicted using an analytical model. Future studies using cadaver knee specimens will apply techniques described in this paper to further our understanding of changes in knee biomechanics caused by rectus femoris transfer surgery.

  1. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  2. PART II - HUMAN BODIES TO TEACH ANATOMY: IMPORTANCE AND PROCUREMENT – EXPERIENCE WITH CADAVER DONATION. Parte II - Cuerpos humanos para la enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y procuración – Experiencia con la donación de cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana N Biasutto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La publicación del Debate sobre “Cuerpos Humanos para la Enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y Procuración – Experiencia con la Donación de Cadáveres” en el último número llamó la atención de la comunidad anatómica internacional por la amplitud del enfoque y la diversidad de las situaciones mencionadas. Aunque es posible encontrar muchos otros artículos sobre el tema, generalmente se enfocan a una experiencia particular, un país o, eventualmente, a un continente. Este Debate dio una breve visión sobre diferentes continentes y provesó un rápido punto de vista sobre los acuerdos y diversidad de problemas que afrontan los profesores de Anatomía en una amplia variedad de culturas. Tal como se especificó en la primera parte, los comentarios, consultas y respuestas de los participantes iniciales y los lectores en general serían considerados para una segunda parte del Debate. Todas las contribuciones  significativas han sido organizadas e incluidas en esta instancia. Los lectores podrán encontrar información importante relativa a Australia, República Checa, Rusia, Turquía y Venezuela y comentarios adicionales a los conceptos previamente publicados sobre India, Malasia, Sudáfrica y Estados Unidos. Publication of the Debate on “Human Bodies to Teach Anatomy: Importance and Procurement – Experience with Cadaver Donation” in the immediate past issue called the attention of the international anatomic community because of the broad approach and the diversity of the mentioned situations. Instead it is possible to find many other articles on this topic they are usually focused on a particular experience, country or, eventually, a continent. This Debate gave a brief mapping on different continents and provided a quick point of view on agreements and diversity of problems afforded by the professors of Anatomy under a wide variety of cultures.  As it was specified in the first part, comments, queries and answers from the

  3. Features of hand-foot crawling behavior in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Sylos Labini, F; Lacquaniti, F

    2012-01-01

    Interlimb coordination of crawling kinematics in humans shares features with other primates and nonprimate quadrupeds, and it has been suggested that this is due to a similar organization of the locomotor pattern generators (CPGs). To extend the previous findings and to further explore the neural control of bipedal vs. quadrupedal locomotion, we used a crawling paradigm in which healthy adults crawled on their hands and feet at different speeds and at different surface inclinations (13°, 27°, and 35°). Ground reaction forces, limb kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activity from 26 upper and lower limb muscles on the right side of the body were collected. The EMG activity was mapped onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron pools to characterize the general features of cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord activation. The spatiotemporal pattern of spinal cord activity significantly differed between quadrupedal and bipedal gaits. In addition, participants exhibited a large range of kinematic coordination styles (diagonal vs. lateral patterns), which is in contrast to the stereotypical kinematics of upright bipedal walking, suggesting flexible coupling of cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Results showed strikingly dissimilar directional horizontal forces for the arms and legs, considerably retracted average leg orientation, and substantially smaller sacral vs. lumbar motoneuron activity compared with quadrupedal gait in animals. A gradual transition to a more vertical body orientation (increasing the inclination of the treadmill) led to the appearance of more prominent sacral activity (related to activation of ankle plantar flexors), typical of bipedal walking. The findings highlight the reorganization and adaptation of CPG networks involved in the control of quadrupedal human locomotion and a high specialization of the musculoskeletal apparatus to specific gaits.

  4. Glycosaminoglycans of human rotator cuff tendons: changes with age and in chronic rotator cuff tendinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, G P; Harrall, R. L.; Constant, C R; Chard, M D; Cawston, T E; Hazleman, B L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To analyse the glycosaminoglycans of the adult human rotator cuff tendon matrix, to characterise changes in the glycosaminoglycan composition with age and in chronic rotator cuff tendinitis. METHODS--Rotator cuff (supraspinatus) tendons (n = 84) and common biceps tendons (n = 26) were obtained from cadavers with no history of tendon pathology (age range 11-95 years). Biopsies of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons, n = 53) were obtained during open should...

  5. Site-dependent and interindividual variations in Denonvilliers' fascia: a histological study using donated elderly male cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Murakami, Gen; Tewari, Ashutosh K; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-05-12

    Site-dependent and interindividual histological differences in Denonvilliers' fascia (DF) are not well understood. This study aimed to examine site-dependent and interindividual differences in DF and to determine whether changes in the current approach to radical prostatectomy are warranted in light of these histological findings. Twenty-five donated male cadavers (age range, 72-95 years) were examined. These cadavers had been donated to Sapporo Medical University for research and education on human anatomy. Their use for research was approved by the university ethics committee. Horizontal sections (15 cadavers) or sagittal sections (10 cadavers) were prepared at intervals of 2-5 mm for hematoxylin and eosin staining. Elastic-Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining were also performed, using mouse monoclonal anti-human alpha-smooth muscle actin to stain connective tissues and mouse monoclonal anti-human S100 protein to stain nerves. We observed that DF consisted of disorderly, loose connective tissue and structures resembling "leaves", which were interlacing and adjacent to each other, actually representing elastic or smooth muscle fibers. Variations in DF were observed in the following: 1) configuration of multiple leaves, including clear, unclear, or fragmented behind the body and tips of the seminal vesicles, depending on the site; 2) connection with the lateral pelvic fascia at the posterolateral angle of the prostate posterior to the neurovascular bundles, being clear, unclear, or absent; 3) all or most leaves of DF fused with the prostatic capsule near the base of the seminal vesicles, and periprostatic nerves were embedded in the leaves at the fusion site; and 4) some DF leaves fused with the prostatic capsule anteriorly and/or the fascia propria of the rectum posteriorly. Site-dependent and interindividual variations in DF were observed in donated elderly male cadavers. All or most DF leaves are fused with the prostatic capsule near the base of the

  6. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults.

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    Nadja Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs, among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20 by tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The proportions of phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control group (P = 0.03. Furthermore, the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes as well as the ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella group to C. coccoides-E. rectale group correlated positively and significantly with plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.04 but not with BMIs. Similarly, class Betaproteobacteria was highly enriched in diabetic compared to non-diabetic persons (P = 0.02 and positively correlated with plasma glucose (P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota.

  7. Pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft bone plugs: a comparison of cadaver tibia and rigid polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan

    2013-09-01

    To compare the load-to-failure pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts in human cadaver tibias and rigid polyurethane foam blocks. Twenty BPTB allografts were trimmed creating 25 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm tibial plugs. Ten-millimeter tunnels were drilled in 10 human cadaver tibias and 10 rigid polyurethane foam blocks. The BPTB anterior cruciate ligament allografts were inserted into these tunnels and secured with metal interference screws, with placement of 10 of each type in each material. After preloading (10 N), cyclic loading (500 cycles, 10 to 150 N at 200 mm/min) and load-to-failure testing (200 mm/min) were performed. The endpoints were ultimate failure load, cyclic loading elongation, and failure mode. No difference in ultimate failure load existed between grafts inserted into rigid polyurethane foam blocks (705 N) and those in cadaver tibias (669 N) (P = .69). The mean rigid polyurethane foam block elongation (0.211 mm) was less than that in tibial bone (0.470 mm) (P = .038), with a smaller standard deviation (0.07 mm for foam) than tibial bone (0.34 mm). All BPTB grafts successfully completed 500 cycles. The rigid polyurethane foam block showed less variation in test results than human cadaver tibias. Rigid polyurethane foam blocks provide an acceptable substitute for human cadaver bone tibia for biomechanical testing of BPTB allografts and offer near-equivalent results. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity among sexually active adults in Uganda.

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    Fatma M Shebl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 has been implicated among homosexual men, but the evidence for sexual transmission among heterosexual individuals is controversial. We investigated the role of sexual transmission of HHV8 in a nationally representative sample in Uganda, where HHV8 infection is endemic and transmitted mostly during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was a subset of participants (n = 2681 from a population-based HIV/AIDS serobehavioral survey of adults aged 15-59 years conducted in 2004/2005. High risk for sexual transmission was assessed by questionnaire and serological testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2. Anti-HHV8 antibodies were measured using two enzyme immunoassays targeting synthetic peptides from the K8.1 and orf65 viral genes. The current study was restricted to 2288 sexually active adults. ORs and 95% CIs for HHV8 seropositivity were estimated by fitting logistic regression models with a random intercept using MPLUS and SAS software. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of HHV8 seropositivity was 56.2%, based on 1302 seropositive individuals, and it increased significantly with age (P(trend<0.0001. In analyses adjusting for age, sex, geography, education, and HIV status, HHV8 seropositivity was positively associated with reporting two versus one marital union (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.97 and each unit increase in the number of children born (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08, and was inversely associated with ever having used a condom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.89. HHV8 seropositivity was not associated with HIV (P = 0.660 or with herpes simplex virus 2 (P = 0.732 seropositivity. Other sexual variables, including lifetime number of sexual partners or having had at least one sexually transmitted disease, and socioeconomic variables were unrelated to HHV8 seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Our findings are compatible with the conclusion that sexual transmission of HHV8 in

  9. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases maximal oxygen uptake in adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer C; Lonac, Mark C; Johnson, Tyler K; Schweder, Melani M; Bell, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, increases endurance performance in animals and promotes fat oxidation during cycle ergometer exercise in adult humans. We have investigated the hypothesis that short-term consumption of EGCG delays the onset of the ventilatory threshold (VT) and increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In this randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind study, 19 healthy adults (11 males and 8 females, age = 26 ± 2 yr (mean ± SE)) received seven placebo or seven EGCG (135-mg) pills. Forty-eight hours before data collection, participants began consuming three pills per day; the last pill was taken 2 h before exercise testing. VT and VO2max were determined from breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry data collected during continuous incremental stationary cycle ergometer exercise (20-35 W·min(-1)), from rest until volitional fatigue. Each condition/exercise test was separated by a minimum of 14 d. Compared with placebo, short-term EGCG consumption increased VO2max (3.123 ± 0.187 vs 3.259 ± 0.196 L·min(-1), P = 0.04). Maximal work rate (301 ± 15 vs 301 ± 16 W, P = 0.98), maximal RER (1.21 ± 0.01 vs 1.22 ± 0.02, P = 0.27), and maximal HR were unaffected (180 ± 3 vs 180 ± 3 beats·min(-1), P = 0.87). In a subset of subjects (n = 11), maximal cardiac output (determined via open-circuit acetylene breathing) was also unaffected by EGCG (29.6 ± 2.2 vs 30.2 ± 1.4 L·min(-1), P = 0.70). Contrary to our hypothesis, EGCG decreased VO2 at VT (1.57 ± 0.11 vs 1.48 ± 0.10 L·min(-1)), but this change was not significant (P = 0.06). Short-term consumption of EGCG increased VO2max without affecting maximal cardiac output, suggesting that EGCG may increase arterial-venous oxygen difference.

  10. A morphometric study of age-related changes in adult human epiglottis using quantitative digital analysis of cartilage calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Okayama, Keisuke; Igari, Toshirou; Kikuchi, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    The epiglottis plays an important role in deglutition in humans. The present study investigated age-related changes in the epiglottis using macroscopic and microscopic measurements. Epiglottic specimens from 281 Japanese adult cadavers (177 males, 104 females) were obtained. Specimens were divided into three groups according to age: group I: 20-39 years old (32 males, 26 females), group II: 50-69 years old (82 males, 36 females), and group III: 80-98 years old (63 males, 42 females). Width, height, and thickness were measured macroscopically. To evaluate the degree of calcium deposition, the calcium volume in digitalized von Kossa-stained sections was assessed using a quantitative analysis. An elemental analysis of the area detected with von Kossa staining was done using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). Measurements of the thickness and cell density in the superficial and deep layers of epiglottic cartilage were performed in horizontal histological sections. No significant differences in macroscopic width or height were found across the age groups in either sex. A series of three measurements in males was significantly larger than in females (p<0.05). The volume of the calcium deposit area was greater in males than in females (p<0.05) and was significantly increased in group III in males (p<0.05). The lower level of the epiglottic cartilage showed a greater calcium deposit area than the upper level. In the scanning image by line and surface analysis using EDX, the calcium deposit areas detected with von Kossa staining indicated a close association of calcium and phosphorus ions. The mean Ca/P molar ratio in the calcium deposit area was 1.32+/-0.12. Microscopic cartilage thickness increased significantly with age (p<0.05), and was greater in males than in females (p<0.05). Cartilage cell density in the superficial cartilage layer was higher than in the deep layer and was decreased in group III (p<0.05). Cartilage cell density was lower in

  11. Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemolato, S.; Cabras, T.; Fanari, M.U.; Cau, F.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Manconi, B.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested Tβ4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of Tβ4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of Tβ4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. Tβ4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; Tβ4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that Tβ4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life. PMID:21263742

  12. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate.

  13. HISTOLOGICAL SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN ADULT HUMAN PARATHYROID GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fating Anita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Increasing problems of calcium deficiency with physiological conditions like pregnancy, lactation etc. it becomes the need of time to focus attention towards these glands as one of the essential entity. Hence we have undertaken this study to have an idea about normal variation in the gland as per sex. AIMS: To reveal sexual differences in adult human parathyroid glands. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Parathyroid glands from 25 autopsied cases of 20 to 59 years were studied after staining with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome & Reticulin stains. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data is analyzed on statistical software intercooled STATA version 8.0. Data was presented in mean± standard deviation & categorical variables were expressed in percentages. Comparison of oxyphil scores in male & female was done by unpaired‘t’ test. P < 0.05 was taken as statistical significance. RESULTS: Stroma composed of short often branching reticular fibres along with blood vessels and fat cells. By statistical examination the amount of fat was more in case of females than in males of same age groups. Oxyphil cells being less numerous than chief cells were distinguished by their dark eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and were arranged mostly in closely packed groups without interstitial fat in between the cells. Oxyphil cells also found as placed singly among chief cells. It was also observed as continuous masses or anastomosing columns. As compared with males oxyphil cells are more in females. CONCLUSIONS: By statistical analysis 1 Percentage of stromal fat in case of females was slightly greater than in males of same age group. 2 The score of oxyphil cells in females was double to more than triple as compared to male score of same age group. 3 This study is clinically important as hormonal changes occurs early in females than in males and it is in favor of providing supplementary calcium with D3 along with minimal dose of estrogen as age advances in

  14. Response to: Comment on "Human adult neurogenesis across the ages: An immunohistochemical study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C V; Suh, L S; Rodriguez, M L; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2017-02-20

    It is with great interest that we read the comment by Marucci [1] referring to our publication "Human adult neurogenesis across the ages: An immunohistochemical study" [2]. Since the seminal paper of Eriksson et al. in 1998, human adult neurogenesis has become a major area of research in neuroscience [3]. Although an age-related decline in human adult neurogenesis is not disputed, opinions differ on the functional significance of the residual neuroblasts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ingvor A; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...

  16. Hamstring tendon harvesting--Effect of harvester on tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption; cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, C P; Alvi, F; Phaltankar, P; Gagey, O

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of hamstring tendon harvester used can influence harvested tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption. We compared two different types of tendon harvesters with regard to the length of tendon obtained and soft tissue disruption during hamstring tendon harvesting. Thirty six semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were harvested using either a closed stripper or a blade harvester in 18 paired knees from nine human fresh cadavers. Use of the blade harvester gave longer lengths of usable tendon whilst minimising the stripping of muscle and of any non-usable tendon. Our results suggest that the type of harvester per se can influence the length of tendon harvested as well as soft tissue disruption. Requesting such data from the industry prior to deciding which harvester to use seems desirable.

  17. Validation of alternate light sources for detection of bruises in non-embalmed and embalmed cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Langlois, Neil E I

    2017-03-01

    Bruising is frequently documented in cases of violence for use as forensic evidence. However, bruises can be overlooked if they are not visible to the naked eye. Alternate light sources such as ultraviolet, narrow band, and infrared have been used in an attempt to reveal the presence of bruising that is not otherwise apparent. However, there is a significant gap in knowledge surrounding this technique as it has not been validated against histology to confirm that bruising is genuinely being enhanced. A recent study evaluated the ability of alternate light sources to enhance visibility of bruises using a pigskin model. However, histological confirmation of bruising in humans using these light sources has not yet been performed. In this study, embalmed and non-embalmed human cadavers were used. Bodies were surveyed with alternate light sources, and enhanced regions that were unapparent under white light were photographed with the alternate light sources and sampled for histological assessment. Immunohistochemical staining for the red blood cell surface protein glycophorin was used determine if the enhanced area was a bruise (defined by the presence of extravasated erythrocytes). Photographs of areas confirmed to be bruises were analyzed using the program Fiji to measure enhancement, which was defined as an increase in the measured transverse diameter. In the non-embalmed and the embalmed cadavers violet alternate light produced the greatest enhancement of histologically confirmed bruises, followed by blue (both p light sources may not be specific. This suggests that the use of light sources to enhance the visibility of bruising should be undertaken with caution and further studies are required.

  18. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  19. Cadaver as an experimental model to study abdominal wall tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahas Fábio Xerfan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cadaver as an experimental model to evaluate tension of the abdominal wall after aponeurotic incisions and muscular undermining is described on this article. The tension required to pull the anterior and the posterior rectus sheaths towards the midline was studied in fresh cadavers at two levels: 3 cm above and 2 cm below the umbilicus. Traction measurement was assessed with a dynamometer attached to suture loops on the anterior and posterior recti sheaths, close to the midline, above and below the umbilicus. The quotient of the force used to mobilize the aponeurotic site to the midline and its resulting displacement was called the traction index. These indices were compared in three situations: 1 prior to any aponeurotic undermining; 2 after the incision of the anterior rectus sheath and the undermining of the rectus muscle from its posterior sheath; and 3 after additionally releasing and undermining of the external oblique muscle. The experimental model described showed to be feasible to demonstrate the effects on tension of the abdominal wall after incisions and undermining of its muscles and aponeurosis.

  20. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  1. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  2. Biomechanical analysis of injury criterion for child and adult dummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sances, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of human injury tolerance is difficult because of the physical differences between humans and animals, the available dummies, and tissue of the cadaver. Furthermore, human volunteer testing can clearly only be done at subinjurious levels. While considerable biomechanical injury evidence exists for the adult human based on cadaveric studies, little information is available for the pediatric population. However, some material is available from skull bone modulus studies and from the fetal tendon strength and early pediatric studies of the newborn. A review of living human, animal, and human cadaveric studies, which forms the basis for head-neck injury criterion are given. Examples of the use of the Hybrid III dummy for injury prediction such as in the Malibu rollover tests and air bag mechanisms show neck injury levels are considerably above the proposed Malibu 2000 N level.

  3. Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

    2009-05-01

    Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies.

  4. Morphological method for the diagnosis of human adult type hypolactasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Maiuri, L; M. Rossi; V. Raia; Paparo, F; Coletta, S; Mazzeo, F; Breglia, A; Auricchio, S

    1994-01-01

    The primary adult type hypolactasia is the most common form of genetically determined disaccharidase deficiency. This study examined a large and homogeneous population of the south of Italy: surgical biopsy specimens of proximal jejunum from 178 adult subjects have been assayed for disaccharidase activities; the expression of lactase protein and lactase activity has also been investigated on tissue sections by immunomorphological and enzymohistochemical techniques. Histograms of lactase to su...

  5. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  6. An Economical Approach to Teaching Cadaver Anatomy: A 10-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of shrinking budgets and computerized virtual dissection programs, many large and small institutions are closing the door on traditional and expensive cadaver dissection classes. However, many health-care educators would argue there is still a place for cadaver dissection in higher education, so the continuing challenge is to provide the…

  7. Adult human case of toxocariasis with pulmonary migratory infiltrate and eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Považan Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxocariasis is a zoonosis which is in Serbia characterized with a very high infection rate of dogs and excessive contamination of the soil with the eggs of Toxocara canis, the agent of the disease. Toxocara-induced infections have in recent years been established in a few hundreds of children, but toxocariasis has rather rarely been diagnosed in adults. Case report. We reported toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans in an adult, manifested by migratory pulmonary infiltrates and positive serological test finding to Toxocara. Conclusion. Human toxocariasis is a rare disease in adults, therefore it should be considered in adult patients presented with eosinophilia and migratory pulmonary infiltrates.

  8. Acute Q fever infection in Thuringia, Germany, after burial of roe deer fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Schleenvoigt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with acute Q fever infection after burying two fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus. Recent outbreaks of Q fever in Europe have been traced back to intensive goat breeding units, sheep flocks in the proximity of highly populated urban areas or to farmed deer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing Q fever infection in a human linked to roe deer as a source of infection.

  9. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex....... Stimulus–response curves were constructed by recording the intensity of the reported phosphenes evoked in the contralateral visual field at range of TMS intensities. Phosphene measurements revealed that MD produced a rapid and robust decrease in cortical excitability relative to a control condition without...

  10. "Adult Education Is about Human Being in All Its Aspects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Derek Legge, who celebrated his 95th birthday at the end of last month, is one of the most dedicated and influential of the largely unsung heroes of the adult education movement in Britain. As modesty is one of the many qualities with which his friends and colleagues credit him, he is certain to shrink from the description, but there is little…

  11. Progression of thanatophagy in cadaver brain and heart tissues

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    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully elucidated whether postmortem autophagy, also known as thanatophagy, occurs in dead bodies is a function of the time of death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that thanatophagy would increase in proportion to time elapsed since death for tissues collected from cadavers. Brain and heart tissue from corpses at different time intervals after death were analyzed by Western blot. Densitometry analysis demonstrated that thanatophagy occurred in a manner that was dependent on the time of death. The autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 II, p62, Beclin-1 and Atg7, increased in a time-dependent manner in heart tissues. A potent inducer of autophagy, BNIP3, decreased in the heart tissues as time of death increased, whereas the protein levels increased in brain tissues. However, there was no expression of BNIP3 at extended postmortem intervals in both brain and heart samples. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time that thanatophagy occurs in brain and heart tissues of cadavers in a time-dependent manner. Further, our data suggest that cerebral thanatophagy may occur in a Beclin-1- independent manner. This unprecedented study provides potential insight into thanatophagy as a novel method for the estimation of the time of death in criminal investigationsAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully

  12. Cadaver renal transplant outcome in recipients with autolymphocytotoxic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenger, R B; Jordan, S C; Fine, R N

    1983-05-01

    The major impact of autolymphocytotoxic antibodies (ALCA) on renal transplantation has been in the interpretation of the pretransplant crossmatch as a cause of false-positive results. Less attention has been paid to the direct affects of ALCA on renal allografts. We have examined the sera of 38 recipients of 41 cadaver renal allografts for the presence of ALCA. There were 9 patients with ALCA who received 10 allografts. In these allografts with ALCA, actuarial graft survival was significantly improved (P less than 0.05) over that of 31 transplants without ALCA. In recipients with ALCA, graft survival was 90% at six months and 60% at one and two years; in recipients without ALCA, graft survival was 48% at six months, 35% at one year and 24% at two years. ALCA may be exerting graft-enhancing properties by means of an autoregulatory effect upon the recipient's immunologic system.

  13. Mapping the differential distribution of glycosaminoglycans in the adult human retina, choroid, and sclera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, S. J.; Keenan, T.D.; Fielder, H.L.; Collinson, L.J.; Holley, R.J.; Merry, C.L.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Day, A.J.; Bishop, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To map the distribution of different classes of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the healthy human retina, choroid, and sclera. METHODS. Frozen tissue sections were made from adult human donor eyes. The GAG chains of proteoglycans (PGs) were detected with antibodies directed against various GAG

  14. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, S.D.; Schirmer, K.; Munst, B.; Heinz, S.; Ghafoory, S.; Wolfl, S.; Simon-Keller, K.; Marx, A.; Oie, C.I.; Ebert, M.P.; Walles, H.; Braspenning, J.C.; Breitkopf-Heinlein, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte(R) cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte(R) cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacit

  15. An Inventory of Skills and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Human Services/Adult Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, William

    This document is an inventory of skills identified as necessary by professionals in the human services field specializing in adult care. It is intended as a mechanism whereby educators can compare that which they teach against what the human services industry feels is relevant. Introductory material discusses the process of the occupational…

  16. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses.

  17. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....

  18. Binge Drinking Effects on EEG in Young Adult Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Courtney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adult (N = 96 university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours, low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours, and high-binge drinkers (≥ 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours, who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz and fast-beta (20–35 Hz bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.

  19. Dark age of sourcing cadavers in developing countries: a Nigerian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G E; Udemezue, O O; Obikili, E N

    2011-10-01

    Throughout the history of medical science, the sourcing, storage, and management of cadavers for the study of gross anatomy have been problematic issues. As presented in this report, a study of these issues was conducted in the departments of anatomy of medical schools in Nigeria. To establish the extent and depth of the prevailing difficulties in the sourcing of cadavers, 18 (62.1%) of the Departments of Anatomy that qualified for this study were used. In sum, 94.4% of these schools reported an inadequate number of cadavers for study. The estimated ages of the cadavers were between 20 and 40 years and 85% of the schools reported more than 75% of the cadavers to be from the lower socioeconomic class. Altogether, 94.4% of the schools reported a male dominance of more than 95%. More than 72% of the schools reported that more than 90% of the cadavers were criminals that had been killed by shooting, less than 10% were unclaimed and unidentified corpses, and 0% originated from body bequest. No form of screening exercises for diseases and infective microorganisms was noted for all the schools, and there were no set standards for the acceptance or rejection of cadavers. Causative factors for the profile of available cadavers such as culture and religion were noted. This study was designed to look at various issues associated with the sourcing of cadavers for Anatomy education in typical developing African countries like Nigeria. As outlined in this report, the creation of legislation and the promotion and funding of programs highlighting the importance of body donation are crucial for improving the field of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  1. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Paniagua-Torija; Angel Arevalo-Martin; Isidro Ferrer; Eduardo Molina-Holgado; Daniel Garcia-Ovejero

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqma...

  2. A century of trends in adult human height

    OpenAIRE

    Bentham, J; Di Cesare, M; Stevens, G.A.; Zhou, B.; Bixby, H.; Cowan, M.; Fortunato, L.; Hajifathalian, K; Lu, Y.; Riley, L. M.; Kontis, V.; Paciorek, C. J.; Ezzati, M; Abdeen, Z. A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, ...

  3. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  4. Rate and adaptation effects on the auditory evoked brainstem response in human newborns and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, R E

    1997-09-01

    Auditory evoked brainstem response (ABR) latencies increased and amplitudes decreased with increasing stimulus repetition rate for human newborns and adults. The wave V latency increases were larger for newborns than adults. The wave V amplitude decreases were smaller for newborns than adults. These differences could not be explained by developmental differences in frequency responsivity. The transition from the unadapted to the fully adapted response was less rapid in newborns than adults at short (= 10 ms) inter stimulus intervals (ISIs). At longer ISIs (= 20 ms) there were no developmental differences in the transition to the fully adapted response. The newborn transition occurred in a two stage process. The rapid initial stage observed in adults and newborns was complete by about 40 ms. A second slower stage was observed only in newborns although it has been observed in adults in other studies (Weatherby and Hecox, 1982; Lightfoot, 1991; Lasky et al., 1996). These effects were replicated at different stimulus intensities. After the termination of stimulation the return to the wave V unadapted response took nearly 500 ms in newborns. Neither the newborn nor the adult data can be explained by forward masking of one click on the next click. These results indicate human developmental differences in adaptation to repetitive auditory stimulation at the level of the brainstem.

  5. A century of trends in adult human height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  6. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkevich, P.; Rahbek, O.; Møller-Madsen, B.; Søballe, K.; Stilling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomy (LCLO). Methods LCLO was performed in six fixed adult cadaver feet. Tantalum markers were inserted on each side of the osteotomy and in the cuboideum. Lengthening was done with a plexiglas wedge. A total of 24 radiological double examinations were obtained. Two feet were excluded due to loose and poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. Results Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. Conclusion RSA is a precise tool for the evaluation of stability in LCLO. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:78–83. PMID:25957380

  7. [Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque de; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira Dos Santos; Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos da

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how occurs the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath through the axiliary infraclavicular space and hence prove the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, and 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency.

  9. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; da Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Total Number of Synapses in the Adult Human Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is composed of glial cells and neurons where synapses form connections between neurons and other cells. Since synapses are very small, so either a light or electron microscope is required to see them. Unlike other mammals, synapses in the human brain deteriorate rapidly upon death making them difficult to study. This project constructs a simple model for the number of synapses in the human neocortex by age and sex based on the amount of neurons. This hypothetical model can also be used to study the impact of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia that are marked by a decreased number of synaptic connections.

  11. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nationalities and generations. The traffic in human beings is managed by transnational criminal organizations and is a disturbing and growing phenomena around the world.

  12. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin.

  13. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...... reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal...

  14. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  15. Paracetamol, aspirin and indomethacin display endocrine disrupting properties in the adult human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, O; Desdoits-Lethimonier, C; Lesné, L; Legrand, A; Guillé, F; Bensalah, K; Dejucq-Rainsford, N; Jégou, B

    2013-07-01

    Do mild analgesics affect the endocrine system of the human adult testis? Mild analgesics induce multiple endocrine disturbances in the human adult testis in vitro. Mild analgesics have recently been incriminated as potential endocrine disruptors. Studies of the effects of these widely used molecules on the androgenic status of men are limited and somewhat contradictory. This prompted us to investigate whether these compounds could alter the adult human testicular function. We therefore assessed in parallel the effects of paracetamol, aspirin and indomethacin on organo-cultured adult human testis and on the NCI-H295R steroid-producing human cell line. Adult human testis explants or NCI-H295R adrenocortical human cells were cultured with 10(-4) or 10(-5) M paracetamol, aspirin or indomethacin for 24-48 h. The effect of 10(-5) M ketoconazole, used as an anti-androgenic reference molecule, was also assessed. Testes were obtained from prostate cancer patients, who had not received any hormone therapy. The protocol was approved by the local ethics committee of Rennes, France and informed consent was given by the donors. Only testes displaying spermatogenesis, as assessed by transillumination, were used in this study. Hormone levels in the culture media were determined by radioimmunoassay (testosterone, insulin-like factor 3), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (inhibin B) or Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay [prostaglandin (PG) D2, and PGE2]. Tissues were observed and cells counted using classical immunohistochemical methods. The three mild analgesics caused multiple endocrine disturbances in the adult human testis. This was particularly apparent in the interstitial compartment. Effective doses were in the same range as those measured in blood plasma following standard analgesic treatment. The production of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 by Leydig cells was altered by exposure to all these drugs. Inhibin B production by Sertoli cells was marginally affected by aspirin

  16. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J;

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...... to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota....... = 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies...

  17. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nation...

  18. Colonoscopy tutorial software made with a cadaver's sectioned images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Hyung Seon; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Kwon, Koojoo

    2016-11-01

    Novice doctors may watch tutorial videos in training for actual or computed tomographic (CT) colonoscopy. The conventional learning videos can be complemented by virtual colonoscopy software made with a cadaver's sectioned images (SIs). The objective of this study was to assist colonoscopy trainees with the new interactive software. Submucosal segmentation on the SIs was carried out through the whole length of the large intestine. With the SIs and segmented images, a three dimensional model was reconstructed. Six-hundred seventy-one proximal colonoscopic views (conventional views) and corresponding distal colonoscopic views (simulating the retroflexion of a colonoscope) were produced. Not only navigation views showing the current location of the colonoscope tip and its course, but also, supplementary description views were elaborated. The four corresponding views were put into convenient browsing software to be downloaded free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr). The SI colonoscopy software with the realistic images and supportive tools was available to anybody. Users could readily notice the position and direction of the virtual colonoscope tip and recognize meaningful structures in colonoscopic views. The software is expected to be an auxiliary learning tool to improve technique and related knowledge in actual and CT colonoscopies. Hopefully, the software will be updated using raw images from the Visible Korean project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  20. Scapholunate interosseus ligament reconstruction on a cadaver A technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Arenas Prat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rupture of the scapholunate interosseus ligament is a relatively frequent occurrence which can be repaired primarily by direct suturing. However, patients are often seen a few weeks after injury when most of the ligament fibers have degenerated. This poses a challenge because direct repair can be difficult and long term results have not been satisfying. In the present study, a technique is presented to address this problem and its possible advantages are discussed. Materials and Methods: A fresh frozen wrist cadaver specimen, thawed to room temperature, was used to carry out the procedure. The scapholunate joint was exposed through a dorsal approach and stabilized using two percutaneous Kirschner wires. Using a U shaped chisel, a groove along the scapholunate articular margin was created to accommodate a strip from the extensor retinaculum as a ligament plasty. This has been secured using six anchor sutures and several pictures taken during the procedure to expose the key steps. Results: The ligamentoplasty presented in this article preserves most of the articular surface of proximal carpus and at the same time stabilizes the scapholunate joint. However, more in vivo research should be carried out to validate this treatment. Conclusion: The technique suggests a possible way to repair a ruptured scapholunate interosseus ligament that cannot be repaired primarily. Because osteointegration of the ligament strips is not possible in the present experiment, biomechanics of the construct cannot be fully tested.

  1. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Z X; Kumar, V P

    2008-08-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot requires urgent surgical treatment. Currently, there is still no agreement on the number and location of the myofascial compartments of the foot. The aim of this cadaver study was to provide an anatomical basis for surgical decompression in the event of compartment syndrome. We found that there were three tough vertical fascial septae that extended from the hindfoot to the midfoot on the plantar aspect of the foot. These septae separated the posterior half of the foot into three compartments. The medial compartment containing the abductor hallucis was surrounded medially by skin and subcutaneous fat and laterally by the medial septum. The intermediate compartment, containing the flexor digitorum brevis and the quadratus plantae more deeply, was surrounded by the medial septum medially, the intermediate septum laterally and the main plantar aponeurosis on its plantar aspect. The lateral compartment containing the abductor digiti minimi was surrounded medially by the intermediate septum, laterally by the lateral septum and on its plantar aspect by the lateral band of the main plantar aponeurosis. No distinct myofascial compartments exist in the forefoot. Based on our findings, in theory, fasciotomy of the hindfoot compartments through a modified medial incision would be sufficient to decompress the foot.

  2. Interpretation of postmortem change in cadavers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, José L; Magaña, Concepción; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2004-09-01

    Estimating time since death is especially difficult in the examination of poorly preserved cadavers and depends on the experience of the examiner and comparison with previously documented cases showing similar characteristics. The present study reports on information obtained over the past ten years through the work of the Laboratorio de Antropología y Odontología Forense (LAF) of the Instituto Anatómico Forense de Madrid, Spain, in particular evaluating how the type of fracture influences postmortem change. From the original 225 forensic cases examined between 1992 and 2002 in the LAF, a sample of 29 cases were selected from various regions of the Spanish mainland. A data collection protocol was established to reflect factors which the existing specialized literature, documenting the relation existing in the sample analyzed between time since death and the extent of postmortem change, which in the environments examined are distributed into the following phases: Phase 1 (putrefaction): one week to one month on the surface and two months in water. Phase 2 (initial skeletonization): two months on the surface and five to six months in water. Phase 3 (advanced skeltonization): six months to 1.5 years on the surface and 2.5 years buried. Phase 4 (complete skeletonization): about one year on the surface and three years buried. This paper also provide useful information on the impact of carrion insect activity, location, climate, seasonality, and predator.

  3. The anatomy of the iliolumbar vein. A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasani, Vinay; Jaffray, David

    2002-09-01

    We carried out a cadaver study of 16 iliolumbar veins in order to define the surgical anatomy. Two variants were found; a single vein at a mean distance of 3.74 cm from the inferior vena cava (11 of 16) and two separate draining veins at a mean distance from the vena cava of 2.98 cm for the proximal and 6.24 cm for the distal stem (5 of 16). Consistently, the proximal vein tore on attempted medial retraction of the great vessels. The mean length of the vein was 1.6 cm and its mean width 1.07 cm. Three stems were shorter than 0.5 cm. Two or more tributaries usually drained the iliacus and psoas muscles, and the fifth lumbar vertebral body. The obturator nerve crossed all veins superficially at a mean of 2.76 cm lateral to the mouth. In four of these, this distance was less than 1.5 cm. Usually, the lumbosacral trunk crossed deep, at a mean distance of 2.5 cm lateral to the mouth, but in three veins, this distance was 1 cm or less. Our findings emphasise the need for proper dissection of the iliolumbar vein before ligature during exposure of the anterior lumbar spine.

  4. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  5. Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study Samuel A. Spear1 and James V. Crawford2 1 48th Medical Group, ENT...cited. Objective. To visually compare the Nitinol “smart” stapes prosthesis to conventional manual crimping stapes pistons in temporal bone cadaver...answer questions about each stapes piston. The answers to the survey were then recorded for analysis. Results. 8 of 9 Nitinol pistons were described as

  6. Direct Generation of Human Neuronal Cells from Adult Astrocytes by Small Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, due to the proximity to neuronal lineage and capability to proliferate, are ideal starting cells to regenerate neurons. Human fetal astrocytes have been successfully converted into neuronal cells by small molecules, which offered a broader range of further applications than transcription factor-mediated neuronal reprogramming. Here we report that human adult astrocytes could also be converted into neuronal cells by a different set of small molecules. These induced cells exhibited typical neuronal morphologies, expressed neuronal markers, and displayed neuronal electrophysiological properties. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing analysis showed that the global gene expression profile of induced neuronal cells resembled that of human embryonic stem cell-differentiated neurons. When transplanted into post-natal mouse brains, these induced neuronal cells could survive and become electrophysiologically mature. Altogether, our study provides a strategy to directly generate transgene-free neuronal cells from human adult astrocytes by small molecules.

  7. Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Currentdevelopmental status and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Nam; Kee-Hang Lee; Do-Hyun Nam; Kyeung Min Joo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies usingstem cell technologies have been developed for variousneurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is anattractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and torecover neurological deficits, it is still under developmentso as not to show significant treatment effects in clinicalsettings. In this review, we discuss the scientific andclinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), andtheir current developmental status as cell therapeuticsfor neurological disease. Compared with other typesof stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, suchas limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potentialinto functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. Inspite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolationfrom the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion,have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs.However, several groups have recently developed noveltechniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normaladult brains, and showed successful applications ofaNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologiesfor aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdlesin stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could beovercome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerativestem cell therapeutics.

  8. Automatic radiographic quantification of hand osteoarthritis; accuracy and sensitivity to change in joint space width in a phantom and cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetink, Kasper; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Klooster, Ronald van' t; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Stoel, Berend C. [Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kaptein, Bart L.; Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To validate a newly developed quantification method that automatically detects and quantifies the joint space width (JSW) in hand radiographs. Repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity to changes in JSW were determined. The influence of joint location and joint shape on the measurements was tested. A mechanical micrometer set-up was developed to define and adjust the true JSW in an acrylic phantom joint and in human cadaver-derived phalangeal joints. Radiographic measurements of the JSW were compared to the true JSW. Repeatability, systematic error (accuracy) and sensitivity (defined as the smallest detectable difference (SDD)) were determined. The influence of joint position on the JSW measurement was assessed by varying the location of the acrylic phantom on the X-ray detector with respect to the X-ray beam and the influence of joint shape was determined by using morphologically different human cadaver joints. The mean systematic error was 0.052 mm in the phantom joint and 0.210 mm in the cadaver experiment. In the phantom experiments, the repeatability was high (SDD=0.028 mm), but differed slightly between joint locations (p=0.046), and a change in JSW of 0.037 mm could be detected. Dependent of the joint shape in the cadaver hand, a change in JSW between 0.018 and 0.047 mm could be detected. The automatic quantification method is sensitive to small changes in JSW. Considering the published data of JSW decline in the normal and osteoarthritic population, the first signs of OA progression with this method can be detected within 1 or 2 years. (orig.)

  9. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  10. Comparative anatomical dimensions of the complete human and porcine spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2010-01-01

    New spinal implants and surgical procedures are often tested pre-clinically on human cadaver spines. However, the availability of fresh frozen human cadaver material is very limited and alternative animal spines are more easily available in all desired age groups, and have more uniform geometrical a

  11. Comparative anatomical dimensions of the complete human and porcine spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    New spinal implants and surgical procedures are often tested pre-clinically on human cadaver spines. However, the availability of fresh frozen human cadaver material is very limited and alternative animal spines are more easily available in all desired age groups, and have more uniform geometrical

  12. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  13. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  14. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  15. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  16. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  17. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  18. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  19. ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF HUMAN FETAL AND ADULT OXYHEMOGLOBIN, DE-OXYHEMOGLOBIN, CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN, AND METHEMOGLOBIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; MEEUWSENVANDERROEST, WP

    1991-01-01

    We determined the millimolar absorptivities of the four clinically relevant derivatives of fetal and adult human hemoglobin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range (450-1000 nm). As expected, spectral absorption curves of similar shape were found, but the small differences between fetal and

  20. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  1. Plasticity of adult human pancreatic duct cells by neurogenin3-mediated reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swales, Nathalie; Martens, Geert A; Bonné, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3). In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it....

  2. Mature astrocytes in the adult human neocortex express the early neuronal marker doublecortin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, R.W.H.; Sluiter, A.A.; Balesar, R.A.; Baayen, J.C.; Noske, D.P.; Dirven, C.M.; Wouda, J.; van Dam, A.M.; Lucassen, P.J.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein expressed by migrating neuroblasts and is considered to be a reliable marker of neurogenesis. DCX has been used to study the relation between neurogenesis in adult human brain and neurological and neurodegenerative disease processes in the searc

  3. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  4. Evidence for a stem cell hierarchy in the adult human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, René; Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    in situ confirmed this pattern. The proposal that the four cell types are indeed constituents of an as of yet undescribed stem cell hierarchy was assessed in long-term cultures in which senescence was bypassed. These findings identify an adult human breast ductal stem cell activity and its earliest...

  5. Increased presence of capillaries next to remodeling sites in adult human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjoerg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    by pericytes. Furthermore, the BRC canopy cells were found to express SMA. These ordered distributions support the existence of an osteogenic-vascular interface in adult human cancellous bone. The organization of this interface fits the current knowledge on the mode of action of vasculature on osteogenesis...

  6. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  7. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  8. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  9. Treatment of Human-Caused Trauma: Attrition in the Adult Outcomes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthieu, Monica; Ivanoff, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Attrition or dropout is the failure of a participant to complete, comply, or the prematurely discontinuation or discharge from treatment, resulting in lost data and affecting outcomes. This review of 10 years of adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome literature specific to Criterion A events of human origin examines how…

  10. Expression of neurotrimin in the normal and injured adult human spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, I; Li, X; Marcillo, A; Salzer, J L; Levi, A D

    2006-05-01

    Neurotrimin (Ntm) is a member of the family of neural cell adhesion molecules. Its expression pattern suggests that Ntm promotes axonal fasciculation, guides nerve fibers to specific targets and stabilizes synapses as it accumulates coincident with synaptogenesis. Strong labeling of Ntm was observed in motor and sensory areas of the postnatal rat cortex. It is not known whether Ntm is present in adult human spinal cord (SC). In the present study, a monoclonal antibody specific for Ntm (1B1), is applied to the first study of the expression of Ntm in normal and injured adult human SC. (1) To investigate the expression pattern of Ntm in adult normal human SC, and (2) to observe the changes of Ntm expression after SC injury and compare the differences between normal and injured adult human SC. Human SC tissue was obtained from necropsies of patients with (n=5) and without (n=4) SC injury. The 1B1 Ntm monoclonal antibody was used for immunohistochemical staining on paraffin embedded sections with an ABC kit. (1) In total, 12 slides were analyzed for each group from both cervical and thoracic levels. Motor neurons and Clarke's neurons and glial-like cells were mild to moderately positive in all uninjured SC specimens. (2) In injured SC, no staining was observed in the injury epicenter between two and three levels proximally and distally, but was detected five levels away. (3) In patients older than 67 years of age, Ntm-positive inclusions were present in the white matter of the SC with or without injury. (4) Some meningeal cells were strongly Ntm-positive, especially in the uninjured human SC. Ntm is expressed by motor and Clarke's neurons and glial cells in uninjured human SC. The downregulation of Ntm in the injured SC suggests that its expression is regulated by afferent input. Spinal Cord (2006) 44, 275-279. doi:10.1038/sj.sc.3101840; published online 20 September 2005.

  11. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  12. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  13. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  14. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  15. CD133+ adult human retinal cells remain undifferentiated in Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Eric J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD133 is a cell surface marker of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF, sustains proliferation and not differentiation of embryonic stem cells. We used CD133 to purify adult human retinal cells and aimed to determine what effect LIF had on these cultures and whether they still had the ability to generate neurospheres. Methods Retinal cell suspensions were derived from adult human post-mortem tissue with ethical approval. With magnetic automated cell sorting (MACS CD133+ retinal cells were enriched from post mortem adult human retina. CD133+ retinal cell phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry and cultured cells were observed for proliferative capacity, neuropshere generation and differentiation with or without LIF supplementation. Results We demonstrated purification (to 95% of CD133+ cells from adult human postmortem retina. Proliferating cells were identified through BrdU incorporation and expression of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1. CD133+ retinal cells differentiated whilst forming neurospheres containing appropriate lineage markers including glia, neurons and photoreceptors. LIF maintained CD133+ retinal cells in a proliferative and relatively undifferentiated state (Ki67, Cyclin D1 expression without significant neurosphere generation. Differentiation whilst forming neurospheres was re-established on LIF withdrawal. Conclusion These data support the evidence that CD133 expression characterises a population of cells within the resident adult human retina which have progenitor cell properties and that their turnover and differentiation is influenced by LIF. This may explain differences in retinal responses observed following disease or injury.

  16. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Verdonschot, Nico [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, Henk Jan [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kooloos, Jan G [Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huizenga, Henk [Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.tanck@orthop.umcn.nl

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  17. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR "DIE PUNCH" DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  18. Optimal fixation of oblique scaphoid fractures: a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Lenart, Lado; Lenart, Borut; Peleg, Eran; Kastelec, Matej

    2012-07-01

    Acute scaphoid fractures are commonly fixed with headless cannulated screws positioned in the center of the proximal fragment. Central placement of the screw may be difficult and may violate the scaphotrapezial joint. We hypothesize that placement of the screw through the scaphoid tuberosity will achieve perpendicular fixation of an oblique waist fracture and result in more stable fixation than a screw in the center of the proximal fragment. We designed oblique osteotomies for 8 matched pairs of cadaver scaphoids and fixed each specimen with a headless cannulated screw. In 1 specimen, we positioned the screw at the center of the proximal fragment; we placed its matched pair perpendicular to the fracture. The perpendicular screw was directed through the scaphoid tuberosity. We placed the specimen under the increasing load of a pneumatically driven plunger. We compared stiffness, load, distance at failure, and mechanism of failure between the central and perpendicular screw groups. We found no difference between groups. Stiffness was identical in both groups (131 N/mm) and load to failure was similar (central screw, 137 N vs perpendicular screw, 148 N). In this biomechanical model of an unstable scaphoid fracture, we found that similar stability of fixation had been achieved with a screw perpendicular to the fracture plane with entry through the tuberosity, compared with a screw in a central position in the proximal fragment. This study suggests that placing the screw through the tuberosity, perpendicular to a short oblique fracture, will not impair fixation stability. Percutaneous fixation of scaphoid fractures has become popular although it is technically challenging. An easier distal approach through the tuberosity, without violating the scaphotrapezial joint, may not impair the fixation stability of an oblique fracture. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural-Competent Cells of Adult Human Dermis Belong to the Schwann Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G.; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-01-01

    Summary Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR+ precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56+) and perivascular (CD56−) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR+CD56+ Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread. PMID:25418723

  20. Neural-Competent Cells of Adult Human Dermis Belong to the Schwann Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usue Etxaniz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR+ precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56+ and perivascular (CD56− cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR+CD56+ Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread.

  1. Neural-competent cells of adult human dermis belong to the Schwann lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-11-11

    Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR(+) precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56(+)) and perivascular (CD56(-)) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR(+)CD56(+) Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread.

  2. Comparison of Ventilation With One-Handed Mask Seal With an Intraoral Mask Versus Conventional Cuffed Face Mask in a Cadaver Model: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amack, Andrew J; Barber, Gary A; Ng, Patrick C; Smith, Thomas B; April, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    We compare received minute volume with an intraoral mask versus conventional cuffed face mask among medics obtaining a 1-handed mask seal on a cadaver model. This study comprised a randomized crossover trial of adult US Army combat medic volunteers participating in a cadaver laboratory as part of their training. We randomized participants to obtain a 1-handed mask seal during ventilation of a fresh unembalmed cadaver, first using either an intraoral airway device or conventional cuffed face mask. Participants obtained a 1-handed mask seal while a ventilator delivered 10 standardized 750-mL breaths during 1 minute. After a 5-minute rest period, they repeated the study with the alternative mask. The primary outcome measure was received minute volume as measured by a respirometer. Of 27 recruited participants, all completed the study. Median received minute volume was higher with the intraoral mask compared with conventional cuffed mask by 1.7 L (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.9 L; P<.001). The intraoral mask resulted in greater received minute volume received compared with conventional cuffed face mask during ventilation with a 1-handed mask seal in a cadaver model. The intraoral mask may prove a useful airway adjunct for ventilation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  4. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    attachment insecurity and particularly anxiety. Emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal or suppression of social emotions are also differentially modulated by attachment style. This research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulation is likely to play an important (causal) role.

  5. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-15

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia "loops," which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts.

  6. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

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    Richard P. Harte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications.

  7. Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres

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    Lucio Barile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  8. Binding of furosemide to albumin isolated from human fetal and adult serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Silvestri, D; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum from 58 placentas obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma from 8 individuals. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed only one spot that comigrated with commercial human albumin. Binding to albumin was measured by equilibrium dialysis of an aliquot of albumin solution (0.7 ml) against the same volume of 0.13 M sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.4). At a total concentration of 2 micrograms/ml (therapeutic range), the unbound fraction of furosemide was 2.71% (fetal albumin) and 2.51% (adult albumin). Two classes of binding sites for furosemide were observed in fetal and adult albumin. The number of binding sites (moles of furosemide per mole of albumin) was 1.22 (fetal albumin) and 1.58 (adult albumin) for the high-affinity site and 2.97 (fetal albumin) and 3.25 (adult albumin) for the low-affinity site. The association constants (M-1) were 3.1 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 2.6 X 10(4) (adult albumin) for the high-affinity set of sites and 0.83 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 1.0 X 10(4) (adult albumin) low-affinity site. The displacement of furosemide from albumin was studied with therapeutic concentrations of several drugs. Valproic acid, salicylic acid, azapropazone and tolbutamide had the highest displacing effects which were significantly higher with fetal than with adult albumin.

  9. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  10. The adult macaque spinal cord central canal zone contains proliferative cells and closely resembles the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Garcia-Tarraga, Patricia; Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Gomez-Pinedo, Ulises; Molina Aguilar, Pilar; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Luquin, Maria-Rosario; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The persistence of proliferative cells, which could correspond to progenitor populations or potential cells of origin for tumors, has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian forebrain, including human and nonhuman primates. Proliferating cells have been found along the entire ventricular system, including around the central canal, of rodents, but little is known about the primate spinal cord. Here we describe the central canal cellular composition of the Old World primate Macaca fascicularis via scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry and identify central canal proliferating cells with Ki67 and newly generated cells with bromodeoxyuridine incorporation 3 months after the injection. The central canal is composed of uniciliated, biciliated, and multiciliated ependymal cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Multiciliated ependymal cells show morphological characteristics similar to multiciliated ependymal cells from the lateral ventricles, and uniciliated and biciliated ependymal cells display cilia with large, star-shaped basal bodies, similar to the Ecc cells described for the rodent central canal. Here we show that ependymal cells with one or two cilia, but not multiciliated ependymal cells, proliferate and give rise to new ependymal cells that presumably remain in the macaque central canal. We found that the infant and adult human spinal cord contains ependymal cell types that resemble those present in the macaque. Interestingly, a wide hypocellular layer formed by bundles of intermediate filaments surrounded the central canal both in the monkey and in the human, being more prominent in the stenosed adult human central canal.

  11. HUMAN BODIES TO TEACH ANATOMY: IMPORTANCE AND PROCUREMENT: EXPERIENCE WITH CADAVER DONATION. Cuerpos humanos para la enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y procuración: Experiencia con la donación de cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana N Biasutto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este Debate fue propuesto para aportar diferentes puntos de vista y conocer la diversidad de circunstancias involucradas en la procuración y uso de cadáveres para la enseñanza de la Anatomía, a estudiantes de pre y post-grado, en el mundo. Un grupo reducido pero representativo de profesores de Anatomía de todos los continentes fueron invitados a participar. Se distribuyeron algunos lineamientos para que los escritos tuvieran similar orientación, aunque los autores podían incluir cualquier concepto que consideraran de interés para los lectores. Además de los profesores de diversos países, el Prof. Bernard Moxham (Presidente de IFAA aportó al Debate la posición oficial de la Federación Internacional de Asociaciones de Anatomistas. Los panelistas acordaron en la importancia de utilizar material cadavérico para la enseñanza de la Anatomía, sin embargo, la provisión, las fuentes y los procedimientos utilizados para adquirirlos fueron algo diferentes de un país y/o universidad a otro. La experiencia de los países europeos, las limitaciones culturales en los asiáticos y africanos, y el retraso y los problemas estructurales en Sudamérica, son algunas de las particularidades que se señalan. Después de esta publicación se recibirán las preguntas y comentarios no solo de los participantes sino también de los lectores en general, las cuales serán respondidas y ambas, preguntas y respuestas, publicadas en el próximo número. Entonces, el Debate alcanzará su punto máximo al permitir a todas las personas involucradas en el tema, en cualquier lugar  del mundo, participar y aportar información adicional.  This Debate was proposed to provide different points of view and to know the diversity of circumstances involved in the procurement and use of cadavers to teach Anatomy, to pre and post-graduate students, all over the world. A reduced but representative group of professors of Anatomy of all continents were invited to

  12. Extracorporeal support with a cadaver liver as a bridge to transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristoe, L W; Merrill, J H; Kangas, J A; Vogel, J E; Stammers, A H; Langnas, A N; Fox, I J; Shaw, B W

    1993-01-01

    Extracorporeal liver perfusion (ECLP) has been used for detoxifying blood in patients in class IV hepatic encephalopathy. Palliation of the moribund patient utilizing extracorporeal devices with cross-circulation of a cadaver liver has been documented for over three decades. Common problems associated with this procedure which appear in the literature include cadaver liver distention, increased resistance to blood flow, and limited time of extracorporeal support due to cadaver liver failure. This report summarizes the experiences of the perfusion team in utilizing an extracorporeal circuit with an otherwise nontransplantable cadaveric liver, to support the decompensating hepatic patient as a bridge to transplantation. Between January and July 1992, three patients were supported for hepatic failure with ECLP. Two patients were placed on ECLP with a modified circuit containing two positive displacement pumps and one centrifugal pump. The third patient was placed on ECLP with a circuit that contained two centrifugal pumps and one positive displacement pump. Patient age ranged from 6 to 38 years and length of support ranged from 24 to 72 hours. In all three patients, a centrifugal pump was placed in the suprahepatic inferior vena cava line to facilitate cadaver liver drainage and decompression. Intensive monitoring of both patient and cadaver liver hemodynamics, hepatic function, and hematological status was performed. All three patients were successfully weaned from ECLP. Two patients received successful orthotopic liver transplantation. The third died of complications unrelated to ECLP after support was discontinued.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Human and monkey striatal interneurons are derived from the medial ganglionic eminence but not from the adult subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congmin; You, Yan; Qi, Dashi; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Lei; Wei, Song; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Huang, Weixi; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Zhengang

    2014-08-13

    In adult rodent and monkey brains, newly born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricle migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). A recent study reported that interneurons are constantly generating in the adult human striatum from the SVZ. In contrast, by taking advantage of the continuous expression of Sp8 from the neuroblast stage through differentiation into mature interneurons, we found that the adult human SVZ does not generate new interneurons for the striatum. In the adult human SVZ and RMS, very few neuroblasts were observed, and most of them expressed the transcription factor Sp8. Neuroblasts in the adult rhesus monkey SVZ-RMS-OB pathway also expressed Sp8. In addition, we observed that Sp8 was expressed by most adult human and monkey OB interneurons. However, very few Sp8+ cells were in the adult human striatum. This suggests that neuroblasts in the adult human SVZ and RMS are likely destined for the OB, but not for the striatum. BrdU-labeling results also revealed few if any newly born neurons in the adult rhesus monkey striatum. Finally, on the basis of transcription factor expression, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of interneurons in the human and monkey striatum are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence during embryonic developmental stages, as they are in rodents. We conclude that, although a small number of neuroblasts exist in the adult human SVZ, they do not migrate into the striatum and become mature striatal interneurons.

  14. Identification and characterization of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congmin; Liu, Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Cai-Hong; You, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jingxiao; Wei, Bin; Ma, Tong; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Rui; Song, Hongjun; Yang, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain, but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial. In the present study, we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult monkey, fetal human and adult human brains. We provide evidence that neuroblasts exist continuously in the anterior ventral SVZ and RMS of the adult human brain. The neuroblasts appear singly or in pairs without forming chains; they exhibit migratory morphologies and co-express the immature neuronal markers doublecortin, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and βIII-tubulin. Few of these neuroblasts appear to be actively proliferating in the anterior ventral SVZ but none in the RMS, indicating that neuroblasts distributed along the RMS are most likely derived from the ventral SVZ. Interestingly, no neuroblasts are found in the adult human olfactory bulb. Taken together, our data suggest that the SVZ maintains the ability to produce neuroblasts in the adult human brain. PMID:21577236

  15. Identification and characterization of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congmin Wang; Qiangqiang Zhang; Yue Zhang; Rui Chen; Hongjun Song; Zhengang Yang; Fang Liu; Ying-Ying Liu; Cai-Hong Zhao; Yan You; Lei Wang; Jingxiao Zhang; Bin Wei; Tong Ma

    2011-01-01

    It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain,but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial.In the present study,we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult monkey,fetal human and adult human brains.We provide evidence that neuroblasts exist continuously in the anterior ventral SVZ and RMS of the adult human brain.The neuroblasts appear singly or in pairs without forming chains; they exhibit migratory morphologies and co-express the immature neuronal markers doublecortin,polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and βI-tubulin.Few of these neuroblasts appear to be actively proliferating in the anterior ventral SVZ but none in the RMS,indicating that neuroblasts distributed along the RMS are most likely derived from the ventral SVZ.Interestingly,no neuroblasts are found in the adult human olfactory bulb.Taken together,our data suggest that the SVZ maintains the ability to produce neuroblasts in the adult human brain.

  16. PET imaging of neurogenic activity in the adult brain: Toward in vivo imaging of human neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem cells are present in 2 neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and continue to generate new neurons throughout life. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is linked to a variety of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, and to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. In vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be used to diagnose psychiatric disorders and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. However, these imaging techniques remain to be established until now. Recently, we established a quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique for neurogenic activity in the adult brain with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) and probenecid, a drug transporter inhibitor in blood-brain barrier. Moreover, we showed that this PET imaging technique can monitor alterations in neurogenic activity in the hippocampus of adult rats with depression and following treatment with an antidepressant. This PET imaging method may assist in diagnosing depression and in monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this commentary, we discuss the possibility of in vivo PET imaging for neurogenic activity in adult non-human primates and humans.

  17. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  18. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: a Q methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents' ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented-self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented-self-recognition type, reflection-oriented-self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented-self-maintenance type. The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Rapid Increase in Neural Conduction Time in the Adult Human Auditory Brainstem Following Sudden Unilateral Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M R D; Lloyd, S K; Rutherford, S; Freeman, S; King, A; Moore, D R; Munro, K J

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with sudden unilateral deafness offer a unique opportunity to study plasticity of the binaural auditory system in adult humans. Stimulation of the intact ear results in increased activity in the auditory cortex. However, there are no reports of changes at sub-cortical levels in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate changes in sub-cortical activity immediately before and after the onset of surgically induced unilateral deafness in adult humans. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma. This surgical technique always results in abrupt deafferentation of the affected ear. The results revealed a rapid (within minutes) reduction in latency of wave V (mean pre = 6.55 ms; mean post = 6.15 ms; p < 0.001). A latency reduction was also observed for wave III (mean pre = 4.40 ms; mean post = 4.13 ms; p < 0.001). These reductions in response latency are consistent with functional changes including disinhibition or/and more rapid intra-cellular signalling affecting binaurally sensitive neurons in the central auditory system. The results are highly relevant for improved understanding of putative physiological mechanisms underlying perceptual disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis.

  20. Neuroanatomy and cadaver dissection in Italy: History, medicolegal issues, and neurosurgical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Frati, Alessandro; Salvati, Maurizio; Marinozzi, Silvia; Frati, Riccardo; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Piccirilli, Manolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Despite the significant Italian tradition of important anatomical studies, an outdated law historically influenced by the Catholic church restricts the use of cadavers for teaching and scientific purposes. The object of the present paper was to trace the historical evolution of the Italian anatomical tradition, particularly neuroanatomical studies, in relation to the juridical regulations on the use of cadavers today. Special attention was paid to the opportunities offered to neurosurgery by using cadavers and to the scientific and social issues in neurosurgical training in the twenty-first century. Considering the new Common European Constitution, the authors advocate a political solution from the European community to improve the quality of training in the disciplines with a social impact such as neurosurgery.

  1. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Suri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns.

  2. Study of the Artroscopic Anatomy of the Knee in Canine Cadavers Using 2.4 Mm Diameter Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oswaldo Alonso Cuéllar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mainly by a limited access to new techniques and technologies, veterinary medicine in developing countries, has been far behind from the human medicine. One of the causes is the limited access to technology and specific techniques. Moreover, it is clear that many new technologies have proven their benefits in the two disciplines, making necessary and almost mandatory their massive implementation in humans and animals. The possibility to use human elements for veterinary techniques would improve the technology access and veterinarians training, at lower costs. The purpose of this study is to verify the feasibility to perform a knee arthroscopy in dogs with small human joints arthroscopic lenses. Under protocols established in veterinary 12 knee arthroscopies were performed in canine cadaver, using a wrist and ankle arthroscope human of 2.4 mm in diameter and 30° of angulation. All the structures reported in the literature were possible to visualize using a 2.4 mm arthroscope. In this sense, it is possible to develop training activities and subsequent implementation of endoscopic techniques in canine femorotibiopatellar joint, using a lens of small joints of human medicine.

  3. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  4. Optimizing the use of cadavers by integrating pathology during anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie Helena; van Helden, Paul David; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Kotzé, Sanet Henriët

    2016-11-01

    An accurate knowledge of anatomy, especially natural variation within individuals, is of vital clinical importance. Cadaver dissection during anatomical training may be a valuable introduction to pathology for undergraduate students, which can contribute greatly to a successful medical career. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and type of pathology lesions in a cadaver population (n = 127) used for medical dissection. This was done to gauge whether sufficient pathology lesions representative of all the organ systems were present in the cadaver population to warrant the use of cadavers as an additional pathology learning resource. This study demonstrated a wide variety of pathology lesions in different organ systems. The respiratory system was most affected with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions being the most common finding (seen in 76% of cadavers) followed by bronchopneumonia and emphysema. Other common pathology findings included atherosclerosis, colonic diverticula, and chronic pyelonephritis. Skeletal fractures and degenerative joint disease were also noted. This study shows that cadaveric dissection offers a chance to alert and expose students to a wide variety of gross pathology and histopathology. It has been suggested that most medical students will practice in primary health care and as such more attention should be given to the pathology of commonly encountered diseases. This is particularly true for developing countries, where diseases such as TB are commonly encountered. The integration of pathology into the dissection hall may therefore be beneficial to student learning while simultaneously optimizing the use of cadaver material. Anat Sci Educ 9: 575-582. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures.

  6. Expression and activation of caspase-6 in human fetal and adult tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Godefroy

    Full Text Available Caspase-6 is an effector caspase that has not been investigated thoroughly despite the fact that Caspase-6 is strongly activated in Alzheimer disease brains. To understand the full physiological impact of Caspase-6 in humans, we investigated Caspase-6 expression. We performed western blot analyses to detect the pro-Caspase-6 and its active p20 subunit in fetal and adult lung, kidney, brain, spleen, muscle, stomach, colon, heart, liver, skin, and adrenals tissues. The levels were semi-quantitated by densitometry. The results show a ubiquitous expression of Caspase-6 in most fetal tissues with the lowest levels in the brain and the highest levels in the gastrointestinal system. Caspase-6 active p20 subunits were only detected in fetal stomach. Immunohistochemical analysis of a human fetal embryo showed active Caspase-6 positive apoptotic cells in the dorsal root ganglion, liver, lung, kidney, ovary, skeletal muscle and the intestine. In the adult tissues, the levels of Caspase-6 were lower than in fetal tissues but remained high in the colon, stomach, lung, kidney and liver. Immunohistological analyses revealed that active Caspase-6 was abundant in goblet cells and epithelial cells sloughing off the intestinal lining of the adult colon. These results suggest that Caspase-6 is likely important in most tissues during early development but is less involved in adult tissues. The low levels of Caspase-6 in fetal and adult brain indicate that increased expression as observed in Alzheimer Disease is a pathological condition. Lastly, the high levels of Caspase-6 in the gastrointestinal system indicate a potential specific function of Caspase-6 in these tissues.

  7. [The forensic expertise of cadavers of females suspected to be victims of sexually motivated homicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2004-01-01

    According to the author's independent observations, the criminal, as a rule, strangles his victim in sex-related murders. In cases of suspected sex-related murders of women, the female urogenital system needs to be examined as an anatomically whole preparation. It was proven that the spermatozoid structure (in the cadaveric vagina, whose condition was optimal) began to change from week 2 with almost all their heads being destroyed by the end of week 6. When cadavers are found in 1.5-2 months after the event, there is no reason to give up examinations of the sperm from cadaver.

  8. Diversity of human and mouse homeobox gene expression in development and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Thomas L; Holland, Peter W H

    2016-11-03

    Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking. Here we analyse publicly-available transcriptome data from human and mouse developmental stages, and adult human tissues, to identify groups of homeobox genes with similar expression patterns. We calculate expression profiles for 242 human and 278 mouse homeobox loci across a combination of 59 human and 12 mouse adult tissues, early and late developmental stages. This revealed 20 human homeobox genes with widespread expression, primarily from the TALE, CERS and ZF classes. Most homeobox genes, however, have greater tissue-specificity, allowing us to compile homeobox gene expression lists for neural tissues, immune tissues, reproductive and developmental samples, and for numerous organ systems. In mouse development, we propose four distinct phases of homeobox gene expression: oocyte to zygote; 2-cell; 4-cell to blastocyst; early to mid post-implantation. The final phase change is marked by expression of ANTP class genes. We also use these data to compare expression specificity between evolutionarily-based gene classes, revealing that ANTP, PRD, LIM and POU homeobox gene classes have highest tissue specificity while HNF, TALE, CUT and CERS are most widely expressed. The homeobox genes comprise a large superclass and their expression patterns are correspondingly diverse, although in a broad sense related to an evolutionarily-based classification. The ubiquitous expression of some genes suggests roles in general cellular processes; in contrast, most human homeobox genes have greater tissue specificity and we compile useful homeobox datasets for particular tissues, organs and developmental stages. The identification of a

  9. Comparison of human growth hormone products' cost in pediatric and adult patients. A budgetary impact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalo, Gary R; Joshi, Ashish V; Germak, John

    2007-09-01

    We assessed the economic impact to the United States payer of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) utilization, comparing the relative dosage efficiency of marketed pen-based and vial-based products in a pediatric and in an adult population. A budgetary impact model calculated drug costs based on product waste and cost. Waste was the difference between prescribed dose, based on patient weight, and actual delivered dose, based on dosing increments and maximum deliverable dose for pens and a fixed-percent waste as derived from the literature for vials. Annual wholesale acquisition costs were calculated based upon total milligrams delivered, using a daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg for pediatric patients and 0.016 mg/kg for adults. Total annual drug costs were compared for two scenarios: 1) a product mix based on national market share and 2) restricting use to the product with lowest waste. Based on the literature, waste for each vial product was 23 percent. Among individual pens, waste was highest for Humatrope 24 mg (19.5 percent pediatric, 14.3 percent adult) and lowest for Norditropin Nordi-Flex 5 mg (1.1 percent pediatric, 1 percent adult). Restricting use to the brand with least waste (Norditropin), compared to national product share mix, resulted in a 10.2 percent reduction in annual pediatric patient cost from $19,026 to $17,089 and an 8 percent reduction in annual adult patient cost from $24,099 to $22,161. We concluded that pen delivery systems result in less waste than vial and syringe. Considering all approved delivery systems, Norditropin resulted in the least product waste and lower annual patient cost for both pediatric and adult populations.

  10. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  11. Induction of oligodendrocyte differentiation from adult human fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shin-ichiro; Tokumoto, Yasuhito; Miyake, Jun; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2011-08-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) prepared from somatic cells might become a novel therapeutic tool in regenerative medicine, especially for the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we attempted to induce O4-positive (O4(+)) oligodendrocytes from adult human fibroblast-derived iPSCs in vitro. We used two adult human iPSC cell lines, 201B7 and 253G1. 201B7 was induced by four-gene transduction (oct4, sox2, klf4, c-myc), and 253G1 was induced by three-gene transduction (oct4, sox2, klf4). We treated these cells with two in vitro oligodendrocyte-directed differentiation protocols that were optimized for human embryonic stem cells. One protocol used platelet-derived growth factor as the major mitogen for oligodendrocyte lineage cells, and the other protocol used epidermal growth factor (EGF) as the mitogen. Although the differentiation efficiency was low (less than 0.01%), we could induce O4(+) oligodendrocytes from 253G1 cells using the EGF-dependent differentiation protocol. This is the first report of the in vitro induction of oligodendrocytes differentiation from human iPSCs.

  12. Oral Human Papillomavirus Detection in Older Adults Who Have Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Chen, Zigui; Bottalico, Danielle; McKinney, Sharod; Ostoloza, Janae; Dunne, Anne; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproducibility of oral rinse self-collection for HPV detection and investigate associations between oral HPV, oral lesions, immune and sociodemographic factors, we performed a cross-sectional study of older adults with HIV infection. Study Design We collected oral rinse samples from 52 subjects at two different times of day followed by an oral examination and interview. We identified HPV using PCR platforms optimized for detection of mucosal and cutaneous types. Results Eighty seven percent of individuals had oral HPV, of which 23% had oncogenic alpha, 40% had non-oncogenic alpha, and 46% had beta or gamma HPV. Paired oral specimens were concordant in all parameters tested. Significant associations observed for oral HPV with increased HIV viral load, hepatitis-C seropositivity, history of sexually transmitted diseases and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusions Oral cavity may be a reservoir of subclinical HPV in older adults who have HIV infection. Understanding natural history, transmission and potential implications of oral HPV warrants further investigations. PMID:23375488

  13. Feasibility of arthroscopic placement of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis grafts in the cadaver hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Thorey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm. None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone.

  14. Fixed-angle plates in patella fractures - a pilot cadaver study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective Modified anterior tension wiring with K-wires and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring are currently the fixation of choice for patellar fractures. Failure of fixation, migration of the wires, postoperative pain and resulting revision surgery, however, are not uncommon. After preliminary biomechanical testing of a new fixed-angle plate system especially designed for fixation of patella fractures the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and anatomical feasibility of implanting such a plate-device at the human patella. Methods In six fresh unfixed female cadavers without history of previous fractures around the knee (average age 88.8 years) a bilateral fixed-angle plate fixation of the patella was carried out after previous placement of a transverse central osteotomy. Operative time, intra-operative problems, degree of retropatellar arthritis (following Outerbridge), quality of reduction and existence of any intraarticular screw placement have been raised. In addition, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of all specimens were made. Results Due to the high average age of 88.8 years no patella showed an unimpaired retropatellar articular surface and all were severely osteoporotic, which made a secure fixation of the reduction forceps during surgery difficult. The operation time averaged 49 minutes (range: 36-65). Although in postoperative X-rays the fracture gap between the fragments was still visible, the analysis of the retropatellar surface showed no residual articular step or dehiscence > 0.5 mm. Also in a total of 24 inserted screws not one intraarticular malposition was found. No intraoperative complications were noticed. Conclusions Osteosynthesis of a medial third patella fracture with a bilateral fixed-angle plate-device is surgically and anatomically feasible without difficulties. Further studies have to depict whether the bilateral fixed-angle plate-osteosynthesis of the patella displays advantages over the established

  15. Some anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses using sinus endoscopic approach on "cadaver" in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and its great importance in sinus surgery, as this area is in very close proximity to vital structures including the optic nerve, carotid artery, and skull base, anatomical knowledge of this area is of high importance. The purpose of this study is defining a full and clear impression of paranasal sinus anatomy and its variations as a model for the human population of the country. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 cadavers in Isfahan forensic Medicine center during 2010 to 2011. Nasal and paranasal sinuses endoscopic dissection was done with (zero and 30 o lenses (Olympus. The methods of performed dissection were via the Stamberger technique. Results: This study showed that 88.9% (40 cases of middle turbinates were in a typical form, while 6.7% (3 cases were in medial and only 4.4% (2 cases were in the lateral form. We also observed 88.9% (40 cases with Agger nasi cells, 37.8% (17 cases with Onodi cells, 28.9% cases with accessory Ostia of maxillary sinus (13 cases, and 15.6% of the cases (7 cases with concha bullosa. The position of the maxillary sinus ostium was as follows. The inferior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 38 (84.5%, superior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 4 (4.4%, middle 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 5 (11.1%. The sphenoid ostia in 53.3% (24 cases were slit shape, 28.9% (13 cases oval, and 17.8% (18 cases were round shape. Conclusion : Our survey showed that the distance between anterior nasal spine and anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was within 7.6 ± 0.2 cm SD.

  16. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  17. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  19. Limits on efficient human mindreading: convergence across Chinese adults and Semai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hadi, Nur Shafiqah Abdul; Low, Jason

    2015-11-01

    We tested Apperly and Butterfill's (2009, Psychological Review, 116, 753) theory that humans have two mindreading systems whereby the efficient-system guiding anticipatory glances displays signature limits that do not apply to the flexible system guiding verbal predictions. Experiments 1 and 2 tested urban Mainland-Chinese adults (n = 64) and Experiment 3 tested Semai children living in the rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia (3- to 4-year-olds, n = 60). Participants - across different ages, groups and methods - anticipated others' false-beliefs about object-location but not object-identity. Convergence in signature limits signalled that the early-developing efficient system involved minimal theory-of-mind. Chinese adults and older Semai children showed flexibility in their direct predictions. The flexible mindreading system in ascribing others' beliefs as such was task-sensitive and implicated maturational and cultural contributions.

  20. Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-12

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  1. Deficient retinoid-driven angiogenesis may contribute to failure of adult human lung regeneration in emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Blichfeldt, John-Poul; Alçada, Joana; Montero, M Angeles; Dean, Charlotte H; Griesenbach, Uta; Griffiths, Mark J; Hind, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema. The role of RA signalling in alveolar epithelial repair was investigated with a scratch assay using an alveolar cell line (A549) and primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells from resected lung, and the role in angiogenesis using a tube formation assay with human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). Localisation of RA synthetic (RALDH-1) and degrading (cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 A1 (CYP26A1)) enzymes in human lung was determined by immunofluorescence. Regulation of RA pathway components was investigated in emphysematous and control human lung tissue by quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis. RA stimulated HLMVEC angiogenesis in vitro; this was partially reproduced with a RAR-α agonist. RA induced mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFR2. RA did not modulate AT2 repair. CYP26A1 protein was identified in human lung microvasculature, whereas RALDH-1 partially co-localised with vimentin-positive fibroblasts. CYP26A1 mRNA and protein were increased in emphysema. RA regulates lung microvascular angiogenesis; the endothelium produces CYP26A1 which is increased in emphysema, possibly leading to reduced RA availability. These data highlight a role for RA in maintenance of the human pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  3. The Thermoprecipitin Method in the Diagnosis of Bubonic Plague in Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of bubonic plague in rat cadavers, the examination of which is a recognised method of prophylaxis for ships or other communities, which may have been in contact with endemic centres, is attended by especial difficulties, and, on the other hand, calls for especial speed and finality in technique

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  5. [Proposed difficult airway teaching methodology. Presentation of an interactive fresh frozen cadaver model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá Bauset, J C; de Andres Ibañez, J A; Valverde Navarro, A; Martinez Soriano, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a methodology based on the use of fresh-frozen cadavers for training in the management of the airway, and to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among learning physicians. About 6 fresh-frozen cadavers and 14 workstations were prepared where participants were trained in the different skills needed for airway management. The details of preparation of the cadavers are described. The level of satisfaction of the participant was determined using a Likert rating scale of 5 points, at each of the 14 stations, as well as the overall assessment and clinical usefulness of the course. The mean overall evaluation of the course and its usefulness was 4.75 and 4.9, out of 5, respectively. All parts of the course were rated above 4 out of 5. The high level of satisfaction of the course remained homogeneous in the 2 editions analysed. The overall satisfaction of the course was not finally and uniquely determined by any of its particular parts. The fresh cadaver model for training physicians in techniques of airway management is a proposal satisfactory to the participant, and with a realism that approaches the live patient. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  7. In vitro study of foot kinematics using a dynamic walking cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, C J; Liu, A M; Ward, E; Howard, D; Cocheba, J; Derrick, T; Patterson, P

    2007-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on navicular, cuboid, cuneiform and metatarsal kinematics during walking and our objective was to study the kinematic contributions these bones might make to foot function. A dynamic cadaver model of walking was used to apply forces to cadaver feet and mobilise them in a manner similar to in vivo. Kinematic data were recorded from 13 cadaver feet. Given limitations to the simulation, the data describe what the cadaver feet were capable of in response to the forces applied, rather than exactly how they performed in vivo. The talonavicular joint was more mobile than the calcaneocuboid joint. The range of motion between cuneiforms and navicular was similar to that between talus and navicular. Metatarsals four and five were more mobile relative to the cuboid than metatarsals one, two and three relative to the cuneiforms. This work has confirmed the complexity of rear, mid and forefoot kinematics. The data demonstrate the potential for often-ignored foot joints to contribute significantly to the overall kinematic function of the foot. Previous emphasis on the ankle and sub talar joints as the principal articulating components of the foot has neglected more distal articulations. The results also demonstrate the extent to which the rigid segment assumptions of previous foot kinematics research have over simplified the foot.

  8. The Use of Specially Designed Tasks to Enhance Student Interest in the Cadaver Dissection Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-il

    2012-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout…

  9. The Use of Specially Designed Tasks to Enhance Student Interest in the Cadaver Dissection Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-il

    2012-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout…

  10. Isolation and culture of adult human microglia within mixed glial cultures for functional experimentation and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy M; Gibbons, Hannah M; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are thought to be involved in diseases of the adult human brain as well as normal aging processes. While neonatal and rodent microglia are often used in studies investigating microglial function, there are important differences between rodent microglia and their adult human counterparts. Human brain tissue provides a unique and valuable tool for microglial cell and molecular biology. Routine protocols can now enable use of this culture method in many laboratories. Detailed protocols and advice for culture of human brain microglia are provided here. We demonstrate the protocol for culturing human adult microglia within a mixed glial culture and use a phagocytosis assay as an example of the functional studies possible with these cells as well as a high-content analysis method of quantification.

  11. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a “geometrical language” with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them. PMID:28125595

  12. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling: osteoblastic nature, catabolic functions and interactions with osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja; Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Alnaimi, Ragad Walid; Rolighed, Lars; Engelholm, Lars H; Marcussen, Niels; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts. Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone through electron microscopy and analysis of molecular markers. Periosteoclastic reversal cells show direct contacts with the osteoclasts and with the demineralized resorption debris. These early reversal cells show (1) ¾-collagen fragments typically generated by extracellular collagenases of the MMP family, (2) MMP-13 (collagenase-3) and (3) the endocytic collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180. The prevalence of these markers was lower in the later reversal cells, which are located near the osteoid surfaces and morphologically resemble mature bone-forming osteoblasts. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that reversal cells colonizing bone surfaces right after resorption are osteoblast-lineage cells, and extends to adult human bone remodeling their role in rendering eroded surfaces osteogenic.

  13. Plasticity of adult human pancreatic duct cells by neurogenin3-mediated reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Swales

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3. In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it. METHODS: The extent of the Ngn3-mediated duct-to-endocrine cell reprogramming was measured employing genome wide mRNA profiling. By modulation of the Delta-Notch signaling or addition of pancreatic endocrine transcription factors Myt1, MafA and Pdx1 we intended to improve the reprogramming. RESULTS: Ngn3 stimulates duct cells to express a focused set of genes that are characteristic for islet endocrine cells and/or neural tissues. This neuro-endocrine shift however, is incomplete with less than 10% of full duct-to-endocrine reprogramming achieved. Transduction of exogenous Ngn3 activates endogenous Ngn3 suggesting auto-activation of this gene. Furthermore, pancreatic endocrine reprogramming of human duct cells can be moderately enhanced by inhibition of Delta-Notch signaling as well as by co-expressing the transcription factor Myt1, but not MafA and Pdx1. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The results provide further insight into the plasticity of adult human duct cells and suggest measurable routes to enhance Ngn3-mediated in vitro reprogramming protocols for regenerative beta cell therapy in diabetes.

  14. Human tau expression reduces adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Yutaro; Xu, Guixiang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lamb, Bruce T

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a central feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Notably, there is increasing evidence that tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are also characterized by a reduction in neurogenesis, the birth of adult neurons. However, the exact relationship between hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of MAPT and neurogenic deficits remains unclear, including whether this is an early- or late-stage disease marker. In the present study, we used the genomic-based hTau mouse model of tauopathy to examine the temporal and spatial regulation of adult neurogenesis during the course of the disease. Surprisingly, hTau mice exhibited reductions in adult neurogenesis in 2 different brain regions by as early as 2 months of age, before the development of robust MAPT pathology in this model. This reduction was found to be due to reduced proliferation and not because of enhanced apoptosis in the hippocampus. At these same time points, hTau mice also exhibited altered MAPT phosphorylation with neurogenic precursors. To examine whether the effects of MAPT on neurogenesis were cell autonomous, neurospheres prepared from hTau animals were examined in vitro, revealing a growth deficit when compared with non-transgenic neurosphere cultures. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that altered adult neurogenesis is a robust and early marker of altered, cell-autonomous function of MAPT in the hTau mouse mode of tauopathy and that altered adult neurogenesis should be examined as a potential marker and therapeutic target for human tauopathies.

  15. Effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 陶天遵; 王新婷; 杜宁; 陈伟珍; 陶树清; 王志成; 吴丽萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro. Methods Iliac trabecular bone specimens were obtained from adult patients undergoing necessary surgery. After the bone pieces were digested with collagenase-trypsin, osteoblasts were released and incubated at 37℃ in a relative humidity of 95% and 5% CO2. Then, the cells were purified, and their passages were given DMEM-F12 and fetal bovine serum medium. Subsequently, 10-8 mol/L dexamethasone was added into the culture medium to incubate the osteoblasts for three days, and the cells from control groups were incubated without any drugs. All cells were observed continually with phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. Finally, apoptosis was detected by the use of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and biochemical indices, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) were used to determine the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult osteoblasts in vitro. Results In the adult osteoblasts obtained by collagenase-trypsin digestion, it achieved high survial, stable biochemical indices and excellent purification. Under the condition of dexamethasone 10-8 mol/L and osteoblasts 10 000/ml, there was significant promotion of ALP and OCN secretion without cell apoptosis.Conclusions Dexamethasone has a significant effect on the proliferation and differentiation of adult osteoblasts in vitro without apoptosis, and dexamethasone at the suggested concentration can be used as positive control in drug studies for osteoporosis treatment.

  16. Three-dimensional dental arch curvature in human adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G; Colombo, A

    1999-04-01

    The three-dimensional arrangement of dental cusps and incisal edges in human dentitions has been reported to fit the surface of a sphere (the curve of Monson), with a radius of about 4 inches in adults. The objective of the current study was to compare the three-dimensional curvature of the mandibular dental arch in healthy permanent dentitions of young adults and adolescents. The mandibular casts of 50 adults (aged 19 to 22 years) and 20 adolescents (aged 12 to 14 years) with highly selected sound dentitions that were free from temporomandibular joint problems were obtained. The three coordinates of cusp tips excluding the third molars were digitized with a three-dimensional digitizer, and used to derive a spherical model of the curvature of the occlusal surfaces. From the best interpolating sphere, the radii of the left and right curves of Spee (quasi-sagittal plane) and of molar curve of Wilson (frontal plane) were computed. Mandibular arch size (interdental distances) was also calculated. The occlusal curvature of the mandibular arch was not significantly influenced by sex, although a significant effect of age was found (Student t, P curves of Spee, and curve of Wilson in the molar area were about 101 mm in adults, and about 80 mm in adolescents. Arch size was not influenced by either sex or age. The different curvatures of the occlusal plane in adolescents and adults may be explained by a progressive rotation of the major axis of the teeth moving the occlusal plane toward a more buccal position. These dental movements should be performed in a frontal plane on an anteroposterior axis located next to the dental crown.

  17. Prosection In Place Of Human Dissection – Way Out Of Scarcity Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prosection In Place Of Human Dissection – Way Out Of Scarcity Of Cadaver ... in the use of conventional human dissection and autopsies for teaching in some parts ... Many academics conventional dissection of the human body as a teaching ...

  18. Cadaver-based training is superior to simulation training for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Peak, David; Stearns, Dana

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) training mandates that residents be able to competently perform low-frequency critical procedures upon graduation. Simulation is the main method of training in addition to clinical patient care. Access to cadaver-based training is limited due to cost and availability. The relative fidelity and perceived value of cadaver-based simulation training is unknown. This pilot study sought to describe the relative value of cadaver training compared to simulation for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. To perform a pilot study to assess whether there is a significant difference in fidelity and educational experience of cadaver-based training compared to simulation training. To understand how important this difference is in training residents in low-frequency procedures. Twenty-two senior EM residents (PGY3 and 4) who had completed standard simulation training on cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy participated in a formalin-fixed cadaver training program. Participants were surveyed on the relative fidelity of the training using a 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS) with 100 defined as equal to performing the procedure on a real patient. Respondents were also asked to estimate how much the cadaveric training improved the comfort level with performing the procedures on a scale between 0 and 100 %. Open-response feedback was also collected. The response rate was 100 % (22/22). The average fidelity of the cadaver versus simulation training was 79.9 ± 7.0 vs. 34.7 ± 13.4 for cricothyrotomy (p training was rated as 78.5 ± 13.3 for tube thoracostomy and 78.7 ± 14.3 for cricothyrotomy. All respondents felt this difference in fidelity to be important for procedural training with 21/22 respondents specifically citing the importance of superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training. Cadaver-based training provides superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training and may be a valuable addition to EM

  19. Soft embalming of cadavers for training purposes: Optimising for long-term use in tropical weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuveer Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical and anatomical training has been found to be most optimally simulated in a cadaver than any other available methods. Soft embalming methods have made the bodies more 'lifelike' and better suited for training. The widely accepted soft embalming techniques, including Thiel embalming, are designed for temperate climates. Their use in tropical locations has been found to be associated with poor short-term and long-term preservation of the bodies. In fact, adequate reports from tropical countries on effective methods for soft embalming are lacking. Materials and Methods: This article details the modifications made in the Thiel embalming technique over a period of 2 years which has enabled us to preserve the anatomical features of bodies in an optimal way for longer periods in tropical conditions. This study was carried out in a tertiary care referral centre located in a tropical climate zone. A total of 13 frozen and thawed cadavers were used over a period of 2 years for developing such soft embalming technique. The efficacy of the technique was tested using these cadavers for varying types of surgical exercises on multiple occasions. Results: The conventionally described technique of Thiel embalming did not provide desired results. Hence, various modifications to this technique were instituted which helped us to get superior quality of soft-embalmed cadavers. In the final year, these cadavers were used successfully for workshops in flap dissection. Head and neck access surgery, arthroscopic and laparoscopic procedures as well as mock face and hand transplant dissections. Conclusions: The Theil embalming technique for obtaining soft embalmed cadavers, even though found to be best in many centres in the world, has not been found to be suitable to tropical weather. By modifying it, we have succeeded in developing a technique suitable to the tropical weather. This technique yields cadavers suitable for various surgical simulation

  20. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemolato, S.; Van Eyken, P.; Cabras, T.; Cau, F.; Fanari, M.U.; Locci, A.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of small peptides involved in polymerization of G-actin, and in many critical biological processes including apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Previous studies in the newborn liver did not reveal any significant reactivity for Tβ4 during the intrauterine life. The aim of the present study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry Tβ4 expression in the adult normal liver. Thirty-five human liver samples, including 11 needle liver biopsies and 24 liver specimens obtained at autopsy, in which no pathological change was detected at the histological examination, were immunostained utilizing an anti-Tβ4 commercial antibody. Tβ4 was detected in the hepatocytes of all adult normal livers examined. A zonation of Tβ4 expression was evident in the vast majority of cases. Immunostaining was preferentially detected in zone 3, while a minor degree of reactivity was detected in periportal hepatocytes (zone 1). At higher power, Tβ4-reactive granules appeared mainly localized at the biliary pole of hepatocytes. In cases with a strong immunostaining, even perinuclear areas and the sinusoidal pole of hepatocytes appeared interested by immunoreactivity for Tβ4. The current work first evidences a strong diffuse expression of Tβ4 in the adult human liver, and adds hepatocytes to the list of human cells able to synthesize large amounts of Tβ4 in adulthood. Moreover, Tβ4 should be added to the liver proteins characterized by a zonate expression pattern, in a descending gradient from the terminal vein to the periportal areas of the liver acinus. Identifying the intimate role played by this peptide intracellularly and extracellularly, in physiology and in different liver diseases, is a major challenge for future research focusing on Tβ4. PMID:22073372

  1. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nemolato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of small peptides involved in polymerization of G-actin, and in many critical biological processes including apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Previous studies in the newborn liver did not reveal any significant reactivity for Tβ4 during the intrauterine life. The aim of the present study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry Tβ4 expression in the adult normal liver. Thirty-five human liver samples, including 11 needle liver biopsies and 24 liver specimens obtained at autopsy, in which no pathological change was detected at the histological examination, were immunostained utilizing an anti-Tβ4 commercial antibody. Tβ4 was detected in the hepatocytes of all adult normal livers examined. A zonation of Tβ4 expression was evident in the vast majority of cases. Immunostaining was preferentially detected in zone 3, while a minor degree of reactivity was detected in periportal hepatocytes (zone 1. At higher power, Tβ4-reactive granules appeared mainly localized at the biliary pole of hepatocytes. In cases with a strong immunostaining, even perinuclear areas and the sinusoidal pole of hepatocytes appeared interested by immunoreactivity for Tβ4. The current work first evidences a strong diffuse expression of Tβ4 in the adult human liver, and adds hepatocytes to the list of human cells able to synthesize large amounts of Tβ4 in adulthood. Moreover, Tβ4 should be added to the liver proteins characterized by a zonate expression pattern, in a descending gradient from the terminal vein to the periportal areas of the liver acinus. Identifying the intimate role played by this peptide intracellularly and extracellularly, in physiology and in different liver diseases, is a major challenge for future research focusing on Tβ4.

  2. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  3. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Small-sample preclinical study. HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127).

  4. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary...... to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers...

  5. Selection of apoptotic cell specific human antibodies from adult bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Grönwall

    Full Text Available Autoreactive antibodies that recognize neo-determinants on apoptotic cells in mice have been proposed to have protective, homeostatic and immunoregulatory properties, although our knowledge about the equivalent antibodies in humans has been much more limited. In the current study, human monoclonal antibodies with binding specificity for apoptotic cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy adults using phage display technology. These antibodies were shown to recognize phosphorylcholine (PC-associated neo-determinants. Interestingly, three of the four identified apoptotic cell-specific antibody clones were encoded by VH3 region rearrangements with germline or nearly germline configuration without evidence of somatic hypermutation. Importantly, the different identified antibody clones had diverse heavy chain CDR3 and deduced binding surfaces as suggested by structure modeling. This may suggest a potentially great heterogeneity in human antibodies recognizing PC-related epitopes on apoptotic cells. To re-construct the postulated structural format of the parental anti-PC antibody, the dominant clone was also expressed as a recombinant human polymeric IgM, which revealed a substantially increased binding reactivity, with dose-dependent and antigen-inhibitable binding of apoptotic cells. Our findings may have implication for improved prognostic testing and therapeutic interventions in human inflammatory disease.

  6. Reduced Expression of Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Matrix Genes in Human Adult Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Exposed to Simulated Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, Thomas J; Mann, Vivek; Slumstrup, Lasse;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microgravity (µg) has adverse effects on the eye of humans in space. The risk of visual impairment is therefore one of the leading health concerns for NASA. The impact of µg on human adult retinal epithelium (ARPE-19) cells is unknown. METHODS: In this study we investigated the i...

  7. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used...... turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.-Heinemeier, K. M., Schjerling, P., Heinemeier, J., Magnusson, S. P., Kjaer, M. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon...... (donor birth years 1945-1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of 14C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited...

  8. HUMANIZATION VISIT FAMILY IN AN ADULT ICU SOUTHEAST OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a pilot project, using the theoretical and philosophical Leininger. The project will be developed in a municipality hospital in southeastern of Mato Grosso, in the period between January and March 2012, in order to humanize the family visits of the internal customers of Adult Intensive Care Unit. To carry out the project activities will use the listing of the original guidelines proposed by the Paulista School of Medicine of sectors closed to visitors. The need to intervene in this dynamic, customer-service family, there was a lack of humane view of the team with the family, sometimes for not recognizing the family as a therapeutic tool in intensive care. Thus, neglecting the health of the family, who likewise, need special care, intensive care.

  9. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L E; Loechel, F

    1997-01-01

    to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old fetal skeletal muscle as distinct focal immunoreactivity in the sarcolemmal basement membrane area of some......We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...... results demonstrate a prominent extrasynaptic localization of laminin beta 2 in the human muscle, suggesting that it may have an important function in the sarcolemmal basement membrane....

  10. Reprogramming of adult human neural stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li-qian; SUN Hua-ping; WANG Tian; TANG Hai-liang; WANG Pu; ZHU Jian-hong; YAO Zheng-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Since an effective method for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human neural stem cells (hNSCs) can offer us a promising tool for studying brain diseases,here we reported direct reprogramming of adult hNSCs into iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four defined factors.Methods NSCs were successfully isolated and cultured from the hippocampus tissue of epilepsy patients.When combined with four factors (OCT3/4,SOX2,KLF4,and c-MYC),iPSCs colonies were successfully obtained.Results Morphological characterization and specific genetic expression confirmed that these hNSCs-derived iPSCs showed embryonic stem cells-like properties,which include the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.Conclusion Our method would be useful for generating human iPSCs from NSCs and provide an important tool for studying neurological diseases.

  11. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    on immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis of human adult testis and 32 testicular tumours to examine the differential expression and abundance of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 in relation to cell type, proliferation, differentiation, and malignancy. In normal testis, the cell type-restricted expression patterns were...... D2 but not D1 or D3, while the invasive testicular tumours showed variable positivity for cyclins D2 and D3, but rarely D1. An unexpected correlation with differentiation rather than proliferation was found particularly for cyclin D3 in teratomas, a conceptually significant observation confirmed...... by massive up-regulation of cyclin D3 in the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2/D1 induced to differentiate along the neuronal lineage. These results suggest a possible involvement of cyclin D2 in the early stages of testicular oncogenesis and the striking examples of proliferation-independent expression...

  12. Differential DNA Methylation Regions in Adult Human Sperm following Adolescent Chemotherapy: Potential for Epigenetic Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Stansfeld, Barbara; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Beck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background The potential that adolescent chemotherapy can impact the epigenetic programming of the germ line to influence later life adult fertility and promote epigenetic inheritance was investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated a number of environmental exposures such as abnormal nutrition and toxicants can promote sperm epigenetic changes that impact offspring. Methods Adult males approximately ten years after pubertal exposure to chemotherapy were compared to adult males with no previous exposure. Sperm were collected to examine differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) between the exposed and control populations. Gene associations and correlations to genetic mutations (copy number variation) were also investigated. Methods and Findings A signature of statistically significant DMRs was identified in the chemotherapy exposed male sperm. The DMRs, termed epimutations, were found in CpG desert regions of primarily 1 kilobase size. Observations indicate adolescent chemotherapy exposure can promote epigenetic alterations that persist in later life. Conclusions This is the first observation in humans that an early life chemical exposure can permanently reprogram the spermatogenic stem cell epigenome. The germline (i.e., sperm) epimutations identified suggest chemotherapy has the potential to promote epigenetic inheritance to the next generation. PMID:28146567

  13. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2013-12-17

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  14. Study of Mean Diameter of Superior Cerebellar Peduncles in Bangladeshi Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQM Ataul Haque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuronal organisation of the cerebellum has been studied in details by many researchers. But most of these have been performed on animals and diameter of superior cerebellar peduncle in humans remains inadequately studied. It has been observed by various workers that dimensions of different organs in Bangladeshi population vary from those of Western population. Objective: Aim of the present work was to measure diameter of superior cerebellar peduncle to make a standard for Bangladeshi population. Materials and Methods: This observational study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellums were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15 aged 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9 aged 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April to September 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of Department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups - Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation, Group B (5 to 30 years and Group C (31 to 60 years. The diameters of the superior cerebellar peduncles of both cerebellar hemispheres were measured by using slide calipers and expressed in millimeter (mm. The measurement was taken after fixation into 10% formol saline. Results: The mean (± SD diameters of right superior cerebellar peduncle in Group A was 4.96 ± lAO, in Group B 6.83 ± 1046 and in Group C was 6.61 ± 1.34 mm. The mean (± SD diameters of left superior cerebellar peduncle in GroupA was 4.87 ± 1.25, in Group B 6.79 ± 1045 and in Group C 6048 ± 1.37 mm. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between mean diameters ofright

  15. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization.

  16. Characterization of age-related changes of tendon stem cells from adult human tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzini, Laura; Abbruzzese, Franca; Rainer, Alberto; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    The present study evaluated the presence of stem cells in hamstring tendons from adult subjects of different ages. The aim was to isolate, characterize and expand these cells in vitro, and to evaluate whether cell activities are influenced by age. Tendon stem cells (TSCs) were isolated through magnetic sorting from the hamstring tendons of six patients. TSC percentage, morphology and clonogenic potential were evaluated, as well as the expression of specific surface markers. TSC multi-potency was also investigated as a function of age, and quantitative polimerase chain reaction was used to evaluate gene expression of TSCs cultured in suitable differentiating media. The presence of easily harvestable stem cell population within adult human hamstring tendons was demonstrated. These cells exhibit features such as clonogenicity, multi-potency and mesenchymal stem cells markers expression. The age-related variations in human TSCs affect the number of isolated cells and their self-renewal potential, while multi-potency assays are not influenced by tendon ageing, even though cells from younger individuals expressed higher levels of osteogenic and adipogenic genes, while chondrogenic genes were highly expressed in cells from older individuals. These results may open new opportunities to study TSCs to better understand tendon physiology, healing and pathological processes such as tendinopathy and degenerative age-related changes opening new frontiers in the management of tendinopathy and tendon ruptures.

  17. Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M; Goldstein, Bradley J

    2014-03-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic.

  18. Morphologic characteristics of processes of nucleus pulposus cells in adult human intervertebral disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Xinghuo; Hui, Liu; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Xianze; Yang, Shuhua

    2008-12-01

    To explore morphologic characterizatics of cellular processes from adult human nucleus pulposus cells, the nucleus pulposus of adult human intervertebral disc were obtained from 8 patients (Thompson's grade I~II) and then the tissues specimens were carried out by frozen section and electron microscopic section as well as cell isolation and cultured, processes of nucleus pulposus cells were examined using light microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. When examined at both the confocal and electron microscope level, all the cells possessed the processes and adjacent nucleus pulposus cells processes possessed a gap junction. But elongated and round cells can be examined when NP cells were monolayer cultured. The rate of elongated cells to round cells is 2.3 to 1. The elongated cells protrude along with the long axis of cell body without second processes. Dendritic processes of round cells protrude to all directions from the cell body with multiple-level processes. Processes are one of the morphologic characteristics of intervertebral disc cells which are different from articular cartilage chondrocytes. The research on processes functions will be helpful to understand pathomechanism of intervertebral disc degradation and open a new approach for cytobiology treatment of the intervertebral disc diseases.

  19. Essential Microenvironment for Thymopoiesis is Preserved in Human Adult and Aged Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shiraishi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal human thymuses at various ages were immunohistologically examined in order to determine whether adult or aged thymus maintained the microenvironment for the T cell development and thymopoiesis was really ongoing. To analyze the thymic microenvironment, two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb were employed. One is MoAb to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R recognizing medullary and subcapsular cortical epithelial cells of normal infant human thymus. The other is UH-1 MoAb recognizing thymic epithelial cells within the cortex, which are negative with IL-1R-MoAb. Thymus of subjects over 20 years of age was split into many fragments and dispersed in the fatty tissue. However, the microenvironment of each fragment was composed of both IL-1R positive and UH-1 positive epithelial cells, and the UH-1 positive portion was populated with lymphocytes showing a follicle-like appearance. Lymphocytes in these follicle-like portions were mostly CD4+CD8+ double positive cells and contained many proliferating cells as well as apoptotic cells. Thus these follicle-like portions in adult and aged thymus were considered to be functioning as cortex as in infant thymus. Proliferative activity of thymocytes in the thymic cortex and the follicle-like portions definitely declined with advance of age, while incidence of apoptotic thymocytes increased with aging.

  20. Difference of Sodium Currents between Pediatric and Adult Human Atrial Myocytes: Evidence for Developmental Changes of Sodium Channels

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    Benzhi Cai, Xiaoqin Mu, Dongmei Gong, Shulin Jiang, Jianping Li, Qingxin Meng, Yunlong Bai, Yanju Liu, Xinyue Wang, Xueying Tan, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium currents and potassium currents were shown to undergo developmental changes in postnatal human and animal cardiomocytes. However, so far, there is no evidence whether sodium currents also presented the developmental changes in postnatal human atrial cells. The aim of this study was to observe age-related changes of sodium currents between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes. Human atrial myocytes were acutely isolated and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record sodium currents isolated from pediatric and adult atrial cardiomocytes. The peak amplitude of sodium currents recorded in adult atrial cells was significantly larger than that in pediatric atrial myocytes. However, there was no significant difference of the activation voltage for peak sodium currents between two kinds of atrial myocytes. The time constants for the activation and inactivation of sodium currents were smaller in adult atria than pediatric atria. The further study revealed that the voltage-dependent inactivation of sodium currents were more slow in adult atrial cardiomyocytes than pediatric atrial cells. A significant difference was also observed in the recovery process of sodium channel from inactivation. In summary, a few significant differences were demonstrated in sodium currents characteristics between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes, which indicates that sodium currents in human atria also undergo developmental changes.

  1. Distortion product otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves in human adults and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, C; Sininger, Y S; Ekelid, M; Zeng, F G

    1996-09-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) iso-suppression tuning curves (STC) were generated in 15 normal-hearing adults and 16 healthy term-born neonates for three f2 frequencies. The 2f1-f2 DPOAE was elicited using f2/f1 = 1.2, LI = 1.2, LI = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL. A suppressor tone was presented at frequencies ranging from 1 octave below to 1/4 octave above f2 and varied in level until DPOAE amplitude was reduced by 6 dB. The suppressor level required for 6 dB suppression was plotted as function of suppressor frequency to generate a DPOAE STC. Forward-masked psychoacoustic tuning curves (PTC) were obtained for three of the adult subjects. Results indicate that DPOAE STCs are stable and show minimal inter- and intra-subject variability. The tip of the STC is consistently centered around the f2 region and STCs are similar in shape, width (Q10) and slope to VIIIth-nerve TCs. PTCs and STCs measured in the same subject showed similar trends, although PTCs had narrower width and steeper slope. Neonatal STCs were recorded at 3000 and 6000 Hz only and were comparable in shape, width and slope to adult STCs. Results suggest: (1) suppression of the 2f1-f2 DPOAE may provide an indirect measure of cochlear frequency resolution in humans and (2) cochlear tuning, and associated active processes in the cochlea, are mature by term birth for at least mid- and high-frequencies. These results provide significant impetus for continued study of DPOAE suppression as a means of evaluating cochlear frequency resolution in humans.

  2. Descriptive anatomy of the interscalene triangle and the costoclavicular space and their relationship to thoracic outlet syndrome: a study of 60 cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kelly A; Olinger, Anthony B

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome classically results from constrictions in 1 or more of 3 specific anatomical locations: the interscalene triangle, costoclavicular space, and coracopectoral tunnel. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging studies suggest that, of the 3 potential locations for constriction, the costoclavicular space is the most susceptible to compression. This study of human cadavers aims to expand on the descriptive anatomy of the interscalene triangle and associated costoclavicular space. The interscalene angle, interscalene triangle base, and costoclavicular space were measured on 120 sides of embalmed human cadavers. Linear distances and angles were measured using a caliper and protractor, respectively. The data were analyzed by calculating the mean, range, and standard deviation. The range for the interscalene base was 0 to 21.0 mm with a mean of 10.7 mm. For the interscalene angle, the range was 4° to 22° with a mean of 11.3°. Measurements for the costoclavicular space ranged from 6 to 30.9 mm with a mean of 13.5 mm. No significant differences were observed between left and right interscalene triangles or costoclavicular spaces; furthermore, there were no differences between the sexes concerning these 2 locations. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelo de donante cadavérico con criterio neurológico de muerte en la rata de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Zalazar, Gustavo; Stringa, Pablo; Lausada, Natalia Raquel; Cicora, F.; Vásquez, Daniela N.; Raimondi, J. Clemente

    2010-01-01

    El modelo experimental de trasplante de órganos y tejidos en la rata, se ha llevado a cabo tradicionalmente con donante vivo. La complejidad de lograr un donante cadavérico en roedores de laboratorio, ha restringido su utilización. Esta situación limita la extrapolación de los resultados a la realidad clínica, donde mayoritariamente se utilizan órganos extraídos de donantes cadavéricos. La necesidad de poseer resultados experimentales, tanto en donante vivo como cadavérico, nos ha llevado a o...

  4. Significance of differential metal loads in normal versus cancerous cadaver tissues - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Trimble, Quannesha; Ndebele, Kenneth; Mawson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The bodys elemental/ metal loads are known to exert essential influence in maintaining normal and abnormal metabolism leading to eventual pathology of some forms of cancer phenotypes. Accumulation of potentially toxic or nonessential trace metals has been observed but not highly noted as an active factor in toxicogenesis and in the development of many diseases including cancers. The compositional balance and distribution of trace metals in various body tissues are essential key players in homeostasis in life. To this end the etiology of diseases including cancer has been linked with the accumulation of potentially toxic or nonessential trace metals. However, scarce literature / experimental evidence exist as a scientific proof that metal concentrations play important role in the etiology and development of cancer phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential relationship of metal concentrations and profiles in cancer and normal tissues from cadavers of humans. The originated hypothesis was that elemental / metal concentrations and profiles seen in post mortem will show significant differences between normal and cancer-derived tissues as well as between various tissue types in humans. This study also establishes critical elemental /metal profiles that may be relevant in providing correlations with the development of three major cancers. Normal human and tumor tissues of cadaverous lung, breast and liver tissues used in this study were obtained from US Biomax Company. Tissue samples were prepared using standardized digestion procedures necessary for use with the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). This equipment was utilized to determine the concentrations and profiles of 21 elements including Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn. Twelve major elements of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn were found to be significantly different in term of their

  5. An animal model of adult T-cell leukemia: humanized mice with HTLV-1-specific immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Kenta; Xun, Runze; Tei, Mami; Ueno, Takaharu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-16

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy with a poor prognosis. To elucidate ATL pathogenesis in vivo, a variety of animal models have been established; however, the mechanisms driving this disorder remain poorly understood due to deficiencies in each of these animal models. Here, we report a novel HTLV-1-infected humanized mouse model generated by intra-bone marrow injection of human CD133(+) stem cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγc null (NOG) mice (IBMI-huNOG mice). Upon infection, the number of CD4(+) human T cells in the periphery increased rapidly, and atypical lymphocytes with lobulated nuclei resembling ATL-specific flower cells were observed 4 to 5 months after infection. Proliferation was seen in both CD25(-) and CD25(+) CD4 T cells with identical proviral integration sites; however, a limited number of CD25(+)-infected T-cell clones eventually dominated, indicating an association between clonal selection of infected T cells and expression of CD25. Additionally, HTLV-1-specific adaptive immune responses were induced in infected mice and might be involved in the control of HTLV-1-infected cells. Thus, the HTLV-1-infected IBMI-huNOG mouse model successfully recapitulated the development of ATL and may serve as an important tool for investigating in vivo mechanisms of ATL leukemogenesis and evaluating anti-ATL drug and vaccine candidates.

  6. Sustained Engraftment of Cryopreserved Human Bone Marrow CD34(+) Cells in Young Adult NSG Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiekmeijer, Anna-Sophia; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Brugman, Martijn H; Salvatori, Daniela C F; Egeler, R Maarten; Bredius, Robbert G M; Fibbe, Willem E; Staal, Frank J T

    2014-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are defined by their ability to repopulate the bone marrow of myeloablative conditioned and/or (lethally) irradiated recipients. To study the repopulating potential of human HSCs, murine models have been developed that rely on the use of immunodeficient mice that allow engraftment of human cells. The NSG xenograft model has emerged as the current standard for this purpose allowing for engraftment and study of human T cells. Here, we describe adaptations to the original NSG xenograft model that can be readily implemented. These adaptations encompass use of adult mice instead of newborns and a short ex vivo culture. This protocol results in robust and reproducible high levels of lympho-myeloid engraftment. Immunization of recipient mice with relevant antigen resulted in specific antibody formation, showing that both T cells and B cells were functional. In addition, bone marrow cells from primary recipients exhibited repopulating ability following transplantation into secondary recipients. Similar results were obtained with cryopreserved human bone marrow samples, thus circumventing the need for fresh cells and allowing the use of patient derived bio-bank samples. Our findings have implications for use of this model in fundamental stem cell research, immunological studies in vivo and preclinical evaluations for HSC transplantation, expansion, and genetic modification.

  7. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells.

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    Sarada Devi Ramachandran

    Full Text Available In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process. Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions.

  8. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

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    Maucksch C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virus-free approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate.

  9. Comparison of anatomic landmarks and ultrasound guidance for intercostal nerve injections in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anuj; Gofeld, Michael; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Hanlon, John; Johnson, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Intercostal nerve (ICN) injections are routinely performed under anatomic landmark or fluoroscopic guidance for acute and chronic pain indications. Ultrasound (US) is being used increasingly to perform ICN injections, but there is lack of evidence to support categorically the benefits of US over conventional techniques. We compared guidance with US versus anatomic landmarks for accuracy and safety of ICN injections in cadavers in a 2-phase study that included evaluation of deposition of injected dye by dissection and spread of contrast on fluoroscopy. A cadaver experiment was performed to validate US as an imaging modality for ICN blocks. In the first phase of the study, 12 ICN injections with 2 different volumes of dye were performed in 1 cadaver using anatomic landmarks on one side and US-guidance on the other (6 injections on each side). The cadaver was then dissected to evaluate spread of the dye. The second phase of the study consisted of 74 ICN injections (37 US-guided and 37 using anatomic landmarks) of contrast dye in 6 non-embalmed cadavers followed by fluoroscopy to evaluate spread of the contrast dye. In the first phase of the study, the intercostal space was identified with US at all levels. Injection of 2 mL of dye was sufficient to ensure compete staining of the ICN for 5 of 6 US-guided injections but anatomic landmark guidance resulted in correct injection at only 2 of 6 intercostal spaces. No intravascular injection was found on dissection with either of the guidance techniques. In the second phase of the study, US-guidance was associated with a higher rate of intercostal spread of 1 mL of contrast dye on fluoroscopy compared with anatomic landmarks guidance (97% vs 70%; P = 0.017). Ultrasound confers higher accuracy and allows use of lower volumes of injectate compared with anatomic landmarks as a guidance method for ICN injections in cadavers. Ultrasound may be a viable alternative to anatomic landmarks as a guidance method for ICN injections.

  10. Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Adult Human Brain Harbor No Instrinsic Neuroectodermal but High Mesodermal Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojewski, Xenia; Srimasorn, Sumitra; Rauh, Juliane; Francke, Silvan; Wobus, Manja; Taylor, Verdon; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hallmeyer-Elgner, Susanne; Kirsch, Matthias; Schwarz, Sigrid; Schwarz, Johannes; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Brain perivascular cells have recently been identified as a novel mesodermal cell type in the human brain. These cells reside in the perivascular niche and were shown to have mesodermal and, to a lesser extent, tissue-specific differentiation potential. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely proposed for use in cell therapy in many neurological disorders; therefore, it is of importance to better understand the "intrinsic" MSC population of the human brain. We systematically characterized adult human brain-derived pericytes during in vitro expansion and differentiation and compared these cells with fetal and adult human brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs. We found that adult human brain pericytes, which can be isolated from the hippocampus and from subcortical white matter, are-in contrast to adult human NSCs-easily expandable in monolayer cultures and show many similarities to human bone marrow-derived MSCs both regarding both surface marker expression and after whole transcriptome profile. Human brain pericytes showed a negligible propensity for neuroectodermal differentiation under various differentiation conditions but efficiently generated mesodermal progeny. Consequently, human brain pericytes resemble bone marrow-derived MSCs and might be very interesting for possible autologous and endogenous stem cell-based treatment strategies and cell therapeutic approaches for treating neurological diseases. Perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recently gained significant interest because of their appearance in many tissues including the human brain. MSCs were often reported as being beneficial after transplantation in the central nervous system in different neurological diseases; therefore, adult brain perivascular cells derived from human neural tissue were systematically characterized concerning neural stem cell and MSC marker expression, transcriptomics, and mesodermal and inherent neuroectodermal differentiation

  11. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  12. Characterization of pancreatic stem cells derived from adult human pancreas ducts by fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Tso Lin; Shih-Hwa Chiou; Chung-Lan Kao; Yi-Ming Shyr; Chien-Jen Hsu; Yih-Wen Tarng; Larry L-T Ho; Ching-Fai Kwok; Hung-Hai Ku

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To isolate putative pancreatic stem cells (PSCs)from human adult tissues of pancreas duct using serumfree, conditioned medium. The characterization of surface phenotype of these PSCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The potential for pancreatic lineage and the capability of β-cell differentiation in these PSCs were evaluated as well.METHODS: By using serum-free medium supplemented with essential growth factors, we attempted to isolate the putative PSCs which has been reported to express nestin and pdx-1. The MatrigelTM was employed to evaluate the differential capacity of isolated cells. Dithizone staining, insulin content/secretion measurement, and immunohistochemistry staining were used to monitor the differentiation. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)was used to detect the phenotypic markers of putative PSCs.RESULTS: A monolayer of spindle-like cells was cultivated. The putative PSCs expressed pdx-1 and nestin.They were also able to differentiate into insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-positive cells. The spectrum of phenotypic markers in PSCs was investigated; a similarity was revealed when using human bone marrow-derived stem cells as the comparative experiment, such as CD29,CD44, CD49, CD50, CD51, CD62E, PDGFR-α, CD73 (SH2),CD81, CD105(SH3).CONCLUSION: In this study, we successfully isolated PSCs from adult human pancreatic duct by using serumfree medium. These PSCs not only expressed nestin and pdx-1 but also exhibited markers attributable to mesenchymal stem cells. Although work is needed to elucidate the role of these cells, the application of these PSCs might be therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus.

  13. A Human Dissection Training Program at Indiana University School of Medicine-Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Ernest F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    As human cadavers are widely used in basic sciences, medical education, and other training and research venues, there is a real need for experts trained in anatomy and dissection. This article describes a program that gives individuals interested in clinical and basic sciences practical experience working with cadavers. Participants are selected…

  14. A Human Dissection Training Program at Indiana University School of Medicine-Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Ernest F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    As human cadavers are widely used in basic sciences, medical education, and other training and research venues, there is a real need for experts trained in anatomy and dissection. This article describes a program that gives individuals interested in clinical and basic sciences practical experience working with cadavers. Participants are selected…

  15. Gene expression profiling of embryonic human neural stem cells and dopaminergic neurons from adult human substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany E S Marei

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSC with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat neurodegenerative insults such as Parkinson's disease. We used Agilent's and Illumina Whole Human Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray to compare the genomic profiles of human embryonic NSC at a single time point in culture, and a multicellular tissue from postmortem adult substantia nigra (SN which are rich in dopaminergic (DA neurons. We identified 13525 up-regulated genes in both cell types of which 3737 (27.6% genes were up-regulated in the hENSC, 4116 (30.4% genes were up-regulated in the human substantia nigra dopaminergic cells, and 5672 (41.93% were significantly up-regulated in both cell population. Careful analysis of the data that emerged using DAVID has permitted us to distinguish several genes and pathways that are involved in dopaminergic (DA differentiation, and to identify the crucial signaling pathways that direct the process of differentiation. The set of genes expressed more highly at hENSC is enriched in molecules known or predicted to be involved in the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. On the other hand, the genes enriched in SN cells include a different set of functional categories, namely synaptic transmission, central nervous system development, structural constituents of the myelin sheath, the internode region of axons, myelination, cell projection, cell somata, ion transport, and the voltage-gated ion channel complex. Our results were also compared with data from various databases, and between different types of arrays, Agilent versus Illumina. This approach has allowed us to confirm the consistency of our obtained results for a large number of genes that delineate the phenotypical differences of embryonic NSCs, and SN cells.

  16. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  17. [Organization and results of cadaver kidney transplantation from 1969 to 1973 (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnier, J

    1975-01-01

    France transplant was founded in order to organize rationally the cadaver kidneys transport and transplantation with is omogenous compatibility tests. 2143 hemodialysis patients have been presently (1-9-72) treated in 82 dialysis center in France; 964 of them are in the France Transplant waiting list. According with recent laws, nervous function cessation is synonimous of death. That made possible, by good resuscitation techniques, to maintain a good level of circulation and oxigenation of organs. Family permit is required for this purpose. 17 medical transporttion staffs are at work in 12 France towns and cooperate with 12 typing laboratoires working with the same techniques and reagents. One permanent secretariat in Paris is always telex connected with all staffs and mantains a continuous up to date patients waiting list. 415 cadaver kidneys were transplanted, 255 in the same town and 160 trabsported from a town another. A significative rise in cold ischemia times happened recently because of the increasing number of transported kidneys.

  18. A radiologic and anatomic assessment of injectate spread following transmuscular quadratus lumborum block in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, S D; El-Boghdadly, K; Nasralah, Z; Sarwani, N; Nixon, A M; Chin, K J

    2017-01-01

    We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

  19. Eustachian Tube Dilation via a Transtympanic Approach in 6 Cadaver Heads: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marc; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Poe, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube. To accomplish this, transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube was performed on 11 eustachian tubes (6 cadaver heads). The balloon catheter was introduced and passed through the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube transtympanically under endoscopic view and cannulated without incident in all cadavers. Computed tomography was then performed postprocedure to evaluate for inadvertent dilation of the bony eustachian tube, adverse placement of the balloon, or any bony fractures. The balloon was seen to be successfully inflated in the cartilaginous portion without damage to surrounding structures in all cases. This demonstrates that under endoscopic guidance, the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube can be feasibly cannulated and reliably traversed, allowing for targeted dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube from a transtympanic approach.

  20. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos when approached by humans on foot.

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    Gro Kvelprud Moen

    Full Text Available Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L. back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80% left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%. Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m than passive bears (69±47 m, and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  1. Tissue engineering potential of human dermis-isolated adult stem cells from multiple anatomical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heenam; Haudenschild, Anne K; Brown, Wendy E; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2017-01-01

    Abundance and accessibility render skin-derived stem cells an attractive cell source for tissue engineering applications. Toward assessing their utility, the variability of constructs engineered from human dermis-isolated adult stem (hDIAS) cells was examined with respect to different anatomical locations (foreskin, breast, and abdominal skin), both in vitro and in a subcutaneous, athymic mouse model. All anatomical locations yielded hDIAS cells with multi-lineage differentiation potentials, though adipogenesis was not seen for foreskin-derived hDIAS cells. Using engineered cartilage as a model, tissue engineered constructs from hDIAS cells were compared. Construct morphology differed by location. The mechanical properties of human foreskin- and abdominal skin-derived constructs were similar at implantation, remaining comparable after 4 additional weeks of culture in vivo. Breast skin-derived constructs were not mechanically testable. For all groups, no signs of abnormality were observed in the host. Addition of aggregate redifferentiation culture prior to construct formation improved chondrogenic differentiation of foreskin-derived hDIAS cells, as evident by increases in glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents. More robust Alcian blue staining and homogeneous cell populations were also observed compared to controls. Human DIAS cells elicited no adverse host responses, reacted positively to chondrogenic regimens, and possessed multi-lineage differentiation potential with the caveat that efficacy may differ by anatomical origin of the skin. Taken together, these results suggest that hDIAS cells hold promise as a potential cell source for a number of tissue engineering applications.

  2. How illusory is the solitaire illusion? Assessing the degree of misperception of numerosity in adult humans

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    Christian Agrillo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Solitaire illusion occurs when the spatial arrangement of items influences the subjective estimation of their quantity. Unlike other illusory phenomena frequently reported in humans and often also in non-human animals, evidence of the Solitaire illusion in species other than humans remains weak. However, before concluding that this perceptual bias affects quantity judgments differently in human and non-human animals, further investigations on the strength of the Solitaire illusion is required. To date, no study has assessed the exact misperception of numerosity generated by the Solitaire arrangement, and the possibility exists that the numerical effects generated by the illusion are too subtle to be detected by non-human animals.The present study investigated the strength of this illusion in adult humans. In a relative numerosity task, participants were required to select which array contained more blue items in the presence of two arrays made of identical blue and yellow items. Participants perceived the Solitaire illusion as predicted, overestimating the Solitaire array with centrally clustered blue items as more numerous than the Solitaire array with blue items on the perimeter. Their performance in the presence of the Solitaire array was similar to that observed in control trials with numerical ratios larger than 0.67, suggesting that the illusory array produces a substantial overestimation of the number of blue items in one array relative to the other. This aspect was more directly investigated in a numerosity identification task in which participants were required to estimate the number of blue items when single arrays were presented one at a time. In the presence of the Solitaire array, participants slightly overestimated the number of items when they were centrally located while they underestimated the number of items when those items were located on the perimeter. Items located on the perimeter were perceived to be 76% as numerous

  3. Trans-sphenoidal Approach to the Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery for Endovascular Access in a Cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrew Kelly; Holt, Hunter Kegan; Serici, Anthony Joseph; Moftakhar, Roham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sometimes, intracranial pathology in the distal vasculature cannot be accessed by standard endovascular techniques because of occlusion or insurmountable tortuosity of theinternal carotid artery (ICA). A trans-sphenoidal surgical approach can follow a similar trajectory to the course of the supraclinoid ICA. This study evaluates the feasibility of a trans-sphenoidal approach to the supraclinoid ICA for endovascular access. Materials and Methods In a fresh cadaver head, the sphenoid si...

  4. Confirming Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission from a cadaver to an embalmer using molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janelle A; Meissner, Jeanne Sullivan; Ahuja, Shama Desai; Shashkina, Elena; O'Flaherty, Tholief; Proops, Douglas C

    2015-05-01

    Genotyping results and epidemiologic investigation were used to confirm tuberculosis transmission from a cadaver to an embalmer. This investigation highlights the utility of genotyping in identifying unsuspected epidemiologic links and unusual transmission settings. In addition, the investigation provides additional evidence for the occupational risk of tuberculosis among funeral service workers and indicates a need for education about tuberculosis risk and the importance of adhering to appropriate infection control measures among funeral service workers.

  5. Variations in the anatomy of the thyroid gland: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

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    Prakash; Rajini, Thimmiah; Ramachandran, Archana; Savalgi, Geethanjali Basavraj; Venkata, Sivacharan Panchagnula; Mokhasi, Varsha

    2012-03-01

    Surgical removal of the thyroid gland is associated with risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, external branch of superior laryngeal nerves, inferior laryngeal nerves, and haematoma due to vascular damage and the chance of residual thyroid tissue being left in case of cancer and Graves' disease. The present study was designed to report the prevalence of anatomical variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland that will hopefully help to minimise the aforementioned complications related to thyroid surgery. A total of 52 male and 18 female properly embalmed cadavers were dissected. The thyroid gland was examined for the presence of the pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae and partial or complete absence of isthmus. Length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of both the right and left lobe of the gland was recorded. A pyramidal lobe was present in 43.9% male and 22.2% female cadavers and was more prevalent on the left side of the median plane. Levator glandulae thyroideae was present in 34.6% male and 27.8% female cadavers. Isthmus was absent in 9.6% male and 5.6% female cadavers. The average length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of right lobe was 4.43, 2.54 and 1.69 cm, respectively, whereas for the left lobe it was 4.21, 2.63 and 1.7 cm, respectively. The nature of the specimens studied, and the region where the study is carried out, affect the different goitre zones, age, sex, and race of population studied, all of which can contribute to the anatomical variations of the thyroid gland found in different reports by various authors.

  6. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  7. Forces affecting orbital floor reconstruction materials--a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, Falk; Steiner, Martin; Kern, Matthias; Wiltfang, Jörg; Möller, Björn; Lucius, Ralph; Becker, Stephan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the applied force and the displacement of the orbital contents after orbital floor reconstruction using artificially aged reconstruction materials in fresh frozen human heads and (ii) to analyze the puncture strength of the materials. Six fresh frozen human heads were used, and orbital floor defects in the right and left orbit were created by 3.0 J direct impacts on the globe and infraorbital rim. The orbital floor defect sizes and displacements were evaluated after a Le-Fort-I osteotomy. The orbital floor defect sizes were 208.3(SD, 33.4) mm(2) for the globe impacts and 221.8(SD, 53.1) mm(2) for the infraorbital impacts. The forces on the incorporated materials were approximately 0.003 N and 0.03 N for the PDS-foil and collagen membrane, respectively. The displacements of the materials were +0.9 mm and +0.7 mm for the PDS-foil and collagen membrane, respectively. The puncture strengths of the PDS-foil and collagen membrane decreased from approximately 70 N and 12 N at week 1 to approximately 5 N and 1.5 N at week 8 of artificial aging. The force applied to the orbital content is minimal, and the puncture strengths of the artificially aged materials are more than sufficient for the measured forces. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extensive neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cell grafts in adult rat spinal cord.

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    Jun Yan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter. CONCLUSIONS: NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major

  9. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  10. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Gastric femoral hernia in a male cadaver with gastroptosis: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, K; Apostolidis, S; Papadopoulou, A L; Vlasis, K; Totlis, T; Skandalakis, P

    2008-04-01

    The shape and the position of the stomach and its anatomic relations to the round viscera vary from individual to individual, but they also vary in the same subject depending on many factors. The downward displacement of the stomach is called gastroptosis. In the literature, there are only five case reports where the stomach constituted the content of a femoral hernia. The current study presents a case of a gastric femoral hernia in a cadaver along with a review of the relevant literature. During routine dissection of a 67-year-old male cadaver with a very large stomach and gastroptosis, a femoral hernia containing a part of the great curvature of the stomach was found. The length of the hernia sac was 5 cm, and its width was 3.5 cm. There was a disposition of the intestinal coils to the posterior wall and the lesser pelvis. The cadaver's former medical history and skin observation before dissection excluded any previous abdominal surgery. This is the second case of stomach herniation through the femoral ring in a male subject ever reported. The symptoms in this pathology vary from complete absence to symptoms due to high stenosis of the digestive tract, stomach strangulation and stomach wall necrosis.

  12. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Morphological variations of a jugular foramen in North Indian human adult skulls

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    Ruchira Sethi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the size and bridging patterns of jugular foramina of adult human skulls. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 56 adult North - Indian skulls procured from Department of Anatomy of Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad. The jugular foramina were observed by naked eye and with magnifying lens to assess the variations in size and bridging patterns. Results: The jugular foramen was larger on the right side in 53.5% skulls and on the left side in 7.1% skulls. In the remaining skulls (39.4% it was equal on both sides. Complete tripartite division was observed in 10.7% cases. Incomplete division was seen in 7.1% cases on right side and 3.5% cases on the left side. Incomplete division was never observed bilaterally. An additional accessory foramen was observed to be communicating with posterior condylar canal. Conclusion: The variations observed in present study are of immense value to ENT surgeons while performing middle ear surgeries for various jugular foramen tumors. Also, the bridging patterns cause compression to structures passing through this foramen hence accentuating the clinical presentations of Glomus jugulare.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: morphometric differences between adult worms from sympatric rodent and human isolates

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    Neves Renata Heisler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer software for image analysis (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS was utilized in male and females adult worms, aiming the morphological characterization of Schistosoma mansoni samples isolated from a slyvatic rodent, Nectomys squamipes, and humans in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and recovered from Mus musculus C3H/He. The following characters for males's testicular lobes were analyzed: number, area, density, larger and smaller diameter, longer and shorter axis and perimeter and extension; for females: area, longer and shorter axis, larger and smaller diameter and perimeter of the eggs and spine; oral and ventral suckers area and distance between them in both sex were determined. By the analysis of variance (one way ANOVA significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in all studied characters, except for the density of testicular lobes. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected for all characters in the female worms. Data ratify that sympatric isolates present phenotypic differences and the adult female characters are useful for the proper identification of S. mansoni isolates.

  15. A STUDY OF NEURONAL PROFILE OF INFERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEAR COMPLEX IN FOETAL AND ADULT HUMAN MEDULLA

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    B.Narasinga Rao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: ION receives proprioceptive impulses from spino-olivary tract and conveys the fibers to the cerebellum through olivo-cerebellar tract. There is paucity of data in human olivary complex, hence the present study is done. Materials And Methods: 15 adult brains and 25 fetuses of different gestations were perfused with 10% formalin and processed for histological examination. Results: Rounded cells have been seen infiltrating the entire field. at 16 weeks of gestation. Segregation of neurons into principal, medial, and dorsal accessory olivary nuclei at 20 wks gestation. Discussion: Neuron differentiation into oval, round, multipolar types has begun at 40 wks gestation. Neurons in the olivary subdivisions are grouped in separate clusters as per Ramon y Cajal,1909; Scheibel and Scheibel, 1955, Bowman and King, 1973. Multipolar neurons dominated in adult inferior olivary nucleus. Conclusion:The greater development of neurons is a consequence of finer regulation of various movements of hands and finger associated with movement of head and eyes

  16. Pertussis toxin activates adult and neonatal naive human CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Sandrine; Badran, Bassam; Benghiat, Fleur Samantha; Goriely, Stanislas; Flamand, Véronique; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Willems, Fabienne; Goldman, Michel; De Wit, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) is known to be mitogenic for T lymphocytes, but its direct action on naive human T cells has not been specified. Herein, we show that PTX induces the proliferation of purified adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) T cells independently of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PTX directly induces TNF-alpha and IL-2 mRNA expression, modulates the level of several cell surface receptors and induces Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) protein accumulation in naive CD4(+) T cells. Addition of autologous dendritic cells was found to be required for the production of high levels of IFN-gamma by PTX-stimulated naive T cells. These effects of PTX occurred in conjunction with activation of NF-kappaB and NFAT transcription factors. Overall, responses of neonatal CD4(+) T cells to PTX were similar to those of adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) naive T cells except for their blunted CD40 ligand up-regulation. We suggest that the adjuvant properties of PTX during primary cell-mediated immune responses involve a direct action on naive T lymphocytes in addition to activation of antigen-presenting cells.

  17. Nicotine alters MicroRNA expression and hinders human adult stem cell regenerative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Kin; Carballosa, Carlos M; Pelaez, Daniel; Wong, Hoi Kin; Choy, Kwong Wai; Pang, Chi Pui; Cheung, Herman S

    2013-03-01

    Adult stem cells are critical for the healing process in regenerative medicine. However, cigarette smoking inhibits stem cell recruitment to tissues and delays the wound-healing process. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major constituent in the cigarette smoke, on the regenerative potentials of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSC). The cell proliferation of 1.0 μM nicotine-treated MSC and PDLSC was significantly reduced when compared to the untreated control. Moreover, nicotine also retarded the locomotion of these adult stem cells. Furthermore, their osteogenic differentiation capabilities were reduced in the presence of nicotine as evidenced by gene expression (RUNX2, ALPL, BGLAP, COL1A1, and COL1A2), calcium deposition, and alkaline phosphatase activity analyses. In addition, the microRNA (miRNA) profile of nicotine-treated PDLSC was altered; suggesting miRNAs might play an important role in the nicotine effects on stem cells. This study provided the possible mechanistic explanations on stem cell-associated healing delay in cigarette smoking.

  18. Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol in apparently healthy human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Julian F; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between autonomic nervous system activity as indexed by measures of heart rate variability and overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol levels in a large sample of working adults. The study population comprised 611 apparently healthy employees of an airplane manufacturing plant in Southern Germany. Heart rate variability was calculated as beat-to-beat intervals over the course of one 24-hour weekday measured with an ambulatory ECG recorder. Overnight urine collection and blood samples were also obtained. We found an inverse association between indices of vagally-mediated heart rate variability and plasma levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the ratio of LDL to high density lipoprotein (HDL) that remained significant in multivariate models after controlling for relevant covariates including norepinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine was not significantly related to any measure of cholesterol in multivariate models. We report here for the first time, in a large sample of healthy human adults, evidence supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant inverse relationship between measures of plasma cholesterol and vagally-mediated heart rate variability after controlling for sympathetic nervous system activity. This suggests an important role for the vagal control of plasma cholesterol levels in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Oxidative Stress Induced by Dengue Virus in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Adult and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Añez, Germán; Levy, Alegria; Marcucci, Rafael; de Mon, Melchor Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO) has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group) were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4) and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease. PMID:24069178

  20. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.

  1. Differential oxidative stress induced by dengue virus in monocytes from human neonates, adult and elderly individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Valero

    Full Text Available Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4 and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease.

  2. Second generation codon optimized minicircle (CoMiC) for nonviral reprogramming of human adult fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diecke, Sebastian; Lisowski, Leszek; Kooreman, Nigel G; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The ability to induce pluripotency in somatic cells is one of the most important scientific achievements in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This technique allows researchers to obtain pluripotent stem cells without the controversial use of embryos, providing a novel and powerful tool for disease modeling and drug screening approaches. However, using viruses for the delivery of reprogramming genes and transcription factors may result in integration into the host genome and cause random mutations within the target cell, thus limiting the use of these cells for downstream applications. To overcome this limitation, various non-integrating techniques, including Sendai virus, mRNA, minicircle, and plasmid-based methods, have recently been developed. Utilizing a newly developed codon optimized 4-in-1 minicircle (CoMiC), we were able to reprogram human adult fibroblasts using chemically defined media and without the need for feeder cells.

  3. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells give rise to distinct T cell lineages in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Jeff E; Venkatasubrahmanyam, Shivkumar; Burt, Trevor D; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Rivera, Jose M; Galkina, Sofiya A; Weinberg, Kenneth; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McCune, Joseph M

    2010-12-17

    Although the mammalian immune system is generally thought to develop in a linear fashion, findings in avian and murine species argue instead for the developmentally ordered appearance (or "layering") of distinct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that give rise to distinct lymphocyte lineages at different stages of development. Here we provide evidence of an analogous layered immune system in humans. Our results suggest that fetal and adult T cells are distinct populations that arise from different populations of HSCs that are present at different stages of development. We also provide evidence that the fetal T cell lineage is biased toward immune tolerance. These observations offer a mechanistic explanation for the tolerogenic properties of the developing fetus and for variable degrees of immune responsiveness at birth.

  4. Differentiation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ye; ZHENG Jia-kun; WANG Chao-yang; LI Wen-yu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiative capability of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into Schwann-like cells. Methods: Bone marrows were aspirated from healthy donors and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll lymphocytes separation liquid (1.073 g/ml) with centrifugation, cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 20 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cells of passage 1 were identified with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions: Bone marrow contains the stem cells with the ability of differentiating into Schwann-like cells, which may represent an alternative stem cell sources for neural transplantation.

  5. Preliminary Study on Biological Properties of Adult Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; BAI Hai; WANG Jingchang; SHI Jingyun; WANG Cunbang; LU Jihong; OU Jianfeng; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of culture and expansion of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro and to explore their biological properties. Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained from 5 mL adult human bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll solution. Adult human MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose (LG-DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum at a density of 2× 105 cell/cm2. The morphocytology was observed under phase-contrast microscope. The cell growth was measured by MTT method. The flow cytometer was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules and cell cycle. The ultrastructure of MSCs was observed under transmission electron microscope. The immunomodulatory functions of MSCs were measured by MTT method. The effects of MSCs on the growth of K562 cells and the dynamic change of HA, Ⅳ-C, LN concentration in the culture supernatant of MSCs was also observed. Results: The MSCs harvested in this study were homogenous population and exhibited a spindle-shaped fibroblastic morphology. The cell growth curve showed that MSCs had a strong ability of proliferation. The cells were positive for CD44,while negative for hematopoietic cell surface marker such as CD3, CD4, CD7, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD19,CD22, CD33, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, which was closely related to graft versus host disease. Above 90% cells of MSCs were found at G0/G1 phase. The ultrastructure of MSCs indicated that there were plenty of cytoplasmic organelles. Allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferation was suppressed by MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 60.68% (P<0.01). The suppressive effect was also existed in the culture supernatant of MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 9.00% (P<0.05). When lymphocytes were stimulated by PHA, the suppression effects of the culture supernatant were even stronger and the inhibition ratio was 20.91%(P<0.01). Compared with the cell growth curve of the K562 cells alone, the K562

  6. Examination of Oral Microbiota Diversity in Adults and Older Adults as an Approach to Prevent Spread of Risk Factors for Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł J. Zawadzki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity environment may be colonized by polymicrobial communities with complex, poorly known interrelations. The aim of this study was to determine oral microbiota diversity in order to prevent the spread of infectious microorganisms that are risk factors for human health complications in patients requiring treatment due to various disabilities. The study examined Polish adults aged between 40 and 70 years; parasitological, microbiological, and mycological data collected before treatment were analyzed. The diversity of oral microbiota, including relatively high prevalences of some opportunistic, potentially pathogenic strains of bacteria, protozoans, and fungi detected in the patients analyzed, may result in increasing risk of disseminated infections from the oral cavity to neighboring structures and other organs. Increasing ageing of human populations is noted in recent decades in many countries, including Poland. The growing number of older adults with different oral health disabilities, who are more prone to development of oral and systemic pathology, is an increasing medical problem. Results of this retrospective study showed the urgent need to pay more attention to the pretreatment examination of components of the oral microbiome, especially to the strains, which are etiological agents of human opportunistic infections and are particularly dangerous for older adults.

  7. Augmenting NMDA receptor signaling boosts experience-dependent neuroplasticity in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Jennifer K; Bachman, Peter; Mathalon, Daniel H; Roach, Brian J; Asarnow, Robert F

    2015-12-15

    Experience-dependent plasticity is a fundamental property of the brain. It is critical for everyday function, is impaired in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and frequently depends on long-term potentiation (LTP). Preclinical studies suggest that augmenting N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling may promote experience-dependent plasticity; however, a lack of noninvasive methods has limited our ability to test this idea in humans until recently. We examined the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling using d-cycloserine (DCS) on a recently developed LTP EEG paradigm that uses high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation in visual cortex neurons, as well as on three cognitive tasks: a weather prediction task (WPT), an information integration task (IIT), and a n-back task. The WPT and IIT are learning tasks that require practice with feedback to reach optimal performance. The n-back assesses working memory. Healthy adults were randomized to receive DCS (100 mg; n = 32) or placebo (n = 33); groups were similar in IQ and demographic characteristics. Participants who received DCS showed enhanced potentiation of neural responses following repetitive HFvS, as well as enhanced performance on the WPT and IIT. Groups did not differ on the n-back. Augmenting NMDAR signaling using DCS therefore enhanced activity-dependent plasticity in human adults, as demonstrated by lasting enhancement of neural potentiation following repetitive HFvS and accelerated acquisition of two learning tasks. Results highlight the utility of considering cellular mechanisms underlying distinct cognitive functions when investigating potential cognitive enhancers.

  8. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning.

  9. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  10. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkisoensing, Arti A; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Askar, Saïd F A; Passier, Robert; Swildens, Jim; Goumans, Marie José; Schutte, Cindy I; de Vries, Antoine A F; Scherjon, Sicco; Mummery, Christine L; Schalij, Martin J; Atsma, Douwe E

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for α-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express α-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.

  11. Oct4 expression in adult human stem cells: evidence in support of the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mei-Hui; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kiupel, Matti; Webster, Joshua D; Olson, L Karl; Trosko, James E

    2005-02-01

    The Oct3/4 gene, a POU family transcription factor, has been noted as being specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells and in tumor cells but not in cells of differentiated tissues. With the ability to isolate adult human stem cells it became possible to test for the expression of Oct3/4 gene in adult stem cells and to test the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. Using antibodies and PCR primers we tested human breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, mesenchyme and gastric stem cells, the cancer cell lines HeLa and MCF-7 and human, dog and rat tumors for Oct4 expression. The results indicate that adult human stem cells, immortalized non-tumorigenic cells and tumor cells and cell lines, but not differentiated cells, express Oct4. Oct4 is expressed in a few cells found in the basal layer of human skin epidermis. The data demonstrate that adult stem cells maintain expression of Oct4, consistent with the stem cell hypothesis of carcinogenesis.

  12. Human parvovirus PARV4 DNA in tissues from adult individuals: a comparison with human parvovirus B19 (B19V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotellini Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PARV4 is a new member of the Parvoviridae family not closely related to any of the known human parvoviruses. Viremia seems to be a hallmark of PARV4 infection and viral DNA persistence has been demonstrated in a few tissues. Till now, PARV4 has not been associated with any disease and its prevalence in human population has not been clearly established. This study was aimed to assess the tissue distribution and the ability to persist of PARV4 in comparison to parvovirus B19 (B19V. Results PARV4 and B19V DNA detection was carried out in various tissues of individuals without suspect of acute viral infection, by a real time PCR and a nested PCR, targeting the ORF2 and the ORF1 respectively. Low amount of PARV4 DNA was found frequently (>40% in heart and liver of adults individuals, less frequently in lungs and kidneys (23,5 and 18% respectively and was rare in bone marrow, skin and synovium samples (5,5%, 4% and 5%, respectively. By comparison, B19V DNA sequences were present in the same tissues with a higher frequency (significantly higher in myocardium, skin and bone marrow except than in liver where the frequency was the same of PARV4 DNA and in plasma samples where B19V frequency was significantly lower than that of PARV4 Conclusions The particular tropism of PARV4 for liver and heart, here emerged, suggests to focus further studies on these tissues as possible target for viral replication and on the possible role of PARV4 infection in liver and heart diseases. Neither bone marrow nor kidney seem to be a common target of viral replication.

  13. Leakage of fluid around endotracheal tube cuffs: a cadaver study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Ralph; Ewald, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the leakage of liquid past the cuffs of tracheal tubes in fresh frozen human heads. Methods Six truncated fresh frozen heads were used and intubated with 8.0 mm endotracheal tubes. The intracuff pressures tested were 30 and 100 cmH2O. Subsequently, 20 ml of each of two oral antiseptic rinses (0.2% chlorhexidine and octenidine [octenidol®, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany]) was applied for thirty seconds in the mouth. During the trial, leakage of the cuffs was examined. Results The sealing between the tracheal cuff and tracheal wall was leakage-proof for all tested intracuff pressures and all tested antiseptic rinses. However, approximately 5.6 ml and 1.8 ml leaked into the esophagus and remained as a cuff-puddle, respectively. Conclusions The sealing between an endotracheal tube cuff with an intracuff pressure of 30 cmH2O and the tracheal wall is leakage-proof during oral care with antiseptic rinsing. An increase of intracuff pressure to 100 cmH2O does not appear to be required. PMID:24363847

  14. Comparison of global gene expression profiles of microdissected human foetal Leydig cells with their normal and hyperplastic adult equivalents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Grete; Belling, Kirstine González-Izarzugaza; Leffers, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    was performed on Agilent whole human genome microarray 4 x 44 K chips. Microarray data pre-processing and statistical analysis were performed using the limma R/Bioconductor package in the R software, and differentially expressed genes were further analysed for gene set enrichment using the DAVID Bioinformatics......STUDY QUESTION: Do human adult Leydig cells (ALCs) within hyperplastic micronodules display characteristics of foetal LCs (FLCs)?SUMMARY ANSWER: The gene expression profiles of FLCs and all ALC subgroups were clearly different, but there were no significant differences in expressed genes between......-section).STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A genome-wide microarray study of LCs microdissected from human foetal and adult tissue samples (n = 12). Additional tissue specimens (n = 15) were used for validation of the mRNA expression data at the protein level.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Frozen human tissue...

  15. The mechanical behavior of locking compression plates compared with dynamic compression plates in a cadaver radius model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael J; Brophy, Robert H; Campbell, Deirdre; Mahajan, Amit; Wright, Timothy M; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare the mechanical behavior of a locked compression plate, which uses threaded screw heads to create a fixed angle construct, with a dynamic compression plate construct in a cadaver radius model. Mechanical study with cyclic testing and high-speed optical motion analysis. Biomechanics laboratory at an academic institution. Eighteen pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver radii were divided into 3 groups of 6 to be tested as a group in each of the following force applications: anteroposterior (AP) bending, mediolateral bending, or torsion. Each bone was osteotomized leaving a 5-mm fracture gap and then fixed with a plate. For each pair, 1 radius received a standard plate (limited-contact dynamic compression plates; LC-DCP), the contralateral radius was fixed with a locking compression plate (LCP), and specimens underwent cyclic loading. Normalized stiffness, average energy absorbed, and Newton-cycles to failure were calculated. In addition, a 3-dimensional, high-speed, infrared motion analysis system was used to evaluate motion at the fracture site. Construct stiffness, fracture site motion, cycles to failure, and energy absorption. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences between groups with time. In the torsion group, LCP specimens failed at 60% greater Newton-cycles than the LC-DCP (1473 vs. 918; P different biomechanical behavior with time. As cycling progressed in the LC-DCP specimens under torsion testing, stiffness (measured at the actuator at the bone ends) did not change significantly; however, fracture motion (measured at the fracture surfaces) decreased significantly (P = 0.04). The LCP specimens did not display similar behavior. Our findings indicated that LCP constructs may demonstrate subtle mechanical superiority compared with the LC-DCP. The LCP specimens had less energy absorption in the AP group and survived longer in the torsion group. Discordance of motion between measurement regions was

  16. The Role of Human Adult Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet-Rich Plasma on Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh-Sara; Mahmoodi, Mahdokht; Rafati, Ali Reza; Manafi, Farzad; Mehrabani, Davood

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process following damage in tissue structures. Due to extensive skin damage caused by burn injuries, this study determined the role of human adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and migration in human skin fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma (5, 10, 15, 20 and 50% PRP) from human umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood were provided and added to fibroblasts cultured from a human skin sample. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts were assessed in comparison to 10% FBS and by the fibroblast responses to a concentration gradient. All components of the umbilical cord blood PRP significantly stimulated the growth of fibroblasts when compared to the negative control. Fibroblast growth was enhanced in a dose dependent manner. All fibroblast cultures retained normal morphology. No significant difference was noted between umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood PRP preparations regarding cell proliferation and migration, but the difference to 10% FBS was significant. 1% and 50% PRP reduced cellular proliferation. The 20% umbilical cord blood PRP and 10% adult peripheral blood PRP had a significant stimulatory effect on the migration of the skin fibroblast cells in comparison with 10% FBS. As PRP could promote the migration and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, it can be safely added in cultures when treatment of chronic wounds without triggering the immune response is needed.

  17. Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, Francis; de Ligt, Joep; Jager, Myrthe; Sasselli, Valentina; Roerink, Sophie; Sasaki, Nobuo; Huch, Meritxell; Boymans, Sander; Kuijk, Ewart; Prins, Pjotr; Nijman, Isaac J.; Martincorena, Inigo; Mokry, Michal; Wiegerinck, Caroline L.; Middendorp, Sabine; Sato, Toshiro; Schwank, Gerald; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Vries, Robert G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Stratton, Michael R.; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

  18. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.

  19. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke.

  20. Identification of candidate antigens from adult stages of Toxocara canis for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Longuinhos Peixoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we identified adult Toxocara canis antigens through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for potential use in human toxocariasis immunodiagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of several semi-purified antigens, as well as their cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections, were assessed by IgM and IgG-enzime linked immunosorbent assay. Whilst we found that the crude extract of the parasite presented limited sensitivity, specificity and high cross-reactivity against other parasites, we identified 42, 58, 68 and 97-kDa semi-purified antigens as the most promising candidates for immunodiagnosis. Moreover, the 58 and 68-kDa antigens presented the lowest IgM cross-reactivity. When tested as a combination, a mixture of the 58 and 68-kDa antigens presented 100% sensitivity and specificity, as well as minor cross-reactivity. Although the combination of the 42, 58, 68 and 97-kDa antigens presented 100% sensitivity at a dilution of 1:40, the low specificity and high cross-reactivity observed suggested a limited use for diagnostic purposes. Our data suggested that the 58 and 68-kDa antigens might be most suitable for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  1. Effect of the N-terminal residues on the quaternary dynamics of human adult hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shanyan; Mizuno, Misao; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-05-01

    The protein dynamics of human hemoglobin following ligand photolysis was studied by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy. The time-resolved spectra of two kinds of recombinant hemoglobin expressed in Escherichia coli, normal recombinant hemoglobin and the α(V1M)/β(V1M) double mutant, were compared with those of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) purified from blood. A frequency shift of the iron-histidine stretching [ν(Fe-His)] band was observed in the time-resolved spectra of all three hemoglobin samples, indicative of tertiary and quaternary changes in the protein following photolysis. The spectral changes of the α(V1M)/β(V1M) double mutant were distinct from those of HbA in the tens of microseconds region, whereas the spectral changes of normal recombinant hemoglobin were similar to those of HbA isolated from blood. These results demonstrated that a structural change in the N-termini is involved in the second step of the quaternary structure change of hemoglobin. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the allosteric pathway of HbA.

  2. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John JP; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela AF; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul IW; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth JF; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  3. Expression of Bcl-2 in adult human brain regions with special reference to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Javoy-Agid, F; Herrero, M T; Strada, O; Boissiere, F; Hibner, U; Agid, Y

    1997-07-01

    The expression of the protooncogene bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis in various cells, was examined in the adult human brain. Several experimental criteria were used to verify its presence; mRNA was analyzed by northern blot with parallel experiments in mouse tissues, by RNase protection, and by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Bcl-2 protein was detected by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Two bcl-2 mRNA species were identified in the human brain. The pattern of distribution of bcl-2 mRNA at the cellular level showed labeling in neurons but not glia. The in situ hybridization signal was stronger in the pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and in the cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert than in the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum. Both melanized and nonmelanized neurons were labeled in the substantia nigra. In the striatum, bcl-2 mRNA was detected in some but not all neurons. In the regions examined for Bcl-2 protein, the expression pattern correlated with the mRNA results. In patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, quantification of bcl-2 mRNA in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and substantia nigra, respectively, showed that the expression was unaltered compared with controls, raising the possibility that the expression of other components of apoptosis is modulated.

  4. Redifferentiation of adult human β cells expanded in vitro by inhibition of the WNT pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Lenz

    Full Text Available In vitro expansion of adult human islet β cells is an attractive solution for the shortage of tissue for cell replacement therapy of type 1 diabetes. Using a lineage tracing approach we have demonstrated that β-cell-derived (BCD cells rapidly dedifferentiate in culture and can proliferate for up to 16 population doublings. Dedifferentiation is associated with changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. The WNT pathway has been shown to induce EMT and plays key roles in regulating replication and differentiation in many cell types. Here we show that BCD cell dedifferentiation is associated with β-catenin translocation into the nucleus and activation of the WNT pathway. Inhibition of β-catenin expression in expanded BCD cells using short hairpin RNA resulted in growth arrest, mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and redifferentiation, as judged by activation of β-cell gene expression. Furthermore, inhibition of β-catenin expression synergized with redifferentiation induced by a combination of soluble factors, as judged by an increase in the number of C-peptide-positive cells. Simultaneous inhibition of the WNT and NOTCH pathways also resulted in a synergistic effect on redifferentiation. These findings, which were reproducible in cells derived from multiple human donors, suggest that inhibition of the WNT pathway may contribute to a therapeutically applicable way for generation of functional insulin-producing cells following ex-vivo expansion.

  5. Large-Scale Identification of Coregulated Enhancer Networks in the Adult Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit W. Vermunt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complexity of the human brain and its functional diversity remain a major challenge. Distinct anatomical regions are involved in an array of processes, including organismal homeostasis, cognitive functions, and susceptibility to neurological pathologies, many of which define our species. Distal enhancers have emerged as key regulatory elements that acquire histone modifications in a cell- and species-specific manner, thus enforcing specific gene expression programs. Here, we survey the epigenomic landscape of promoters and cis-regulatory elements in 136 regions of the adult human brain. We identify a total of 83,553 promoter-distal H3K27ac-enriched regions showing global characteristics of brain enhancers. We use coregulation of enhancer elements across many distinct regions of the brain to uncover functionally distinct networks at high resolution and link these networks to specific neuroglial functions. Furthermore, we use these data to understand the relevance of noncoding genomic variations previously linked to Parkinson’s disease incidence.

  6. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wan-Chen Yap

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome.As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 years-old volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline.We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000-170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders.Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen and be cautious in the clinical

  7. Comparação entre o custo do transplante hepático cadavérico e o intervivos Cost comparison of cadaveric liver transplantation with living-donor transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o custo do transplante hepático cadavérico com o transplante intervivos em adultos. MÉTODOS: O custo total de 25 transplantes hepáticos cadavéricos e 22 transplantes intervivos de adultos foi considerado do dia da internação hospitalar até o dia da alta hospitalar. Os custos das complicações pós-transplante e de seguimento do doador não foram incluídos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na duração da internação hospitalar entre os receptores de transplante cadavérico (13,2± 4,1 dias e os de transplante intervivos (15,4± 4,5 dias. O custo com a retirada do fígado para o transplante intervivos (US$ 4.975,08± 565,34 foi mais elevado do que para o transplante cadavérico (US$ 3.081,73± 305,57 (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the cost of cadaveric liver transplantation with adult-adult right hepatic lobe living-donor transplantation. METHOD: Total cost of 25 cadaveric liver transplantations and 22 adult-adult right hepatic lobe living-donor transplantations was considered from the day of hospital admission until the day of discharge. Professional fees and expenses due to postransplant complications and donor follow-up were not included. RESULTS: There was no difference in hospital stay between recipients of cadaveric transplantation (13.2± 4.1 days and those of living-donor transplantation (15.4± 4.5 days. Costs of living-donor organ acquisition (US$ 4,975.08± 565.34 were higher than those of cadaveric organ donation (US$ 3,081.73± 305.57 (p<0.001. Implantation costs were similar for cadaveric and living-donor transplantation. Operating room and material costs were higher for living-donor transplantation and medications, exams and blood components costs were higher for cadaveric transplantation. The most expensive component of both cadaveric and living-donor liver transplantation was the cost of medications. Total cost was higher for living-donor transplantation (US$ 22,986.60± 1,477.09 than for cadaveric

  8. Human prefrontal cortex phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid increase during normal adult aging, whereas those containing arachidonic acid decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-04-01

    Membrane phospholipids make up a substantial portion of the human brain, and changes in their amount and composition are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, little is known about the changes that phospholipids undergo during normal adult aging. This study examined changes in phospholipid composition in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over the adult life span. The largest age-related changes were an increase in the abundance of both mitochondrial and microsomal phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6 by approximately one-third from age 20 to 100 years and a 25% decrease in mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_20:4. Generally, increases were seen with age in phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid across both membrane fractions, whereas phospholipids containing either arachidonic or adrenic acid decreased with age. These findings suggest a gradual change in membrane lipid composition over the adult life span.

  9. TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus status of oral squamous cell carcinomas in young adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Rietbergen, M.M.; Buijze, M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Bloemena, E.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the molecular carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in young adult patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status of OSCC in patients, younger than 45 years. Methods TP53 mutations w

  10. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  11. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  12. A comparison of epithelial and neural properties in progenitor cells derived from the adult human ciliary body and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Morten C; Kolberg, Rebecca S; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Olstorn, Havard; Varghese, Mercy; Langmoen, Iver A; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Cells isolated from the ciliary body (CB) of the adult human eye possess properties of retinal stem/progenitor cells and can be propagated as spheres in culture. As these cells are isolated from a non-neural epithelium which has neuroepithelial origin, they may have both epithelial and neural lineages. Since it is the properties of neural progenitor cells that are sought after in a future scenario of autotransplantation, we wanted to directly compare human CB spheres with neurospheres derived from the human subventricular zone (SVZ), which is the best characterized neural stem cell niche in the CNS of adults. The CB epithelium was dissected from donor eyes (n = 8). Biopsies from the ventricular wall were harvested during neurosurgery due to epilepsy (n = 7). CB and SVZ tissue were also isolated from Brown Norwegian rats. Dissociated single cells were cultivated in a sphere-promoting medium and passaged every 10-30 days. Fixed spheres were studied by immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. We found that both CB and SVZ spheres contained a mixed population of cells embedded in extracellular matrix. CB spheres, in contrast to SVZ neurospheres, contained pigmented cells with epithelial morphology that stained for cytokeratins (3/12 + 19), were connected through desmosomes and tight-junctions and produced PEDF. Markers of neural progenitors (nestin, Sox-2, GFAP) were significantly lower expressed in human CB compared to SVZ spheres, and nestin positive cells in the CB spheres also contained pigment. There was higher expression of EGF and TGF-beta receptors in human CB spheres, and a comparative greater activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. These results indicate that adult human CB spheres contain progenitor cells with epithelial properties and limited expression of neural progenitor markers compared to CNS neurospheres. Further studies mapping the regulation between epithelial and neural properties in the adult human

  13. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  14. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference.

  15. Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid; Lott, Kristen E; Awad, Hani A; Cao, Qiongfang; Hicok, Kevin C; Fermor, Beverley; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Pools of human adipose-derived adult stem (hADAS) cells can exhibit multiple differentiated phenotypes under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. Because adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible, hADAS cells offer a promising source of cells for tissue engineering and other cell-based therapies. However, it is unclear whether individual hADAS cells can give rise to multiple differentiated phenotypes or whether each phenotype arises from a subset of committed progenitor cells that exists within a heterogeneous population. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that single hADAS are multipotent at a clonal level. hADAS cells were isolated from liposuction waste, and ring cloning was performed to select cells derived from a single progenitor cell. Forty-five clones were expanded through four passages and then induced for adipogenesis, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and neurogenesis using lineage-specific differentiation media. Quantitative differentiation criteria for each lineage were determined using histological and biochemical analyses. Eighty one percent of the hADAS cell clones differentiated into at least one of the lineages. In addition, 52% of the hADAS cell clones differentiated into two or more of the lineages. More clones expressed phenotypes of osteoblasts (48%), chondrocytes (43%), and neuron-like cells (52%) than of adipocytes (12%), possibly due to the loss of adipogenic ability after repeated subcultures. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that hADAS cells are a type of multipotent adult stem cell and not solely a mixed population of unipotent progenitor cells. However, it is important to exercise caution in interpreting these results until they are validated using functional in vivo assays.

  16. Extensive epigenetic reprogramming in human somatic tissues between fetus and adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ryan KC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of human tissue is influenced by a combination of intrinsic biological signals and extrinsic environmental stimuli, both of which are mediated by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation. However, little is currently known of the normal acquisition or loss of epigenetic markers during fetal and postnatal development. Results The DNA methylation status of over 1000 CpGs located in the regulatory regions of nearly 800 genes was evaluated in five somatic tissues (brain, kidney, lung, muscle and skin from eight normal second-trimester fetuses. Tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs were identified in 195 such loci. However, comparison with corresponding data from trisomic fetuses (five trisomy 21 and four trisomy 18 revealed relatively few DNA methylation differences associated with trisomy, despite such conditions having a profound effect on development. Of interest, only 17% of the identified fetal tDMRs were found to maintain this same tissue-specific DNA methylation in adult tissues. Furthermore, 10% of the sites analyzed, including sites associated with imprinted genes, had a DNA methylation difference of >40% between fetus and adult. This plasticity of DNA methylation over development was further confirmed by comparison with similar data from embryonic stem cells, with the most altered methylation levels being linked to domains with bivalent histone modifications. Conclusions Most fetal tDMRs seem to reflect transient DNA methylation changes during development rather than permanent epigenetic signatures. The extensive tissue-specific and developmental-stage specific nature of DNA methylation will need to be elucidated to identify abnormal patterns of DNA methylation associated with abnormal development or disease.

  17. Assessment of human papilloma virus infection in adult laryngeal papilloma using a screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Ryoji; Matsuzaki, Hiroumi; Ikeda, Minoru

    2013-03-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is involved in both juvenile and adult laryngeal papilloma. We wished to determine which types of adult laryngeal papilloma were clinically related to HPV infection. We hypothesized that multiple-site and recurrent papillomas would have a strong relationship to HPV and conducted the present study to test this hypothesis. Thirteen male patients with adult laryngeal papilloma who underwent resection of papilloma between August 2006 and September 2009 were studied. We examined the relationships between whether the tumor was solitary or multiple, presence or absence of recurrence after surgery, and HPV infection. High-risk HPV types (HPV-DNA types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and low-risk HPV types (6, 11, 42, 43, and 44) were tested by a liquid-phase hybridization method. In addition, HPV typing was performed for patients positive for low-risk HPV types. Twenty patients with laryngeal carcinoma or laryngeal leukoplakia were enrolled as the control group. In the laryngeal papilloma group, all patients tested were negative for high-risk HPV and 69.2% were positive for low-risk HPV. Typing performed for seven of the patients who tested positive for low-risk HPV showed that one patient was positive for HPV-11, whereas the remaining six patients were positive for HPV-6. All patients with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP) were positive for low-risk HPV. All patients who were positive for low-risk HPV had RLP. Tumor samples from repeat operations were positive for low-risk HPV in all patients tested. HPV was not detected in the control group. The relationship between RLP and low-risk HPV was strong, with all cases that were positive for low-risk HPV showing recurrence. Tumor tissue resected at the time of repeat surgery was positive for low-risk HPV in all cases tested. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Human Adenovirus in Immunocompetent Adults: A Multicenter Case Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingyu Tan

    Full Text Available Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP caused by human adenovirus (HAdV, especially HAdV type 55 (HAdV-55 in immunocompetent adults has raised increasing concerns. Clinical knowledge of severe CAP and acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by HAdV-55 is still limited, though the pathogen has been fully characterized by whole-genome sequencing.We conducted a multicentre retrospective review of all consecutive patients with severe CAP caused by HAdV in immunocompetent adults admitted to the Emergency Department Intensive Care Unit of two hospitals in Northern China between February 2012 and April 2014. Clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatments and outcomes of these patients were collected and analyzed.A total of 15 consecutive severe CAP patients with laboratory-confirmed adenovirus infections were included. The median age was 30 years and all cases were identified during the winter and spring seasons. HAdV-55 was the most frequently (11/15 detected HAdV type. Persistent high fever, cough and rapid progression of dyspnea were typically reported in these patients. Significantly increased pneumonia severity index (PSI, respiratory rate, and lower PaO2/FiO2, hypersensitive CRP were reported in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.013, 0.022, 0.019 and 0.026, respectively. The rapid development of bilateral consolidations within 10 days after illness onset were the most common radiographic finding, usually accompanied by adjacent ground glass opacities and pleural effusions. Total mortality was 26.7% in this study. Corticosteroids were prescribed to 14 patients in this report, but the utilization rate between survivors and non-survivors was not significant.HAdV and the HAdV-55 sub-type play an important role among viral pneumonia pathogens in hospitalized immunocompetent adults in Northern China. HAdV should be tested in severe CAP patients with negative bacterial cultures and a lack of response to antibiotic

  19. Adult growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients demonstrate heterogeneity between childhood onset and adult onset before and during human GH treatment. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attanasio, A F; Lamberts, S W; Matranga, A M

    1997-01-01

    The onset of adult GH deficiency may be during either adulthood (AO) or childhood (CO), but potential differences have not previously been examined. In this study the baseline and GH therapy (12.5 micrograms/kg per day) data from CO (n = 74; mean age 29 yr) and AO (n = 99; mean age 44 yr) GH-defi...

  20. Clinical-Grade Human Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells Block CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, Jeroen; Dekimpe, Emily; Van Woensel, Matthias; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Bullens, Dominique M; Pinxteren, Jef; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2016-12-01

    : MultiStem cells are clinical-grade multipotent adult bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (MAPCs), with extensive replication potential and broader differentiation capacity compared with mesenchymal stem cells. Human MAPCs suppress T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens and mutually interact with allogeneic natural killer cells. In this study, the interaction between MultiStem and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was addressed for the first time. In an in vitro setting, the immunogenicity of MultiStem, the susceptibility of MultiStem toward CTL-mediated lysis, and its effects on CTL function were investigated. MultiStem was nonimmunogenic for alloreactive CTL induction and was-even after major histocompatibility complex class I upregulation-insensitive to alloantigen-specific CTL-mediated lysis. Furthermore, MultiStem reduced CTL proliferation and significantly decreased perforin expression during the T-cell activation phase. As a consequence, MultiStem dose-dependently impaired the induction of CTL function. These effects of MultiStem were mediated predominantly through contact-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, MultiStem cells considerably influenced the expression of T-cell activation markers CD25, CD69, and human leukocyte antigen-DR. The MultiStem-induced CD8(-)CD69(+) T-cell population displayed a suppressive effect on the induction of CTL function during a subsequent mixed-lymphocyte culture. Finally, the killer activity of activated antigen-specific CTLs during their cytolytic effector phase was also diminished in the presence of MultiStem. This study confirms that these clinical-grade MAPCs are an immune-modulating population that inhibits CTL activation and effector responses and are, consequently, a highly valuable cell population for adoptive immunosuppressive therapy in diseases where damage is induced by CTLs. Because multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are among the noteworthy adult mesenchymal stem cell populations for immune

  1. Morphometric study of sacral hiatus in adult human Egyptian sacra: Their significance in caudal epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reliability and success of caudal epidural anesthesia depends on anatomic variations of sacral hiatus (SH as observed by various authors. SH is an important landmark during caudal epidural block (CEB.The purpose of the present study was to clarify the morphometric characteristics of the SH in human Egyptian dry sacra and pelvic radiographs and identification of nearest ony landmarks to permit correct and uncomplicated caudal epidural accesses. Methods: The present study was done on 46 human adult Egyptian dry sacra. The maximum height, midventral curved length, and maximum breadth of each sacrum were measured and sacral and curvature indices were calculated. According to sacral indices, sacra were divided into 2 groups (22 male and 24 female sacra. SH was evaluated in each sacrum according to its shape, level of its apex, and base according to sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, length, anteroposterior (AP diameter at its apex, and transverse width at its base. Linear distances were measured between the apex of SH and second sacral foramina, right and left superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the 2 superolateral sacral crests also was measured. Results: The most common types of SH were the inverted U and inverted V (in male and inverted V and dumbbell shaped (in female. Absent SH was observed in male group only. The most common location of SH apex was at the level of S4 in all groups of dry sacra and S3 in all groups of lumbosacral spine radiographs, whereas S5 was the common level of its base. The mean SH length, transverse width of its base, and AP diameter of its apex were 2.1±0.80, 1.7±0.26, and 0.48±0.19 cm. Female sacra showed narrower SH apex than male. The distance between the S2 foramen and the apex of the SH was 4.1±1.14, 3.67±1.21, and 4.48±1.01 cm in total, female and male sacra, respectively. Conclusion: Sacrum and SH showed morphometric variations in adult Egyptians. The equilateral triangle is an

  2. Empowering Adult Learners. NIF Literacy Program Helps ABE Accomplish Human Development Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Issues Forum's Literacy Program uses study circles and group discussion to promote empowerment and enhance adult literacy through civic education. The program has helped the Westonka (Minnesota) Adult Basic Education project accomplish its mission and has expanded the staff's view of adult learning. (SK)

  3. Empowering Adult Learners. NIF Literacy Program Helps ABE Accomplish Human Development Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Issues Forum's Literacy Program uses study circles and group discussion to promote empowerment and enhance adult literacy through civic education. The program has helped the Westonka (Minnesota) Adult Basic Education project accomplish its mission and has expanded the staff's view of adult learning. (SK)

  4. Determination of the chest wall thicknesses and needle thoracostomy success rates at second and fifth intercostal spaces: a cadaver-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Can; Akoglu, Haldun; Ozdemirel, Rifat Ozgur; Omeroglu, Elif; Ozpolat, Cigdem Ulubay; Onur, Ozge; Buyuk, Yalcin; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the chest wall thicknesses (CWTs) at second intercostal space (ICS) mid-clavicular line (MCL) and fifth ICS MAL directly, and compare the actual success rates of needle thoracostomies (NTs) by inserting a 5-cm-long syringe needle. Predictive values of weight, body mass index (BMI) and CWT were also analyzed. This study included 199 measurements of 50 adult fresh cadavers from both hemithoraces. Five-centimeter-long syringe needles were inserted and secured. Penetration into the pleural cavity was assessed, and CWTs at 4 locations were measured. Achieved power of this study for the primary aim of CWT comparison from 2(nd) and 5(th) ICSs was .94. Overall mean CWTs at 2(nd) ICS MCL and 5(th) ICS MAL were measured as 2.46 ± 0.78 and 2.89 ± 1.09, respectively, and 5(th) ICS MAL was found to be statistically thicker (P = .002). The success rate of NT at 2(nd) ICS MCL was 87% (95% CI, 80-94), and that at 5(th) ICS MAL was 78% (95% CI, 70-86; P = .3570). Only 6 (17.1%) of 35 failed NTs had a CWT greater than 5-cm. Needle thoracostomy has failed in 29 (14.9%) of 194 locations, despite a CWT less than 5-cm. Below a weight of 72 kg, BMI of 23 kg/m(2), or CWT of 2.4 cm, all NTs were successful. In this report, we present the largest cadaver-based cohort to date to the best of our knowledge, and we observed a statistically nonsignificant 9% more NT success rate at 2(nd) ICS at a power of 88% and statistically significant more success rate in males at 5(th) ICS was (47.7%). We also observed thinner CWTs and higher success rates than previous imaging-based studies. A BMI of 23 kg/m(2) or less and weight of 72 kg or less seem to accurately rule-out NT failure in cadavers, and they seem to be better predictors at the bedside. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  6. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p groups at retention testing. The virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-guided clinical cases for medical students based on postmortem CT scans of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Francois, Webster; Gest, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In the summer of 2009, we began full body computed tomography (CT) scanning of the pre-embalmed cadavers in the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) dissection lab. We theorized that implementing web-based, self-guided clinical cases based on postmortem CT (PMCT) scans would result in increased student appreciation for the clinical relevance of anatomy, increased knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy, and increased ability to identify common pathologies on CT scans. The PMCT scan of each cadaver was produced as a DICOM dataset, and then converted into a Quicktime movie file using Osirix software. Clinical cases were researched and written by the authors, and consist of at least one Quicktime movie of a PMCT scan surrounded by a novel navigation interface. To assess the value of these clinical cases we surveyed medical students at UMMS who are currently using the clinical cases in their coursework. Students felt the clinical cases increased the clinical relevance of anatomy (mean response 7.77/10), increased their confidence finding anatomical structures on CT (7.00/10), and increased their confidence recognizing common pathologies on CT (6.17/10). Students also felt these clinical cases helped them synthesize material from numerous courses into an overall picture of a given disease process (7.01/10). These results support the conclusion that our clinical cases help to show students why the anatomy they are learning is foundational to their other coursework. We would recommend the use of similar clinical cases to any medical school utilizing cadaver dissection as a primary teaching method in anatomy education.

  8. Assessing the extent of colon lengthening due to splenic flexure mobilization techniques: a cadaver study

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    Sergio Eduardo Alonso Araujo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Failure of a colorectal anastomosis represents a life-threatening complication of colorectal surgery. Splenic flexure mobilization may contribute to reduce the occurrence of anastomotic complications due to technical flaws. There are no published reports measuring the impact of splenic flexure mobilization on the length of mobilized colon viable to construct a safe colorectal anastomosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of two techniques for splenic flexure mobilization on colon lengthening during open left-sided colon surgery using a cadaver model. DESIGN: Anatomical dissections for left colectomy and colorectal anastomosis at the sacral promontory level were conducted in 20 fresh cadavers by the same team of four surgeons. The effect of partial and full splenic flexure mobilization on the extent of mobilized left colon segment was determined. SETTING: University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Tertiary medical institution and university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A team of four surgeons operated on 20 fresh cadavers. RESULTS: The length of resected left colon enabling a tension-free colorectal anastomosis at the level of sacral promontory achieved without mobilizing the splenic flexure was 46.3 (35-81 cm. After partial mobilization of the splenic flexure, an additionally mobilized colon segment measuring 10.7 (2-30 cm was obtained. After full mobilization of the distal transverse colon, a mean 28.3 (10-65 cm segment was achieved. CONCLUSION: Splenic flexure mobilization techniques are associated to effective left colon lengthening for colorectal anastomosis. This result may contribute to decision-making during rectal surgery and low colorectal and coloanal anastomosis.

  9. Effects of blue-green algae extracts on the proliferation of human adult stem cells in vitro: a preliminary study.

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    Shytle, Douglas R; Tan, Jun; Ehrhart, Jared; Smith, Adam J; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Anderson, Jerry; Bickford, Paula C

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a reduced restorative capacity as we age and are more vulnerable to oxidative stress resulting in a reduced ability of the body to heal itself. We have previously reported that a proprietary nutraceutical formulation, NT-020, promotes proliferation of human hematopoietic stem cells in vitro and protects stem cells from oxidative stress when given chronically to mice in vivo. Because previous reports suggest that the blue green algae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) can modulate immune function in animals, we sought to investigate the effects of AFA on human stem cells in cultures. Two AFA products were used for extraction: AFA whole (AFA-W) and AFA cellular concentrate (AFA-C). Water and ethanol extractions were performed to isolate active compounds for cell culture experiments. For cell proliferation analysis, human bone marrow cells or human CD34+ cells were cultured in 96 well plates and treated for 72 hours with various extracts. An MTT assay was used to estimate cell proliferation. We report here that the addition of an ethanol extract of AFA-cellular concentrate further enhances the stem cell proliferative action of NT-020 when incubated with human adult bone marrow cells or human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors in culture. Algae extracts alone had only moderate activity in these stem cell proliferation assays. This preliminary study suggests that NT-020 plus the ethanol extract of AFA cellular concentrate may act to promote proliferation of human stem cell populations.

  10. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

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    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life.

  11. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

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    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  12. Rare anatomic variation of left gastric artery and right hepatic artery in a female cadaver.

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    Troupis, Theodore; Chatzikokolis, Stamatis; Zachariadis, Michael; Troupis, George; Anagnostopoulou, Sofia; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2008-05-01

    The present report describes a rare case in which the left gastric artery arises directly from the abdominal aorta and the right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, as observed during the dissection of a female cadaver. The left gastric artery usually rises as one of the three branches of the celiac trunk, which was originally described by Haller in 1756, whereas the right hepatic artery usually originates from the proper hepatic artery. The knowledge of the typical anatomy of the abdominal arteries, and their variations, is especially important due to the numerous interventions performed in the abdominal area.

  13. Occurrence of artificial sweeteners in human liver and paired blood and urine samples from adults in Tianjin, China and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gan, Zhiwei; Gao, Chuanzi; Ma, Ling; Li, Yanxi; Li, Xiao; Sun, Hongwen

    2016-09-14

    In this study, acesulfame (ACE), saccharin (SAC) and cyclamate (CYC) were found in all paired urine and blood samples collected from healthy adults, with mean values of 4070, 918 and 628 ng mL(-1), respectively, in urine and 9.03, 20.4 and 0.72 ng mL(-1), respectively, in blood. SAC (mean: 84.4 ng g(-1)) and CYC (4.29 ng g(-1)) were detectable in all liver samples collected from liver cancer patients, while ACE was less frequently detected. Aspartame (ASP) was not found in any analyzed human sample, which can be explained by the fact that this chemical metabolized rapidly in the human body. Among all adults, significantly positive correlations between SAC and CYC levels were observed (p < 0.001), regardless of human matrices. Nevertheless, no significant correlations between concentrations of SAC (or CYC) and ACE were found in any of the human matrices. Our results suggest that human exposure to SAC and CYC is related, whereas ACE originates from a discrete source. Females (or young adults) were exposed to higher levels of SAC and CYC than males (or elderly). The mean renal clearance of SAC was 730 mL per day per kg in adults, which was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than those for CYC (10 800 mL per day per kg) and ACE (10 300 mL per day per kg). The average total daily intake of SAC and ACE was 9.27 and 33.8 μg per kg bw per day, respectively.

  14. The impact of growth hormone on proteomic profiles: a review of mouse and adult human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Brittain, Alison L; Kopchick, John J

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a protein that is known to stimulate postnatal growth, counter regulate insulin's action and induce expression of insulin-like growth factor-1. GH exerts anabolic or catabolic effects depending upon on the targeted tissue. For instance, GH increases skeletal muscle and decreases adipose tissue mass. Our laboratory has spent the past two decades studying these effects, including the effects of GH excess and depletion, on the proteome of several mouse and human tissues. This review first discusses proteomic techniques that are commonly used for these types of studies. We then examine the proteomic differences found in mice with excess circulating GH (bGH mice) or mice with disruption of the GH receptor gene (GHR(-/-)). We also describe the effects of increased and decreased GH action on the proteome of adult patients with either acromegaly, GH deficiency or patients after short-term GH treatment. Finally, we explain how these proteomic studies resulted in the discovery of potential biomarkers for GH action, particularly those related with the effects of GH on aging, glucose metabolism and body composition.

  15. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

    2014-04-01

    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  16. Open-Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Adult Liver Cells

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    Anthony Finoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cell culture within three-dimensional structures provides an improved culture system for various applications in basic research, pharmacological screening, and implantable or extracorporeal liver support. Biodegradable calcium-based scaffolds in such systems could enhance liver cell functionality by providing endothelial and hepatic cell support through locally elevated calcium levels, increased surface area for cell attachment, and allowing three-dimensional tissue restructuring. Open-porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated and seeded with primary adult human liver cells, which were embedded within or without gels of extracellular matrix protein collagen-1 or hyaluronan. Metabolic functions were assessed after 5, 15, and 28 days. Longer-term cultures exhibited highest cell numbers and liver specific gene expression when cultured on hydroxyapatite scaffolds in collagen-1. Endothelial gene expression was induced in cells cultured on scaffolds without extracellular matrix proteins. Hydroxyapatite induced gene expression for cytokeratin-19 when cells were cultured in collagen-1 gel while culture in hyaluronan increased cytokeratin-19 gene expression independent of the use of scaffold in long-term culture. The implementation of hydroxyapatite composites with extracellular matrices affected liver cell cultures and cell differentiation depending on the type of matrix protein and the presence of a scaffold. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds enable scale-up of hepatic three-dimensional culture models for regenerative medicine applications.

  17. Open-Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Adult Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finoli, Anthony; Schmelzer, Eva; Over, Patrick; Nettleship, Ian; Gerlach, Joerg C

    2016-01-01

    Liver cell culture within three-dimensional structures provides an improved culture system for various applications in basic research, pharmacological screening, and implantable or extracorporeal liver support. Biodegradable calcium-based scaffolds in such systems could enhance liver cell functionality by providing endothelial and hepatic cell support through locally elevated calcium levels, increased surface area for cell attachment, and allowing three-dimensional tissue restructuring. Open-porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated and seeded with primary adult human liver cells, which were embedded within or without gels of extracellular matrix protein collagen-1 or hyaluronan. Metabolic functions were assessed after 5, 15, and 28 days. Longer-term cultures exhibited highest cell numbers and liver specific gene expression when cultured on hydroxyapatite scaffolds in collagen-1. Endothelial gene expression was induced in cells cultured on scaffolds without extracellular matrix proteins. Hydroxyapatite induced gene expression for cytokeratin-19 when cells were cultured in collagen-1 gel while culture in hyaluronan increased cytokeratin-19 gene expression independent of the use of scaffold in long-term culture. The implementation of hydroxyapatite composites with extracellular matrices affected liver cell cultures and cell differentiation depending on the type of matrix protein and the presence of a scaffold. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds enable scale-up of hepatic three-dimensional culture models for regenerative medicine applications.

  18. Immunomodulatory properties of human adult and fetal multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Chen, Pei-Min; Yen, Men-Luh; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Yen, B-Linju

    2011-07-18

    In recent years, a large number of studies have contributed to our understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms used by multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Initially isolated from the bone marrow (BM), MSCs have been found in many tissues but the strong immunomodulatory properties are best studied in BM MSCs. The immunomodulatory effects of BM MSCs are wide, extending to T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and are therapeutically useful for treatment of immune-related diseases including graft-versus-host disease as well as possibly autoimmune diseases. However, BM MSCs are very rare cells and require an invasive procedure for procurement. Recently, MSCs have also been found in fetal-stage embryo-proper and extra-embryonic tissues, and these human fetal MSCs (F-MSCs) have a higher proliferative profile, and are capable of multilineage differentiation as well as exert strong immunomodulatory effects. As such, these F-MSCs can be viewed as alternative sources of MSCs. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory properties of BM MSCs and F-MSCs. An increase in our understanding of MSC suppressor mechanisms will offer insights for prevalent clinical use of these versatile adult stem cells in the near future.

  19. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  20. Analysis of Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Production in Human Adult Cardiac Progenitor Cells

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    Piera D’Elia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs and their proteases regulate IGFs bioavailability in multiple tissues. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A is a protease acting by cleaving IGFBP2, 4, and 5, regulating local bioavailability of IGFs. We have previously shown that IGFs and IGFBPs are produced by human adult cardiac progenitor cells (haCPCs and that IGF-1 exerts paracrine therapeutic effects in cardiac cell therapy with CPCs. Using immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassays, we firstly report that PAPP-A is produced and secreted in surprisingly high amounts by haCPCs. In particular, the homodimeric, enzymatically active, PAPP-A is secreted in relevant concentrations in haCPC-conditioned media, while the enzymatically inactive PAPPA/proMBP complex is not detectable in the same media. Furthermore, we show that both homodimeric PAPP-A and proMBP can be detected as cell associated, suggesting that the previously described complex formation at the cell surface does not occur easily, thus positively affecting IGF signalling. Therefore, our results strongly support the importance of PAPP-A for the IGFs/IGFBPs/PAPP-A axis in CPCs biology.

  1. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

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    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  2. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  3. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Yong Hum; Xu, X George [Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Zhang Binquan; Zhang Juying; Caracappa, Peter F, E-mail: xug2@rpi.ed [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms-modeled entirely in mesh surfaces-of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  4. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Intrastriatal transplantation of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells improves functional outcome in parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Janine; Ossig, Christiana; Greiner, Johannes F W; Hauser, Stefan; Fauser, Mareike; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Storch, Alexander; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered the second most frequent and one of the most severe neurodegenerative diseases, with dysfunctions of the motor system and with nonmotor symptoms such as depression and dementia. Compensation for the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons during PD using current pharmacological treatment strategies is limited and remains challenging. Pluripotent stem cell-based regenerative medicine may offer a promising therapeutic alternative, although the medical application of human embryonic tissue and pluripotent stem cells is still a matter of ethical and practical debate. Addressing these challenges, the present study investigated the potential of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells derived from the inferior turbinate (ITSCs) transplanted into a parkinsonian rat model. Emphasizing their capability to give rise to nervous tissue, ITSCs isolated from the adult human nose efficiently differentiated into functional mature neurons in vitro. Additional successful dopaminergic differentiation of ITSCs was subsequently followed by their transplantation into a unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rat PD model. Transplantation of predifferentiated or undifferentiated ITSCs led to robust restoration of rotational behavior, accompanied by significant recovery of DA neurons within the substantia nigra. ITSCs were further shown to migrate extensively in loose streams primarily toward the posterior direction as far as to the midbrain region, at which point they were able to differentiate into DA neurons within the locus ceruleus. We demonstrate, for the first time, that adult human ITSCs are capable of functionally recovering a PD rat model. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. Cultured human embryonic neocortical cells survive and grow in infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and interconnect with host brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jin-sheng; YU Jian; CUI Chun-mei; ZHAO Zhan; HONG Hua; SHENG Wen-li; TAO Yu-qian; LI Ling; HUANG Ru-xun

    2005-01-01

    Background There are no reports on exnografting cultured human fetal neocortical cells in this infracted cavities of adult rat brains. This study was undertaken to observe whether cultured human cortical neurons and astrocytes can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and whether they interconnect with host brains.Methods The right middle cerebral artery was ligated distal to the striatal branches in 16 adult stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. One week later, cultured cells from human embryonic cerebral cortexes were stereotaxically transferred to the infarcted cavity of 11 rats. The other 5 rats receiving sham transplants served as controls. For immunosuppression, all transplanted rats received intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A daily starting on the day of grafting. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, neurofilament, and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) was performed on brain sections perfused in situ 8 weeks after transplantation.Results Grafts in the infarcted cavities of 6 of 10 surviving rats consisted of bands of neurons with an immature appearance, bundles of fibers, and GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes, which were unevenly distributed. The grafts were rich in synaptophysin, neurofilament, and MAP2-positive neurons with long processes. The graft/host border was diffuse with dendrites apparently bridging over to the host brain, into which neurofilament immunopositive fibers protruded. Conclusion Cultured human fetal brain cells can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of immunodepressed rats and integrate with the host brain.

  7. Postmortem Adult Human Microglia Proliferate in Culture to High Passage and Maintain Their Response to Amyloid-β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Rezvanian, Aras; Kukreja, Lokesh; Hoveydai, Ramez; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; El Khoury, Joseph; Geula, Changiz

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells of the brain that display a range of functions. Most of our knowledge about microglia biology and function is based on cells from the rodent brain. Species variation in the complexity of the brain and differences in microglia response in the primate when compared with the rodent, require use of adult human microglia in studies of microglia biology. While methods exist for isolation of microglia from postmortem human brains, none allow culturing cells to high passage. Thus cells from the same case could not be used in parallel studies and multiple conditions. Here we report a method, which includes use of growth factors such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, for successful culturing of adult human microglia from postmortem human brains up to 28 passages without significant loss of proliferation. Such cultures maintained their phenotype, including uptake of the scavenger receptor ligand acetylated low density lipoprotein and response to the amyloid-β peptide, and were used to extend in vivo studies in the primate brain demonstrating that inhibition of microglia activation protects neurons from amyloid-β toxicity. Significantly, microglia cultured from brains with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease displayed the same characteristics as microglia cultured from normal aged brains. The method described here provides the scientific community with a new and reliable tool for mechanistic studies of human microglia function in health from childhood to old age, and in disease, enhancing the relevance of the findings to the human brain and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27567845

  8. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the needs among HIV-infected adults.

  9. The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey: Nurse-Led Instrument Development and Psychometric Testing to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series Completion in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami; Dalmida, Safyia; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey (SHPVS) was developed to examine students' perceived benefits or barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Survey development included (a) 2-phase integrative literature reviews; (b) draft of survey items based on the literature; (c) critique of survey items by young adults, nursing and psychology faculty, and health care providers; and (d) pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the SHPVS were evaluated using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 527 university students' ages 18-24 years. The estimated Cronbach's alpha for the SHPVS is .74. The SHPVS is a measure of young adults HPV perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination.

  10. Acoustic monitoring (RFM of total hip arthroplasty results of a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger AC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction At present there are no reliable non-traumatic and non-invasive methods to analyse the healing process and loosening status after total hip replacement. Therefore early as well as late loosening of prosthesis and interface component problems are difficult to be found or diagnosed at any time. Methods In a cadaver study the potential application of Resonance Frequency Monitoring (RFM will be evaluated as a non-invasive and non-traumatic method to monitor loosening and interface problems in hip replacement. In a 65 year old female cadaver different stability scenarios for a total hip replacement (shaft, head/modular head and cup, ESKA, Luebeck, Germany are simulated in cemented and cement less prosthesis and then analysed with RFM. The types of stability vary from secure/press-fit to interface-shaft disruption. Results The RFM shows in cemented as well as cement less prosthesis significant intra-individual differences in the spectral measurements with a high dynamic (20 dB difference corresponding to the factor 100 (10000%, regarding the simulated status of stability in the prosthesis system. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate RFM as a highly sensitive non-invasive and non-traumatic method to support the application of RFM as a hip prosthesis monitoring procedure. The data obtained shows the possibility to use RFM for osteointegration surveillance and early detection of interface problems, but will require further evaluation in clinical and experimental studies.

  11. A radiological evaluation of allografts (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and autografts in anterior cervical fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial roentgenograms of 40 patients who had 70 cervical intervertebral spaces grafted with ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and 28 patients who received 44 iliac crest auto grafts for anterior cervical spine fusion, were studied. The radiological evaluation was made on the basis of settlement of intervertebral spaces, fusion rate, delayed union, non-union, graft collapse and extrusion of the graft. Indigenous methodologies were designed for the assessment of settlement of grafted intervertebral spaces in percentage. Disc space settlement was more common in autografts (93% cases than in allografts (80% cases. The average percentage of settlement of intervertebral disc space (S% was 22 in autografts and 28 in allografts during the first four months. By the end of eight months, allograft disc spaces settle more. No significant difference was noted in fusion rate at the end of one year viz. allografts (90% cases and autografts (93% cases. Autograft and allograft (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone are equally useful in anterior cervical spine fusions.

  12. Protocol to isolate a large amount of functional oligodendrocyte precursor cells from the cerebral cortex of adult mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Medina-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available During development, oligodendrocytes are generated from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs, a cell type that is a significant proportion of the total cells (3-8% in the adult central nervous system (CNS of both rodents and humans. Adult OPCs are responsible for the spontaneous remyelination that occurs in demyelinating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS and they constitute an interesting source of cells for regenerative therapy in such conditions. However, there is little data regarding the neurobiology of adult OPCs isolated from mice since an efficient method to isolate them has yet to be established. We have designed a protocol to obtain viable adult OPCs from the cerebral cortex of different mouse strains and we have compared its efficiency with other well-known methods. In addition, we show that this protocol is also useful to isolate functional OPCs from human brain biopsies. Using this method we can isolate primary cortical OPCs in sufficient quantities so as to be able to study their survival, maturation and function, and to facilitate an evaluation of their utility in myelin repair.

  13. Characterization of Insulin-Immunoreactive Cells and Endocrine Cells Within the Duct System of the Adult Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Yu, Lan; Zou, Xia; Zhao, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The adult pancreatic duct system accommodates endocrine cells that have the potential to produce insulin. Here we report the characterization and distribution of insulin-immunoreactive cells and endocrine cells within the ductal units of adult human pancreas. Sequential pancreas sections from 12 nondiabetic adults were stained with biomarkers of ductal epithelial cells (cytokeratin 19), acinar cells (amylase), endocrine cells (chromogranin A; neuron-specific enolase), islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and neogenesis (CD29). The number of islet hormone-immunoreactive cells increased from large ducts to the terminal branches. The insulin-producing cells outnumbered endocrine cells reactive for glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide. The proportions of insulin-immunoreactive count compared with local islets (100% as a baseline) were 1.5% for the main ducts, 7.2% for interlobular ducts, 24.8% for intralobular ducts, 67.9% for intercalated ducts, and 348.9% for centroacinar cells. Both Ki-67- and CD29-labeled cells were predominantly localized in the terminal branches around the islets. The terminal branches also showed cells coexpressing islet hormones and cytokeratin 19. The adult human pancreatic ducts showed islet hormone-producing cells. The insulin-reactive cells predominantly localized in terminal branches where they may retain potential capability for β-cell neogenesis.

  14. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B

    2013-01-01

    expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression......Observations in patients with an activating mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) suggest a role for FGFR3 signalling in promoting proliferation or survival of germ cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the FGFR3 subtype and the ontogeny of expression during human testis...... development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...

  15. Application of Jean Piaget's theory of human development for nursing children in an adult intensive therapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1991-12-01

    Piaget (1964) believed that interaction with the environment has a large part to play in human development. Matthew (1986) states that in an ideal world critically ill children should be cared for by staff trained in paediatrics, within designated paediatric intensive therapy units. Unfortunately, there are only 28 paediatric intensive therapy units in Great Britain (CMA Medical Data, 1987), consequently each year a third of children requiring intensive care are admitted to adult intensive therapy units (ITU). A knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology can therefore be beneficial to nurses in assessing which stage of development a child has reached, in order to plan the correct level of stimulation, and hence facilitate progress rather than regression in the accomplishment of developmental tasks. The psychological and social processes involved in Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) theory of human development are discussed with regard to nursing children requiring intubation and ventilation in an adult ITU.

  16. Effect on the disability index of adult patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo using vestibular rehabilitation and human movement

    OpenAIRE

    Chaverri Flores, Sofía; Chaverri Polini, Julián; Mora Campos, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Objective: determine the effect on the disability index of adult patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) using vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) and human movement. Subjects: six subjects with an average age of 49.5 ± 14.22 years who have been diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo by an otolaryngologist. Instruments: the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and a questionnaire to determine impact on the quality of life of patients with this pathology (Ceballos an...

  17. Plasmid-based generation of induced neural stem cells from adult human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Capetian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming from somatic to neural cell types has become an alternative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Most protocols employ viral expression systems, posing the risk of random genomic integration. Recent developments led to plasmid-based protocols, lowering this risk. However, these protocols either relied on continuous presence of a variety of small molecules or were only able to reprogram murine cells. We therefore established a reprogramming protocol based on vectors containing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-derived oriP/EBNA1 as well as the defined expression factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28, and a small hairpin directed against p53. We employed a defined neural medium in combination with the neurotrophins bFGF, EGF and FGF4 for cultivation without the addition of small molecules. After reprogramming, cells demonstrated a temporary increase in the expression of endogenous Oct3/4. We obtained induced neural stem cells (iNSC 30 days after transfection. In contrast to previous results, plasmid vectors as well as a residual expression of reprogramming factors remained detectable in all cell lines. Cells showed a robust differentiation into neuronal (72% and glial cells (9% astrocytes, 6% oligodendrocytes. Despite the temporary increase of pluripotency-associated Oct3/4 expression during reprogramming, we did not detect pluripotent stem cells or non-neural cells in culture (except occasional residual fibroblasts. Neurons showed electrical activity and functional glutamatergic synapses. Our results demonstrate that reprogramming adult human fibroblasts to iNSC by plasmid vectors and basic neural medium without small molecules is possible and feasible. However, a full set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors may indeed result in the acquisition of a transient (at least partial pluripotent intermediate during reprogramming. In contrast to previous reports, the EBV-based plasmid system remained present and active inside